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1. Duggan MA, Di Francesco L, Alakija P, Falk V: A pathologic re-review of follicular thyroid neoplasms: the impact of changing the threshold for the diagnosis of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Surgery; 2009 Jun;145(6):687-8; author reply 688-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A pathologic re-review of follicular thyroid neoplasms: the impact of changing the threshold for the diagnosis of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology

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  • [CommentOn] Surgery. 2008 Jul;144(1):80-5 [18571588.001]
  • (PMID = 19486776.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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2. Rubello D, Pelizzo MR, Casara D, Piotto A, Toniato A, Fig L, Gross M: Radio-guided surgery for non-131I-avid thyroid cancer. Thyroid; 2006 Nov;16(11):1105-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Radio-guided surgery for non-131I-avid thyroid cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: In this paper we report in a larger series the use of radio-probe-guided surgery (RGS) in nonradioiodine avid, well-differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC).
  • There were 33 papillary (one "tall" cell variant), 2 follicular, and 2 Hürthle cell cancers.
  • In 7 patients, thyroid cancer recurred in the neck while cervical lymph node metastases were found in 31 patients (one patient had papillary cancer in both the thyroid bed and cervical lymph nodes).
  • CONCLUSION: These data confirm our earlier observations that a (99m)Tc-sestamibi intraoperative gamma probe can be used to identify and guide resection of recurrent tumor and involved lymph nodes in locoregional metastases of nonradioiodine-avid thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Radiosurgery / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radionuclide imaging. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secretion. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / radionuclide imaging. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / secretion. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Thyroglobulin / blood

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  • (PMID = 17123337.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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3. Lang BH, Lo CY, Chan WF, Lam AK, Wan KY: Classical and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: a comparative study on clinicopathologic features and long-term outcome. World J Surg; 2006 May;30(5):752-8
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  • [Title] Classical and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: a comparative study on clinicopathologic features and long-term outcome.
  • INTRODUCTION: The follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) is the most common histologic subtype of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).
  • The two groups were compared in terms of clinicopathological features, treatment received, and outcome regarding recurrence and disease-specific survival.
  • The 10- and 15-year actuarial disease-specific survivals did not differ significantly between FVPTC and CPTC patients (96.2% versus 90.7% and 96.2% versus 89.1%, respectively).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although patients with FVPTC had more favorable clinicopathologic features and a better tumor risk group profile, their long-term outcome was similar to that of CPTC patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroidectomy / mortality

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  • (PMID = 16680590.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Donckier JE, Mertens-Strijthagen J, Flamion B: Role of the endothelin axis in the proliferation of human thyroid cancer cells. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2007 Oct;67(4):552-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Role of the endothelin axis in the proliferation of human thyroid cancer cells.
  • ET-1 axis is overexpressed in thyroid carcinoma.
  • We investigated the expression and the production of ET-1 by thyroid cancer cells as well as the effect of ET-1 receptor antagonism on cell proliferation.
  • DESIGN: Human papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma cell lines were cultured.
  • MEASUREMENTS: (i) Prepro-ET-1, ET-1 receptors (ETA R and ETB R) and ET-1 converting enzyme (ECE) by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR);.
  • RESULTS: RT-PCR detected the presence of mRNA for prepro-ET-1, ETA R and ECE in papillary and follicular carcinoma cells.
  • ETB R was only expressed by follicular cells.
  • ETA R antagonism with atrasentan reduced cell proliferation by 16% in papillary carcinoma cells (P < 0.05) and by 51% in follicular carcinoma cells (P < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Papillary and follicular carcinoma cells express all components of the ET-1 axis.
  • ETA R antagonism exerts antiproliferative effects, which opens up new therapeutic perspectives in thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Endothelin-1 / physiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17561979.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Endothelin A Receptor Antagonists; 0 / Endothelin-1; 0 / Pyrrolidines; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptor, Endothelin A; 0 / Receptor, Endothelin B; EC 3.4.23.- / Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.24.- / Metalloendopeptidases; EC 3.4.24.71 / endothelin-converting enzyme; G34N38R2N1 / Bromodeoxyuridine; V6D7VK2215 / atrasentan; VC2W18DGKR / Thymidine
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5. Carvalho GA, Graf H: [Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2005 Oct;49(5):719-24
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  • [Title] [Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinoma indiferenciado de tireóide.
  • Well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma (TC), as papillary and follicular carcinoma, usually follows a relatively benign course after total thyroidectomy and thyroid remnant ablation with 131I.
  • In contrast, anaplastic TC or undifferentiated TC, also derived from the thyroid follicular epithelium, refers to one of the more aggressive human malignancies, which have lost most or all characteristics of the tissue from which it originated.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma. Thyroid Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Disease Progression. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16444354.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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6. Ghossein R: Problems and controversies in the histopathology of thyroid carcinomas of follicular cell origin. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2009 May;133(5):683-91
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  • [Title] Problems and controversies in the histopathology of thyroid carcinomas of follicular cell origin.
  • CONTEXT: Despite past and recent efforts, many problems and controversies remain in the classification of thyroid carcinomas of follicular cell origin.
  • These controversies have an impact on the prognosis and therapy of patients with thyroid carcinoma as well as on the development of robust cutting-edge research aimed at better outcome and quality of life.
  • OBJECTIVE: To focus on 3 contentious areas with significant clinical value: the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, the extent of invasion in follicular carcinoma, and the poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Recent data show that prognosis and therapy for many disease entities can be better delineated if a meticulous microscopic examination is performed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / classification. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / therapy. Cell Proliferation. Humans. Mitosis. Necrosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 19415942.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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7. Park YJ, Kwak SH, Kim DC, Kim H, Choe G, Park DJ, Jang HC, Park SH, Cho BY, Park SY: Diagnostic value of galectin-3, HBME-1, cytokeratin 19, high molecular weight cytokeratin, cyclin D1 and p27(kip1) in the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules. J Korean Med Sci; 2007 Aug;22(4):621-8
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  • [Title] Diagnostic value of galectin-3, HBME-1, cytokeratin 19, high molecular weight cytokeratin, cyclin D1 and p27(kip1) in the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules.
  • The distinction between benign and malignant thyroid tumors is critical for the management of patients with thyroid nodules.
  • We applied immunohistochemical staining for galectin-3, HBME-1, cytokeratin 19 (CK19), high molecular weight cytokeratin (HMWCK), cyclin D1 and p27(kip1) in 295 thyroid lesions to determine their diagnostic accuracy.
  • The expression of all markers was significantly associated with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC).
  • Comparing follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (FVPC) with follicular carcinoma (FC), the expression of galectin-3, CK19, and HMWCK was significantly higher in FVPC.
  • These results suggest that 1) galectin-3 is a useful marker in the distinction between benign and malignant thyroid tumors, 2) the combined use of HBME-1 and CK19 can increase the diagnostic accuracy, and 3) the use of CK19 and HMWCK can aid in the differential diagnosis between PC and FC.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / metabolism. Cyclin D1 / analysis. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Galectin 3 / analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / analysis. Keratin-19 / analysis. Keratins / analysis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17728499.001).
  • [ISSN] 1011-8934
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Korean Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDKN1B protein, human; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / HBME-1 antigen; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Keratin-19; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2693809
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8. Liu FH, Liou MJ, Hsueh C, Chao TC, Lin JD: Thyroid follicular neoplasm: analysis by fine needle aspiration cytology, frozen section, and histopathology. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Nov;38(11):801-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Thyroid follicular neoplasm: analysis by fine needle aspiration cytology, frozen section, and histopathology.
  • We performed a retrospective analysis of follicular neoplasm data obtained from frozen section examinations of thyroid nodules.
  • Patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma were excluded from this study.
  • In 971 cases, frozen section examination was performed during the surgical treatment of follicular neoplasm that was diagnosed via FNAC.
  • Thyroid malignancies were histologically confirmed in 25.1% of cases (244/971).
  • Among the patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma, 45 were diagnosed with the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas (27.4%).
  • The diagnostic sensitivity of frozen section for the nonfollicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma was better than that for the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (89.1% versus 78.9%; P = 0.1023).
  • For 12 cases the diagnosis was atypical follicular adenomas.
  • The diagnostic accuracy of frozen section in cases of follicular neoplasm was 76.9% with a sensitivity of 84.8% and a specificity of 98.9%.
  • In conclusion, our analysis revealed high rates of accuracy when using frozen tissue sections for early diagnosis and treatment of follicular neoplasm; thus, an early decision to extent of surgery prevents a risky follow-up surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Frozen Sections. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20014303.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Kim SJ, Kim IJ, Kang YH, Kim YK: Characterization of follicular thyroid nodules at fine needle aspiration biopsy using double phase thallium-201 imaging: comparison of visual and semiquantitative analyses. Thyroid; 2006 Dec;16(12):1243-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Characterization of follicular thyroid nodules at fine needle aspiration biopsy using double phase thallium-201 imaging: comparison of visual and semiquantitative analyses.
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare visual and semiquantitative indices of double phase thallium-201 thyroid scintigraphy (DTS) for differentiation of malignant nodules by indeterminate fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) results.
  • Early L/N was superior to delayed L/N and WR for the detection of malignant thyroid nodules.
  • CONCLUSION: Visual assessment had a limited value for differentiation of follicular nodules.
  • The early L/N was superior to delayed L/N and WR for the detection of malignant thyroid nodular lesions.
  • Visual analysis and semiquantitative indices of DTS could not differentiate follicular carcinoma and follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Thallium Radioisotopes. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Nodule / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radionuclide imaging. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Papillary / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / radionuclide imaging. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17199434.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Thallium Radioisotopes
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10. Falvo L, Giacomelli L, Vanni B, Marzollo A, Guerriero G, De Antoni E: Papillary thyroid carcinoma in thyroglossal duct cyst: case reports and literature review. Int Surg; 2006 May-Jun;91(3):141-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Papillary thyroid carcinoma in thyroglossal duct cyst: case reports and literature review.
  • Although thyroglossal duct cysts represent a common developmental abnormality of the thyroid gland, malignant transformation is rare and occurs in only 1% of cases.
  • Histologic examination indicated two pure papillary carcinomas, a sclerosing papillary carcinoma, and a follicular variant of papillary carcinoma.
  • Carcinoma multifocality was found in one patient.
  • We recommend associating total thyroidectomy with removal of the tumor of the thyroglossal duct and of the body of the hyoid bone, because the carcinoma may be multifocal and there may be lymphatic invasion of the thyroid and to ensure a correct follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Thyroglossal Cyst / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Gland / embryology. Thyroid Gland / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16845854.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-8868
  • [Journal-full-title] International surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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11. Chung D, Ghossein RA, Lin O: Macrofollicular variant of papillary carcinoma: a potential thyroid FNA pitfall. Diagn Cytopathol; 2007 Sep;35(9):560-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Macrofollicular variant of papillary carcinoma: a potential thyroid FNA pitfall.
  • Macrofollicular variant of papillary carcinoma (MFPC) is a rare variant of papillary carcinoma in which over 50% of the follicles are represented by macrofollicles.
  • Most cases were moderately to highly cellular with presence of both microfollicles as well as macrofollicles, but nuclear features of papillary thyroid carcinoma were absent or focal in all cases.
  • MFPC is a variant of papillary carcinoma that can be extremely difficult to diagnose cytologically.
  • The presence of abundant colloid, macrophages, macrofollicular follicular cell arrangement and/or absence of widespread cytologic features associated with papillary carcinoma can lead to an erroneous diagnosis of goiter.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17703452.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Banito A, Pinto AE, Espadinha C, Marques AR, Leite V: Aneuploidy and RAS mutations are mutually exclusive events in the development of well-differentiated thyroid follicular tumours. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2007 Nov;67(5):706-11
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  • [Title] Aneuploidy and RAS mutations are mutually exclusive events in the development of well-differentiated thyroid follicular tumours.
  • OBJECTIVE: Follicular thyroid tumours present several genetic alterations such as aneuploidy, RAS mutations and PAX8/PPARgammarearrangements.
  • The aim of our study was to investigate the correlation between aneuploidy, RAS mutations and PAX8/PPARgamma gene rearrangement in thyroid follicular tumours.
  • DESIGN: Ploidy status was determined by flow cytometry in 111 thyroid lesions (42 follicular thyroid adenomas, 27 follicular thyroid carcinomas, 19 follicular variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma, 20 poorly differentiated thyroid carcinomas and 3 anaplastic thyroid carcinomas).
  • The aneuploid tumours harbouring RAS mutations were two poorly differentiated carcinomas and one follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma with poorly differentiated areas.
  • Three of five (60%) follicular thyroid adenomas and 1 of 7 (14%) follicular thyroid carcinomas, with the PAX8/PPARgamma fusion gene, were aneuploid.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that aneuploidy and RAS mutations are mutually exclusive events in the development of well-differentiated thyroid follicular tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenoma / genetics. Aneuploidy. Genes, ras. Point Mutation. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. DNA Mutational Analysis. Flow Cytometry. Gene Rearrangement. Humans. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion. PPAR gamma / genetics. Paired Box Transcription Factors / genetics. Statistics as Topic

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  • (PMID = 17651453.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / PAX8 protein, human; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors
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13. Baloch ZW: Fine-needle aspiration of follicular lesions of the thyroid. Diagnosis and follow-Up. Cytojournal; 2006 Apr 07;3:9
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  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration of follicular lesions of the thyroid. Diagnosis and follow-Up.
  • The differential diagnosis of a follicular lesion/neoplasm in thyroid FNA specimens includes hyperplastic/adenomatoid nodule, follicular adenoma and carcinoma, and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • In our laboratory we separate follicular lesions of thyroid into hyperplastic/adenomatoid nodule (HN), follicular neoplasm (FON) and follicular derived neoplasm with focal nuclear features suspicious for papillary thyroid carcinoma (FDN).
  • In the FON category almost half of the malignant cases were papillary carcinoma.
  • According to this study it is important to divide follicular patterned lesions of thyroid into FON and FDN in the cytology specimens due to significantly different risk of malignancy (22% vs. 72%).

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  • (PMID = 16603062.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-6413
  • [Journal-full-title] CytoJournal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytojournal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1458352
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14. Liu YY, Morreau H, Kievit J, Romijn JA, Carrasco N, Smit JW: Combined immunostaining with galectin-3, fibronectin-1, CITED-1, Hector Battifora mesothelial-1, cytokeratin-19, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma}, and sodium/iodide symporter antibodies for the differential diagnosis of non-medullary thyroid carcinoma. Eur J Endocrinol; 2008 Mar;158(3):375-84
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  • [Title] Combined immunostaining with galectin-3, fibronectin-1, CITED-1, Hector Battifora mesothelial-1, cytokeratin-19, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma}, and sodium/iodide symporter antibodies for the differential diagnosis of non-medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVES: The microscopic distinction between benign and malignant thyroid lesions in clinical practice is still largely based on conventional histology.
  • This study was performed to evaluate the diagnostic value of galectin-3 (Gal-3), Hector Battifora mesothelial-1 (HBME-1), cytokeratin (CK)-19, CBP P300-interacting transactivator with glutamic acid E- and aspartic acid D-rich C-terminal domain (CITED-1), fibronectin (FN)-1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma, and intracellular sodium/iodide symporter (iNIS) immunostaining in a large panel of thyroid neoplasms.
  • METHODS: We used tissue arrays containing 177 thyroid tissues: 100 benign tissues (including normal thyroid, Graves disease, multinodular goiter, and follicular adenoma (FA)) and 77 thyroid carcinomas (including papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), follicular thyroid carcinoma, and follicular variant of PTC (FVPTC)).
  • RESULTS: In general, we found overexpression of FN-1, CITED-1, Gal-3, CK-19, HBME-1, and iNIS in malignant thyroid lesions.
  • Gal-3, FN-1, and iNIS had the highest accuracy in the differential diagnosis of follicular lesions.
  • A panel of Gal-3, FN-1, and iNIS, identified by hierarchical cluster analysis, had a 98% accuracy to differentiate between FA and malignant thyroid lesions.
  • CONCLUSION: We conclude that identifying optimal antibody panels with cluster analysis increases the diagnostic value in the differential diagnosis of thyroid neoplasms, the combination of FN-1, Gal-3, and iNIS having the best accuracy (98%).

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  • (PMID = 18299472.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CITED1 protein, human; 0 / Fibronectins; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / HBME-1 antigen; 0 / Keratin-19; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Symporters; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / sodium-iodide symporter
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15. Carling T, Udelsman R: Follicular neoplasms of the thyroid: what to recommend. Thyroid; 2005 Jun;15(6):583-7
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  • [Title] Follicular neoplasms of the thyroid: what to recommend.
  • Follicular neoplasms of the thyroid are usually diagnosed following fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy of a dominant thyroid nodule.
  • An FNA diagnosis of a follicular neoplasm represents a heterogeneous group of lesions including benign follicular hyperplasia, follicular adenomas, follicular carcinomas, and the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma.
  • Because the criteria for malignancy in both follicular and Hürthle cell neoplasms requires vascular or capsular invasion seen on permanent histology, the majority of these patients undergo surgical resection.
  • Intraoperative frozen section analysis of follicular neoplasms rarely renders informative information.
  • Postoperative treatment generally includes therapeutic doses of 131I for follicular carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16029125.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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16. Paşcanu I, Borda A, Bănescu C: Thyroid nodule with Hashimoto thyroiditis in childhood - a challenging experience. Rom J Morphol Embryol; 2008;49(4):541-5
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  • [Title] Thyroid nodule with Hashimoto thyroiditis in childhood - a challenging experience.
  • Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the thyroid, although not perfect, is considered currently the best preoperative method in establishing malignancy in a thyroid nodule.
  • We report the case of an 8-year-old girl with a thyroid mass in the right thyroid lobe.
  • Endocrine investigations revealed subclinical hypothyroidism and high titer of anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies.
  • Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy (FNAB) of the right side of the thyroid gland, where on thyroid ultrasonography (US) a poorly defined iso-/hypoechoic nodule with irregular margins was detected, revealed a background of lymphocytes and plasma cells mixed with follicular cells with reactive changes.
  • Right lobectomy was performed and the pathology report shows papillary carcinoma, follicular variant predominantly with components of insular growth.
  • [MeSH-major] Hashimoto Disease / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19050804.001).
  • [ISSN] 1220-0522
  • [Journal-full-title] Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rom J Morphol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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17. Aiad H, Abdou A, Bashandy M, Said A, Ezz-Elarab S, Zahran A: Computerized nuclear morphometry in the diagnosis of thyroid lesions with predominant follicular pattern. Ecancermedicalscience; 2009;3:146
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  • [Title] Computerized nuclear morphometry in the diagnosis of thyroid lesions with predominant follicular pattern.
  • BACKGROUND: Differential diagnosis of thyroid lesions with predominantly follicular pattern is one of the most common problems in thyroid pathology.
  • This work is aimed at studying the role of nuclear morphometry in differential diagnosis of different thyroid lesions having predominant follicular pattern.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Semiautomatic image analysis system was used to measure a total of 8 nuclear parameters in 48 thyroid lesions including seven nodular goiter (NG), 14 follicular adenoma (FA), 14 follicular carcinoma (FC) and 13 follicular variant papillary carcinoma (FVPC).
  • CONCLUSION: Nuclear morphometric parameters may help in the differentiation between neoplastic and non-neoplastic thyroid lesions and between FVPC and follicular neoplasms (FC and FA) but they have no value in the differentiation between FC and FA.

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  • (PMID = 22276011.001).
  • [ISSN] 1754-6605
  • [Journal-full-title] Ecancermedicalscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ecancermedicalscience
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3224013
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Thyroid / differential diagnosis / nuclear morphometry
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18. Saleh HA, Feng J, Tabassum F, Al-Zohaili O, Husain M, Giorgadze T: Differential expression of galectin-3, CK19, HBME1, and Ret oncoprotein in the diagnosis of thyroid neoplasms by fine needle aspiration biopsy. Cytojournal; 2009;6:18
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  • [Title] Differential expression of galectin-3, CK19, HBME1, and Ret oncoprotein in the diagnosis of thyroid neoplasms by fine needle aspiration biopsy.
  • BACKGROUND: Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is a common and excellent procedure for the evaluation of thyroid lesions that require surgical resection.
  • At times, the FNAB diagnosis can be difficult, particularly of follicular-patterned lesions.
  • In this study, our goal was to evaluate four of the recently investigated markers in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid nodules on FNABs.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed IHC staining of galectin-3, Ret oncoprotein (Ret), HBME-1, and cytokeratin 19 (CK19), on cell block sections of thyroid FNAB cases that had corresponding surgical resections.
  • They included 44 benign lesions (37 hyperplastic or cellular nodules, HN; and 7 follicular adenomas, FA) and 27 malignant tumors (6 follicular carcinoma, FC; 19 classic papillary carcinoma, PTC; and 2 follicular variant of papillary carcinoma, FVPC).
  • CONCLUSION: We conclude that galectin-3 is the best single marker in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid lesions with the highest sensitivity and specificity.
  • Because they were the best two independent and combined markers, we recommend the use of the galectin-3 + HBME-1 panel to enhance the diagnostic accuracy of follicular-patterned thyroid lesions on FNABs.

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  • (PMID = 19826479.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-6413
  • [Journal-full-title] CytoJournal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytojournal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2758025
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; CK19 / HBME-1 / Ret oncoprotein / fine needle aspiration / galectin-3 / immunohistochemical / thyroid
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19. Xu F, Liu B, Chen XY, Zhou EX, Fan DF, Ma Y, Tang ZH: [Diagnosis and therapy of childhood thyroid carcinoma: clinical analysis of 12 cases]. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Feb;11(2):120-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Diagnosis and therapy of childhood thyroid carcinoma: clinical analysis of 12 cases].
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical characteristics, diagnosis and therapy of thyroid carcinoma in children.
  • METHODS: Clinical data of 12 children under the age of 14 years, diagnosed as thyroid carcinoma between August 1998 and August 2008, were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: A hard thyroid mass was observed in 10 out of 12 children with thyroid carcinoma, but only one out of 15 children with benign thyroid tumor (<0.05).
  • The rate of cervical lymph node metastasis in children with thyroid carcinoma was significantly higher than that in children with benign thyroid tumor (<0.05).
  • There was no significant difference in the final diagnostic rate of thyroid carcinoma between ultrasonography and CT scans (75% vs 83%; >0.05).
  • All of 12 cases were pathologically confirmed as differentiated thyroid carcinoma, including papillary carcinoma (7 cases), follicular carcinoma (3 cases) and papillary-follicular carcinoma (2 cases).
  • Unilateral lobectomy plus isthmectomy along with a functional cervical lymph node dissection was a primary operation mode (83%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Childhood thyroid carcinoma is mostly differentiated and characterized by hard thyroid mass and cervical lymph node metastasis.
  • A combination of ultrasonography and CT is helpful to the diagnosis of childhood thyroid carcinoma.
  • The treatment outcome may be satisfactory by optimal therapy in children with thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19222949.001).
  • [ISSN] 1008-8830
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo dang dai er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of contemporary pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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20. Gombos K, Zele E, Kiss I, Varjas T, Puskás L, Kozma L, Juhász F, Kovács E, Szanyi I, Ember I: Characterization of microarray gene expression profiles of early stage thyroid tumours. Cancer Genomics Proteomics; 2007 Nov-Dec;4(6):403-9
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  • [Title] Characterization of microarray gene expression profiles of early stage thyroid tumours.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A high-density oligonucleotide array with 20,000 human gene-specific oligonucleotide was used to analyze benign and early-stage malignant thyroid tumours of epithelial origin: follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma and papillary carcinoma, compared to normal thyroid tissue.
  • Our findings suggest that modulation of NF-kappaB signalling plays a crucial role in early thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Microarray Analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18204203.001).
  • [ISSN] 1109-6535
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genomics & proteomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genomics Proteomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / NF-kappa B
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21. Torres-Cabala C, Bibbo M, Panizo-Santos A, Barazi H, Krutzsch H, Roberts DD, Merino MJ: Proteomic identification of new biomarkers and application in thyroid cytology. Acta Cytol; 2006 Sep-Oct;50(5):518-28
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  • [Title] Proteomic identification of new biomarkers and application in thyroid cytology.
  • OBJECTIVE: To validate proteins identified by proteomics as potentially usable markers in thyroid pathology.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Frozen sections of thyroid tumors were manually micro-dissected and proteins extracted.
  • RESULTS: Galectin-3 was negative in benign lesions and positive in FNAB from papillary carcinoma (5 of 5), follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (1 of 4) and follicular carcinoma (1 of 2).
  • S100C was positive in some benign lesions: hyperplasia (2 of 4), goiter (1 of 3) and follicular adenoma (1 of 3), with predominantly nuclear pattern of staining.
  • Galectin-1 was negative in benign lesions and positive in follicular carcinoma (1 of 2), papillary carcinoma (2 of 5) and follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (1 of 4).
  • VDAC1 was detected in benign and malignant lesions, showing a strong positivity in follicular carcinomas.
  • Galectin-3, galectin-1 and S100C can be used to help in discriminating benign and malignant thyroid lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Proteomics / methods. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17017437.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 1; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / LGALS1 protein, human; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / VDAC1 protein, human; 146909-89-9 / S100A11 protein, human; EC 1.6.- / Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 1
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22. Lam AK, Lo CY, Leung P, Lang BH, Chan WF, Luk JM: Clinicopathological roles of alterations of tumor suppressor gene p16 in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 May;14(5):1772-9
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  • [Title] Clinicopathological roles of alterations of tumor suppressor gene p16 in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Alterations of the p16 gene are common in human cancers, but their roles in thyroid cancers have not been clearly defined.
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinicopathological roles of the p16 gene in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).
  • In follicular variant of PTC (FVPTC), there was a frequent lack of p16 protein expression and promoter methylation.
  • PTCs showing p16 promoter methylation were often associated with a high AMES (age, metastasis to distant sites, extrathyroidal invasion, size) risk group and advanced pTNM (tumor-lymph node-metastasis) stages.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17195959.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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23. Siddiq S, Ahmad I I, Colloby P: Papillary thyroid carcinoma presenting as an asymptomatic pelvic bone metastases. J Surg Case Rep; 2010;2010(3):2
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  • [Title] Papillary thyroid carcinoma presenting as an asymptomatic pelvic bone metastases.
  • Thyroid carcinoma is rare comprising 1% of all malignancies and commonly presents as a neck lump.
  • Papillary thyroid carcinoma unlike follicular thyroid carcinoma tends not to metastasise to distant sites.
  • We present a case of papillary thyroid carcinoma presenting as a solitary asymptomatic pelvic bone metastases and highlight current management of bone metastases.
  • A 59-year old female was found on abdominal computerised tomography to have an incidental finding of a 4.5 cm soft tissue mass in the right iliac bone.
  • Biopsy of the lesion confirmed metastatic thyroid carcinoma.
  • Further imaging confirmed focal activity in the right lobe of the thyroid.
  • A total thyroidectomy and level VI neck dissection was performed and histology confirmed follicular variant of papillary carcinoma.
  • Early detection of bone metastases have been shown to improve prognosis and thyroid carcinoma should be considered as a potential primary malignancy.

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  • [Copyright] © JSCR.
  • (PMID = 24946172.001).
  • [ISSN] 2042-8812
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3649091
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24. Berni Canani F, Dall'Olio D, Chiarini V, Casadei GP, Papini E: Papillary carcinoma of a thyroglossal duct cyst in a patient with thyroid hemiagenesis: effectiveness of conservative surgical treatment. Endocr Pract; 2008 May-Jun;14(4):465-9
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  • [Title] Papillary carcinoma of a thyroglossal duct cyst in a patient with thyroid hemiagenesis: effectiveness of conservative surgical treatment.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of thyroglossal duct cyst carcinoma that arose in a patient with right thyroid lobe hemiagenesis.
  • The patient's preoperative workup included ultrasonography of the neck and head and neck T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, which showed right hemithyroid agenesis and a cystic lesion in the median region of the neck below the hyoid bone.
  • Findings from chest x-rays and thyroid function tests were normal.
  • Histologic findings showed a 2.5-cm thyroglossal duct cyst with a 0.6-cm focus of follicular variant of papillary carcinoma with invasion of the cyst wall.
  • Total thyroidectomy was not performed because of the absence of tumoral invasion of the parenchyma around the thyroglossal duct cyst and because the patient was at low risk for aggressive disease.
  • Presently, the patient is symptom-free after 4 years of follow-up and has no evidence of disease.
  • CONCLUSION: Incidentally discovered, well-differentiated thyroid cancer that is confined to a thyroglossal duct cyst in a patient at low risk for aggressive disease can be adequately treated by a modified Sistrunk procedure that includes the median portion of the hyoid bone.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Thyroglossal Cyst / surgery. Thyroid Dysgenesis / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Thyroid Gland / abnormalities. Thyroid Gland / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18558601.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Obara T: [Medullary thyroid carcinoma and other rare types of thyroid carcinoma]. Nihon Rinsho; 2007 Nov;65(11):2087-91
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  • [Title] [Medullary thyroid carcinoma and other rare types of thyroid carcinoma].
  • Among 4 major traditional groups of thyroid carcinoma, papillary and follicular carcinomas are most common, and other forms, anaplastic and medullary carcinomas, are relatively rare.
  • The 2003 WHO histological classification of thyroid tumor separated 7 other malignant thyroid tumors into distinct pathological entities, such as poorly differentiated, squamous cell, mucinous carcinomas, carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation (CASTLE), etc.
  • In this review, not only diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for the rare forms of thyroid carcinomas, specifically focussed on medullary carcinoma and CASTLE, but also their histogenetic abnormalities were discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary. Thyroid Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Calcitonin / blood. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / therapy. Cell Differentiation. Humans. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a. Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Thymus Gland / cytology. Thymus Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18018575.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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26. Denning KM, Smyth PC, Cahill SF, Finn SP, Conlon E, Li J, Flavin RJ, Aherne ST, Guenther SM, Ferlinz A, O'Leary JJ, Sheils OM: A molecular expression signature distinguishing follicular lesions in thyroid carcinoma using preamplification RT-PCR in archival samples. Mod Pathol; 2007 Oct;20(10):1095-102
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  • [Title] A molecular expression signature distinguishing follicular lesions in thyroid carcinoma using preamplification RT-PCR in archival samples.
  • Follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma is a lesion that frequently causes difficulties from a diagnostic perspective in the laboratory.
  • The purpose of this study was to interrogate a cohort of archival thyroid lesions using gene expression analysis of a panel of markers proposed to have utility as adjunctive markers in the diagnosis of thyroid neoplasia and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma in particular.
  • HLA-DMA, HLA-DQB1, MT1X, CSNK1G2 and RAB23 were found to be differentially expressed (P<0.05) when comparing follicular adenoma and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Comparison of follicular adenoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma groups showed significant differential expression for MT1K, MT1X and RAB23 (P<0.05).
  • Comparison of the papillary thyroid carcinoma group (classic and follicular variants) and the follicular adenoma group showed differential expression for CSNK1G2, HLA-DQB1, MT1X and RAB23 (P<0.05).
  • Finally, KRAS2 was found to be differentially expressed (P<0.05) when comparing the papillary thyroid carcinoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma groups.
  • This panel of molecular targets discriminates between follicular adenoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma, follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma by their expression repertoires.
  • It may have utility for broader use in the setting of fine-needle aspiration cytology and could improve the definitive diagnosis of certain categories of thyroid malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. Gene Expression. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics


27. Weber F, Aldred MA, Morrison CD, Plass C, Frilling A, Broelsch CE, Waite KA, Eng C: Silencing of the maternally imprinted tumor suppressor ARHI contributes to follicular thyroid carcinogenesis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Feb;90(2):1149-55
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  • [Title] Silencing of the maternally imprinted tumor suppressor ARHI contributes to follicular thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • The two most common subtypes of thyroid cancer, follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and papillary thyroid carcinoma, have been extensively studied, but our fundamental understanding of the molecular events in thyroid epithelial oncogenesis is still limited.
  • In this study, we elucidated the frequency and mechanism of ARHI silencing in benign and malignant thyroid neoplasia.
  • We demonstrated that underexpression of ARHI occurs principally in FTCs (P = 0.0018), including its oncocytic variant (11 of 13), even at minimally invasive stage but not classic papillary thyroid carcinoma (two of seven) or follicular adenoma (FA) (three of 14).
  • Therefore, our data suggest that silencing of the putative maternally imprinted tumor suppressor gene ARHI, primarily by large genomic deletion in conjunction with hypermethylation of the genomically imprinted allele, serves as a key early event in follicular thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Azacitidine / analogs & derivatives. Gene Silencing. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Genomic Imprinting / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. rho GTP-Binding Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / pharmacology. Base Sequence. DNA Primers. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 15546898.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA16059
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / DIRAS3 protein, human; 0 / DNA Primers; 776B62CQ27 / decitabine; EC 3.6.5.2 / rho GTP-Binding Proteins; M801H13NRU / Azacitidine
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28. Kim TY, Kim WB, Song JY, Rhee YS, Gong G, Cho YM, Kim SY, Kim SC, Hong SJ, Shong YK: The BRAF mutation is not associated with poor prognostic factors in Korean patients with conventional papillary thyroid microcarcinoma. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2005 Nov;63(5):588-93
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  • [Title] The BRAF mutation is not associated with poor prognostic factors in Korean patients with conventional papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The BRAF(V600E) mutation, the most common genetic alteration reported in papillary thyroid carcinoma, has been associated with poor prognostic factors.
  • AIM: To determine whether the presence of the BRAF(V600E) mutation is associated with poor prognosis in Korean patients with conventional papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (micro-PTC).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded thyroid tumour specimens taken from 60 patients with conventional micro-PTC, as well as from nine patients with follicular variant papillary carcinoma, six with nodular hyperplasia, four with follicular carcinoma (including one with Hürthle cell carcinoma), four with follicular adenoma (including two with Hürthle cell adenoma) and one each with medullary carcinoma, poorly differentiated carcinoma and anaplastic carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: The BRAF(V600E) mutation was detected in tumour samples from 31 of 60 conventional micro-PTC patients (52%), but was not detected in patients with other types of thyroid tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Point Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16268813.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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29. Arnaldi LA, Borra RC, Maciel RM, Cerutti JM: Gene expression profiles reveal that DCN, DIO1, and DIO2 are underexpressed in benign and malignant thyroid tumors. Thyroid; 2005 Mar;15(3):210-21
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  • [Title] Gene expression profiles reveal that DCN, DIO1, and DIO2 are underexpressed in benign and malignant thyroid tumors.
  • To investigate the molecular events involved in the pathogenesis and/or progression of thyroid tumors, we compared the gene expression profiles of three thyroid carcinoma cell lines, which represent major tumor subtypes of thyroid cancer and normal thyroid tissue.
  • We found that 505 transcripts were differentially expressed in the thyroid carcinoma cell lines.
  • Using a more stringent criterion, transcripts underexpressed or overexpressed more than fivefold in 1 of 3 or 3 of 3 carcinoma cell lines, a list of 55 ESTs were detected.
  • Five candidate genes were further validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in an independent set of 52 thyroid tumors and 22 matched normal thyroid tissues.
  • DCN was found underexpressed in a high percentage of the follicular thyroid adenomas, follicular thyroid carcinomas, and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas.
  • DIO1 and DIO2 were underexpressed in nearly all papillary thyroid carcinomas.
  • These genes not only could help to better define a tumor signature for thyroid tumors, but may, in part, also become useful as potential targets for thyroid tumor treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Profiling. Iodide Peroxidase / genetics. Proteoglycans / genetics. Thyroid Gland / physiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Line, Tumor. DNA Primers. Decorin. Extracellular Matrix Proteins. Female. Humans. Isoenzymes / genetics. Male. Middle Aged. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Open Reading Frames. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 15785240.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DCN protein, human; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Decorin; 0 / Extracellular Matrix Proteins; 0 / Isoenzymes; 0 / Proteoglycans; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase
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30. Cavaco BM, Batista PF, Martins C, Banito A, do Rosário F, Limbert E, Sobrinho LG, Leite V: Familial non-medullary thyroid carcinoma (FNMTC): analysis of fPTC/PRN, NMTC1, MNG1 and TCO susceptibility loci and identification of somatic BRAF and RAS mutations. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2008 Mar;15(1):207-15
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  • [Title] Familial non-medullary thyroid carcinoma (FNMTC): analysis of fPTC/PRN, NMTC1, MNG1 and TCO susceptibility loci and identification of somatic BRAF and RAS mutations.
  • Linkage analysis has identified four familial non-medullary thyroid carcinoma (FNMTC) susceptibility loci: fPTC/PRN (1p13.2-1q22), NMTC1 (2q21), MNG1 (14q32) and TCO (19p13.2).
  • In total, 8 FNMTC families, and 27 thyroid lesions from family members (22 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs): 11 classic, 10 of the follicular variant and 1 of the mixed variant; 4 follicular thyroid adenomas (FTAs) and 1 nodular goitre (NG)), were evaluated for the involvement of the four susceptibility regions, using linkage and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analyses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenoma / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Genes, ras / genetics. Genetic Linkage. Goiter, Nodular / genetics. Mutation / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Female. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Genotype. Haplotypes. Humans. Lod Score. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18310288.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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31. Yoon JH, Kim EK, Hong SW, Kwak JY, Kim MJ: Sonographic features of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. J Ultrasound Med; 2008 Oct;27(10):1431-7
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  • [Title] Sonographic features of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sonographic findings of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) and to assess the role of preoperative fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB).
  • METHODS: The sonographic findings of 27 thyroid nodules in 26 patients (2 male and 24 female; mean age, 45 years) with surgically proven FVPTC were reviewed retrospectively.
  • Thyroid nodules with a single malignant finding as described above were classified as malignant.
  • Twenty-one of 24 diagnostic cytologic results (87.5%) were suspicious for papillary carcinoma (5 of 21 [20.8%]) or malignant (16 of 21 [66.7%]), whereas 3 lesions (12.5%) had benign results.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma tends to have relatively benign sonographic features, such as hypoechogenicity, well-defined margins, an oval shape, and no microcalcifications, but most lesions were correctly classified as malignant by both sonography and FNAB.
  • The possibility of FVPTC should be considered when thyroid nodules with a relatively benign sonographic appearance have suspicious or malignant FNAB results.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography / methods

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  • (PMID = 18809953.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-9613
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ultrasound Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Xue WC, Hui YZ: [Problems in the diagnosis of thyroid papillary and follicular carcinoma]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2007 Apr;36(4):220-3
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  • [Title] [Problems in the diagnosis of thyroid papillary and follicular carcinoma].
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis. Thyroiditis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17706110.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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33. Hunt J: Understanding the genotype of follicular thyroid tumors. Endocr Pathol; 2005;16(4):311-21
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  • [Title] Understanding the genotype of follicular thyroid tumors.
  • Tumors of the thyroid with a follicular growth pattern are controversial and can be diagnostically challenging for the pathologist.
  • This group of tumors includes both follicular derived lesions (adenomas and carcinomas) and papillary carcinoma (follicular variant of papillary carcinoma).
  • In the past several decades, however, several important molecular markers have been identified that may be unique to different types of thyroid carcinomas.
  • However, with increasing availability of molecular testing for the general pathologist, a molecular testing panel used in conjunction with the H&E morphology and immunohistochemical stains may become useful in the clinical setting for the diagnosis of thyroid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16627918.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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34. Pang T, Ihre-Lundgren C, Gill A, McMullen T, Sywak M, Sidhu S, Delbridge L: Correlation between indeterminate aspiration cytology and final histopathology of thyroid neoplasms. Surgery; 2010 Sep;148(3):532-7
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  • [Title] Correlation between indeterminate aspiration cytology and final histopathology of thyroid neoplasms.
  • BACKGROUND: Of all thyroid nodules assessed by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), 10-20% are classified as indeterminate/atypical.
  • Traditionally, this group is considered to primarily represent follicular neoplasia.
  • We hypothesize that papillary carcinoma accounts for a significant proportion of lesions classified as "atypical" on FNAC.
  • METHODS: This retrospective study includes 228 patients who had an atypical FNAC result and who were subsequently found to have a malignancy on histologic examination of the excised thyroid lesion.
  • Patients with papillary microcarcinomas, defined as lesions less than 10-mm diameter, were excluded.
  • Prevalence of papillary carcinoma was not statistically significant (33/76 vs 34/76 vs 46/76; P = .0636), but showed a statistical significant trend to increase over time (P = .0349).
  • Prevalence of follicular variant papillary carcinoma was also found to be significantly different between the groups (7/76 vs 12/76 vs 19/76; P = .0320; P = .0349).
  • CONCLUSION: Papillary carcinoma accounted for most histopathologically confirmed cancers that had an atypical cytology.
  • Papillary cancer in this group of patients trended up, probably due to a significant increase in the diagnosis of follicular variant of papillary cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Biopsy, Needle / methods. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Chi-Square Distribution. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Genetic Variation. Goiter / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Patient Selection. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20236675.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. O'Gorman CS, Hamilton J, Rachmiel M, Gupta A, Ngan BY, Daneman D: Thyroid cancer in childhood: a retrospective review of childhood course. Thyroid; 2010 Apr;20(4):375-80
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  • [Title] Thyroid cancer in childhood: a retrospective review of childhood course.
  • BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer (TC) is an uncommon childhood malignancy, but the incidence may be increasing.
  • Recent American Thyroid Association guidelines focus primarily on adult data.
  • METHODS: Cases of papillary TC (PTC) (including follicular variant PTC) and follicular TC (FTC) were identified from pathology databases.
  • Pathological TC diagnosis included 40 PTC, 1 diffuse-sclerosing papillary, 7 follicular variant PTC, and 6 FTC.
  • Five patients had a history of previous malignancy, and five had a history of previous thyroid conditions.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Adolescent. Canada / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Child. Female. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Retrospective Studies. Thyroidectomy


36. Kapur U, Wojcik EM: Follicular neoplasm of the thyroid--vanishing cytologic diagnosis? Diagn Cytopathol; 2007 Aug;35(8):525-8
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  • [Title] Follicular neoplasm of the thyroid--vanishing cytologic diagnosis?
  • The significance of making a diagnosis of follicular neoplasm on fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy remains a controversial issue, considering that the diagnosis of follicular carcinoma is based on histological criteria and the significantly decreasing incidence of follicular carcinoma in the general population.
  • On FNA the main differential diagnoses of follicular neoplasm includes follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (FVPC), follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma and benign solitary nodule occurring in a goiter.
  • Although, FVPC is a distinct entity from the follicular neoplasm group, it is not always possible to separate it from the other follicular lesions because of overlapping cytologic features and often-sporadic presence of nuclear features, follicular variant of papillary carcinoma remains the main pitfall in a diagnosis of follicular neoplasm.
  • Since a significant number of cases that are malignant on follow-up are usually FVPC, consequently, follicular neoplasm is an essential diagnostic consideration on FNA.
  • In addition, follicular carcinoma, despite a decreasing incidence continues to be a real entity.
  • Therefore, it is essential that follicular neoplasm continue to be part of our diagnostic repertoire.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17636488.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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37. Moncayo R, Kroiss A, Oberwinkler M, Karakolcu F, Starzinger M, Kapelari K, Talasz H, Moncayo H: The role of selenium, vitamin C, and zinc in benign thyroid diseases and of selenium in malignant thyroid diseases: Low selenium levels are found in subacute and silent thyroiditis and in papillary and follicular carcinoma. BMC Endocr Disord; 2008;8:2
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  • [Title] The role of selenium, vitamin C, and zinc in benign thyroid diseases and of selenium in malignant thyroid diseases: Low selenium levels are found in subacute and silent thyroiditis and in papillary and follicular carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Thyroid physiology is closely related to oxidative changes.
  • The aim of this controlled study was to evaluate the levels of nutritional anti-oxidants such as vitamin C, zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se), and to investigate any association of them with parameters of thyroid function and pathology including benign and malignant thyroid diseases.
  • METHODS: This controlled evaluation of Se included a total of 1401 subjects (1186 adults and 215 children) distributed as follows: control group (n = 687), benign thyroid disease (85 children and 465 adults); malignant thyroid disease (2 children and 79 adults).
  • Clinical evaluation of patients with benign thyroid disease included sonography, scintigraphy, as well as the determination of fT3, fT4, TSH, thyroid antibodies levels, Se, Zn, and vitamin C.
  • Besides the routine oncological parameters (TG, TSH, fT4, ultrasound) Se was also determined in the cases of malignant disease.
  • The Ho stated that there should be no differences in the levels of antioxidants between controls and thyroid disease patients.
  • RESULTS: Among the thyroid disease patients neither vitamin C, nor Zn nor Se correlated with any of the following parameters: age, sex, BMI, body weight, thyroid scintigraphy, ultrasound pattern, thyroid function, or thyroid antibodies.
  • The proportion of patients with benign thyroid diseases having analyte concentrations below external reference cut off levels were 8.7% of cases for vitamin C; 7.8% for Zn, and 20.3% for Se.
  • Se levels were significantly decreased in cases of sub-acute and silent thyroiditis (66.4 +/- 23.1 microg/l and 59.3 +/- 20.1 microg/l, respectively) as well as in follicular and papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Patients with benign or malignant thyroid diseases can present low Se levels as compared to controls.

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  • (PMID = 18221503.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-6823
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC endocrine disorders
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Endocr Disord
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2266752
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38. Yu J, Nikiforova MN, Hodak SP, Yim JH, Cai G, Walls A, Nikiforov YE, Seethala RR: Tumor-to-tumor metastases to follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: histologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular studies of two unusual cases. Endocr Pathol; 2009;20(4):235-42
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  • [Title] Tumor-to-tumor metastases to follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: histologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular studies of two unusual cases.
  • Tumor-to-tumor metastasis in thyroid neoplasms is exceedingly uncommon.
  • Two unusual cases of breast carcinoma and renal cell carcinoma metastatic to follicular variant papillary carcinoma are reported.
  • On histologic sections, the donor tumor cells infiltrated the substance of the recipient tumor and the angiolymphatic channels, but the bulk of metastatic tumor was confined within the thyroid carcinoma.
  • Immunohistochemical stains as well as molecular studies confirmed the origin of both donor tumors, as well as the diagnosis of follicular variant of papillary carcinoma in the recipient tumors.
  • A brief review of literature and discussion of tumor-to-tumor metastasis in thyroid neoplasms is also presented.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Female. Galectin 3 / analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / analysis. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Loss of Heterozygosity. Male. Microsatellite Repeats / genetics. Middle Aged. Neprilysin / analysis. Nuclear Proteins / analysis. Thyroglobulin / analysis. Transcription Factors / analysis. Vimentin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19707890.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CAM 5.2 antigen; 0 / CITED1 protein, human; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / HBME-1 antigen; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / TTF1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Vimentin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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39. Kebebew E, Peng M, Reiff E, Duh QY, Clark OH, McMillan A: Diagnostic and prognostic value of angiogenesis-modulating genes in malignant thyroid neoplasms. Surgery; 2005 Dec;138(6):1102-9; discussion 1109-10
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  • [Title] Diagnostic and prognostic value of angiogenesis-modulating genes in malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • We postulated that expression analysis of genes that modulate angiogenesis would identify differentially expressed genes that would help to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid neoplasms and serve as markers of aggressive differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • METHODS: A complementary DNA (cDNA) array with 96 genes that modulate angiogenesis was used to identify differentially expressed genes (2-fold higher or lower) in malignant versus benign thyroid neoplasms.
  • Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to confirm cDNA array expression data in 123 patients (4 normal thyroid, 26 hyperplastic nodules, 27 follicular adenomas, 23 follicular cancers, 18 follicular variant of papillary cancers, 25 papillary cancers).
  • RESULTS: Twenty-two genes were upregulated in malignant thyroid neoplasms by cDNA array analysis, but only 13 genes had higher messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels in malignant than in benign thyroid neoplasms by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (P < or = .04).
  • Of the 13 differentially expressed genes, the combined use of angiopoietin 2 (ANGPT2) and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP1) mRNA expression levels was best for distinguishing malignant from benign thyroid neoplasms, with a sensitivity of 90%, specificity of 85%, positive predictive value of 75%, and negative predictive value of 94%.
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor and ephrin B2 mRNA expression was elevated in higher TNM stage neoplasms and in patients with high-risk AMES (Age, distant Metastasis, Extrathyroidal invasion, and tumor Size) differentiated thyroid cancers (P < or = .005).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Angiopoietin 2 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 are diagnostic markers of malignant thyroid nodules and could improve the diagnostic accuracy of FNA biopsy.
  • Epidermal growth factor receptor and ephrin B2 are markers of aggressive differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenoma / genetics. Angiogenic Proteins / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Nodule / genetics


40. Amalaseelan JV, Perera KA: An unusual variant of malignant struma ovarii. Ceylon Med J; 2008 Jun;53(2):55-6
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  • [Title] An unusual variant of malignant struma ovarii.
  • When thyroid tissue constitutes 50% or more of the ovarian neoplasm, the tumour is termed struma ovarii.
  • We describe a case of follicular variant of papillary carcinoma arising from struma ovarii with elevated CA-125 and pseudo-Meig syndrome.

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  • (PMID = 18678124.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-0875
  • [Journal-full-title] The Ceylon medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ceylon Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sri Lanka
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41. Sisson JC, Dewaraja YK, Wizauer EJ, Giordano TJ, Avram AM: Thyroid carcinoma metastasis to skull with infringement of brain: treatment with radioiodine. Thyroid; 2009 Mar;19(3):297-303
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  • [Title] Thyroid carcinoma metastasis to skull with infringement of brain: treatment with radioiodine.
  • BACKGROUND: Infringement by differentiated thyroid carcinoma on the brain is rare but, when suspected, the patient deserves special attention.
  • A patient with an enlarging metastasis of thyroid carcinoma to the skull that was impinging on the brain illustrates diagnostic and therapeutic strategies applicable to the treatment of metastatic carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: The metastasis was from a follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A metastasis from a follicular variant of papillary carcinoma increased in volume during hypothyroidism producing more infringement on the brain.

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  • (PMID = 19207003.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / EB001994-09; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R01 EB001994; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R01 EB001994-09
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS114545; NLM/ PMC2727798
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42. Miccoli P, Materazzi G, Antonelli A, Panicucci E, Frustaci G, Berti P: New trends in the treatment of undifferentiated carcinomas of the thyroid. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2007 Jul;392(4):397-404
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] New trends in the treatment of undifferentiated carcinomas of the thyroid.
  • INTRODUCTION: Malignant tumours of the thyroid are generally classified as either well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma, which is composed of papillary and follicular carcinoma, or undifferentiated/anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC).
  • ATC is not only the most lethal disease in the field of endocrine surgery but also one of the most aggressive tumours characterized by an almost invariable fatal outcome, which only very rarely exceeds a 1-year course.
  • Neither doxorubicin (the most commonly used) nor other drugs, such as cisplatin, bleomycin, fluorouracil or cyclophosphamide, showed any real efficacy in controlling the disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17131154.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2443
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
  • [Number-of-references] 64
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43. Yeh MW, Rougier JP, Park JW, Duh QY, Wong M, Werb Z, Clark OH: Differentiated thyroid cancer cell invasion is regulated through epidermal growth factor receptor-dependent activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2/gelatinase A. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2006 Dec;13(4):1173-83
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  • [Title] Differentiated thyroid cancer cell invasion is regulated through epidermal growth factor receptor-dependent activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2/gelatinase A.
  • Mechanisms of invasion in thyroid cancer remain poorly understood.
  • We hypothesized that signaling via the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) stimulates thyroid cancer cell invasion by altering the expression and cleavage of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs).
  • Papillary and follicular carcinoma cell lines were treated with EGF, the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG1478, and the MMP inhibitors GM-6001 and Col-3.
  • EGF stimulated invasion by thyroid cancer cells up to sevenfold (P<0.0001), a process that was antagonized completely by AG1478 and Col-3, partially by GM-6001, but not by the serine protease inhibitor aprotinin.
  • We demonstrate that MMPs are critical effectors of invasion in the papillary and follicular thyroid cancer cell lines studied.
  • MMP inhibitors and growth factor antagonists may be effective tumoristatic agents for the treatment of aggressive thyroid carcinomas.

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  • (PMID = 17158762.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA072006-09; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA072006-09; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA072006-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA072006-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA072006; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA072006-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA072006-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA072006
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dipeptides; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors; 0 / N-(2(R)-2-(hydroxamidocarbonylmethyl)-4-methylpentanoyl)-L-tryptophan methylamide; 0 / Protease Inhibitors; 0 / Quinazolines; 0 / Serine Proteinase Inhibitors; 0 / Tetracyclines; 0 / Tyrphostins; 0 / tetracycline CMT-3; 170449-18-0 / tyrphostin AG 1478; 62229-50-9 / Epidermal Growth Factor; 9087-70-1 / Aprotinin; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 3.1.3.48 / Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 1; EC 3.1.3.48 / Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS74619; NLM/ PMC2574514
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44. Santarpia L, Sherman SI, Marabotti A, Clayman GL, El-Naggar AK: Detection and molecular characterization of a novel BRAF activated domain mutation in follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Hum Pathol; 2009 Jun;40(6):827-33
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  • [Title] Detection and molecular characterization of a novel BRAF activated domain mutation in follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • [ErratumIn] Hum Pathol. 2009 Aug;40(8):1212
  • (PMID = 19200582.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-16672
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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45. Wang HM, Huang YW, Huang JS, Wang CH, Kok VC, Hung CM, Chen HM, Tzen CY: Anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid arising more often from follicular carcinoma than papillary carcinoma. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Oct;14(10):3011-8
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  • [Title] Anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid arising more often from follicular carcinoma than papillary carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC), a rare and highly malignant tumor, has long been thought to arise from well-differentiated carcinoma (WDC) such as follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Base Sequence / genetics. Cell Line, Tumor. Codon / genetics. DNA Mutational Analysis. Exons / genetics. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / genetics. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras) / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sequence Analysis, DNA. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / surgery. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17638058.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Codon; 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.1.137 / PIK3CA protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; EC 3.6.5.2 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)
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46. Takano T: [Fetal cell carcinogenesis hypothesis and its impact on clinical pathology of cancer]. Rinsho Byori; 2008 May;56(5):402-8
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  • In the thyroid, a novel hypothesis of carcinogenesis, the "fetal cell carcinogenesis" hypothesis, in which thyroid cancer cells are derived from the remnants of fetal cells, instead of well-differentiated somatic cells, such as thyrocytes, by de-differentiation, is proposed.
  • In this hypothesis, thyroid cancer cells are generated from three types of fetal thyroid cells, thyroid stem cells(TSCs), thyroblasts and prothyrocytes by proliferation without differentiation, which results in anaplastic, papillary and follicular carcinoma, respectively.
  • Genomic alternations, such as RET/PTC and PAX8-PPARgamma1 rearrangements and a mutation in the BRAF gene, play an oncogenic role by preventing thyroid fetal cells from differentiating.
  • This hypothesis well explains the clinical and biological features and recent molecular evidence of thyroid cancer.
  • Such data will lead to better understanding of thyroid carcinogenesis and the establishment of more accurate diagnostic methods and more effective therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Stem Cells / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18546890.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1860
  • [Journal-full-title] Rinsho byori. The Japanese journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rinsho Byori
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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47. de Matos PS, Ferreira AP, de Oliveira Facuri F, Assumpção LV, Metze K, Ward LS: Usefulness of HBME-1, cytokeratin 19 and galectin-3 immunostaining in the diagnosis of thyroid malignancy. Histopathology; 2005 Oct;47(4):391-401
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  • [Title] Usefulness of HBME-1, cytokeratin 19 and galectin-3 immunostaining in the diagnosis of thyroid malignancy.
  • AIMS: To investigate the usefulness of immunohistochemical expression and immunolocalization of a panel of thyroid malignancy markers including HBME-1, cytokeratin (CK) 19 and galectin-3.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated 170 thyroid lesions including 148 neoplastic lesions [84 papillary carcinomas (PC), 38 follicular carcinomas (FC), 18 follicular adenomas, one hyalinizing trabecular tumour, five medullary carcinomas, two anaplastic carcinomas] and 22 non-neoplastic lesions (12 adenomatous nodules and 10 Hashimoto's thyroiditis).
  • Although the most helpful marker in terms of sensitivity and specificity for the follicular variant of PC and for FC diagnosis was HBME-1, when we consider the differentiation between cases of follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (FVPC) and FC or adenoma, in terms of percentage of positive cells, galectin-3 and CK 19 were more relevant.
  • CONCLUSIONS: HBME-1 is the most sensitive marker for thyroid malignancy but the three markers may be useful in specific cases.
  • This panel of markers is useful to differentiate the follicular patterned lesions, with special reference to the FVPC.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Galectin 3 / metabolism. Keratins / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16178894.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / HBME-1 antigen; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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48. Tsuge K, Takeda H, Kawada S, Maeda K, Yamakawa M: Characterization of dendritic cells in differentiated thyroid cancer. J Pathol; 2005 Apr;205(5):565-76
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  • [Title] Characterization of dendritic cells in differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • In this study, the types and localization pattern of dendritic cells (DCs), the expression of chemokines on carcinoma cells and of the relevant receptors on DCs, and the adhesion molecules expressed on vascular endothelial cells and DCs were examined in thyroid carcinomas.
  • Papillary carcinoma had a higher frequency of CD1a(+) immature DCs than other thyroid tumours.
  • Macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-3 alpha was expressed strongly on the majority of papillary carcinoma cells and weakly on a minority of follicular carcinoma cells.
  • DCs positive for chemokine receptor-6 (CCR-6) were densely accumulated in papillary carcinoma.
  • DC-SIGN(+) DCs were accumulated in papillary carcinoma but rarely in follicular carcinoma.
  • A binding assay for DC-SIGN-mediated adhesion of isolated DCs revealed significant inhibition of DC adhesion to papillary carcinoma tissues by neutralizing antibodies against intercellular adhesion molecule-2 or DC-SIGN.
  • These results clearly indicated marked differences between papillary carcinoma and follicular carcinoma in the accumulation of immature DCs, in MIP-3 alpha expression on carcinoma cells, and in the frequency of CCR-6(+) DCs and DC-SIGN(+) DCs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / immunology. Carcinoma, Papillary / immunology. Dendritic Cells / immunology. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / immunology

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  • (PMID = 15714595.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3417
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / CCR6 protein, human; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Chemokines; 0 / HLA-DR Antigens; 0 / ICAM2 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Receptors, CCR6; 0 / Receptors, Chemokine
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49. Tamaki H: [Thyroid carcinoma]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2005 Apr;32(4):561-5
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  • [Title] [Thyroid carcinoma].
  • Among thyroid carcinomas, thyroglobulin is a good tumor marker for differentiated carcinoma (papillary carcinoma, follicular carcinoma).
  • On the other hand, medullary thyroid caricima has a very sensitive and specific tumor marker, calcitonin.
  • In inherited medullary carcinoma (multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2), RET protooncogene analysis is the best for detecting early medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Calcitonin / blood. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / genetics. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / blood. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Humans. Immunoradiometric Assay. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2b / diagnosis. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2b / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 15853229.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • [Number-of-references] 8
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50. Htwe TT, Hamdi MM, Swethadri GK, Wong JO, Soe MM, Abdullah MS: Incidence of thyroid malignancy among goitrous thyroid lesions from the Sarawak General Hospital 2000-2004. Singapore Med J; 2009 Jul;50(7):724-8
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  • [Title] Incidence of thyroid malignancy among goitrous thyroid lesions from the Sarawak General Hospital 2000-2004.
  • INTRODUCTION: Thyroid cancer is the most common among all endocrine malignancies.
  • The worldwide prevalence of goitre in the general population is estimated at 4-7 percent and the incidence of malignancy in goitrous thyroid is about ten percent.
  • It is postulated that goitrous thyroid is a precursor lesion to the development of malignant thyroid diseases.
  • As Sarawak is a state well known for endemic goitre, this study focused on establishing the incidence of thyroid malignancy among goitrous thyroid swellings.
  • METHODS: This study was a hospital-based retrospective study on the archived collection of the surgically-removed thyroid specimens from the Sarawak General Hospital, Malaysia.
  • The cancer group included papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), PTC follicular variant, follicular carcinoma and anaplastic carcinoma (ANA).
  • RESULTS: A total of 820 thyroid cases which underwent surgical removal in years 2000 to 2004 were collected.
  • It was observed that the highest prevalence of thyroid swelling cases occurred in the age group 41-60 years while the lowest prevalence occurred in the age group under 21 years, 371 (45.2 percent) vs. 31 (3.8 percent).
  • 55 cases (6.7 percent) were found to be cancerous and the rest (93.3 percent) were non-cancerous thyroid swellings.
  • Histologically, the highest incidence of carcinoma was PTC (4.0 percent) and the lowest was ANA (0.2 percent).
  • CONCLUSION: Based on our observations, although goitrous thyroid swelling is quite a common problem in Sarawak, thyroid malignancy is not a major issue.
  • Among thyroid malignancies, PTC is the most common histological type of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Goiter / complications. Goiter / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ethnology. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / epidemiology. Carcinoma / ethnology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / ethnology. Female. Humans. Incidence. Malaysia. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19644631.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-5675
  • [Journal-full-title] Singapore medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Singapore Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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51. Ito Y, Miyauchi A: Prognostic factors and therapeutic strategies for differentiated carcinomas of the thyroid. Endocr J; 2009;56(2):177-92
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors and therapeutic strategies for differentiated carcinomas of the thyroid.
  • Differentiated thyroid carcinoma originates from thyroid follicular cells and is the most prominent malignancy of the endocrine organs.
  • There are two histological types of differentiated carcinoma, namely, papillary and follicular carcinoma.
  • According to reports from Western countries, papillary carcinoma comprises 85.3% of thyroid malignancies in whites, and 72.3% in blacks.
  • In Japan, a previous study showed that the prevalence of papillary carcinoma was 78.4% based on material registered between 1977 and 1986, but according to recent findings reported in 2004 by Japanese Society of Thyroid Surgeons (JSTS), papillary carcinoma accounted for as much as 93% of all thyroid carcinomas.
  • Papillary carcinoma frequently metastasizes to the regional lymph node and shows multicentricity in the thyroid gland.
  • Follicular carcinoma accounts for 10.9-20.5% of the patients in the United States.
  • In Japan, the prevalence of follicular carcinoma was reported to be 17.2%, but it decreased to 5% in a report by JSTS in 2004.
  • This carcinoma is only occasionally diagnosed preoperatively, because it is hard to discriminate follicular carcinoma from benign adenoma on imaging studies and cytologic findings.
  • In contrast to papillary carcinoma, follicular carcinoma more often metastasizes to distant organs than regional lymph nodes.
  • In Japan, the prevalence of papillary carcinoma increased and that of follicular carcinoma decreased between reports from 1977 to 1986 and that in 2004, which may be because follicular variant of papillary carcinoma was classified into follicular carcinoma in the previous results.
  • Generally, these carcinomas show an indolent character, but when the lesion dedifferentiates and becomes undifferentiated carcinoma, it displays very rapid growth with an adverse prognosis and is regarded even as the most aggressive malignancy among human solid carcinomas.
  • Indeed, it is most important for physicians to correctly distinguish high-risk cases from those with an indolent character, although how to evaluate the biological characteristics of thyroid carcinoma and how to identify high-risk cases remains highly controversial.
  • In this review, the methods of distinguishing high-risk cases and the appropriate therapeutic strategies for papillary and follicular carcinomas predominantly based on our experience are emphasized and our proposals for therapies including surgical treatment are demonstrated.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Humans. Japan / epidemiology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Prognosis. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 18703852.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 113
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52. Finn SP, Smyth P, Cahill S, Streck C, O'Regan EM, Flavin R, Sherlock J, Howells D, Henfrey R, Cullen M, Toner M, Timon C, O'Leary JJ, Sheils OM: Expression microarray analysis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and benign thyroid tissue: emphasis on the follicular variant and potential markers of malignancy. Virchows Arch; 2007 Mar;450(3):249-60
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  • [Title] Expression microarray analysis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and benign thyroid tissue: emphasis on the follicular variant and potential markers of malignancy.
  • The most common sub-variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the so-called follicular variant (FVPTC), which is a particularly problematic lesion and can be challenging from a diagnostic viewpoint even in resected lesions.
  • We used the recently developed Applied Biosystems 1700 microarray system to interrogate a series of 11 benign thyroid lesions and conditions and 14 samples of PTC (six with classic morphology and eight with follicular variant morphology).
  • However, we have also identified numerous transcripts never previously implicated in thyroid carcinogenesis, and many of which are not represented on other microarray platforms.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17252232.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 2.7.7.- / Taq Polymerase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1888716
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53. Takano T, Ito Y, Hirokawa M, Yoshida H, Miyauchi A: BRAF V600E mutation in anaplastic thyroid carcinomas and their accompanying differentiated carcinomas. Br J Cancer; 2007 May 21;96(10):1549-53
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  • [Title] BRAF V600E mutation in anaplastic thyroid carcinomas and their accompanying differentiated carcinomas.
  • Frequency of a BRAF V600E mutation in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, which is thought to be derived mainly from papillary carcinoma by multi-step carcinogenesis, is much lower than that in papillary carcinomas.
  • To clarify this phenomenon, we analysed BRAF V600E mutation in 20 cases of anaplastic carcinoma and 13 accompanying differentiated carcinomas.
  • Among twenty cases of anaplastic carcinomas, nine and four accompanied papillary and follicular carcinomas, respectively.
  • BRAF V600E mutation was found in three of nine (33.3%), none of four and one of seven (14.3%) anaplastic carcinomas with papillary carcinoma, follicular carcinoma and without differentiated components, respectively.
  • All three papillary carcinomas accompanied by anaplastic carcinoma with a BRAF V600E mutation were also shown to have a BRAF V600E mutation.
  • In summary, BRAF V600E mutation was occasionally observed in anaplastic carcinomas with papillary carcinoma, and the low frequency of BRAF V600E mutation in anaplastic carcinoma was thought to be due to the low frequency of anaplastic carcinomas with papillary carcinoma.
  • These findings raise a question about the classical model of anaplastic transformation and suggest some roles of thyroid cancer stem cells in the generation of anaplastic carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Base Sequence. DNA Mutational Analysis. Disease Progression. Female. Gene Frequency. Glutamic Acid / genetics. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Models, Biological. Mutation, Missense. Valine / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17453004.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3KX376GY7L / Glutamic Acid; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; HG18B9YRS7 / Valine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2359941
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54. Musholt PB, Musholt TJ, Morgenstern SC, Worm K, Sheu SY, Schmid KW: Follicular histotypes of oncocytic thyroid carcinomas do not carry mutations of the BRAF hot-spot. World J Surg; 2008 May;32(5):722-8
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  • [Title] Follicular histotypes of oncocytic thyroid carcinomas do not carry mutations of the BRAF hot-spot.
  • BACKGROUND: The BRAF V600E mutation is the most prevalent genetic aberration in papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), and it is found exclusively in RET/PTC-negative tumors.
  • In oncocytic (Hürthle cell, oxyphilic) thyroid tumors, the presence of RET/PTC rearrangements is associated with either the conventional papillary histotype or the "solid" Hürthle cell tumors, whereas all predominantly follicular oncocytic carcinomas do not harbor RET/PTC chimeras.
  • Although 12% of tumors of the follicular variant of PTC carry BRAF mutations, none of the few oncocytic follicular thyroid adenomas (oncoAd) or carcinomas (oncoFTC) published worldwide tested positive.
  • An aspired molecular-based classification of oncocytic thyroid tumors is in need of additional evidence on BRAF mutations in the follicular histotype.
  • METHODS: A series of 44 oncocytic thyroid tumors with well-documented clinicopathological data was subjected to BRAF mutation analysis (complete exon 15) by automated sequencing.
  • RESULTS: The series of oncocytic thyroid tumors consisted of 21 adenomas (oncoAds: 17 females, 4 males; mean age, 54.5 years; range, 27-80 years), 20 follicular carcinomas (oncoFTCs: 14 females, 6 males; mean age, 61.4 years; range, 39-80 years), and 3 "classic" papillary carcinomas (oncoPTCs: 3 females; mean age, 58.1 years; range, 46-70 years; 3x T2 tumors).
  • The follicular variants of oncocytic cancers are divided into 11x T2, 5x T3, and 4x T4 tumor stages (International Union Against Cancer [UICC] TNM 5th edition).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results add to the evidence that, in contrast to follicular variants of oncoPTCs, predominantly follicular oncocytic thyroid tumors harbor neither RET/PTC rearrangements nor BRAF mutations.
  • Furthermore, the findings support the concept that oncocytic neoplasms of the thyroid gland are oncocytic counterparts of the respective histotype (adenoma, FTC, PTC, or poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma) rather than a separate tumor entity.
  • Molecular characterization of oncocytic thyroid malignancies for RET/PTC or BRAF genetic alterations may help with (preoperative) classification and prognostic evaluation of these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18235983.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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55. Wu HH, Jones JN, Osman J: Fine-needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid: ten years experience in a community teaching hospital. Diagn Cytopathol; 2006 Feb;34(2):93-6
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  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid: ten years experience in a community teaching hospital.
  • We present our experience of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology of the thyroid in a community hospital setting and discuss the cancer probability of the indeterminate FNA results.
  • The initial FNA diagnoses of these 401 cases were benign non-neoplastic (BNN) 159, malignant 34, atypical 33, suspicious 19, follicular neoplasm (FN) 88, follicular lesion (FL) 51, and inadequate 17.
  • Cancer was found in 11 cases diagnosed as BNN (7%), 6 cases were due to sampling errors (incidental microcarcinomas), and 5 cases were due to failure to identify focal atypia in the smears of a follicular variant of papillary carcinoma.
  • When compared to the cancer rate (3%) for FNA diagnosis of BNN, the likelihood of finding cancer in the thyroidectomy is 5 times more for a FL, 11 times more for a FN, 16 times more for atypical, and 23 times more for suspicious.
  • [MeSH-major] Hospitals, Community. Hospitals, Teaching. Thyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Thyroid Diseases / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • [Copyright] 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16514671.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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56. Wang T, Jiang CX, Li Y, Liu X: [Pathologic study of expression and significance of matrix metalloproteinases-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, vascular endothelial growth factor and transforming growth factor beta-1 in papillary carcinoma and follicular carcinoma of thyroid]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2009 Dec;38(12):824-8
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  • [Title] [Pathologic study of expression and significance of matrix metalloproteinases-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, vascular endothelial growth factor and transforming growth factor beta-1 in papillary carcinoma and follicular carcinoma of thyroid].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the roles of matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor β-1 (TGFβ-1) in differentiation, invasiveness and metastatic potential of papillary carcinoma and follicular carcinoma of thyroid.
  • METHODS: Eighty-five cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma and 59 cases of follicular thyroid carcinoma were enrolled into the study.
  • The positivity rates of MMP-9, TIMP-1, VEGF and TGFβ-1 in papillary thyroid carcinoma (83.5%, 81.2%, 90.6% and 75.3%, respectively) were similar to or lower than those in follicular thyroid carcinoma (93.2%, 86.4%, 89.9% and 78.0%, respectively).
  • The expression rates in papillary thyroid carcinoma with lymph node metastasis were also higher than those in tumors without lymph node metastasis.
  • The expression rates of MMP-9, VEGF and TGFβ-1 in poorly-differentiated follicular thyroid carcinoma were higher than those in well-differentiated follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • In general, the expression of VEGF and MMP-9 was higher than that of TIMP-1 and TGFβ-1 in papillary thyroid carcinoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Immunohistochemical detection of MMP-9, TIMP-1, VEGF and TGFβ-1 expression may carry clinical significance in evaluating the degree of differentiation, invasiveness, metastatic potential and prognosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 / metabolism. Transforming Growth Factor beta1 / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20193458.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta1; 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
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57. Yukinawa N, Oba S, Kato K, Taniguchi K, Iwao-Koizumi K, Tamaki Y, Noguchi S, Ishii S: A multi-class predictor based on a probabilistic model: application to gene expression profiling-based diagnosis of thyroid tumors. BMC Genomics; 2006;7:190
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  • [Title] A multi-class predictor based on a probabilistic model: application to gene expression profiling-based diagnosis of thyroid tumors.
  • Differential diagnosis of malignant and benign thyroid tissues is one such case, and supplementary diagnosis such as that by gene expression profile is expected.
  • RESULTS: With four thyroid tissue types, i.e., papillary carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, follicular adenoma, and normal thyroid, we performed gene expression profiling with adaptor-tagged competitive PCR, a high-throughput RT-PCR technique.
  • CONCLUSION: Molecular diagnosis of thyroid tissues is feasible by gene expression profiling, and the current level is promising towards the automatic diagnostic tool to complement the present medical procedures.
  • [MeSH-major] Bayes Theorem. Gene Expression Profiling. Models, Statistical. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Databases, Genetic. Esophageal Neoplasms / genetics. Female. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / genetics. Leukemia / genetics. Male. Mesothelioma / genetics. Prostatic Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Gland / anatomy & histology

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  • (PMID = 16872506.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2164
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC genomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Genomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1550728
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58. Dănilă R, Andriescu L, Grigorovici A, Dragomir C, Găluşcă B, Vulpoi C, Ungureanu C, Mogoş V: [Differentiated thyroid cancer--staging and prognostic systems]. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi; 2005 Jan-Mar;109(1):71-6
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  • [Title] [Differentiated thyroid cancer--staging and prognostic systems].
  • Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), including papillary and follicular carcinoma with histological variants, has an excellent prognosis; nevertheless a subset of these tumours is clinically aggressive and, in some patients, fatal.
  • In addition to the widely accepted TNM classification, recognition of significant risk factors and developing of staging systems, such as AMES, AGES, MACIS, MSKCC and NTCTCS, has helped to identify the patients with a potential aggressive course of the disease and high risk of recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / surgery. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Risk Factors. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 16607831.001).
  • [ISSN] 0048-7848
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista medico-chirurgicală̆ a Societă̆ţ̜ii de Medici ş̧i Naturaliş̧ti din Iaş̧i
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi
  • [Language] rum
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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59. Sobrinho-Simões M, Máximo V, Castro IV, Fonseca E, Soares P, Garcia-Rostan G, Oliveira MC: Hürthle (oncocytic) cell tumors of thyroid: etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical significance. Int J Surg Pathol; 2005 Jan;13(1):29-35
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  • [Title] Hürthle (oncocytic) cell tumors of thyroid: etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical significance.
  • The etiopathogenesis and the classification of oncocytic (Hürthle cell) tumors of the thyroid is reviewed with an emphasis on the role played by mitochondrial and nuclear genetic abnormalities that interfere with mitochondrial function.
  • Oxyphilia is classified into primary or secondary and the so-called Hürthle cell carcinoma is divided into oncocytic (Hürthle cell) variants of papillary and follicular carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / genetics. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15735852.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Mitochondrial
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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60. Iwase K: [Outline of general rules for the description of thyroid cancer (6th edition)]. Nihon Rinsho; 2007 Nov;65(11):1943-51
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  • [Title] [Outline of general rules for the description of thyroid cancer (6th edition)].
  • General rules for the description of thyroid tumors is essential for the medical practice on thyroid tumors.
  • The Japanese Society of Thyroid Surgery has published the general rules since 1977, and has revised it 5 times according to the revision of UICC TNM classification or WHO histological classification by the latest 6th edition of the rules published in 2005.
  • The histological classification was revised according to that of WHO in which the poorly differentiated carcinoma was separately classified from papillary and follicular carcinoma, and newly accepted histological types of tumor such as CASTLE and SETTLE were included.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 18018553.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 2
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61. Rago T, Di Coscio G, Basolo F, Scutari M, Elisei R, Berti P, Miccoli P, Romani R, Faviana P, Pinchera A, Vitti P: Combined clinical, thyroid ultrasound and cytological features help to predict thyroid malignancy in follicular and Hupsilonrthle cell thyroid lesions: results from a series of 505 consecutive patients. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2007 Jan;66(1):13-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Combined clinical, thyroid ultrasound and cytological features help to predict thyroid malignancy in follicular and Hupsilonrthle cell thyroid lesions: results from a series of 505 consecutive patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: The cytological patterns of follicular and Hupsilonrthle cell nodules are included among the indeterminate results of fine-needle aspiration cytology, because distinction between benign and malignant lesion can only be made on histological criteria.
  • The diagnostic value of atypia at cytology, clinical parameters and echographic patterns were examined to establish the risk of malignancy in 505 patients with follicular and Hupsilonrthle cell thyroid nodules at cytology.
  • RESULTS: Histological diagnosis of malignancy was carried out in 125 of 505 (25%) patients, the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma being the most frequent histotype.
  • Male gender, normal thyroid volume, single nodularity, nodule hypoechogenicity, size and blurred margins were associated with malignancy, although not significantly.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Twenty-five per cent of patients with a cytological result of follicular and Hupsilonrthle cell thyroid lesion had a final diagnosis of malignancy.
  • Only atypia at cytology and spot microcalcifications at thyroid ultrasound were significantly associated with malignancy.
  • Other clinical parameters and thyroid ultrasound patterns can be used to set up a clinical score useful for predicting the individual risk of malignancy before surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / ultrasonography. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / ultrasonography. Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Calcinosis / ultrasonography. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / ultrasonography. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / ultrasonography. Chi-Square Distribution. Cytodiagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 17201796.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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62. Patel MR, Bryson PC, Shores CG, Hart CF, Thorne LB, Deal AM, Zanation AM: Trefoil factor 3 immunohistochemical characterization of follicular thyroid lesions from tissue microarray. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2009 Jun;135(6):590-6
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  • [Title] Trefoil factor 3 immunohistochemical characterization of follicular thyroid lesions from tissue microarray.
  • OBJECTIVES: To characterize trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) expression in normal thyroid tissue samples compared with that in follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma using immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays.
  • DESIGN: Immunohistochemical analysis of 83 normal thyroid tissue and of 83 follicular neoplasms (26 follicular adenomas, 25 follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, 23 follicular thyroid carcinomas, and 9 papillary thyroid carcinomas) was performed using an antibody to TFF3 on tissue microarray sections composed of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples.
  • PATIENTS: Thyroid tissue samples collected from patients over a 15-year period were obtained from the University of North Carolina Hospitals Division of Surgical Pathology archives.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Thyroid tissue samples were graded by a pathologist based on intensity of antibody staining and on percentage of cells stained.
  • Data were analyzed for semiquantitative differences in immunohistochemical intensity of antibody staining and in percentage of cells stained among normal thyroid tissue samples, follicular adenoma, follicular thyroid carcinoma, follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, and papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: Semiquantitative analysis demonstrated that immunohistochemistry detects significant levels of TFF3 expression in normal thyroid tissue samples compared with that in follicular lesions based on intensity of antibody staining (P < .05).
  • Only follicular thyroid carcinoma demonstrated a significant reduction in percentage of cells stained compared with that in normal thyroid tissue samples (P = .03).
  • No significant differences in intensity of antibody staining or in the percentage of cells stained were noted among follicular adenoma, follicular thyroid carcinoma, follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, or papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Protein expression data validate gene expression findings that follicular neoplastic lesions have decreased expression of TFF3 compared with that in normal thyroid tissue samples.
  • These findings contribute to evidence suggesting that TFF3 may have a role in normal thyroid tissue function and that thyroid carcinomas may have reduced expression of TFF3, in contradistinction to other carcinomas that overexpress TFF3.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / metabolism. Peptides / metabolism. Protein Array Analysis. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19528408.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-361X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Peptides; 0 / TFF3 protein, human
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63. Jeh SK, Jung SL, Kim BS, Lee YS: Evaluating the degree of conformity of papillary carcinoma and follicular carcinoma to the reported ultrasonographic findings of malignant thyroid tumor. Korean J Radiol; 2007 May-Jun;8(3):192-7
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  • [Title] Evaluating the degree of conformity of papillary carcinoma and follicular carcinoma to the reported ultrasonographic findings of malignant thyroid tumor.
  • OBJECTIVE: We wanted to evaluate the degree of conformity of papillary carcinoma and follicular carcinoma to the reported ultrasonographic findings of malignant thyroid tumor.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 2003 and December 2004, fine needle aspiration biopsy was performed in 1,036 patients with palpable and nonpalpable thyroid lesions.
  • We retrospectively reviewed the ultrasonographic findings of patients with papillary carcinomas (n = 127) and follicular carcinomas (n = 23) that were proven by operation or fine needle aspiration biopsy.
  • We analyzed the ultrasonographic findings of these nodules based on the reported ultrasonographic findings of malignant thyroid tumor: hypoechogenicity, a taller than wide orientation, a microlobulated or irregular margin, a thick hypoechoic rim (halo sign), microcalcification and cystic change.
  • RESULTS: The echogenicity was hypoechoic in 72.4% (92/127) of the papillary carcinomas, but it was isoechoic in 65.2% (15/23) of the follicular carcinomas (p < 0.001).
  • The nodule shape was tall or round in 74.1% of the papillary carcinomas, but it was flat in 72.7% of the follicular carcinomas (p < 0.001).
  • The tumor margin was microlobulated or irregular in 92.9% of the papillary carcinomas and in 60.9% of the follicular carcinomas (p < 0.001).
  • A hypoechoic rim was seen in 26% of the papillary carcinomas (thin rim: 13.4%, thick rim: 12.6%) and in 86.6% of the follicular carcinomas (thin rim: 39.1%, thick rim: 47.8%, p < 0.001).
  • Microcalcifications were demonstrated in 33.9% of the papillary carcinomas and in none of the cases of follicular carcinoma (p < 0.001).
  • A solid mass without cystic change were seen in 98.4% of the papillary carcinomas and in 82.6% of the follicular carcinomas (p < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSION: The previously reported ultrasonography findings of malignant thyroid tumor are in conformity with most of the papillary carcinomas, but not with follicular carcinomas.
  • The current ultrasonographic features for thyroid malignancy should be cautiously applied as the indication for needle aspiration biopsy so that follicular carcinomas are not missed by too narrow and strict biopsy criteria.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Carcinoma, Papillary / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Calcinosis / ultrasonography. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • [Cites] World J Surg. 2004 Dec;28(12):1261-5 [15517496.001]
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  • (PMID = 17554185.001).
  • [ISSN] 1229-6929
  • [Journal-full-title] Korean journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2627417
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64. Biliotti GC, Martini F, Vezzosi V, Seghi P, Tozzi F, Castagnoli A, Basili G, Peri A: Specific features of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in patients over 70 years of age. J Surg Oncol; 2006 Mar 1;93(3):194-8
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  • [Title] Specific features of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in patients over 70 years of age.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Among the geriatric population, there is a lower incidence of thyroid carcinoma (TC), but it accounts for 30% of all thyroid disorders compared to 6-8% in younger subjects.
  • The aim of this retrospective study was to identify the characteristics of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) peculiar to the elderly.
  • The 5- and 10-year disease-specific survival rates were 87.8% and 63.6%, respectively.
  • On an average, survival was 55.1 months when death was disease-related, and with regard to histological type, it was longer in papillary carcinoma than in the follicular variant, and longest of all in occult sclerosing carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Papillary / mortality. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16482598.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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65. Haq M, Harmer C: Differentiated thyroid carcinoma with distant metastases at presentation: prognostic factors and outcome. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2005 Jul;63(1):87-93
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  • [Title] Differentiated thyroid carcinoma with distant metastases at presentation: prognostic factors and outcome.
  • BACKGROUND: Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) presenting with distant metastases is uncommon.
  • RESULTS: The median follow-up of living patients was 3.9 years (0.3-48) with a 10-year cause-specific survival rate of 31%.
  • Histology identified 46 papillary, 60 follicular and five Hürthle cell cancers.
  • Multivariate analysis identified age over 70, poorly differentiated tumours and Hürthle cell variant to be the only independent factors associated with worse outcome (P < 0.01).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with DTC presenting with distant metastases have a worse outcome if aged over 70, have poorly differentiated tumours or have Hürthle cell variant.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / mortality. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Analysis of Variance. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Papillary / mortality. Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Thyroidectomy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15963067.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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66. Fukushima T, Takenoshita S: Roles of RAS and BRAF mutations in thyroid carcinogenesis. Fukushima J Med Sci; 2005 Dec;51(2):67-75
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  • [Title] Roles of RAS and BRAF mutations in thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • Papillary carcinoma and follicular carcinoma are types of differentiated thyroid carcinomas, develop from the same thyroid follicular epithelial cells and show distinct biological behavior.
  • The clarification of the genetic background can lead to the understanding of thyroid carcinogenesis, proper therapeutic strategies, and development of the molecular targeting drugs.
  • Recently, aberrant activation of RAS-RAF-MEK-MAP kinase signaling pathway is frequently found in thyroid carcinoma.
  • In our series, BRAF mutation was detected exclusively in papillary carcinoma (54%), and was exclusively V599E (a single nucleotide change of A-T at nucleotide 1796).
  • NRAS mutation was observed in follicular carcinoma (50%) and in anaplastic carcinoma (28%), and was exclusively Q61R (a single nucleotide change of A-G at nucleotide 182).
  • In this chapter, we explain the role of RAS-RAF-MEK-MAP kinase pathway in carcinogenesis of the thyroid and its clinical implication based on our study.
  • [MeSH-major] Genes, ras. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / etiology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Base Sequence. Carcinoma, Papillary / etiology. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Humans. MAP Kinase Signaling System. Mutation

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  • (PMID = 16555627.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-2590
  • [Journal-full-title] Fukushima journal of medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fukushima J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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67. Shrestha SK, Joshi MR, Sharma SK: Total thyroidectomy: the treatment of choice in differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ); 2005 Jan-Mar;3(1):35-8
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  • [Title] Total thyroidectomy: the treatment of choice in differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • INTRODUCTION: Clinically detectable thyroid carcinoma constitutes less than 1% of human cancers.
  • Ninety percent of all thyroid malignancies are differentiated papillary and follicular carcinoma.
  • Surgery plays a key role in differentiated thyroid carcinoma as it carries excellent prognosis, lower recurrence rate and low mortality rate but controversy persists for extent of surgery and optimal surgical management of lymph node metastasis.
  • PATIENT AND METHOD: A retrospective analysis was done for the cases that underwent total thyroidectomy with lymph node dissection for differentiated carcinoma of thyroid in Kathmandu Medical College during two year periods (Oct 2001 to Oct 2003).
  • RESULT: In our experience with 18 cases of Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma (DTC) treated with total thyroidectomies and lymph node dissection, papillary carcinoma was predominant with 83% incidence.
  • Disease was prevalent in 50 to 60 year age group.
  • CONCLUSION: Total thyroidectomy with lymph node dissection is safe and effective, so, the treatment of choice in cases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16401941.001).
  • [ISSN] 1812-2027
  • [Journal-full-title] Kathmandu University medical journal (KUMJ)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nepal
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68. Jovanovic L, Delahunt B, McIver B, Eberhardt NL, Bhattacharya A, Lea R, Grebe SK: Distinct genetic changes characterise multifocality and diverse histological subtypes in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Pathology; 2010;42(6):524-33
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  • [Title] Distinct genetic changes characterise multifocality and diverse histological subtypes in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • AIMS: This study was undertaken to investigate the genetic factors underlying the development of multifocality and phenotypic diversity in multifocal papillary thyroid carcinoma (mPTC).
  • Different patterns of LOH and BRAF(V600E) positivity separated follicular variant tumours and tumour foci from other PTC histological subtypes.
  • In five cases, genetic alterations were detected in morphologically normal thyroid epithelium.
  • The relatively high genetic disarray in multifocal PTC may underlie their ability to spread throughout the thyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20854070.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3931
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA80117
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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69. Oertel YC, Miyahara-Felipe L: Cytologic features of insular carcinoma of the thyroid: a case report. Diagn Cytopathol; 2006 Aug;34(8):572-5
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  • [Title] Cytologic features of insular carcinoma of the thyroid: a case report.
  • Fine-needle aspiration of the thyroid has been accepted as one of the initial diagnostic tools in the evaluation of thyroid nodules.
  • The histopathology of insular carcinoma of the thyroid is now well recognized.
  • A cytologic diagnosis of insular carcinoma can be suggested if multiple samples of a thyroidal mass are markedly cellular, with a cytologic pattern reminiscent of a follicular variant of papillary carcinoma.
  • However, the follicular cells are arranged predominantly in rosettes, their nuclei appear more monotonous, some "intranuclear cytoplasmic pseudoinclusions" are seen, and there is an occasional large cell with a pleomorphic nucleus.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cytodiagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16850485.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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70. Albores-Saavedra J, Henson DE, Glazer E, Schwartz AM: Changing patterns in the incidence and survival of thyroid cancer with follicular phenotype--papillary, follicular, and anaplastic: a morphological and epidemiological study. Endocr Pathol; 2007;18(1):1-7
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  • [Title] Changing patterns in the incidence and survival of thyroid cancer with follicular phenotype--papillary, follicular, and anaplastic: a morphological and epidemiological study.
  • Thyroid carcinomas with follicular phenotype have demonstrated changing patterns over 30 years (1973-2003) according to data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program of the National Cancer Institute.
  • Papillary carcinomas have significantly increased.
  • They accounted for 74% of all cases of thyroid cancers in 1973 and 87% in 2003.
  • During this period, the incidence rate of papillary carcinoma (including the follicular variant) increased by 189%, the rate of follicular carcinoma remained stable, and the rate of anaplastic carcinoma decreased by 22%.
  • The rate of the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma alone increased by 173%.
  • Thyroid cancer was more common in whites than in blacks and in females more than in males.
  • Papillary carcinomas rapidly increased during adolescence and reached a peak around age 52-56, then declined.
  • Follicular carcinomas increased steadily, but at a lower rate until age 80.
  • After 1988, both papillary and follicular carcinomas, less than 2 cm, increased at the same rate as carcinomas larger than 2 cm.
  • However, papillary carcinomas less than 2 cm were more common.
  • Overall, the 10-year relative survival rate was greater than 90% for blacks and whites with the exception of follicular carcinoma in blacks.
  • The 10-year relative survival rate for anaplastic carcinoma in patients over 40 years of age was 4.7%.
  • The decrease in incidence rate of anaplastic carcinoma may be the result of the successful treatment of papillary and follicular carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular. Carcinoma, Papillary. Thyroid Neoplasms


71. Chen YT, Kitabayashi N, Zhou XK, Fahey TJ 3rd, Scognamiglio T: MicroRNA analysis as a potential diagnostic tool for papillary thyroid carcinoma. Mod Pathol; 2008 Sep;21(9):1139-46
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  • [Title] MicroRNA analysis as a potential diagnostic tool for papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • MicroRNA (miRNA) microarray analysis has consistently found altered expression of miRNAs in thyroid tumors, suggesting their roles in thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • To explore whether this differential expression can be used as a diagnostic tool in surgical pathology and fine-needle aspirate (FNA) specimens, the expression of selected miRNA was evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR, using total RNA from 84 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues and 40 ex vivo aspirate specimens. miRNA from all paraffin-embedded tissues and all but one FNA sample were found to be analyzable, with paraffin sections yielding better miRNA quality.
  • Preliminary analysis of 6 miRNAs in 10 papillary thyroid carcinoma and 10 follicular adenoma identified significant overexpression of miR-146b, -221, and -222 in papillary thyroid carcinoma (P<0.02), but not miR-146a, -155, or -187 (P>0.08).
  • The expression of these first three miRNAs was examined in a series of 5 normal thyroid, 11 hyperplastic nodules, 24 follicular adenoma, 27 classical papillary thyroid carcinoma, 5 follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinoma, 2 follicular carcinoma, and 10 encapsulated follicular lesions with partial nuclear features of papillary carcinoma.
  • Results showed miR-146b to be most consistently overexpressed in both classical papillary carcinoma and follicular variants, whereas all other groups showed lower expression at a similar level (P<0.001 for pair-wise comparisons between papillary carcinoma and all other groups).
  • Follicular lesions with partial features of papillary carcinoma all showed low miR-146b levels similar to other non-papillary carcinoma groups, suggesting that they are biologically distinctive from papillary carcinoma. miR-221 and miR-222 also showed higher expression in papillary carcinoma, but with substantial overlaps with the other groups.
  • When applied to 40 FNA samples of various lesions, only miR-146b and miR-222 persisted as distinguishing markers for papillary carcinoma.
  • We concluded that miRNAs, particularly miR-146b, might potentially be adjunct markers for diagnosing papillary thyroid carcinoma in both FNA and surgical pathology specimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. MicroRNAs / genetics. Molecular Diagnostic Techniques. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Nodule / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biopsy. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Paraffin Embedding. RNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroidectomy


72. Saleh HA, Jin B, Barnwell J, Alzohaili O: Utility of immunohistochemical markers in differentiating benign from malignant follicular-derived thyroid nodules. Diagn Pathol; 2010;5:9
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  • [Title] Utility of immunohistochemical markers in differentiating benign from malignant follicular-derived thyroid nodules.
  • BACKGROUND: Thyroid nodules are common among adults though only a small percentage is malignant, which can histologically mimic benign nodules.
  • Accurate diagnosis of these thyroid nodules is critical for the proper clinical management.
  • METHODS: We investigated immunoexpression in 98 surgically removed benign thyroid nodules including 52 hyperplastic nodules (HN) and 46 follicular/Hurthle cell adenomas (FA), and 54 malignant tumors including 22 follicular carcinoma (FC), 20 classic papillary carcinoma (PTC), and 12 follicular variant papillary carcinoma (FVPC).
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Immunohistochemistry. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular. Carcinoma. Diagnosis, Differential. Galectin 3 / analysis. Humans. Hyperplasia. Keratin-19 / analysis. Predictive Value of Tests. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / analysis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Neoplasms / chemistry. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20181018.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / HBME-1 antigen; 0 / Keratin-19; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; Thyroid cancer, Hurthle cell; Thyroid cancer, papillary
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2831001
  • [General-notes] NLM/ Original DateCompleted: 20100524
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73. Pezzolla A, Lattarulo S, Milella M, Barile G, Pascazio B, Ciampolillo A, Fabiano G, Palasciano N: [Incidental carcinoma in thyroid pathology: our experience and review of the literature]. Ann Ital Chir; 2010 May-Jun;81(3):165-9
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  • [Title] [Incidental carcinoma in thyroid pathology: our experience and review of the literature].
  • [Transliterated title] Il carcinoma incidentale nella patologia tiroidea. La nostra esperienza e revisione della letteratura.
  • The diagnosis of incidental thyroid carcinoma in patients submitted to thyroidectomy for a benign disease is quite frequent.
  • A retrospective analysis was performed on 240 patients submitted to surgical intervention in order to establish the incidence of the carcinoma.
  • One hundred sixty five patients (68.75%) were affected by benign disease (132 multinodular goiter, 30 uninodular goiter, 2 Plummer and 1 Basedow) and 75 (31.25%) by carcinoma.
  • In 30 of 165 patients (18.2 %), affected by benign disease, occurred a histological diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma, (18 papillary carcinoma, 6 follicular carcinoma, 5 papillary carcinoma follicular variant and 1 oncocytic carcinoma).
  • In this study it's considered incidental thyroid carcinoma the one occurred in patients who never underwent FNA and there were no suspicious features in all exams that may suggest the presence of carcinoma.
  • Fifteen of the 30 incidental carcinoma (50%) were microcarcinomas; in the other 13, dimensions were more than 1 cm, but less than 2 cm in 9 cases.
  • Two patients had a synchronous carcinoma.
  • Actually these patients are still in a follow up program and no recurrency of disease is occasionally observed.
  • This study shows that the only way to put doubts on the real benignity of the disease is the fine needle aspiration; there are no other instruments that could let think about the occurrence of the carcinoma.
  • Moreover in the majority of cases the incidental carcinoma is a microcarcinoma, it doesn't reach significant volume, may be not centered by a FNAB, but in must cases it's not really biologically aggressive.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Incidental Findings. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Graves Disease / pathology. Humans. Incidence. Italy / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Plummer-Vinson Syndrome / pathology. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 21105480.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-469X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annali italiani di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Ital Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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74. Rahman GA, Abdulkadir AY, Braimoh KT, Inikori AR: Thyroid cancers amongst goiter population in a Nigerian tertiary hospital: surgical and radiographic perspective. Niger J Med; 2010 Oct-Dec;19(4):432-5
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  • [Title] Thyroid cancers amongst goiter population in a Nigerian tertiary hospital: surgical and radiographic perspective.
  • Thyroid cancer is known to be commoner in whites than in blacks and in females than in males.
  • We hope to determine the incidence and the cervical radiographic patterns of thyroid cancer amongst goiter population in Nigeria.
  • The histological sub-types of malignant goiters were follicular (5.0%), papillary (1.9%) and poorly differentiated or anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (1.3%).
  • As much as 30% of thyroid cancers demonstrated calcification on plain neck radiograph, which were commonly scattered or diffused.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Carcinomatous goiters occurred in 9.3% of the goiter population studied with predominance of follicular variant.
  • Aside evidence of bony destruction, TC should be suspected in goiters with mixed (diffused or scattered) calcifications.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Goiter / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21526634.001).
  • [ISSN] 1115-2613
  • [Journal-full-title] Nigerian journal of medicine : journal of the National Association of Resident Doctors of Nigeria
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Niger J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
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75. Szporn AH, Yuan S, Wu M, Burstein DE: Cellular swirls in fine needle aspirates of papillary thyroid carcinoma: a new diagnostic criterion. Mod Pathol; 2006 Nov;19(11):1470-3
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  • [Title] Cellular swirls in fine needle aspirates of papillary thyroid carcinoma: a new diagnostic criterion.
  • No single cytologic feature is specifically diagnostic for papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • We report herein the presence of swirl-like cellular aggregates in fine needle aspirates of papillary thyroid carcinoma but not in other thyroid entities.
  • One hundred Papanicolaou- and/or Diff-Quik-stained FNAs of the thyroid diagnosed as papillary carcinoma, including seven fine needle aspirates of cervical lymph nodes showing metastatic papillary carcinoma, with or without cell blocks, were reviewed for the presence of cellular swirls.
  • An additional 100 thyroid FNAs, similarly stained and prepared, diagnosed as nodular goiter, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and follicular neoplasm were also reviewed for the presence of cellular swirls.
  • Seventeen of 100 FNAs (17%) of papillary carcinoma contained cellular swirls.
  • No cases diagnosed as nodular goiter, Hashimoto's thyroiditis or follicular neoplasm contained these structures.
  • These comprised seven papillary carcinomas with classical histopathology, two designated 'differentiated papillary carcinoma,' two with follicular variant histopathology; one with a minor component of follicular variant histopathology; one papillary carcinoma metastatic to a cervical lymph node with classic histopathology.
  • Swirls occurred in cases with relatively little pleomorphism, or in well-differentiated regions of papillary carcinoma that also displayed less well-differentiated components.
  • Cellular swirls are a finding that is highly specific to papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Their presence in a FNA specimen may be helpful in cases where classic criteria for papillary thyroid carcinoma are scarce, particularly in well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • While the size and scope of this study are insufficient to conclude that cellular swirls alone are diagnostic of papillary thyroid carcinoma in the absence of other criteria, we believe these structures should be added to the list of diagnostic criteria.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Hashimoto Disease / pathology. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16951672.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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76. Teixeira CS, Bitar RA, Martinho HS, Santos AB, Kulcsar MA, Friguglietti CU, da Costa RB, Arisawa EA, Martin AA: Thyroid tissue analysis through Raman spectroscopy. Analyst; 2009 Nov;134(11):2361-70
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  • [Title] Thyroid tissue analysis through Raman spectroscopy.
  • The diagnosis of thyroid pathologies is usually made by cytologic analysis of the fine needle aspiration (FNA) material.
  • The application of optical spectroscopy in the characterization of alterations could result in the development of a minimally invasive and non-destructive method for the diagnosis of thyroid diseases.
  • Thus, the objective of this work was to study the biochemical alterations of tissues and hormones (T3 and T4) of the thyroid gland by means of molecular vibrations probed by FT-Raman spectroscopy.
  • Through the discriminative linear analysis of the Raman spectra of the tissue, it was possible to establish (in percentages) the correct classification index among the groups: goitre adjacent tissue, goitre nodular region, follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma and papillary carcinoma.
  • Between goitre (nodular region and adjacent tissue) versus papillary carcinoma, the index of correct classification was 64.9%, which was considered good.
  • A relevant result was obtained in the analysis of the benign tissues (goitre and follicular adenoma) versus malignant tissues (papillary and follicular carcinomas), for which the index was 72.5% and considered good.
  • In conclusion, some biochemical alterations, represented by the FT-Raman spectra, were identified that could possibly be used to classify histologic groups of the thyroid.
  • [MeSH-major] Spectrum Analysis, Raman. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cluster Analysis. Discriminant Analysis. Humans. Principal Component Analysis. Thyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Thyroid Diseases / metabolism. Thyroid Diseases / pathology. Thyroxine / metabolism. Triiodothyronine / metabolism. Vibration

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  • (PMID = 19838427.001).
  • [ISSN] 1364-5528
  • [Journal-full-title] The Analyst
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Analyst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 06LU7C9H1V / Triiodothyronine; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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77. Richmond BK, Eads K, Flaherty S, Belcher M, Runyon D: Complications of thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy in the rural community hospital setting. Am Surg; 2007 Apr;73(4):332-6
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  • The objective of this study was to examine the complications encountered in a series of 150 consecutive thyroid and parathyroid procedures performed by a single surgeon in a rural community hospital setting.
  • A retrospective chart review was conducted on a series of 150 patients undergoing any thyroid or parathyroid operation by a single surgeon in a rural setting over a 4-year period.
  • One hundred thirty-one thyroid procedures were performed (71 lobectomies, 60 total or near total procedures) for a diverse range of patholological conditions: multinodular goiter, 76 (50.7%) patients, follicular adenoma, 9 (6.0%) patients, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 13 (8.7%) patients, papillary carcinoma, 14 (9.3%) patients, follicular carcinoma, 5 (3.3%) patients, follicular variant of papillary carcinoma, 13 (8.7%) patients, and medullary carcinoma, 1 (0.7%) patient.
  • We conclude that outcomes and complications in thyroid and parathyroid surgical procedures are largely dependent on surgeon skill and experience, and can be performed safely in the community setting by an experienced general surgeon despite the absence of advanced technology in this setting.

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  • (PMID = 17439023.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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78. Sadow PM, Hunt JL: Mixed Medullary-follicular-derived carcinomas of the thyroid gland. Adv Anat Pathol; 2010 Jul;17(4):282-5
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  • [Title] Mixed Medullary-follicular-derived carcinomas of the thyroid gland.
  • Tumors of the thyroid are subclassified based on the cell of origin and commonly include follicular-derived tumors and C-cell-derived tumors.
  • The most common follicular-derived tumors are papillary carcinoma and follicular carcinoma, whereas the malignant C-cell-derived tumor is medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Rare cases in the literature describe patients who have follicular-derived and C-cell-derived tumors in the same thyroid gland.
  • The mixture may be at an interface, as in collision tumors, or can be throughout the entire lesion, as in true mixed medullary-follicular-derived carcinomas.
  • The clinical, histologic, and molecular features of these mixed tumors and the classification guidelines are reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / complications. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Humans

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  • (PMID = 20574174.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4031
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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79. Landa I, Montero-Conde C, Malanga D, De Gisi S, Pita G, Leandro-García LJ, Inglada-Pérez L, Letón R, De Marco C, Rodríguez-Antona C, Viglietto G, Robledo M: Allelic variant at -79 (C&gt;T) in CDKN1B (p27Kip1) confers an increased risk of thyroid cancer and alters mRNA levels. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2010 Jun;17(2):317-28
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  • [Title] Allelic variant at -79 (C>T) in CDKN1B (p27Kip1) confers an increased risk of thyroid cancer and alters mRNA levels.
  • The aim of this study is to assess if common genetic variants located in the CDKN1B locus, coding for the cell cycle inhibitor p27(Kip1), are involved in thyroid cancer susceptibility.
  • Based on the literature and functional predictions, we selected three polymorphisms within the CDKN1B gene (rs2066827 (T326G, V109G), rs34330 (-79C>T) and rs36228499 (-838C>A)) to perform the first case-control study in thyroid cancer involving this locus.
  • We had 649 Spanish patients with sporadic thyroid cancer and 385 healthy representative controls available.
  • Luciferase reporter gene assays, real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and immunoblot experiments were carried out to demonstrate the putative effect of the associated variant.
  • The polymorphism rs34330 (-79C>T) was identified as a risk factor for developing the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC), fitting a recessive model (odds ratio=2.12; 95% confidence interval=1.09-4.15; P value=0.023).
  • The risk allele (T) of this single nucleotide polymorphism led to a lower transcription rate in cells transfected with a luciferase reporter driven by the polymorphic p27(Kip1) promoter (P value <0.001).
  • This is the first study that identifies CDKN1B as a low-penetrance gene in thyroid cancer, and specifically in FVPTC subtype.
  • We propose a reduced CDKN1B gene transcription depending on the genotype of the -79C>T (rs34330) variant as a novel mechanism underlying p27(Kip1) downregulation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / genetics. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics


80. Laco J, Ryska A: [The use of immunohistochemistry in the differential diagnosis of thyroid gland tumors with follicular growth pattern]. Cesk Patol; 2006 Jul;42(3):120-4
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  • [Title] [The use of immunohistochemistry in the differential diagnosis of thyroid gland tumors with follicular growth pattern].
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of galectin-3 (gal3), cytokeratin 19 (CK19), neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), and E-cadherin (Ecad) in thyroid gland tumors with follicular growth pattern with particular focus on their use in differential diagnosis.
  • A series of 139 cases - 87 follicular adenomas (FAs), 26 follicular carcinomas (FCs), and 26 cases of the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (FVPC) was studied.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / chemistry. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cadherins / analysis. Carcinoma, Papillary / chemistry. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / chemistry. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Galectin 3 / analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / analysis. Male. Middle Aged. Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule L1 / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16955558.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-7875
  • [Journal-full-title] Československá patologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cesk Patol
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule L1; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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81. Ghossein R: Encapsulated malignant follicular cell-derived thyroid tumors. Endocr Pathol; 2010 Dec;21(4):212-8
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  • [Title] Encapsulated malignant follicular cell-derived thyroid tumors.
  • Encapsulated malignant follicular cell-derived thyroid tumors are subject to considerable controversies.
  • This group includes encapsulated follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (FVPTC) and encapsulated (so-called minimally invasive) follicular carcinoma (EFC).
  • Encapsulated FVPTC have a molecular profile very close to follicular adenomas/carcinomas (high rate of RAS and absence of BRAF mutations).
  • Infiltrative follicular variant has an opposite molecular profile closer to classical papillary thyroid carcinoma than to follicular adenoma/carcinoma (BRAF > RAS mutations).
  • Encapsulated FVPTC have a molecular profile and a clinical behavior very similar to the follicular adenoma/carcinoma class of tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / classification. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular. Humans. Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / classification. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. ras Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 21088998.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
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82. Montone KT, Baloch ZW, LiVolsi VA: The thyroid Hürthle (oncocytic) cell and its associated pathologic conditions: a surgical pathology and cytopathology review. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2008 Aug;132(8):1241-50
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  • [Title] The thyroid Hürthle (oncocytic) cell and its associated pathologic conditions: a surgical pathology and cytopathology review.
  • CONTEXT: Hürthle cells are eosinophilic, follicular-derived cells that are associated with a variety of nonneoplastic and neoplastic thyroid lesions.
  • OBJECTIVE: To review the pathologic conditions associated with Hürthle cells in the thyroid and to discuss pathology of thyroid lesions associated with oncocytic cytology.
  • DATA SOURCES: A variety of thyroid nonneoplastic (autoimmune thyroiditis, multinodular goiter) and neoplastic conditions (Hürthle cell adenoma, Hürthle cell carcinoma) are associated with Hürthle cell cytology.
  • In addition, there are several thyroid neoplasms that should be considered when one observes a Hürthle cell neoplasm in the thyroid (oncocytic variant of medullary carcinoma, several variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Oncocytic cytology is seen in a variety of thyroid conditions that are associated with a broad differential diagnosis and care must be used for accurate diagnosis.
  • Newer molecular-based techniques may be useful for further classification of thyroid neoplasms with oncocytic pathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Oxyphil Cells / pathology. Thyroid Diseases / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biopsy, Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. History, 19th Century. Humans. Metaplasia. Pathology, Surgical / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18684023.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 107
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83. Lin HW, Bhattacharyya N: Clinical behavior of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: presentation and survival. Laryngoscope; 2010 Apr;120(4):712-6
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  • [Title] Clinical behavior of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: presentation and survival.
  • OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To determine the prevalence and extent of disease characteristics of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FV-PTC) and the survival impact of this histopathological diagnosis compared to classical papillary thyroid carcinoma (C-PTC).
  • Survival differences according to histology were determined with a Cox proportional hazards model, adjusting for age, sex, T stage, N stage, surgical therapy, and RAI.
  • Although nodal disease prevalence was significantly lower in FV-PTC compared to C-PTC (14.8% vs. 27.8%, respectively; P < .001), T stage was not significantly different (P = .450).
  • Cox regression analysis revealed that advanced age (P < .001), male sex (P < .001), advanced T stage (P < .001), and positive nodal disease (P < .001) were associated with reduced overall survival, whereas histopathological subtype was not (P = .360).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Disease presentation (with exception of nodal metastasis) and survival in patients with FV-PTC are statistically similar to that of C-PTC, and accordingly these patients carry very similar prognoses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Papillary / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 20205241.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-4995
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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84. Ryska A: [What is new in pathology of the thyroid gland?]. Cesk Patol; 2008 Oct;44(4):90-5
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  • [Title] [What is new in pathology of the thyroid gland?].
  • Current view on certain lesions of the thyroid gland has dramatically changed during last several decades, namely due to definition of some new entities and inclusion of molecular genetic methods into diagnostic process.
  • In the article are discussed namely the following topics: follicular variant of papillary carcinoma, tumors of uncertain malignant potential, papillary microcarcinoma, oncocytic tumors and poorly differentiated carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19069745.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-7875
  • [Journal-full-title] Československá patologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cesk Patol
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Number-of-references] 61
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85. Chaabouni AM, Intidhar Labidi S, Kraiem T, Gammoudi A, Ladgham A, Ben Slimane F: [Papillary-follicular carcinoma arising in a lingual thyroid]. Ann Otolaryngol Chir Cervicofac; 2006 Sep;123(4):199-202
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  • [Title] [Papillary-follicular carcinoma arising in a lingual thyroid].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinome vesiculo-papillaire sur thyroïde linguale.
  • OBJECTIVES: The management of diagnosis, treatment and outcome of malignant neoplasm arising in a lingual thyroid.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We report a case of papillary-follicular carcinoma arising in a lingual thyroid.
  • RESULTS: Lingual carcinoma causes dysphagia and pain due to oropharyngeal obstruction.
  • Surgical pharyngotomy with a trans-hyoid approach provides good access to the lesions.
  • Therefore, the eutopic thyroid was present, in pretracheal position, without neoplastic proliferation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Carcinoma arising in lingual thyroid is an extreme rare entity.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular. Choristoma. Thyroid Gland. Thyroid Neoplasms. Tongue Diseases / complications. Tongue Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 17088708.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-438X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'oto-laryngologie et de chirurgie cervico faciale : bulletin de la Société d'oto-laryngologie des hôpitaux de Paris
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Otolaryngol Chir Cervicofac
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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86. Slosar M, Vohra P, Prasad M, Fischer A, Quinlan R, Khan A: Insulin-like growth factor mRNA binding protein 3 (IMP3) is differentially expressed in benign and malignant follicular patterned thyroid tumors. Endocr Pathol; 2009;20(3):149-57
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  • [Title] Insulin-like growth factor mRNA binding protein 3 (IMP3) is differentially expressed in benign and malignant follicular patterned thyroid tumors.
  • The purpose of our study was to evaluate IMP3 expression in thyroid follicular lesions, to determine whether it has a role in differentiating among these lesions, and to understand their biological relationships.
  • We immunostained 219 thyroid lesions selected from our surgical pathology archives including 14 hyperplastic colloid nodules (CN), 19 Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT), two Graves disease (GD), ten Hürthle cell adenoma (HCA), 20 follicular adenoma (FA), 37 conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), 60 follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (FVPC), 19 Hürthle cell carcinoma (HCC), 32 follicular carcinoma (FC), and six poorly differentiated/anaplastic carcinoma.
  • In all cases, residual thyroid tissue, CN, HT, GD, HCA, and FA were completely negative for IMP3 staining.
  • No significant correlation was found between pathologic tumor characteristics and IMP3 expression in differentiated follicular pattern thyroid carcinoma.
  • With 100% specificity and 69% sensitivity for FC as compared to FA and 100% specificity for FVPC, again compared to FA, IMP3 has the potential to be diagnostically useful in differentiating malignant and benign follicular pattern thyroid lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. RNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19449140.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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87. Itoh A, Iwase K, Jimbo S, Yamamoto H, Yamamoto N, Kokubo M, Senda T, Nakai A, Nagagasaka A, Nagasaka T, Hibi Y, Seko T: Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and presence of angiovascular cells in tissues from different thyroid disorders. World J Surg; 2010 Feb;34(2):242-8
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  • [Title] Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and presence of angiovascular cells in tissues from different thyroid disorders.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied the localization of VEGF in human thyroid tissues to clarify its involvement in proliferative processes in a variety of thyroid disorders.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis using purified rabbit polyclonal anti-human VEGF or anti-human CD34 antibody and a streptavidin-biotin peroxidase complex detection system was performed on 58 tissue specimens from 53 patients with different thyroid disorders and 5 normal thyroid glands.
  • RESULTS: Vascular endothelial growth factor was not detected in normal thyroid follicular cells.
  • However, some thyroid tumor cells expressed VEGF in the cytoplasm (papillary carcinoma, 10/18; follicular carcinoma, 1/3; medullary carcinoma, 2/2; follicular adenoma, 3/11; adenomatous goiter, 2/4).
  • In benign follicular adenoma and adenomatous goiter, weak expression of VEGF was found in small areas of the tumor, whereas in malignant thyroid tumors, it was strongly expressed in many cells.
  • However, VEGF was not expressed in anaplastic carcinoma, malignant lymphoma, or Graves' disease.
  • Angiovascular cells stained with CD34 antibody in tissues from different thyroid disorders reflected statistically significant differences in papillary carcinoma, follicular adenoma, and Graves' disease compared with normal thyroids, and such cells showed a trend toward increases in medullary carcinoma and adenomatous goiter.
  • In contrast, low vascularity was observed in anaplastic carcinoma, malignant lymphoma, and follicular carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Because VEGF probably functions as a hypoxia-inducible angiogenic factor, overexpression of this mediator, concomitant with hypervascularity, may be induced more strongly in malignant thyroid tumors, which need more oxygen to proliferate, than in benign follicular tumors.
  • However, neither VEGF nor CD34 was expressed in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, which is an extremely poorly differentiated malignant tumor.
  • CD34 but not VEGF was expressed in the hyperplastic thyroid tissues of Graves' disease composed of nontransformed cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Neovascularization, Pathologic / metabolism. Thyroid Diseases / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Thyroid Gland / cytology. Thyroid Gland / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20041248.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2323
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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88. Yang CS, Zhang Q, Guo ZM, Zeng ZY, Lai FY: [Childhood thyroid carcinoma: clinical analyses of 22 cases]. Ai Zheng; 2008 Mar;27(3):311-4
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  • [Title] [Childhood thyroid carcinoma: clinical analyses of 22 cases].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Thyroid carcinoma is rarely occurred in children.
  • Clinicopathologic characteristics, therapy and prognosis of childhood thyroid carcinoma patients are different from those of adult patients, and the treatment of this disease is controversial.
  • This study was to explore the clinicopathologic characteristics, diagnosis and therapy of thyroid carcinoma in children.
  • METHODS: Clinical data of 22 children under the age of 14, diagnosed as thyroid carcinoma between Jan.
  • Of the 22 patients, 8 (36.4%) had papillary carcinoma, 8 (36.4%) had follicular carcinoma, 5(22.7%) had mixed papillary-follicular carcinoma, and 1 (4.5%) had medullary carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Childhood thyroid carcinomas are mostly differentiated carcinomas, with high frequency of cervical lymph node metastases.
  • The optimal treatment for thyroid carcinoma in children may improve the quality of life and decrease the incidence of complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .
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  • (PMID = 18334124.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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89. Tsilchorozidou T, Vafiadou E, Yovos JG, Romeo G, McKay J, Lesueur F, Bonora E: A Greek family with a follicular variant of familial papillary thyroid carcinoma: TCO, MNG1, fPTC/PRN, and NMTC1 excluded as susceptibility loci. Thyroid; 2005 Dec;15(12):1349-54
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  • [Title] A Greek family with a follicular variant of familial papillary thyroid carcinoma: TCO, MNG1, fPTC/PRN, and NMTC1 excluded as susceptibility loci.
  • The familial form of nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma (FNMTC) has been recognized as a distinct clinical entity and is characterized by multifocality and a more severe phenotype than its sporadic counterpart.
  • The majority of FNMTC pedigrees are small in size, show variable modes of inheritance, and may present with a variety of additional benign thyroid disorders.
  • This locus appears particular relevant to families with at least one case of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer (fvPTC).
  • We describe the clinical and pathologic characteristics of a large three-generation fPTC kindred, with two of the four PTC patients presented with the follicular variant of PTC.
  • In addition, multinodular goiter (MNG) was diagnosed in seven individuals, lymphocytic thyroiditis in four, while one diagnosed with a benign adenoma.
  • From the PTC patients, one had MNG and fvPTC, one MNG, lymphocytic thyroiditis and papillary pattern of PTC, one lymphocytic thyroiditis and fvPTC, and one MNG and papillary pattern of PTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16405407.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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90. Walvekar RR, Kane SV, D'Cruz AK: Collision tumor of the thyroid: follicular variant of papillary carcinoma and squamous carcinoma. World J Surg Oncol; 2006;4:65
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  • [Title] Collision tumor of the thyroid: follicular variant of papillary carcinoma and squamous carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Collision tumors of the thyroid gland are a rare entity.
  • We present a case of a follicular variant of papillary carcinoma and squamous carcinoma in the thyroid.
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documentation of a collision tumor with a papillary carcinoma and a squamous carcinoma within the thyroid gland.
  • The theories of origin, epidemiology and management are discussed with a literature review.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: A 65 year old woman presented with a large thyroid swelling of 10 years duration and with swellings on the back and scalp which were diagnosed to be a follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma with metastasis.
  • Clinical examination, radiology and endoscopy ruled out any other abnormality of the upper aerodigestive tract.
  • The patient was treated surgically with a total thyroidectomy with central compartment clearance and bilateral selective neck dissections.
  • The histopathology revealed a collision tumor with components of both a follicular variant of papillary carcinoma and a squamous carcinoma.
  • Adjuvant radio iodine therapy directed toward the follicular derived component of the thyroid tumor and external beam radiotherapy for the squamous component was planned.
  • CONCLUSION: Collision tumors of the thyroid gland pose a diagnostic as well as therapeutic challenge.
  • The origins of squamous cancer in the thyroid gland must be established to support the true evolution of a collision tumor and to plan treatment.

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  • (PMID = 16984659.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1622750
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91. Cardenas MG, Kini S, Wisgerhof M: Two patients with highly aggressive macrofollicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid; 2009 Apr;19(4):413-6
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  • [Title] Two patients with highly aggressive macrofollicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The macrofollicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (MFV-PTC) is an unusual type of thyroid carcinoma with histological features that can be confused with nodular goiter or follicular adenoma.
  • We report two patients with highly aggressive MFV-PTC including bone metastases, one of whom died of their disease.
  • SUMMARY: The first patient was a 59-year-old woman with an occipital mass diagnosed histologically as papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), follicular variant.
  • Ten years earlier a biopsy of a thyroid nodule had been negative for malignant cells.
  • Thyroidectomy showed a 3-cm nodule in the thyroid, diagnosed as MFV-PTC.
  • The second patient was an 81-year-old man with a history of right thyroid nodule treated by total thyroidectomy with a postoperative diagnosis of adenomatous goiter.
  • Three years later he developed a right shoulder mass, histologically diagnosed as follicular variant of PTC.
  • He died of metastatic thyroid cancer.
  • Although MFV-PTC usually has a good prognosis these cases highlight the importance of careful histopathological examination for MFV-PTC in thyroidectomy specimens that may appear to be seemingly benign nodular thyroid disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19355832.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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92. Nagano J, Mabuchi K, Yoshimoto Y, Hayashi Y, Tsuda N, Land C, Kodama K: A case-control study in Hiroshima and Nagasaki examining non-radiation risk factors for thyroid cancer. J Epidemiol; 2007 May;17(3):76-85
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  • [Title] A case-control study in Hiroshima and Nagasaki examining non-radiation risk factors for thyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Because little is known about the etiology of thyroid cancer in Japan, we conducted a case-control study of thyroid cancer and lifestyle and other risk factors.
  • METHODS: Thyroid cancer cases reported to the Hiroshima and Nagasaki tumor registries during 1970-1986 were histologically reviewed by pathologists.
  • For each of 362 cases with papillary or follicular adenocarcinoma diagnosed at <75 years of age, one control without cancer matched on city, sex, year of birth, and atomic-bomb radiation exposure was selected from the Life Span Study cohort or the offspring cohort.
  • RESULTS: Analysis using conditional logistic regression showed history of goiter or thyroid nodule and family history of cancer to be significantly associated with an increased odds ratio for thyroid cancer.
  • Smoking and alcohol drinking were significantly and independently associated with a reduced odds ratio.
  • Radiation exposure did not significantly modify the associations between these factors and thyroid cancer risk.
  • CONCLUSION: History of goiter/nodule and family history of cancer were risk factors for thyroid cancer.

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  • (PMID = 17545694.001).
  • [ISSN] 0917-5040
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of epidemiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Epidemiol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radioactive Fallout
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93. Chagas JF, Aquino JL, Pascoal MB, Teixeira AS, Ferro MM, Gambaro MC, Dedivitis RA: Multicentricity in the thyroid differentiated carcinoma. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol; 2009 Jan-Feb;75(1):97-100
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  • [Title] Multicentricity in the thyroid differentiated carcinoma.
  • The treatment of choice for the well differentiated thyroid carcinoma has always been controversial.
  • AIM: to analyze tumor invasion of the thyroid gland's contralateral lobe in cases of differentiated carcinoma, correlating risk/benefit with the complications of a second surgical approach.
  • Patients' ages varied from 17 to 89; the most frequent histopathological pattern was the classical papillary carcinoma (18 cases), followed by follicular carcinoma (6); the follicular variant of the papillary carcinoma (2) and the Hürthle cell carcinoma (1).
  • RESULTS: the contralateral lobe analysis was negative for carcinoma in 16 (76.5%) and positive in the other 5 (23.8%) patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: total thyroidectomy is important in the treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinomas, because there is a high contralateral spread rate (23.8%).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 19488567.001).
  • [ISSN] 1808-8694
  • [Journal-full-title] Brazilian journal of otorhinolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Braz J Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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94. Roth LM, Miller AW 3rd, Talerman A: Typical thyroid-type carcinoma arising in struma ovarii: a report of 4 cases and review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Oct;27(4):496-506
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  • [Title] Typical thyroid-type carcinoma arising in struma ovarii: a report of 4 cases and review of the literature.
  • In this article, we report 3 cases of papillary and 1 of follicular thyroid carcinoma; 2 of these cases were associated with mature cystic teratoma.
  • In regard to the occurrence of thyroid-type carcinoma in struma ovarii, precise terminology should be used, and the expression malignant struma ovarii was avoided as a diagnostic term.
  • Upon review of the literature, papillary carcinoma and follicular carcinoma are the most frequent types of malignancy to occur in ovarian struma; other forms of thyroid carcinoma occur only rarely.
  • The diagnostic criteria for cases of papillary carcinoma are similar to those described in the cervical thyroid gland and are based primarily on nuclear and architectural features.
  • In reference to follicular carcinoma, invasion into the surrounding ovarian tissue, vascular invasion, or metastasis is evidence of malignancy.
  • Histological malignancy in a struma does not necessarily equate with biological malignancy, and the majority of thyroid-type carcinomas do not spread beyond the ovary.
  • Occasionally, metastases of ovarian struma have an innocuous histological appearance, and such cases are referred to as highly differentiated follicular carcinoma of ovarian origin (HDFCO).
  • Because its histological appearance resembles that of nonneoplastic thyroid, HDFCO characteristically cannot be diagnosed until the neoplasm spreads beyond the ovary.
  • In this article, we apply the term typical thyroid carcinoma to those forms of thyroid malignancy arising in ovarian struma that closely resemble the types described in the cervical thyroid gland to distinguish them from HDFCO.
  • Typical follicular carcinoma is more aggressive than the somewhat more common papillary carcinoma, and HDFCO is the least aggressive of these tumor types.
  • Cases of thyroid-type carcinoma arising in the ovary sometimes lack evidence of preexisting struma.
  • The more aggressive thyroid-type neoplasms can arise in thyroid tissue within a mature cystic teratoma, or they may overgrow and replace the struma.
  • Primary thyroid-type carcinoma must be distinguished from rare instances of ovarian metastases that originate in the cervical thyroid gland and the less differentiated forms from other ovarian neoplasms such as clear cell adenocarcinoma and tumors with an oxyphilic appearance.
  • In the differential diagnosis with other ovarian neoplasms, cases of thyroid-type carcinoma associated with strumal carcinoid should not be diagnosed as malignant strumal carcinoid because the latter diagnosis might lead to suboptimal therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Struma Ovarii / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18753973.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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95. Proietti A, Giannini R, Ugolini C, Miccoli M, Fontanini G, Di Coscio G, Romani R, Berti P, Miccoli P, Basolo F: BRAF status of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma and its relationship to its clinical and cytological features. Thyroid; 2010 Nov;20(11):1263-70
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  • [Title] BRAF status of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma and its relationship to its clinical and cytological features.
  • BACKGROUND: The cytological discrimination between benign and malignant follicular-patterned lesions of the thyroid can represent a diagnostic challenge, even for experienced pathologists.
  • To attempt to clarify this diagnostic problem, we analyzed the BRAF status of thyroid tumors in a group of patients with follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) and its correlation with cytomorphological features.
  • Each case had a previous fine-needle aspiration diagnosis classified according to the British Thyroid Association Guidelines categorized as inadequate (Thy1) (n = 19), benign (Thy2) (n = 19), follicular lesion and follicular lesion with atypia (Thy3) (n = 109), suspicious of PTC (Thy4) (n = 29), or malignant (Thy5) (n = 11).
  • 54.5% and 27.6% of Thy5 and Thy4, respectively, were BRAF-mutated, against 12.1% of follicular lesions and 9.3% of follicular lesion with atypia (Thy3).
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20950194.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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96. Silberstein EB: Comparison of outcomes after (123)I versus (131)I pre-ablation imaging before radioiodine ablation in differentiated thyroid carcinoma. J Nucl Med; 2007 Jul;48(7):1043-6
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  • [Title] Comparison of outcomes after (123)I versus (131)I pre-ablation imaging before radioiodine ablation in differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • Detection of residual tissue after thyroidectomy for papillary or follicular thyroid carcinoma may be performed using diagnostic imaging with either (123)I or (131)I.
  • This study examines the outcomes of ablative (131)I therapy after diagnostic studies with either (123)I or (131)I to determine if the diagnostic dosages of these radionuclides used in our Thyroid Cancer Center reduce the efficacy of (131)I given for remnant ablation.
  • METHODS: Fifty patients with nonmetastatic papillary or follicular carcinoma of the thyroid received total thyroidectomy; this was followed by thyroid hormone withdrawal to achieve a serum thyroid-stimulating hormone level in excess of 30 microIU/mL.
  • Group 1 had diagnostic imaging with 14.8 MBq of (123)I followed by thyroid remnant ablation with 3.7 GBq of (131)I.
  • Successful ablation required a negative follow-up thyroid scan 6-8 mo after ablation and also an undetectable serum thyroglobulin level in the absence of antithyroglobulin antibodies.
  • CONCLUSION: If thyroid remnant stunning occurs due to 74 MBq (131)I used as a diagnostic agent before (131)I ablation, it has no significant clinical correlate, as it yields the same ablation rate as that which occurs after 14.8 MBq of (123)I used for imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Papillary / radionuclide imaging. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Hormones / blood. Thyroidectomy. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] J Nucl Med. 2008 Jan;49(1):166; author reply 166-7 [18165699.001]
  • (PMID = 17574976.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-5505
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nucl. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Thyroid Hormones
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97. Lee JM, Kim JW, Song JY, Lee JK, Lee NW, Kim SH, Lee KW: Adenocarcinoma arising in mature cystic teratoma: a case report. J Gynecol Oncol; 2008 Sep;19(3):199-201