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1. Walvekar RR, Kane SV, D'Cruz AK: Collision tumor of the thyroid: follicular variant of papillary carcinoma and squamous carcinoma. World J Surg Oncol; 2006;4:65
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  • [Title] Collision tumor of the thyroid: follicular variant of papillary carcinoma and squamous carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Collision tumors of the thyroid gland are a rare entity.
  • We present a case of a follicular variant of papillary carcinoma and squamous carcinoma in the thyroid.
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first documentation of a collision tumor with a papillary carcinoma and a squamous carcinoma within the thyroid gland.
  • The theories of origin, epidemiology and management are discussed with a literature review.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: A 65 year old woman presented with a large thyroid swelling of 10 years duration and with swellings on the back and scalp which were diagnosed to be a follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma with metastasis.
  • Clinical examination, radiology and endoscopy ruled out any other abnormality of the upper aerodigestive tract.
  • The patient was treated surgically with a total thyroidectomy with central compartment clearance and bilateral selective neck dissections.
  • The histopathology revealed a collision tumor with components of both a follicular variant of papillary carcinoma and a squamous carcinoma.
  • Adjuvant radio iodine therapy directed toward the follicular derived component of the thyroid tumor and external beam radiotherapy for the squamous component was planned.
  • CONCLUSION: Collision tumors of the thyroid gland pose a diagnostic as well as therapeutic challenge.
  • The origins of squamous cancer in the thyroid gland must be established to support the true evolution of a collision tumor and to plan treatment.

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  • (PMID = 16984659.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1622750
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2. Bukhari U, Sadiq S, Kehar SI: Differential expression of CK 19 in follicular adenoma, well-differentiated tumour of uncertain malignant potential (WDT-UMP) and follicular variant of papillary carcinoma. J Pak Med Assoc; 2009 Jan;59(1):15-8
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  • [Title] Differential expression of CK 19 in follicular adenoma, well-differentiated tumour of uncertain malignant potential (WDT-UMP) and follicular variant of papillary carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To see the expression of cytokeratin 19, a proven helpful marker for the differential diagnosis of neoplastic follicular patterned lesions of thyroid.
  • On the basis of the recent recommendations by Chemobyl Pathologists Group, encapsulated follicular patterned lesions with questionable nuclear changes were categorized as well - differentiated tumours of uncertain malignant potential (WDT-UMP).
  • Formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues of follicular adenoma, WDT-UMP and follicular variant of papillary carcinoma were obtained for CK 19 immunostaining.
  • RESULTS: All (16) cases of follicular adenoma were negative for CK19.
  • There were 43 cases of follicular variant of papillary carcinoma with 4+ CK 19 positivity, 14 were 3+ positive and 3 were 2+ positive.
  • CONCLUSION: CK19 is a good and useful diagnostic marker for differential diagnosis of follicular adenoma, WDT-UMP and follicular variant of papillary carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / physiopathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / physiopathology. Keratin-19

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  • (PMID = 19213370.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-9982
  • [Journal-full-title] JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pak Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Keratin-19
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3. Jung YH, Kang MS: Composite follicular variant of papillary carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma of thyroid gland: a case report. J Korean Med Sci; 2010 Nov;25(11):1683-7
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  • [Title] Composite follicular variant of papillary carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma of thyroid gland: a case report.
  • A 50-yr-old male presented a thyroid mass with dysphasia and hoarseness.
  • Pathologically, the tumor had two distinct tumor components with intermingled areas: follicular variant of papillary carcinoma and mucoepidermoid carcinoma.
  • Mucoepidermoid carcinoma composed of columnar cells, mucocytes, and squamoid cells showing solid and cystic lesion.
  • By immunohistochemistry, columnar cells and squamoid cells in mucoepidermoid carcinoma were positive for cytokeratin but negative for thyroglobulin, TTF-1 and calcitonin.
  • Tumor cells of papillary carcinoma are positive for TTF-1, thyroglobulin but negative for CEA, calcitonin and p63.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 21060764.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-6357
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Korean Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / thyroid nuclear factor 1; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2967012
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / Carcinoma, Papillary / Solid Cell Nests / Thyroid Gland
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4. Burningham AR, Krishnan J, Davidson BJ, Ringel MD, Burman KD: Papillary and follicular variant of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid: Initial presentation and response to therapy. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2005 Jun;132(6):840-4
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  • [Title] Papillary and follicular variant of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid: Initial presentation and response to therapy.
  • INTRODUCTION: The 2 most common histologic variants of papillary carcinoma are pure papillary carcinoma (PTC) and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC).
  • The purpose of this study is to compare the presentation and short-term response to therapy of these variants and to determine if FVPTC is a more aggressive form of thyroid cancer that warrants intensive therapy.
  • RESULTS: Of 160 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma included, 114 (71%) had PTC and 46 (29%) had FVPTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 15944551.001).
  • [ISSN] 0194-5998
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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5. Sobrinho-Simões M, Preto A, Rocha AS, Castro P, Máximo V, Fonseca E, Soares P: Molecular pathology of well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas. Virchows Arch; 2005 Nov;447(5):787-93
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  • [Title] Molecular pathology of well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas.
  • The newly discovered molecular features of well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas derived from follicular cells are reviewed, within the frame of the 2004 WHO classification of thyroid tumours, under the following headings: "Follicular carcinoma", "Papillary carcinoma", "Follicular variant of papillary carcinoma" and "Hürthle cell tumours".
  • A particular emphasis is put on the meaning of PAX8-PPARgamma rearrangements, RAS and BRAF mutations, and deletions and mutations of mitochondrial genes and of nuclear genes encoding for mitochondrial enzymes, for thyroid tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. Gene Rearrangement. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16189702.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / PAX8 protein, human; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
  • [Number-of-references] 70
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6. Fonseca E, Soares P, Cardoso-Oliveira M, Sobrinho-Simões M: Diagnostic criteria in well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas. Endocr Pathol; 2006;17(2):109-17
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  • [Title] Diagnostic criteria in well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas.
  • The criteria used for the differential diagnosis of well-differentiated thyroid tumors derived from follicular cells are reviewed taking into account the architectural characteristics together with the immunohistochemical and molecular features.
  • The review is focused on follicular carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, follicular variant of papillary carcinoma, and oncocytic (Hürthle cell) tumors, as well as on the recently described borderline lesions: follicular and well-differentiated tumors of uncertain malignant potential, and well-differentiated carcinoma, not otherwise specified.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / classification. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / classification. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Adenoma / classification. Adenoma / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 17159243.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 47
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7. Lee JM, Kim JW, Song JY, Lee JK, Lee NW, Kim SH, Lee KW: Adenocarcinoma arising in mature cystic teratoma: a case report. J Gynecol Oncol; 2008 Sep;19(3):199-201

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  • [Title] Adenocarcinoma arising in mature cystic teratoma: a case report.
  • Malignant transformation of a benign cystic teratoma is a rare event, and adenocarcinoma is extremely rare, and distinguishing this malignant change from benign disease preoperatively is nearly impossible even by the use of radiological imaging or various tumor markers.
  • We present a case with thyroid papillary carcinoma of follicular variant arising from mature cystic teratoma removed by laparoscopic salpingo-oophorectomy followed by staging laparotomy.

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  • (PMID = 19471568.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-0380
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gynecol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2676465
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adenocarcinoma / Malignant transformation / Mature cystic teratoma / Tumor marker
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8. Giorgadze TA, Baloch ZW, Pasha T, Zhang PJ, Livolsi VA: Lymphatic and blood vessel density in the follicular patterned lesions of thyroid. Mod Pathol; 2005 Nov;18(11):1424-31
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  • [Title] Lymphatic and blood vessel density in the follicular patterned lesions of thyroid.
  • The histologic distinction of follicular patterned lesions of thyroid, that is follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, and the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma can be extremely difficult.
  • The differential diagnostic criteria regarding nuclear features of papillary thyroid carcinoma are subjective, resulting in high interobserver variability.
  • Although papillary thyroid carcinoma metastasizes mainly via lymphatic vessels, whereas follicular carcinoma spreads mostly hematogenously, there are no data regarding utility of objective quantitative criteria such as lymphatic and general blood vessel density for the differential diagnosis of these lesions.
  • In this study, 35 follicular patterned lesions of thyroid (14 follicular adenomas, 10 follicular carcinomas, and 11 of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas) were evaluated immunohistochemically.
  • There were no significant differences in the intra- and/or peritumoral general vessel densities, and peritumoral lymphatic vessel densities among follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma and the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • In contrast, the intratumoral lymphatic vessel density was significantly higher in the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma than in either follicular adenoma or follicular carcinoma (34.63, 15.04, and 0.11 respectively; P<0.0001).
  • The results of the study show that intratumoral lymphatic vessel density may serve as a useful tool in the differential diagnosis of follicular patterned lesions of thyroid.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Lymphangiogenesis / physiology. Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood supply. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Antibodies, Monoclonal. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Antigens, CD31. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • [Copyright] Modern Pathology (2005) 18, 1424-1431. doi:10.1038/modpathol.3800452; published online 27 May 2005.
  • (PMID = 15920537.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antigens, CD31; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / monoclonal antibody D2-40
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9. Eszlinger M, Paschke R: Molecular fine-needle aspiration biopsy diagnosis of thyroid nodules by tumor specific mutations and gene expression patterns. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2010 Jun 30;322(1-2):29-37
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  • [Title] Molecular fine-needle aspiration biopsy diagnosis of thyroid nodules by tumor specific mutations and gene expression patterns.
  • Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is currently the most sensitive and specific tool for the presurgical differential diagnosis of thyroid malignancy, but has also substantial limitations.
  • While approximately 75% of FNAB reveal benign lesions and 5% already cytologically prove malignancy, up to 20% of FNAB show follicular proliferation for which follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, and follicular variant of papillary carcinoma can only be distinguished histologically, thus requiring thyroid surgery.
  • However, new biomarkers that might improve the accuracy of FNAB come along with the discovery of more and more details of the molecular etiology of thyroid tumors.
  • Nevertheless, the application of molecular markers will significantly improve thyroid tumor diagnosis and thus it will help to prevent unnecessary surgeries and it will also help to guide mutation-specific targeted therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20083161.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8057
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 123
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10. Zhao J, Leonard C, Brunner E, Gemsenjäger E, Heitz PU, Odermatt B: Molecular characterization of well-differentiated human thyroid carcinomas by cDNA arrays. Int J Oncol; 2006 Nov;29(5):1041-51
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  • [Title] Molecular characterization of well-differentiated human thyroid carcinomas by cDNA arrays.
  • Well-differentiated papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas are the two most common types of thyroid cancer.
  • Although cancerous cells in both types phenotypically resemble the epithelial follicular cell, the tumors display different histological characteristics and clinical outcomes.
  • Gene expression profiling of 46 thyroid samples (16 papillary carcinomas, 13 follicular carcinomas and 17 normal thyroid specimens) was performed by using high-density human UniGene cDNA arrays.
  • The majority of genes with altered expression were found in both papillary and follicular carcinomas, reflecting a close relationship between the two tumor types.
  • However, 123 genes consisting of 45 known and 78 unknown genes were shown to be differentially expressed between papillary and follicular carcinomas.
  • Follicular variants of papillary carcinoma, clustered together with classical papillary carcinoma, could be differentiated from follicular carcinoma.
  • Our study revealed a set of genes differentiating follicular carcinoma from classical papillary carcinoma and follicular variant.
  • The data generated in this study could serve as a useful source for further investigation of pathways of papillary and follicular differentiation of thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Genes, Neoplasm. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17016634.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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11. Hunt J: Understanding the genotype of follicular thyroid tumors. Endocr Pathol; 2005;16(4):311-21
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  • [Title] Understanding the genotype of follicular thyroid tumors.
  • Tumors of the thyroid with a follicular growth pattern are controversial and can be diagnostically challenging for the pathologist.
  • This group of tumors includes both follicular derived lesions (adenomas and carcinomas) and papillary carcinoma (follicular variant of papillary carcinoma).
  • In the past several decades, however, several important molecular markers have been identified that may be unique to different types of thyroid carcinomas.
  • However, with increasing availability of molecular testing for the general pathologist, a molecular testing panel used in conjunction with the H&E morphology and immunohistochemical stains may become useful in the clinical setting for the diagnosis of thyroid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16627918.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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12. Carling T, Udelsman R: Follicular neoplasms of the thyroid: what to recommend. Thyroid; 2005 Jun;15(6):583-7
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  • [Title] Follicular neoplasms of the thyroid: what to recommend.
  • Follicular neoplasms of the thyroid are usually diagnosed following fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy of a dominant thyroid nodule.
  • An FNA diagnosis of a follicular neoplasm represents a heterogeneous group of lesions including benign follicular hyperplasia, follicular adenomas, follicular carcinomas, and the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma.
  • Because the criteria for malignancy in both follicular and Hürthle cell neoplasms requires vascular or capsular invasion seen on permanent histology, the majority of these patients undergo surgical resection.
  • Intraoperative frozen section analysis of follicular neoplasms rarely renders informative information.
  • Postoperative treatment generally includes therapeutic doses of 131I for follicular carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16029125.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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13. Coyne C, Nikiforov YE: RAS mutation-positive follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma arising in a struma ovarii. Endocr Pathol; 2010 Jun;21(2):144-7
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  • [Title] RAS mutation-positive follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma arising in a struma ovarii.
  • Struma ovarii is an ovarian mature teratoma composed exclusively or predominantly of thyroid tissue.
  • Malignant transformation of struma ovarii is rare and poorly understood, although this process is thought to be similar to carcinogenesis in malignant tumors of differentiated thyroid tissue originating in the thyroid gland.
  • Genetic alterations in the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, including mutations of BRAF, RAS, and RET genes, have been implicated in the development of differentiated thyroid carcinoma arising in the thyroid gland.
  • She proceeded to ovarian cystectomy post-delivery, with pathologic examination detecting a papillary thyroid carcinoma, follicular variant, arising in a cystic teratoma.
  • This is the first report of RAS mutation detected in the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma arising in a struma ovarii.
  • It provides evidence that tumors developing in this setting involve molecular mechanisms similar to those implicated in tumors developing in the thyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Struma Ovarii / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. ras Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19898969.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
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14. Rekhi B, Badhe RR, Desouza MA, Chaukar D, D'Cruz AK, Arya S, Kane SV: A unique RET EXON 11 (G691S) polymorphism in an Indian patient with a collision tumor of the thyroid. Diagn Pathol; 2007;2:39
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  • [Title] A unique RET EXON 11 (G691S) polymorphism in an Indian patient with a collision tumor of the thyroid.
  • BACKGROUND: Collision tumors of the thyroid are rare, with occasional reports dealing with their genetic analysis.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: A 59 year old lady presented with a neck mass, associated with hoarseness of voice of 5 years duration.
  • Radiological examination revealed nodular masses in the left lobe of her thyroid, along with one in the isthmus, extending into the right lobe and associated with enlarged neck nodes.
  • FNAC from the left thyroid showed features of medullary carcinoma.
  • On total thyroidectomy, 2 distinct tumor nodules were identified in the left lobe with another in the isthmus, showing features of medullary carcinoma (MTC), papillary carcinoma and follicular variant of papillary carcinoma, respectively, accompanied with nodal metastasis.
  • RET gene analysis of the patient, her 2 daughters and a grandson revealed a unique G691S polymorphism on Exon 11.
  • CONCLUSION: This unique case of a collision tumor of thyroid, including component of an MTC deals with the value of RET gene analysis and therapeutic implications in the index case and in family members.

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  • [Cites] Cancer Res. 2003 Apr 15;63(8):1814-7 [12702567.001]
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  • (PMID = 17939859.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2164940
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15. Paşcanu I, Borda A, Bănescu C: Thyroid nodule with Hashimoto thyroiditis in childhood - a challenging experience. Rom J Morphol Embryol; 2008;49(4):541-5
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  • [Title] Thyroid nodule with Hashimoto thyroiditis in childhood - a challenging experience.
  • Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the thyroid, although not perfect, is considered currently the best preoperative method in establishing malignancy in a thyroid nodule.
  • We report the case of an 8-year-old girl with a thyroid mass in the right thyroid lobe.
  • Endocrine investigations revealed subclinical hypothyroidism and high titer of anti-thyroid peroxidase antibodies.
  • Fine Needle Aspiration Biopsy (FNAB) of the right side of the thyroid gland, where on thyroid ultrasonography (US) a poorly defined iso-/hypoechoic nodule with irregular margins was detected, revealed a background of lymphocytes and plasma cells mixed with follicular cells with reactive changes.
  • Right lobectomy was performed and the pathology report shows papillary carcinoma, follicular variant predominantly with components of insular growth.
  • [MeSH-major] Hashimoto Disease / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19050804.001).
  • [ISSN] 1220-0522
  • [Journal-full-title] Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rom J Morphol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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16. Mori K, Kitazawa R, Kondo T, Kitazawa S: Lung adenocarcinoma with micropapillary component presenting with metastatic scrotum tumor and cancer-to-cancer metastasis: A case report. Cases J; 2008;1(1):162

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  • [Title] Lung adenocarcinoma with micropapillary component presenting with metastatic scrotum tumor and cancer-to-cancer metastasis: A case report.
  • A 54-year-old man was admitted to the hospital presenting with a 3-month history of sclerosing dermal lesion in the external genitalia.
  • A scrotal skin biopsy revealed a poorly-differentiated adenocarcinoma, immunohistochemically positive for cytokeratin 7 (CK7) and for thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1), and negative for CK20.
  • At autopsy, a consolidating lesion with vague margin was noted in the left lung as well as a well-circumscribed nodule in the right lobe of the thyroid.
  • Histopathologically, pulmonary lesion was adenocarcinoma with a micropapillary component.
  • On the other hand, thyroid tumor was diagnosed as a follicular variant of papillary carcinoma with foci of micropapillary adenocarcinoma.
  • Positive immunohistochemistry for surfactant protein on micoropapillary component was useful to confirm that micropapillary component was of lung adenocarcinoma origin.

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  • (PMID = 18801198.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2556662
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17. Ito Y, Yoshida H, Tomoda C, Uruno T, Takamura Y, Miya A, Kobayashi K, Matsuzuka F, Nakamura Y, Kakudo K, Kuma K, Miyauchi A: Caveolin-1 and 14-3-3 sigma expression in follicular variant of thyroid papillary carcinoma. Pathol Res Pract; 2005;201(8-9):545-9
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  • [Title] Caveolin-1 and 14-3-3 sigma expression in follicular variant of thyroid papillary carcinoma.
  • There are two prominent types of thyroid carcinoma, papillary carcinoma (PC) and follicular carcinoma (FC) arising from thyroid follicular cells, which have different biological characteristics.
  • The follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (FVPC) has a structure similar to FC, although it is classified as a subtype of PC.
  • These findings suggest that caveolin-1 and 14-3-3 sigma positively or negatively regulate the development of FVPC but not that of FC, reflecting the difference of biological characteristics of these two types of carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / metabolism. Caveolins / metabolism. Exonucleases / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] 14-3-3 Proteins. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Caveolin 1. Exoribonucleases. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques

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  • (PMID = 16259106.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 14-3-3 Proteins; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CAV1 protein, human; 0 / Caveolin 1; 0 / Caveolins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; EC 3.1.- / Exonucleases; EC 3.1.- / Exoribonucleases; EC 3.1.- / SFN protein, human
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18. Sato T, Harao M, Nakano S, Jotsuka T, Suda N, Yamashita J: Circulating tumor cells detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for carcinoembryonic antigen mRNA: distinguishing follicular thyroid carcinoma from adenoma. Surgery; 2005 May;137(5):552-8
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  • [Title] Circulating tumor cells detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for carcinoembryonic antigen mRNA: distinguishing follicular thyroid carcinoma from adenoma.
  • BACKGROUND: We prospectively tested whether circulating tumor cells could be detected in peripheral blood of patients with thyroid tumors by a reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to detect carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) messenger RNA (mRNA).
  • METHODS: We assayed for CEA mRNA by RT-PCR in peripheral blood sampled before and 2 to 3 weeks after curative surgery for thyroid tumors in 121 patients.
  • RESULTS: No control samples were positive for CEA mRNA by RT-PCR.
  • Of 121 preoperative samples from patients with thyroid tumor, 6 were positive (5.0%).
  • Preoperative frequencies of CEA mRNA positivity in benign tumor, papillary carcinoma, follicular variant papillary carcinoma, minimally invasive follicular carcinoma, and widely invasive follicular carcinoma were 0%, 0%, 0%, 44.4% (4/9), and 50.0% (2/4), respectively.
  • Among positive patients only one, who had widely invasive follicular carcinoma, remained positive after surgery.
  • CONCLUSIONS: RT-PCR detection of tumor cells in preoperative blood often can distinguish malignant from benign follicular thyroid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / metabolism. Carcinoma / metabolism. Goiter, Nodular / metabolism. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15855928.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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19. Albores-Saavedra J, Henson DE, Glazer E, Schwartz AM: Changing patterns in the incidence and survival of thyroid cancer with follicular phenotype--papillary, follicular, and anaplastic: a morphological and epidemiological study. Endocr Pathol; 2007;18(1):1-7
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  • [Title] Changing patterns in the incidence and survival of thyroid cancer with follicular phenotype--papillary, follicular, and anaplastic: a morphological and epidemiological study.
  • Thyroid carcinomas with follicular phenotype have demonstrated changing patterns over 30 years (1973-2003) according to data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program of the National Cancer Institute.
  • Papillary carcinomas have significantly increased.
  • They accounted for 74% of all cases of thyroid cancers in 1973 and 87% in 2003.
  • During this period, the incidence rate of papillary carcinoma (including the follicular variant) increased by 189%, the rate of follicular carcinoma remained stable, and the rate of anaplastic carcinoma decreased by 22%.
  • The rate of the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma alone increased by 173%.
  • Thyroid cancer was more common in whites than in blacks and in females more than in males.
  • Papillary carcinomas rapidly increased during adolescence and reached a peak around age 52-56, then declined.
  • Follicular carcinomas increased steadily, but at a lower rate until age 80.
  • After 1988, both papillary and follicular carcinomas, less than 2 cm, increased at the same rate as carcinomas larger than 2 cm.
  • However, papillary carcinomas less than 2 cm were more common.
  • Overall, the 10-year relative survival rate was greater than 90% for blacks and whites with the exception of follicular carcinoma in blacks.
  • The 10-year relative survival rate for anaplastic carcinoma in patients over 40 years of age was 4.7%.
  • The decrease in incidence rate of anaplastic carcinoma may be the result of the successful treatment of papillary and follicular carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular. Carcinoma, Papillary. Thyroid Neoplasms


20. Ito Y, Miyauchi A: Prognostic factors and therapeutic strategies for differentiated carcinomas of the thyroid. Endocr J; 2009;56(2):177-92
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors and therapeutic strategies for differentiated carcinomas of the thyroid.
  • Differentiated thyroid carcinoma originates from thyroid follicular cells and is the most prominent malignancy of the endocrine organs.
  • There are two histological types of differentiated carcinoma, namely, papillary and follicular carcinoma.
  • According to reports from Western countries, papillary carcinoma comprises 85.3% of thyroid malignancies in whites, and 72.3% in blacks.
  • In Japan, a previous study showed that the prevalence of papillary carcinoma was 78.4% based on material registered between 1977 and 1986, but according to recent findings reported in 2004 by Japanese Society of Thyroid Surgeons (JSTS), papillary carcinoma accounted for as much as 93% of all thyroid carcinomas.
  • Papillary carcinoma frequently metastasizes to the regional lymph node and shows multicentricity in the thyroid gland.
  • Follicular carcinoma accounts for 10.9-20.5% of the patients in the United States.
  • In Japan, the prevalence of follicular carcinoma was reported to be 17.2%, but it decreased to 5% in a report by JSTS in 2004.
  • This carcinoma is only occasionally diagnosed preoperatively, because it is hard to discriminate follicular carcinoma from benign adenoma on imaging studies and cytologic findings.
  • In contrast to papillary carcinoma, follicular carcinoma more often metastasizes to distant organs than regional lymph nodes.
  • In Japan, the prevalence of papillary carcinoma increased and that of follicular carcinoma decreased between reports from 1977 to 1986 and that in 2004, which may be because follicular variant of papillary carcinoma was classified into follicular carcinoma in the previous results.
  • Generally, these carcinomas show an indolent character, but when the lesion dedifferentiates and becomes undifferentiated carcinoma, it displays very rapid growth with an adverse prognosis and is regarded even as the most aggressive malignancy among human solid carcinomas.
  • Indeed, it is most important for physicians to correctly distinguish high-risk cases from those with an indolent character, although how to evaluate the biological characteristics of thyroid carcinoma and how to identify high-risk cases remains highly controversial.
  • In this review, the methods of distinguishing high-risk cases and the appropriate therapeutic strategies for papillary and follicular carcinomas predominantly based on our experience are emphasized and our proposals for therapies including surgical treatment are demonstrated.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Humans. Japan / epidemiology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Prognosis. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 18703852.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 113
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21. Shapiro NL, Bhattacharyya N: Population-based outcomes for pediatric thyroid carcinoma. Laryngoscope; 2005 Feb;115(2):337-40
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  • [Title] Population-based outcomes for pediatric thyroid carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The objective was to determine clinical features and clinical outcomes for pediatric thyroid carcinoma.
  • METHODS: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database (1988-2000) was surveyed, extracting all cases of pediatric thyroid carcinoma.
  • Clinical features including age, gender, tumor type, tumor size, nodal disease, treatment modality, and survival variables were retrieved.
  • Cox regression analysis was conducted to determine prognostic factors affecting survival in pediatric carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: In all, 566 cases of thyroid carcinoma were extracted for the time period.
  • Mean patient age at presentation was 16.0 years, with a female predominance (84.8%).
  • There were 378 cases of papillary carcinoma, 137 cases of follicular variant of papillary carcinoma, and 51 cases of follicular carcinoma.
  • The average tumor size was 2.6 cm, and 37.1% of patients presented with positive nodal disease.
  • Follicular carcinoma exhibited a slightly poorer survival that was statistically significant (P = .017) CONCLUSION: Pediatric thyroid carcinoma primarily affects girls.
  • Clinical features of tumor presentation are similar to those of adults with thyroid carcinoma.
  • However, overall survival for pediatric thyroid carcinoma is excellent, with few patients dying of disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / mortality. Carcinoma, Papillary / mortality. Thyroid Neoplasms / mortality

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  • [CommentIn] Laryngoscope. 2006 Nov;116(11):2095; author reply 2095 [17075406.001]
  • (PMID = 15689762.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-852X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. French CA, Fletcher JA, Cibas ES, Caulfield C, Allard P, Kroll TG: Molecular detection of PPAR gamma rearrangements and thyroid carcinoma in preoperative fine-needle aspiration biopsies. Endocr Pathol; 2008;19(3):166-74
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  • [Title] Molecular detection of PPAR gamma rearrangements and thyroid carcinoma in preoperative fine-needle aspiration biopsies.
  • The pathologic diagnosis of thyroid follicular tumors is difficult, particularly in preoperative fine-needle aspiration biopsies.
  • To investigate whether the molecular diagnosis of PPAR gamma rearrangements can detect thyroid carcinomas in fine-needle aspiration biopsies, we performed interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization on 24 thyroid fine-needle aspiration and 17 follow-up thyroidectomy specimens.
  • Two of the 24 fine-needle aspiration biopsies contained PPAR gamma rearrangements, and both were diagnosed suggestive of a thyroid follicular neoplasm by cytology.
  • The two corresponding thyroidectomies each contained PPAR gamma rearrangements in all tumor cells and, both were diagnosed follicular-patterned thyroid carcinomas-one a follicular carcinoma and the other a follicular variant of papillary carcinoma, the latter by majority of expert endocrine pathologists.
  • Our experiments demonstrate that PPAR gamma rearrangements can detect a subset of follicular-patterned thyroid carcinomas in preoperative thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsies.
  • The ultimate utility of mutations such as PPAR gamma rearrangements in diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma must be proven by direct correlation of mutation status with thyroid tumor biology and not just with thyroid tumor morphology, a subjective and imprecise marker of clinical behavior.
  • The application of specific mutations to preoperative diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma is predicted to improve the accuracy and reduce the costs of treating patients with thyroid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. PPAR gamma / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • [ErratumIn] Endocr Pathol. 2008 Winter;19(4):299
  • (PMID = 18688583.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA75425
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / PPAR gamma
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23. Wallander M, Layfield LJ, Jarboe E, Emerson L, Liu T, Thaker H, Holden J, Tripp S: Follicular variant of papillary carcinoma: reproducibility of histologic diagnosis and utility of HBME-1 immunohistochemistry and BRAF mutational analysis as diagnostic adjuncts. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2010 May;18(3):231-5
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  • [Title] Follicular variant of papillary carcinoma: reproducibility of histologic diagnosis and utility of HBME-1 immunohistochemistry and BRAF mutational analysis as diagnostic adjuncts.
  • CONTEXT: Despite the recognition of the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid (FVPTC) for over 50 years, reproducibility of this diagnostic category has remained poor.
  • Mutations in BRAF exon 15 were found in 25% (2/8) of cases with a 100% consensus diagnosis of FVPTC and 32% (6/19) of cases unanimously diagnosed as a type of papillary carcinoma (classic or follicular variant).
  • HBME-1 was expressed in 87.5% (7/8) of lesions with a 100% consensus diagnosis of FVPTC and 84.2% (16/19) of lesions with a unanimous diagnosis of a type of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid (classic or follicular variant).
  • HBME-1 expression when coupled with a BRAF mutation, results in 100% specificity but low sensitivity for the presence of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid including the follicular variant.

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  • (PMID = 20042852.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4058
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / HBME-1 antigen; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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24. Pezzolla A, Lattarulo S, Milella M, Barile G, Pascazio B, Ciampolillo A, Fabiano G, Palasciano N: [Incidental carcinoma in thyroid pathology: our experience and review of the literature]. Ann Ital Chir; 2010 May-Jun;81(3):165-9
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  • [Title] [Incidental carcinoma in thyroid pathology: our experience and review of the literature].
  • [Transliterated title] Il carcinoma incidentale nella patologia tiroidea. La nostra esperienza e revisione della letteratura.
  • The diagnosis of incidental thyroid carcinoma in patients submitted to thyroidectomy for a benign disease is quite frequent.
  • A retrospective analysis was performed on 240 patients submitted to surgical intervention in order to establish the incidence of the carcinoma.
  • One hundred sixty five patients (68.75%) were affected by benign disease (132 multinodular goiter, 30 uninodular goiter, 2 Plummer and 1 Basedow) and 75 (31.25%) by carcinoma.
  • In 30 of 165 patients (18.2 %), affected by benign disease, occurred a histological diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma, (18 papillary carcinoma, 6 follicular carcinoma, 5 papillary carcinoma follicular variant and 1 oncocytic carcinoma).
  • In this study it's considered incidental thyroid carcinoma the one occurred in patients who never underwent FNA and there were no suspicious features in all exams that may suggest the presence of carcinoma.
  • Fifteen of the 30 incidental carcinoma (50%) were microcarcinomas; in the other 13, dimensions were more than 1 cm, but less than 2 cm in 9 cases.
  • Two patients had a synchronous carcinoma.
  • Actually these patients are still in a follow up program and no recurrency of disease is occasionally observed.
  • This study shows that the only way to put doubts on the real benignity of the disease is the fine needle aspiration; there are no other instruments that could let think about the occurrence of the carcinoma.
  • Moreover in the majority of cases the incidental carcinoma is a microcarcinoma, it doesn't reach significant volume, may be not centered by a FNAB, but in must cases it's not really biologically aggressive.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Incidental Findings. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Graves Disease / pathology. Humans. Incidence. Italy / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Plummer-Vinson Syndrome / pathology. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 21105480.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-469X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annali italiani di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Ital Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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25. Kim SJ, Kim IJ, Kang YH, Kim YK: Characterization of follicular thyroid nodules at fine needle aspiration biopsy using double phase thallium-201 imaging: comparison of visual and semiquantitative analyses. Thyroid; 2006 Dec;16(12):1243-9
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  • [Title] Characterization of follicular thyroid nodules at fine needle aspiration biopsy using double phase thallium-201 imaging: comparison of visual and semiquantitative analyses.
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare visual and semiquantitative indices of double phase thallium-201 thyroid scintigraphy (DTS) for differentiation of malignant nodules by indeterminate fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) results.
  • Early L/N was superior to delayed L/N and WR for the detection of malignant thyroid nodules.
  • CONCLUSION: Visual assessment had a limited value for differentiation of follicular nodules.
  • The early L/N was superior to delayed L/N and WR for the detection of malignant thyroid nodular lesions.
  • Visual analysis and semiquantitative indices of DTS could not differentiate follicular carcinoma and follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Thallium Radioisotopes. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Nodule / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radionuclide imaging. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Papillary / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / radionuclide imaging. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17199434.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Thallium Radioisotopes
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31. Cerilli LA, Frable WJ, Spafford MF: Anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid with chondroblastoma features mimicking papillary carcinoma: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2007 Sep-Oct;51(5):825-8
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  • [Title] Anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid with chondroblastoma features mimicking papillary carcinoma: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: An unusual case of anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid arising from a metastatic focus of papillary carcinoma.
  • CASE: The tumor affected a 69-year-old woman with a history of total thyroidectomy for papillary thyroid carcinoma 4 years previously.
  • She presented with a rapidly enlarging neck mass that histologically simulated chondroblastoma.
  • A small, embedded focus of residual follicular variant of papillary carcinoma was present.
  • The patient died of disease 3 months later.
  • CONCLUSION: This "chondroblastoma" variant of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma has not been reported to date.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Chondroblastoma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17910356.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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32. Sangalli G, Serio G, Zampatti C, Bellotti M, Lomuscio G: Fine needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid: a comparison of 5469 cytological and final histological diagnoses. Cytopathology; 2006 Oct;17(5):245-50

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid: a comparison of 5469 cytological and final histological diagnoses.
  • OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the efficacy of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of the thyroid in a series of 5469 lesions with histological control and studied the causes of, and the possibility of reducing the limitations of the method.
  • RESULTS: We obtained a complete sensitivity of 93.4%, a positive predictive value of malignancy of 98.6%, and a specificity of 74.9%.
  • At histological control, the cytological diagnosis of Hurthle cell neoplasm corresponded to a significantly higher incidence of malignant neoplasms than the diagnosis of non-Hurthle cell follicular neoplasm (32.1% versus 15.5%).
  • There were 66 false-negative findings, the main cause of diagnostic error (24 cases) being failure to recognize the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Our study confirmed the great efficacy of thyroid FNAC.
  • Awareness that failure to recognize the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma was the main problem in the interpretation of thyroid FNAC should lead to a decrease of false-negative diagnoses.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16961652.001).
  • [ISSN] 0956-5507
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytopathology : official journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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33. Wang T, Jiang CX, Li Y, Liu X: [Pathologic study of expression and significance of matrix metalloproteinases-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, vascular endothelial growth factor and transforming growth factor beta-1 in papillary carcinoma and follicular carcinoma of thyroid]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2009 Dec;38(12):824-8
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  • [Title] [Pathologic study of expression and significance of matrix metalloproteinases-9, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, vascular endothelial growth factor and transforming growth factor beta-1 in papillary carcinoma and follicular carcinoma of thyroid].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the roles of matrix metalloproteinases-9 (MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and transforming growth factor β-1 (TGFβ-1) in differentiation, invasiveness and metastatic potential of papillary carcinoma and follicular carcinoma of thyroid.
  • METHODS: Eighty-five cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma and 59 cases of follicular thyroid carcinoma were enrolled into the study.
  • The positivity rates of MMP-9, TIMP-1, VEGF and TGFβ-1 in papillary thyroid carcinoma (83.5%, 81.2%, 90.6% and 75.3%, respectively) were similar to or lower than those in follicular thyroid carcinoma (93.2%, 86.4%, 89.9% and 78.0%, respectively).
  • The expression rates in papillary thyroid carcinoma with lymph node metastasis were also higher than those in tumors without lymph node metastasis.
  • The expression rates of MMP-9, VEGF and TGFβ-1 in poorly-differentiated follicular thyroid carcinoma were higher than those in well-differentiated follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • In general, the expression of VEGF and MMP-9 was higher than that of TIMP-1 and TGFβ-1 in papillary thyroid carcinoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Immunohistochemical detection of MMP-9, TIMP-1, VEGF and TGFβ-1 expression may carry clinical significance in evaluating the degree of differentiation, invasiveness, metastatic potential and prognosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 / metabolism. Transforming Growth Factor beta1 / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20193458.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta1; 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
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34. Chowhan AK, Kinnera VS, Yootla M, Reddy MK: Cervical ectopic thymus masquerading as metastatic thyroid papillary carcinoma. Malays J Pathol; 2010 Jun;32(1):65-8
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  • [Title] Cervical ectopic thymus masquerading as metastatic thyroid papillary carcinoma.
  • We report a 12-year-old female presenting with multinodular thyroid swelling since seven years of age.
  • FNAC revealed adenomatous goitre with suspicious cystic papillary neoplastic foci, for which she underwent total thyroidectomy along with excision of a nodular swelling near the lower pole of the right thyroid lobe which was per-operatively suspected to be a lymph node.
  • Histopathological examination revealed a follicular variant papillary carcinoma of the thyroid with background thyroiditis, and a nodule of ectopic thymic tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / complications. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Thyroid Dysgenesis / complications. Thyroid Dysgenesis / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 20614729.001).
  • [ISSN] 0126-8635
  • [Journal-full-title] The Malaysian journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Malays J Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Malaysia
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35. Kim TY, Kim WB, Song JY, Rhee YS, Gong G, Cho YM, Kim SY, Kim SC, Hong SJ, Shong YK: The BRAF mutation is not associated with poor prognostic factors in Korean patients with conventional papillary thyroid microcarcinoma. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2005 Nov;63(5):588-93
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  • [Title] The BRAF mutation is not associated with poor prognostic factors in Korean patients with conventional papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The BRAF(V600E) mutation, the most common genetic alteration reported in papillary thyroid carcinoma, has been associated with poor prognostic factors.
  • AIM: To determine whether the presence of the BRAF(V600E) mutation is associated with poor prognosis in Korean patients with conventional papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (micro-PTC).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded thyroid tumour specimens taken from 60 patients with conventional micro-PTC, as well as from nine patients with follicular variant papillary carcinoma, six with nodular hyperplasia, four with follicular carcinoma (including one with Hürthle cell carcinoma), four with follicular adenoma (including two with Hürthle cell adenoma) and one each with medullary carcinoma, poorly differentiated carcinoma and anaplastic carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: The BRAF(V600E) mutation was detected in tumour samples from 31 of 60 conventional micro-PTC patients (52%), but was not detected in patients with other types of thyroid tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Point Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16268813.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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36. Deveci MS, Deveci G, LiVolsi VA, Baloch ZW: Fine-needle aspiration of follicular lesions of the thyroid. Diagnosis and follow-Up. Cytojournal; 2006;3:9
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  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration of follicular lesions of the thyroid. Diagnosis and follow-Up.
  • The differential diagnosis of a follicular lesion/neoplasm in thyroid FNA specimens includes hyperplastic/adenomatoid nodule, follicular adenoma and carcinoma, and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • In our laboratory we separate follicular lesions of thyroid into hyperplastic/adenomatoid nodule (HN), follicular neoplasm (FON) and follicular derived neoplasm with focal nuclear features suspicious for papillary thyroid carcinoma (FDN).
  • In the FON category almost half of the malignant cases were papillary carcinoma.
  • According to this study it is important to divide follicular patterned lesions of thyroid into FON and FDN in the cytology specimens due to significantly different risk of malignancy (22% vs. 72%).

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  • [Cites] Diagn Cytopathol. 1985 Apr-Jun;1(2):123-32 [3841772.001]
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  • (PMID = 16603062.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-6413
  • [Journal-full-title] CytoJournal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytojournal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1458352
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37. Yu J, Nikiforova MN, Hodak SP, Yim JH, Cai G, Walls A, Nikiforov YE, Seethala RR: Tumor-to-tumor metastases to follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: histologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular studies of two unusual cases. Endocr Pathol; 2009;20(4):235-42
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  • [Title] Tumor-to-tumor metastases to follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: histologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular studies of two unusual cases.
  • Tumor-to-tumor metastasis in thyroid neoplasms is exceedingly uncommon.
  • Two unusual cases of breast carcinoma and renal cell carcinoma metastatic to follicular variant papillary carcinoma are reported.
  • On histologic sections, the donor tumor cells infiltrated the substance of the recipient tumor and the angiolymphatic channels, but the bulk of metastatic tumor was confined within the thyroid carcinoma.
  • Immunohistochemical stains as well as molecular studies confirmed the origin of both donor tumors, as well as the diagnosis of follicular variant of papillary carcinoma in the recipient tumors.
  • A brief review of literature and discussion of tumor-to-tumor metastasis in thyroid neoplasms is also presented.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Female. Galectin 3 / analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / analysis. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Loss of Heterozygosity. Male. Microsatellite Repeats / genetics. Middle Aged. Neprilysin / analysis. Nuclear Proteins / analysis. Thyroglobulin / analysis. Transcription Factors / analysis. Vimentin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19707890.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CAM 5.2 antigen; 0 / CITED1 protein, human; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / HBME-1 antigen; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / TTF1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Vimentin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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38. Chagas JF, Aquino JL, Pascoal MB, Teixeira AS, Ferro MM, Gambaro MC, Dedivitis RA: Multicentricity in the thyroid differentiated carcinoma. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol; 2009 Jan-Feb;75(1):97-100
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  • [Title] Multicentricity in the thyroid differentiated carcinoma.
  • The treatment of choice for the well differentiated thyroid carcinoma has always been controversial.
  • AIM: to analyze tumor invasion of the thyroid gland's contralateral lobe in cases of differentiated carcinoma, correlating risk/benefit with the complications of a second surgical approach.
  • Patients' ages varied from 17 to 89; the most frequent histopathological pattern was the classical papillary carcinoma (18 cases), followed by follicular carcinoma (6); the follicular variant of the papillary carcinoma (2) and the Hürthle cell carcinoma (1).
  • RESULTS: the contralateral lobe analysis was negative for carcinoma in 16 (76.5%) and positive in the other 5 (23.8%) patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: total thyroidectomy is important in the treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinomas, because there is a high contralateral spread rate (23.8%).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 19488567.001).
  • [ISSN] 1808-8694
  • [Journal-full-title] Brazilian journal of otorhinolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Braz J Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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39. Denning KM, Smyth PC, Cahill SF, Finn SP, Conlon E, Li J, Flavin RJ, Aherne ST, Guenther SM, Ferlinz A, O'Leary JJ, Sheils OM: A molecular expression signature distinguishing follicular lesions in thyroid carcinoma using preamplification RT-PCR in archival samples. Mod Pathol; 2007 Oct;20(10):1095-102
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  • [Title] A molecular expression signature distinguishing follicular lesions in thyroid carcinoma using preamplification RT-PCR in archival samples.
  • Follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma is a lesion that frequently causes difficulties from a diagnostic perspective in the laboratory.
  • The purpose of this study was to interrogate a cohort of archival thyroid lesions using gene expression analysis of a panel of markers proposed to have utility as adjunctive markers in the diagnosis of thyroid neoplasia and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma in particular.
  • HLA-DMA, HLA-DQB1, MT1X, CSNK1G2 and RAB23 were found to be differentially expressed (P<0.05) when comparing follicular adenoma and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Comparison of follicular adenoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma groups showed significant differential expression for MT1K, MT1X and RAB23 (P<0.05).
  • Comparison of the papillary thyroid carcinoma group (classic and follicular variants) and the follicular adenoma group showed differential expression for CSNK1G2, HLA-DQB1, MT1X and RAB23 (P<0.05).
  • Finally, KRAS2 was found to be differentially expressed (P<0.05) when comparing the papillary thyroid carcinoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma groups.
  • This panel of molecular targets discriminates between follicular adenoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma, follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma by their expression repertoires.
  • It may have utility for broader use in the setting of fine-needle aspiration cytology and could improve the definitive diagnosis of certain categories of thyroid malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. Gene Expression. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17660800.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers
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40. Laco J, Ryska A: [The use of immunohistochemistry in the differential diagnosis of thyroid gland tumors with follicular growth pattern]. Cesk Patol; 2006 Jul;42(3):120-4
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  • [Title] [The use of immunohistochemistry in the differential diagnosis of thyroid gland tumors with follicular growth pattern].
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of galectin-3 (gal3), cytokeratin 19 (CK19), neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), and E-cadherin (Ecad) in thyroid gland tumors with follicular growth pattern with particular focus on their use in differential diagnosis.
  • A series of 139 cases - 87 follicular adenomas (FAs), 26 follicular carcinomas (FCs), and 26 cases of the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (FVPC) was studied.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / chemistry. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cadherins / analysis. Carcinoma, Papillary / chemistry. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / chemistry. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Galectin 3 / analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / analysis. Male. Middle Aged. Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule L1 / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16955558.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-7875
  • [Journal-full-title] Československá patologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cesk Patol
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule L1; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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41. Falvo L, Marzullo A, Palermo S, Biancafarina A, De Stefano M, Vanni B, Sorrenti S, Catania A: The sentinel lymph node in papillary cancer of the thyroid including histological subtype. Ann Ital Chir; 2006 Jan-Feb;77(1):13-8; discussion 18
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  • [Title] The sentinel lymph node in papillary cancer of the thyroid including histological subtype.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: At the Surgical Science Department of La Sapienza University of Rome The Authors studied from January 2003 to June 2004 18 patients with papillary carcinoma of the thyroid, who presented no clinical evidence of lymph node metastasis; they performed a total thyroidectomy in all cases, removing and histologically examining all lymph nodes of the upper anterior mediastinum.
  • RESULTS: The method was positive in 10 patients: 2 pure papillary carcinomas, 1 papillary carcinoma with poorly differentiated areas, 1 tall cell papillary carcinoma, 5 sclerosing carcinoma and 1 follicular variant papillary carcinoma; and negative in 8:5 pure papillary carcinomas, 2 sclerosing carcinoma and 1 case of follicular variant papillary carcinoma.
  • The Authors can propose two main applications: select for dissection only patients with a positive sentinel node and reduce the number of cases to be subjected to postoperative treatment with iodine ablation, in patients with "low risk" thyroid tumours and negative sentinel nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymph Nodes / surgery. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16910354.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-469X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annali italiani di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Ital Chir
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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42. Adeniran AJ, Zhu Z, Gandhi M, Steward DL, Fidler JP, Giordano TJ, Biddinger PW, Nikiforov YE: Correlation between genetic alterations and microscopic features, clinical manifestations, and prognostic characteristics of thyroid papillary carcinomas. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Feb;30(2):216-22
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  • [Title] Correlation between genetic alterations and microscopic features, clinical manifestations, and prognostic characteristics of thyroid papillary carcinomas.
  • Papillary carcinoma is the most common type of thyroid malignancy.
  • In this study, we analyze the relationship between these alterations and the microscopic features of papillary carcinomas, their clinical features, and prognostic characteristics.
  • Ninety-seven papillary carcinomas were studied; in all cases, frozen tissue was available for nucleic acid extraction.
  • Morphologic features were evaluated in detail in 61 cases and 6 characteristic nuclear features and 3 additional microscopic features were assessed quantitatively.
  • At least 4 nuclear features were found in each tumor, with nuclear pseudoinclusions being the least frequent finding in all mutation groups.
  • BRAF mutations were associated with older patient age, typical papillary appearance or the tall cell variant, a higher rate of extrathyroidal extension, and more advanced tumor stage at presentation.
  • RET/PTC rearrangements presented at younger age and had predominantly typical papillary histology, frequent psammoma bodies, and a high rate of lymph node metastases.
  • Tumors with RAS mutations were exclusively the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma and correlated with significantly less prominent nuclear features and low rate of lymph node metastases.
  • These findings demonstrate that BRAF, RET/PTC, and RAS mutations are associated with distinct microscopic, clinical, and biologic features of thyroid papillary carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16434896.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA88041
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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43. Pang T, Ihre-Lundgren C, Gill A, McMullen T, Sywak M, Sidhu S, Delbridge L: Correlation between indeterminate aspiration cytology and final histopathology of thyroid neoplasms. Surgery; 2010 Sep;148(3):532-7
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  • [Title] Correlation between indeterminate aspiration cytology and final histopathology of thyroid neoplasms.
  • BACKGROUND: Of all thyroid nodules assessed by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), 10-20% are classified as indeterminate/atypical.
  • Traditionally, this group is considered to primarily represent follicular neoplasia.
  • We hypothesize that papillary carcinoma accounts for a significant proportion of lesions classified as "atypical" on FNAC.
  • METHODS: This retrospective study includes 228 patients who had an atypical FNAC result and who were subsequently found to have a malignancy on histologic examination of the excised thyroid lesion.
  • Patients with papillary microcarcinomas, defined as lesions less than 10-mm diameter, were excluded.
  • Prevalence of papillary carcinoma was not statistically significant (33/76 vs 34/76 vs 46/76; P = .0636), but showed a statistical significant trend to increase over time (P = .0349).
  • Prevalence of follicular variant papillary carcinoma was also found to be significantly different between the groups (7/76 vs 12/76 vs 19/76; P = .0320; P = .0349).
  • CONCLUSION: Papillary carcinoma accounted for most histopathologically confirmed cancers that had an atypical cytology.
  • Papillary cancer in this group of patients trended up, probably due to a significant increase in the diagnosis of follicular variant of papillary cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Biopsy, Needle / methods. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Chi-Square Distribution. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Genetic Variation. Goiter / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Patient Selection. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20236675.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. Berni Canani F, Dall'Olio D, Chiarini V, Casadei GP, Papini E: Papillary carcinoma of a thyroglossal duct cyst in a patient with thyroid hemiagenesis: effectiveness of conservative surgical treatment. Endocr Pract; 2008 May-Jun;14(4):465-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Papillary carcinoma of a thyroglossal duct cyst in a patient with thyroid hemiagenesis: effectiveness of conservative surgical treatment.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe a case of thyroglossal duct cyst carcinoma that arose in a patient with right thyroid lobe hemiagenesis.
  • The patient's preoperative workup included ultrasonography of the neck and head and neck T1- and T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, which showed right hemithyroid agenesis and a cystic lesion in the median region of the neck below the hyoid bone.
  • Findings from chest x-rays and thyroid function tests were normal.
  • Histologic findings showed a 2.5-cm thyroglossal duct cyst with a 0.6-cm focus of follicular variant of papillary carcinoma with invasion of the cyst wall.
  • Total thyroidectomy was not performed because of the absence of tumoral invasion of the parenchyma around the thyroglossal duct cyst and because the patient was at low risk for aggressive disease.
  • Presently, the patient is symptom-free after 4 years of follow-up and has no evidence of disease.
  • CONCLUSION: Incidentally discovered, well-differentiated thyroid cancer that is confined to a thyroglossal duct cyst in a patient at low risk for aggressive disease can be adequately treated by a modified Sistrunk procedure that includes the median portion of the hyoid bone.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Thyroglossal Cyst / surgery. Thyroid Dysgenesis / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Thyroid Gland / abnormalities. Thyroid Gland / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18558601.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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45. Hagag P, Hod N, Kummer E, Cohenpour M, Horne T, Weiss M: Follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: clinical-pathological characterization and long-term follow-up. Cancer J; 2006 Jul-Aug;12(4):275-82
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  • [Title] Follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: clinical-pathological characterization and long-term follow-up.
  • PURPOSE: Questions arise concerning the behavior and prognosis of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1990 and 2003, 92 patients with follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (group A) were enrolled in a long-term study and compared with control groups of follicular thyroid carcinoma (group B, 40 cases) and pure papillary thyroid carcinoma (group C, 99 subjects).
  • The rate of metastasis tumors was higher in group A than in group C and was comparable in groups A and B.
  • Persistent stable lesions and progressive disease rates in groups B, A, and C were 2.5% and 2.5%, 15% and 8%, and 0% and 2%, respectively.
  • DISCUSSION: Follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma may be more aggressive than previously considered and should be clearly distinguished from the two other forms of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular. Thyroid Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Differentiation. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • [CommentIn] Cancer J. 2006 Jul-Aug;12(4):250-2 [16925968.001]
  • (PMID = 16925971.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-9117
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer journal (Sudbury, Mass.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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46. Yang CS, Zhang Q, Guo ZM, Zeng ZY, Lai FY: [Childhood thyroid carcinoma: clinical analyses of 22 cases]. Ai Zheng; 2008 Mar;27(3):311-4
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  • [Title] [Childhood thyroid carcinoma: clinical analyses of 22 cases].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Thyroid carcinoma is rarely occurred in children.
  • Clinicopathologic characteristics, therapy and prognosis of childhood thyroid carcinoma patients are different from those of adult patients, and the treatment of this disease is controversial.
  • This study was to explore the clinicopathologic characteristics, diagnosis and therapy of thyroid carcinoma in children.
  • METHODS: Clinical data of 22 children under the age of 14, diagnosed as thyroid carcinoma between Jan.
  • Of the 22 patients, 8 (36.4%) had papillary carcinoma, 8 (36.4%) had follicular carcinoma, 5(22.7%) had mixed papillary-follicular carcinoma, and 1 (4.5%) had medullary carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Childhood thyroid carcinomas are mostly differentiated carcinomas, with high frequency of cervical lymph node metastases.
  • The optimal treatment for thyroid carcinoma in children may improve the quality of life and decrease the incidence of complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18334124.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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47. Dănilă R, Andriescu L, Dăscălescu C, Lefter LP, Popovici R, Găluşcă B, Vulpoi C, Ungureanu C, Mogoş V, Dragomir C: [Differentiated thyroid cancer--peculiar morphological and clinical forms]. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi; 2005 Oct-Dec;109(4):746-52
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  • [Title] [Differentiated thyroid cancer--peculiar morphological and clinical forms].
  • The most common clinical presentation of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), consisting of papillary and follicular adenocarcinoma (with their histological variants), is the solitary thyroid nodule.
  • A review of the literature is performed in order to describe particular forms of DTC, in terms of incidence, diagnosis and treatment: occult carcinoma, carcinoma on aberrant thyroid tissue, "functional" thyroid carcinoma and familial non-medullary carcinoma.
  • A particular interest is shown to the coexistence of malignancy with benign thyroid diseases, such as goiter, hyperthyroidism and Hashimoto's thyroiditis, as well as parathyroid adenoma.
  • In conclusion, the authors emphasize that the association of carcinoma with benign thyroid conditions is not rare and it substantiate an aggressive approach in regard to diagnosis and treatment, increasing the indication for surgery and, moreover, for total thyroidectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Thyroid Diseases / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16610171.001).
  • [ISSN] 0048-7848
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista medico-chirurgicală̆ a Societă̆ţ̜ii de Medici ş̧i Naturaliş̧ti din Iaş̧i
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi
  • [Language] rum
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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48. Chaabouni AM, Intidhar Labidi S, Kraiem T, Gammoudi A, Ladgham A, Ben Slimane F: [Papillary-follicular carcinoma arising in a lingual thyroid]. Ann Otolaryngol Chir Cervicofac; 2006 Sep;123(4):199-202
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  • [Title] [Papillary-follicular carcinoma arising in a lingual thyroid].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinome vesiculo-papillaire sur thyroïde linguale.
  • OBJECTIVES: The management of diagnosis, treatment and outcome of malignant neoplasm arising in a lingual thyroid.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We report a case of papillary-follicular carcinoma arising in a lingual thyroid.
  • RESULTS: Lingual carcinoma causes dysphagia and pain due to oropharyngeal obstruction.
  • Surgical pharyngotomy with a trans-hyoid approach provides good access to the lesions.
  • Therefore, the eutopic thyroid was present, in pretracheal position, without neoplastic proliferation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Carcinoma arising in lingual thyroid is an extreme rare entity.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular. Choristoma. Thyroid Gland. Thyroid Neoplasms. Tongue Diseases / complications. Tongue Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 17088708.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-438X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'oto-laryngologie et de chirurgie cervico faciale : bulletin de la Société d'oto-laryngologie des hôpitaux de Paris
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Otolaryngol Chir Cervicofac
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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49. Tabriz HM, Adabi Kh, Lashkari A, Heshmat R, Haghpanah V, Larijani B, Tavangar SM: Immunohistochemical analysis of nm23 protein expression in thyroid papillary carcinoma and follicular neoplasm. Pathol Res Pract; 2009;205(2):83-7
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical analysis of nm23 protein expression in thyroid papillary carcinoma and follicular neoplasm.
  • INTRODUCTION: We aimed at assessing the significance of nm23 gene expression in papillary and follicular carcinomas, the two most common differentiated thyroid carcinomas.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: During a cross-sectional study, 173 paraffin blocks, including 131 papillary thyroid carcinomas, 12 follicular carcinomas and 30 follicular adenomas were stained with nm23 marker by immunohistochemistry method.
  • RESULTS: nm23 was positive in 40% of the follicular adenoma, 67.2% of the papillary carcinoma and 66.7% of the follicular carcinoma. p value was more than 0.05 in the assessment of the relationship between nm23 and all of the above-mentioned parameters in differentiated thyroid carcinomas. nm23 expression did not significantly differentiate between follicular adenoma and carcinoma.
  • Also, nm23 cannot be considered as a useful marker for the evaluation of invasion in differentiated thyroid carcinomas or in distinctions between follicular adenoma and carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Adenoma / metabolism. NM23 Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinases / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18996649.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / NM23 Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinases; EC 2.7.4.6 / NME1 protein, human
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50. Yamane GK: Cancer incidence in the U.S. Air Force: 1989-2002. Aviat Space Environ Med; 2006 Aug;77(8):789-94
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  • Among men, the 10 most frequent cancers (77.6% of total) were, in descending order: melanoma; testicular CA; prostate CA; non-Hodgkin lymphoma; follicular/papillary thyroid CA; Hodgkin's Disease; colorectal CA; brain neuroepithelial CA; and (tied) bladder CA and oral squamous cell CA.
  • Among women, the 10 most frequent cancers (88.1% of total) were, in descending order: breast CA; cervical CA; follicular/papillary thyroid CA; melanoma; Hodgkin's Disease; colorectal CA;.
  • (tied) non-Hodgkin lymphoma and ovarian epithelial CA; vulvar CA; and (tied) brain neuroepithelial CA and oral squamous cell CA.
  • Compared with the U.S. population, cancer type-specific SIRs were significantly increased for cervical CA, prostate CA, and vulvar CA (range, 1.44-3.54).
  • SIRs were significantly decreased for bladder CA (men), brain neuroepithelial CA, colorectal CA (men), Hodgkin's Disease (men), non-Hodgkin lymphoma, oral squamous cell CA (men), and testicular CA (range, 0.31-0.68).

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  • (PMID = 16909871.001).
  • [ISSN] 0095-6562
  • [Journal-full-title] Aviation, space, and environmental medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aviat Space Environ Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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51. Sadow PM, Hunt JL: Mixed Medullary-follicular-derived carcinomas of the thyroid gland. Adv Anat Pathol; 2010 Jul;17(4):282-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mixed Medullary-follicular-derived carcinomas of the thyroid gland.
  • Tumors of the thyroid are subclassified based on the cell of origin and commonly include follicular-derived tumors and C-cell-derived tumors.
  • The most common follicular-derived tumors are papillary carcinoma and follicular carcinoma, whereas the malignant C-cell-derived tumor is medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Rare cases in the literature describe patients who have follicular-derived and C-cell-derived tumors in the same thyroid gland.
  • The mixture may be at an interface, as in collision tumors, or can be throughout the entire lesion, as in true mixed medullary-follicular-derived carcinomas.
  • The clinical, histologic, and molecular features of these mixed tumors and the classification guidelines are reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / complications. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Humans

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  • (PMID = 20574174.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4031
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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52. Tsuge K, Takeda H, Kawada S, Maeda K, Yamakawa M: Characterization of dendritic cells in differentiated thyroid cancer. J Pathol; 2005 Apr;205(5):565-76
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  • [Title] Characterization of dendritic cells in differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • In this study, the types and localization pattern of dendritic cells (DCs), the expression of chemokines on carcinoma cells and of the relevant receptors on DCs, and the adhesion molecules expressed on vascular endothelial cells and DCs were examined in thyroid carcinomas.
  • Papillary carcinoma had a higher frequency of CD1a(+) immature DCs than other thyroid tumours.
  • Macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-3 alpha was expressed strongly on the majority of papillary carcinoma cells and weakly on a minority of follicular carcinoma cells.
  • DCs positive for chemokine receptor-6 (CCR-6) were densely accumulated in papillary carcinoma.
  • DC-SIGN(+) DCs were accumulated in papillary carcinoma but rarely in follicular carcinoma.
  • A binding assay for DC-SIGN-mediated adhesion of isolated DCs revealed significant inhibition of DC adhesion to papillary carcinoma tissues by neutralizing antibodies against intercellular adhesion molecule-2 or DC-SIGN.
  • These results clearly indicated marked differences between papillary carcinoma and follicular carcinoma in the accumulation of immature DCs, in MIP-3 alpha expression on carcinoma cells, and in the frequency of CCR-6(+) DCs and DC-SIGN(+) DCs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / immunology. Carcinoma, Papillary / immunology. Dendritic Cells / immunology. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / immunology

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  • (PMID = 15714595.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3417
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / CCR6 protein, human; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Chemokines; 0 / HLA-DR Antigens; 0 / ICAM2 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Receptors, CCR6; 0 / Receptors, Chemokine
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53. Takano T, Ito Y, Hirokawa M, Yoshida H, Miyauchi A: BRAF V600E mutation in anaplastic thyroid carcinomas and their accompanying differentiated carcinomas. Br J Cancer; 2007 May 21;96(10):1549-53
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  • [Title] BRAF V600E mutation in anaplastic thyroid carcinomas and their accompanying differentiated carcinomas.
  • Frequency of a BRAF V600E mutation in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, which is thought to be derived mainly from papillary carcinoma by multi-step carcinogenesis, is much lower than that in papillary carcinomas.
  • To clarify this phenomenon, we analysed BRAF V600E mutation in 20 cases of anaplastic carcinoma and 13 accompanying differentiated carcinomas.
  • Among twenty cases of anaplastic carcinomas, nine and four accompanied papillary and follicular carcinomas, respectively.
  • BRAF V600E mutation was found in three of nine (33.3%), none of four and one of seven (14.3%) anaplastic carcinomas with papillary carcinoma, follicular carcinoma and without differentiated components, respectively.
  • All three papillary carcinomas accompanied by anaplastic carcinoma with a BRAF V600E mutation were also shown to have a BRAF V600E mutation.
  • In summary, BRAF V600E mutation was occasionally observed in anaplastic carcinomas with papillary carcinoma, and the low frequency of BRAF V600E mutation in anaplastic carcinoma was thought to be due to the low frequency of anaplastic carcinomas with papillary carcinoma.
  • These findings raise a question about the classical model of anaplastic transformation and suggest some roles of thyroid cancer stem cells in the generation of anaplastic carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Base Sequence. DNA Mutational Analysis. Disease Progression. Female. Gene Frequency. Glutamic Acid / genetics. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Models, Biological. Mutation, Missense. Valine / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17453004.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3KX376GY7L / Glutamic Acid; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; HG18B9YRS7 / Valine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2359941
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54. Moncayo R, Kroiss A, Oberwinkler M, Karakolcu F, Starzinger M, Kapelari K, Talasz H, Moncayo H: The role of selenium, vitamin C, and zinc in benign thyroid diseases and of selenium in malignant thyroid diseases: Low selenium levels are found in subacute and silent thyroiditis and in papillary and follicular carcinoma. BMC Endocr Disord; 2008;8:2

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  • [Title] The role of selenium, vitamin C, and zinc in benign thyroid diseases and of selenium in malignant thyroid diseases: Low selenium levels are found in subacute and silent thyroiditis and in papillary and follicular carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Thyroid physiology is closely related to oxidative changes.
  • The aim of this controlled study was to evaluate the levels of nutritional anti-oxidants such as vitamin C, zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se), and to investigate any association of them with parameters of thyroid function and pathology including benign and malignant thyroid diseases.
  • METHODS: This controlled evaluation of Se included a total of 1401 subjects (1186 adults and 215 children) distributed as follows: control group (n = 687), benign thyroid disease (85 children and 465 adults); malignant thyroid disease (2 children and 79 adults).
  • Clinical evaluation of patients with benign thyroid disease included sonography, scintigraphy, as well as the determination of fT3, fT4, TSH, thyroid antibodies levels, Se, Zn, and vitamin C.
  • Besides the routine oncological parameters (TG, TSH, fT4, ultrasound) Se was also determined in the cases of malignant disease.
  • The Ho stated that there should be no differences in the levels of antioxidants between controls and thyroid disease patients.
  • RESULTS: Among the thyroid disease patients neither vitamin C, nor Zn nor Se correlated with any of the following parameters: age, sex, BMI, body weight, thyroid scintigraphy, ultrasound pattern, thyroid function, or thyroid antibodies.
  • The proportion of patients with benign thyroid diseases having analyte concentrations below external reference cut off levels were 8.7% of cases for vitamin C; 7.8% for Zn, and 20.3% for Se.
  • Se levels were significantly decreased in cases of sub-acute and silent thyroiditis (66.4 +/- 23.1 microg/l and 59.3 +/- 20.1 microg/l, respectively) as well as in follicular and papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Patients with benign or malignant thyroid diseases can present low Se levels as compared to controls.

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  • (PMID = 18221503.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-6823
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC endocrine disorders
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Endocr Disord
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2266752
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55. Sobrinho-Simões M, Máximo V, Castro IV, Fonseca E, Soares P, Garcia-Rostan G, Oliveira MC: Hürthle (oncocytic) cell tumors of thyroid: etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical significance. Int J Surg Pathol; 2005 Jan;13(1):29-35
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  • [Title] Hürthle (oncocytic) cell tumors of thyroid: etiopathogenesis, diagnosis and clinical significance.
  • The etiopathogenesis and the classification of oncocytic (Hürthle cell) tumors of the thyroid is reviewed with an emphasis on the role played by mitochondrial and nuclear genetic abnormalities that interfere with mitochondrial function.
  • Oxyphilia is classified into primary or secondary and the so-called Hürthle cell carcinoma is divided into oncocytic (Hürthle cell) variants of papillary and follicular carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / genetics. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15735852.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Mitochondrial
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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56. Nagano J, Mabuchi K, Yoshimoto Y, Hayashi Y, Tsuda N, Land C, Kodama K: A case-control study in Hiroshima and Nagasaki examining non-radiation risk factors for thyroid cancer. J Epidemiol; 2007 May;17(3):76-85
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  • [Title] A case-control study in Hiroshima and Nagasaki examining non-radiation risk factors for thyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Because little is known about the etiology of thyroid cancer in Japan, we conducted a case-control study of thyroid cancer and lifestyle and other risk factors.
  • METHODS: Thyroid cancer cases reported to the Hiroshima and Nagasaki tumor registries during 1970-1986 were histologically reviewed by pathologists.
  • For each of 362 cases with papillary or follicular adenocarcinoma diagnosed at <75 years of age, one control without cancer matched on city, sex, year of birth, and atomic-bomb radiation exposure was selected from the Life Span Study cohort or the offspring cohort.
  • RESULTS: Analysis using conditional logistic regression showed history of goiter or thyroid nodule and family history of cancer to be significantly associated with an increased odds ratio for thyroid cancer.
  • Smoking and alcohol drinking were significantly and independently associated with a reduced odds ratio.
  • Radiation exposure did not significantly modify the associations between these factors and thyroid cancer risk.
  • CONCLUSION: History of goiter/nodule and family history of cancer were risk factors for thyroid cancer.

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  • (PMID = 17545694.001).
  • [ISSN] 0917-5040
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of epidemiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Epidemiol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radioactive Fallout
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57. Sergieva S, Hadjieva T, Doldurova M, Stefanova S, Dudov A: Nuclear medicine approaches in the monitoring of thyroid cancer patients. J BUON; 2006 Oct-Dec;11(4):511-8
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  • [Title] Nuclear medicine approaches in the monitoring of thyroid cancer patients.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of some nuclear medicine approaches such as (99m)Tc-MIBI scan and (131)I whole-body scintigraphy (WBS) in the monitoring of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: 95 patients (69F/26M) aged 17-74 years (mean 44.2) with DTC (56 cases with papillary, 20 with follicular and 19 with papillary-follicular carcinoma) were assessed.
  • All of them had undergone total or near-total thyroidectomy and received radioiodine treatment for ablation of post-surgical residual thyroid tissue.
  • RESULTS: (131)I scan was positive in 63 patients showing thyroid remnants in 31 cases, lymph node metastases in 24 cases (17 to the neck, 7 to the neck/mediastinum), pulmonary metastases in 6 cases, bone and brain lesions in 2 cases.
  • These false negative results were observed predominantly in cases with less differentiated metastatic disease, especially after several courses of high-dose (131)I therapy. (99m)Tc-MIBI scan revealed the presence of lymph node and/or lung metastases (non-functioning metastases) in 14 of them, false negative results were obtained in 2 cases, and one false positive in 1 case.
  • Serum Tg was increased in all patients with local lymph node and distant metastases, visualized by (131)I or by (99m)Tc-MIBI, but also in 18 patients with thyroid remnants only.
  • [MeSH-major] Patient Care Planning. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radionuclide imaging. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / therapy. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Papillary / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Papillary / therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neck / ultrasonography. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroidectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17309186.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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58. Braunschweig T, Kaserer K, Chung JY, Bilke S, Krizman D, Knezevic V, Hewitt SM: Proteomic expression profiling of thyroid neoplasms. Proteomics Clin Appl; 2007 Mar;1(3):264-71
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  • [Title] Proteomic expression profiling of thyroid neoplasms.
  • Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine neoplasm with multiple histologic subtypes, each associated with different treatments and outcomes.
  • Differentiating benign neoplasms such as follicular adenomas from malignant entities such as follicular carcinomas and papillary carcinoma can be challenging.
  • To define the proteomic profile of different thyroid tumors, we screened an antibody array of 330 features against five thyroid neoplasms: follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, anaplastic carcinoma, and medullary carcinoma as well as normal thyroid epithelium.
  • Eight candidate biomarkers; c-erbB-2, Stat5a, Annexin IV, IL-11, RARα, FGF7, Caspase 9, and phospho-c-myc were identified as differentially expressed on the antibody array, and validated with immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays, with a total of 144 samples of the same variety of thyroid neoplasms.
  • Analysis revealed c-erbB-2, Annexin IV, and Stat5a have potential clinical utility to differentiate follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, and papillary carcinoma from each other.
  • By using an antibody array as a discovery platform and a tissue microarray as a first step in validation on a large number of specimens, we have identified new markers that have potential utility in the diagnosis of thyroid neoplasms.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
  • (PMID = 21136677.001).
  • [ISSN] 1862-8346
  • [Journal-full-title] Proteomics. Clinical applications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proteomics Clin Appl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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59. Di Cristofaro J, Marcy M, Vasko V, Sebag F, Fakhry N, Wynford-Thomas D, De Micco C: Molecular genetic study comparing follicular variant versus classic papillary thyroid carcinomas: association of N-ras mutation in codon 61 with follicular variant. Hum Pathol; 2006 Jul;37(7):824-30
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  • [Title] Molecular genetic study comparing follicular variant versus classic papillary thyroid carcinomas: association of N-ras mutation in codon 61 with follicular variant.
  • Although the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) has been classified as a papillary cancer based on nuclear features, its follicular growth pattern and potential for hematogenous spread are more characteristic of follicular carcinoma.
  • To gain insight into the biologic nature of FVPTC, we compared genetic alterations characteristic of papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas in 24 FVPTCs and 26 classic PTC (CPTCs).
  • Based on these findings, we concluded that ras mutation correlates with follicular differentiation of thyroid tumors whereas ret activation is associated with papillary nuclei but not with papillary architecture. ret activation is not exclusive of ras or BRAF mutation, whereas ras and BRAF mutations are mutually exclusive.
  • The implications of these results for follicular and papillary carcinogenesis are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16784981.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers
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60. Xu F, Liu B, Chen XY, Zhou EX, Fan DF, Ma Y, Tang ZH: [Diagnosis and therapy of childhood thyroid carcinoma: clinical analysis of 12 cases]. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Feb;11(2):120-3
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and therapy of childhood thyroid carcinoma: clinical analysis of 12 cases].
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical characteristics, diagnosis and therapy of thyroid carcinoma in children.
  • METHODS: Clinical data of 12 children under the age of 14 years, diagnosed as thyroid carcinoma between August 1998 and August 2008, were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: A hard thyroid mass was observed in 10 out of 12 children with thyroid carcinoma, but only one out of 15 children with benign thyroid tumor (<0.05).
  • The rate of cervical lymph node metastasis in children with thyroid carcinoma was significantly higher than that in children with benign thyroid tumor (<0.05).
  • There was no significant difference in the final diagnostic rate of thyroid carcinoma between ultrasonography and CT scans (75% vs 83%; >0.05).
  • All of 12 cases were pathologically confirmed as differentiated thyroid carcinoma, including papillary carcinoma (7 cases), follicular carcinoma (3 cases) and papillary-follicular carcinoma (2 cases).
  • Unilateral lobectomy plus isthmectomy along with a functional cervical lymph node dissection was a primary operation mode (83%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Childhood thyroid carcinoma is mostly differentiated and characterized by hard thyroid mass and cervical lymph node metastasis.
  • A combination of ultrasonography and CT is helpful to the diagnosis of childhood thyroid carcinoma.
  • The treatment outcome may be satisfactory by optimal therapy in children with thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19222949.001).
  • [ISSN] 1008-8830
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo dang dai er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of contemporary pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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61. Yoon JH, Kim EK, Hong SW, Kwak JY, Kim MJ: Sonographic features of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. J Ultrasound Med; 2008 Oct;27(10):1431-7
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  • [Title] Sonographic features of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sonographic findings of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) and to assess the role of preoperative fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB).
  • METHODS: The sonographic findings of 27 thyroid nodules in 26 patients (2 male and 24 female; mean age, 45 years) with surgically proven FVPTC were reviewed retrospectively.
  • Thyroid nodules with a single malignant finding as described above were classified as malignant.
  • Twenty-one of 24 diagnostic cytologic results (87.5%) were suspicious for papillary carcinoma (5 of 21 [20.8%]) or malignant (16 of 21 [66.7%]), whereas 3 lesions (12.5%) had benign results.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma tends to have relatively benign sonographic features, such as hypoechogenicity, well-defined margins, an oval shape, and no microcalcifications, but most lesions were correctly classified as malignant by both sonography and FNAB.
  • The possibility of FVPTC should be considered when thyroid nodules with a relatively benign sonographic appearance have suspicious or malignant FNAB results.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography / methods

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  • (PMID = 18809953.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-9613
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ultrasound Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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62. Wang HM, Huang YW, Huang JS, Wang CH, Kok VC, Hung CM, Chen HM, Tzen CY: Anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid arising more often from follicular carcinoma than papillary carcinoma. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Oct;14(10):3011-8
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  • [Title] Anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid arising more often from follicular carcinoma than papillary carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC), a rare and highly malignant tumor, has long been thought to arise from well-differentiated carcinoma (WDC) such as follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Base Sequence / genetics. Cell Line, Tumor. Codon / genetics. DNA Mutational Analysis. Exons / genetics. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / genetics. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras) / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sequence Analysis, DNA. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / surgery. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17638058.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Codon; 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.1.137 / PIK3CA protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; EC 3.6.5.2 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)
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63. Dănilă R, Andriescu L, Grigorovici A, Dragomir C, Găluşcă B, Vulpoi C, Ungureanu C, Mogoş V: [Differentiated thyroid cancer--staging and prognostic systems]. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi; 2005 Jan-Mar;109(1):71-6
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  • [Title] [Differentiated thyroid cancer--staging and prognostic systems].
  • Differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), including papillary and follicular carcinoma with histological variants, has an excellent prognosis; nevertheless a subset of these tumours is clinically aggressive and, in some patients, fatal.
  • In addition to the widely accepted TNM classification, recognition of significant risk factors and developing of staging systems, such as AMES, AGES, MACIS, MSKCC and NTCTCS, has helped to identify the patients with a potential aggressive course of the disease and high risk of recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / surgery. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Risk Factors. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 16607831.001).
  • [ISSN] 0048-7848
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista medico-chirurgicală̆ a Societă̆ţ̜ii de Medici ş̧i Naturaliş̧ti din Iaş̧i
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi
  • [Language] rum
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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64. Demirag F, Cakir E, Aydin E, Kaya S, Akyurek N: Ectopic primary B cell lymphoma of the thyroid presenting as an anterior mediastinal mass. A case report. Acta Chir Belg; 2009 Nov-Dec;109(6):802-4
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  • [Title] Ectopic primary B cell lymphoma of the thyroid presenting as an anterior mediastinal mass. A case report.
  • Ectopic thyroid tumours arising in the mediastinum without connection to the cervical thyroid gland are very rare.
  • Follicular adenoma, papillary carcinoma and follicular carcinoma in the mediastinum has been reported, but primary ectopic thyroid B cell lymphoma has not been reported previously.
  • We report mediastinal primary ectopic thyroid large B cell lymphoma in an 80-year-old man.
  • [MeSH-major] Choristoma / pathology. Lymphoma, B-Cell / diagnosis. Mediastinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Gland

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  • (PMID = 20184075.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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65. Obara T: [Medullary thyroid carcinoma and other rare types of thyroid carcinoma]. Nihon Rinsho; 2007 Nov;65(11):2087-91
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  • [Title] [Medullary thyroid carcinoma and other rare types of thyroid carcinoma].
  • Among 4 major traditional groups of thyroid carcinoma, papillary and follicular carcinomas are most common, and other forms, anaplastic and medullary carcinomas, are relatively rare.
  • The 2003 WHO histological classification of thyroid tumor separated 7 other malignant thyroid tumors into distinct pathological entities, such as poorly differentiated, squamous cell, mucinous carcinomas, carcinoma showing thymus-like differentiation (CASTLE), etc.
  • In this review, not only diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for the rare forms of thyroid carcinomas, specifically focussed on medullary carcinoma and CASTLE, but also their histogenetic abnormalities were discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary. Thyroid Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Calcitonin / blood. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / therapy. Cell Differentiation. Humans. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a. Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Thymus Gland / cytology. Thymus Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18018575.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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66. Lang BH, Lo CY, Chan WF, Lam AK, Wan KY: Classical and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: a comparative study on clinicopathologic features and long-term outcome. World J Surg; 2006 May;30(5):752-8
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  • [Title] Classical and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: a comparative study on clinicopathologic features and long-term outcome.
  • INTRODUCTION: The follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) is the most common histologic subtype of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).
  • The two groups were compared in terms of clinicopathological features, treatment received, and outcome regarding recurrence and disease-specific survival.
  • The 10- and 15-year actuarial disease-specific survivals did not differ significantly between FVPTC and CPTC patients (96.2% versus 90.7% and 96.2% versus 89.1%, respectively).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although patients with FVPTC had more favorable clinicopathologic features and a better tumor risk group profile, their long-term outcome was similar to that of CPTC patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroidectomy / mortality

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  • (PMID = 16680590.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Elsheikh TM, Asa SL, Chan JK, DeLellis RA, Heffess CS, LiVolsi VA, Wenig BM: Interobserver and intraobserver variation among experts in the diagnosis of thyroid follicular lesions with borderline nuclear features of papillary carcinoma. Am J Clin Pathol; 2008 Nov;130(5):736-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Interobserver and intraobserver variation among experts in the diagnosis of thyroid follicular lesions with borderline nuclear features of papillary carcinoma.
  • Distinguishing follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (FVPC) from follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma can be difficult if nuclear features of papillary carcinoma are not well developed or only focally present.
  • We assessed interobserver and intraobserver agreement among 6 thyroid experts by using 15 cases in which original pathologists suspected FVPC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Observer Variation. Pathology, Surgical / standards

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Clin Pathol. 2008 Nov;130(5):683-6 [18854259.001]
  • (PMID = 18854266.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-7722
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Tsilchorozidou T, Vafiadou E, Yovos JG, Romeo G, McKay J, Lesueur F, Bonora E: A Greek family with a follicular variant of familial papillary thyroid carcinoma: TCO, MNG1, fPTC/PRN, and NMTC1 excluded as susceptibility loci. Thyroid; 2005 Dec;15(12):1349-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A Greek family with a follicular variant of familial papillary thyroid carcinoma: TCO, MNG1, fPTC/PRN, and NMTC1 excluded as susceptibility loci.
  • The familial form of nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma (FNMTC) has been recognized as a distinct clinical entity and is characterized by multifocality and a more severe phenotype than its sporadic counterpart.
  • The majority of FNMTC pedigrees are small in size, show variable modes of inheritance, and may present with a variety of additional benign thyroid disorders.
  • This locus appears particular relevant to families with at least one case of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer (fvPTC).
  • We describe the clinical and pathologic characteristics of a large three-generation fPTC kindred, with two of the four PTC patients presented with the follicular variant of PTC.
  • In addition, multinodular goiter (MNG) was diagnosed in seven individuals, lymphocytic thyroiditis in four, while one diagnosed with a benign adenoma.
  • From the PTC patients, one had MNG and fvPTC, one MNG, lymphocytic thyroiditis and papillary pattern of PTC, one lymphocytic thyroiditis and fvPTC, and one MNG and papillary pattern of PTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16405407.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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69. Cardenas MG, Kini S, Wisgerhof M: Two patients with highly aggressive macrofollicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid; 2009 Apr;19(4):413-6
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  • [Title] Two patients with highly aggressive macrofollicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The macrofollicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (MFV-PTC) is an unusual type of thyroid carcinoma with histological features that can be confused with nodular goiter or follicular adenoma.
  • We report two patients with highly aggressive MFV-PTC including bone metastases, one of whom died of their disease.
  • SUMMARY: The first patient was a 59-year-old woman with an occipital mass diagnosed histologically as papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), follicular variant.
  • Ten years earlier a biopsy of a thyroid nodule had been negative for malignant cells.
  • Thyroidectomy showed a 3-cm nodule in the thyroid, diagnosed as MFV-PTC.
  • The second patient was an 81-year-old man with a history of right thyroid nodule treated by total thyroidectomy with a postoperative diagnosis of adenomatous goiter.
  • Three years later he developed a right shoulder mass, histologically diagnosed as follicular variant of PTC.
  • He died of metastatic thyroid cancer.
  • Although MFV-PTC usually has a good prognosis these cases highlight the importance of careful histopathological examination for MFV-PTC in thyroidectomy specimens that may appear to be seemingly benign nodular thyroid disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19355832.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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70. Gombos K, Zele E, Kiss I, Varjas T, Puskás L, Kozma L, Juhász F, Kovács E, Szanyi I, Ember I: Characterization of microarray gene expression profiles of early stage thyroid tumours. Cancer Genomics Proteomics; 2007 Nov-Dec;4(6):403-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Characterization of microarray gene expression profiles of early stage thyroid tumours.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A high-density oligonucleotide array with 20,000 human gene-specific oligonucleotide was used to analyze benign and early-stage malignant thyroid tumours of epithelial origin: follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma and papillary carcinoma, compared to normal thyroid tissue.
  • Our findings suggest that modulation of NF-kappaB signalling plays a crucial role in early thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Microarray Analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18204203.001).
  • [ISSN] 1109-6535
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genomics & proteomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genomics Proteomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / NF-kappa B
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71. Liu J, Singh B, Tallini G, Carlson DL, Katabi N, Shaha A, Tuttle RM, Ghossein RA: Follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: a clinicopathologic study of a problematic entity. Cancer; 2006 Sep 15;107(6):1255-64
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  • [Title] Follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: a clinicopathologic study of a problematic entity.
  • BACKGROUND: There is continuous debate regarding the optimal classification, prognosis, and treatment of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC).
  • The objective of this study was to assess the behavior of FVPTC, especially its encapsulated form, and shed more light on its true position in the classification scheme of well differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • METHODS: All patients with FVPTC, follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA), and follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) who were diagnosed between 1980 and 1995 were reviewed and reclassified according to the currently accepted definition of FVPTC.
  • With a median follow-up of 10.8 years, only 1 patient developed a recurrence, which occurred in an encapsulated FVPTC that had numerous invasive foci.
  • None of the patients with noninvasive, encapsulated FVPTCs developed recurrences, including 31 patients who underwent lobectomy alone, with a median follow-up of 11.1 years.
  • CONCLUSIONS: FVPTC appeared to be a heterogeneous disease composed of 2 distinct groups: an infiltrative/diffuse (nonencapsulated) subvariant, which resembles classic papillary carcinoma in its metastatic lymph node pattern and invasive growth, and an encapsulated form, which behaves more like FTA/FTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Models, Biological. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 16900519.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Castro P, Roque L, Magalhães J, Sobrinho-Simões M: A subset of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma harbors the PAX8-PPARgamma translocation. Int J Surg Pathol; 2005 Jul;13(3):235-8
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  • [Title] A subset of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma harbors the PAX8-PPARgamma translocation.
  • The occurrence of the PAX8-PPARgamma fusion gene is thought to be restricted to follicular tumors (adenomas and carcinomas) of the thyroid (FTA and FTC).
  • Using interphase fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), together with recombinant tissue-type polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry, we detected the PAX8-PPARgamma translocation in 4 of 8 cases of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) exclusively or almost exclusively (>95%) composed of follicles.
  • Our findings show that follicular thyroid carcinoma (PTC) may also harbor the PAX8-PPARgamma fusion gene and indicate that a subset of FVPTC shares some molecular features of FTA and FTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / genetics. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics. PPAR gamma / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Trans-Activators / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16086077.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / PAX8 Transcription Factor; 0 / PAX8 protein, human; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Trans-Activators
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73. ul Haq RN, Khan BA, Chaudhry IA: Prevalence of malignancy in goitre--a review of 718 thyroidectomies. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad; 2009 Oct-Dec;21(4):134-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Thyroid malignancies are a heterogeneous group oftumours which show considerable variability in biological behaviour, histological appearances and response to therapy.
  • Thyroid cancer is uncommon and represents only 1% of all malignancies.
  • Prevalence of papillary and follicular carcinoma was 33.33% each.
  • Anaplastic carcinoma was found in 23.81% of patients followed by Hurthle cell carcinoma in 9.53% of patients.
  • CONCLUSION: All postoperative thyroid specimens should be subjected to histopathology.
  • Prevalence of follicular carcinoma and anaplastic carcinoma is relatively higher in our country due to high incidence of iodine deficiency goitre.
  • [MeSH-major] Goiter, Endemic / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Carcinoma, Papillary / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pakistan / epidemiology. Prevalence. Prospective Studies. Thyroidectomy. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21067046.001).
  • [ISSN] 1025-9589
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad : JAMC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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74. Di Tommaso L, Arizzi C, Roncalli M: [Well differentiated thyroid carcinoma: new perspectives and old dilemmas]. Ann Ital Chir; 2006 May-Jun;77(3):199-208
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Well differentiated thyroid carcinoma: new perspectives and old dilemmas].
  • The diagnosis of well differentiated carcinoma (i.e papillary carcinoma and follicular carcinoma) represents one of the most challenging issue in thyroid pathology.
  • 2) the management of small papillary tumour;.
  • 3) pathological classification of those tumours indeterminate for papillary or follicular nature.
  • There is general agreement that fine needle aspiration represent the best pre-operative diagnostic tool for thyroid nodules; foremost limits are represented by "not diagnostic" and 'follicular lesion, NOS".
  • The former should be repeated or, if suspicious for papillary lesion, improved with intra-operative apposition cytology; the latter should be deferred to histology with frozen section evaluation reserved to those institution with daily practice on this issue.
  • The management of papillary micro-carcinoma (i.e. papillary carcinoma smaller than 1 cm.) in the setting of an otherwise benign thyroid disease is a matter of debate, since several clinicians suggest to consider these as incidental findings thus avoiding additional treatment.
  • Recently this attitude has been supported by the proposal to regard these lesion as "tumour" and not carcinoma: available data on follow up seems to sustain and favour this approach.
  • There exist a group of well differentiated tumours of the thyroid lacking the criteria to be diagnosed either as papillary (i.e. nuclear grooves, nuclear pseudo-inclusion and nuclear clearing) or follicular (i.e. capsular or vascular invasion) carcinoma; for these lesion, whose behaviour (nodal or blood metastasis) can not be predicted, it has been suggested the term of well differentiated tumour of uncertain malignant potential.
  • Finally it has to be mentioned the possible role of molecular biology in the diagnosis of well differentiated thyroid carcinoma; indeed markers such as RET/PTC or PAX8/PPARgamma, which to date have been employed mainly in basic research, might represent useful diagnostic (and therapeutic) tools in the future.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma. Thyroid Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 17137034.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-469X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annali italiani di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Ital Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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75. Lin HW, Bhattacharyya N: Clinical behavior of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: presentation and survival. Laryngoscope; 2010 Apr;120(4):712-6
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  • [Title] Clinical behavior of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: presentation and survival.
  • OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To determine the prevalence and extent of disease characteristics of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FV-PTC) and the survival impact of this histopathological diagnosis compared to classical papillary thyroid carcinoma (C-PTC).
  • Survival differences according to histology were determined with a Cox proportional hazards model, adjusting for age, sex, T stage, N stage, surgical therapy, and RAI.
  • Although nodal disease prevalence was significantly lower in FV-PTC compared to C-PTC (14.8% vs. 27.8%, respectively; P < .001), T stage was not significantly different (P = .450).
  • Cox regression analysis revealed that advanced age (P < .001), male sex (P < .001), advanced T stage (P < .001), and positive nodal disease (P < .001) were associated with reduced overall survival, whereas histopathological subtype was not (P = .360).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Disease presentation (with exception of nodal metastasis) and survival in patients with FV-PTC are statistically similar to that of C-PTC, and accordingly these patients carry very similar prognoses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Papillary / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 20205241.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-4995
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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76. Finn SP, Smyth P, Cahill S, Streck C, O'Regan EM, Flavin R, Sherlock J, Howells D, Henfrey R, Cullen M, Toner M, Timon C, O'Leary JJ, Sheils OM: Expression microarray analysis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and benign thyroid tissue: emphasis on the follicular variant and potential markers of malignancy. Virchows Arch; 2007 Mar;450(3):249-60
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  • [Title] Expression microarray analysis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and benign thyroid tissue: emphasis on the follicular variant and potential markers of malignancy.
  • The most common sub-variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the so-called follicular variant (FVPTC), which is a particularly problematic lesion and can be challenging from a diagnostic viewpoint even in resected lesions.
  • We used the recently developed Applied Biosystems 1700 microarray system to interrogate a series of 11 benign thyroid lesions and conditions and 14 samples of PTC (six with classic morphology and eight with follicular variant morphology).
  • However, we have also identified numerous transcripts never previously implicated in thyroid carcinogenesis, and many of which are not represented on other microarray platforms.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17252232.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 2.7.7.- / Taq Polymerase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1888716
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77. Troncone G, Iaccarino A, Russo M, Palmieri EA, Volante M, Papotti M, Viglietto G, Palombini L: Accumulation of p27(kip1) is associated with cyclin D3 overexpression in the oxyphilic (Hurthle cell) variant of follicular thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Pathol; 2007 Apr;60(4):377-81
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  • [Title] Accumulation of p27(kip1) is associated with cyclin D3 overexpression in the oxyphilic (Hurthle cell) variant of follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The down regulation of protein p27(kip1) (p27) in most cases of thyroid cancer has relevant diagnostic and prognostic implications.
  • However, the oxyphilic (Hurthle cell) variant of follicular thyroid carcinoma expresses more p27 than benign oxyphilic lesions do.
  • METHODS: Because high levels of cyclin D3 lead to p27 accumulation in cell lines and clinical samples of thyroid cancer, the immunocytochemical pattern of cyclin D3 in oxyphilic (n = 47) and non-oxyphilic (n = 70) thyroid neoplasms was investigated.
  • The expression of cyclin D3 and p27 was significantly higher in the oxyphilic variant of follicular carcinomas than in non-oxyphilic carcinomas (p<0.001).
  • In co-immunoprecipitation experiments, the level of p27-bound cyclin D3 was much higher in oxyphilic neoplasias than in normal thyroids and other thyroid tumours.
  • CONCLUSION: These results show that increased p27 expression in the oxyphilic (Hurthle cell) variant of follicular thyroid carcinoma results from cyclin D3 overexpression.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / metabolism. Cyclins / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / metabolism. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cyclin D3. Humans. Immunoprecipitation. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16798934.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CCND3 protein, human; 0 / Cyclin D3; 0 / Cyclins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2001124
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78. Kim DS, Kim JH, Na DG, Park SH, Kim E, Chang KH, Sohn CH, Choi YH: Sonographic features of follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinomas in comparison with conventional papillary thyroid carcinomas. J Ultrasound Med; 2009 Dec;28(12):1685-92
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  • [Title] Sonographic features of follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinomas in comparison with conventional papillary thyroid carcinomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare the sonographic features as well as the results of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTCs) and conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTCs).
  • Sonographic features of an ovoid-to-round shape (95% versus 73%), isoechogenicity (52% versus 8%), and a hypoechoic halo (25% versus 3%) were more frequent in FVPTCs than conventional PTCs (P < .001).
  • A diagnosis of PTC on FNAB of FVPTCs was less common than that of conventional PTCs (28% versus 56%; P = .0393); however, a diagnosis of an indeterminate cytologic type such as atypical cells or follicular lesions in FVPTCs was higher than that in conventional PTCs (46% versus 19%; P = .0418).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinomas show a relatively larger size, more benign sonographic features, a lower incidence of a sonographically malignant grade, and a lower diagnostic rate of PTC on FNAB compared with conventional PTCs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography / methods

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  • (PMID = 19933483.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-9613
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ultrasound Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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79. Musholt PB, Musholt TJ, Morgenstern SC, Worm K, Sheu SY, Schmid KW: Follicular histotypes of oncocytic thyroid carcinomas do not carry mutations of the BRAF hot-spot. World J Surg; 2008 May;32(5):722-8
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  • [Title] Follicular histotypes of oncocytic thyroid carcinomas do not carry mutations of the BRAF hot-spot.
  • BACKGROUND: The BRAF V600E mutation is the most prevalent genetic aberration in papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), and it is found exclusively in RET/PTC-negative tumors.
  • In oncocytic (Hürthle cell, oxyphilic) thyroid tumors, the presence of RET/PTC rearrangements is associated with either the conventional papillary histotype or the "solid" Hürthle cell tumors, whereas all predominantly follicular oncocytic carcinomas do not harbor RET/PTC chimeras.
  • Although 12% of tumors of the follicular variant of PTC carry BRAF mutations, none of the few oncocytic follicular thyroid adenomas (oncoAd) or carcinomas (oncoFTC) published worldwide tested positive.
  • An aspired molecular-based classification of oncocytic thyroid tumors is in need of additional evidence on BRAF mutations in the follicular histotype.
  • METHODS: A series of 44 oncocytic thyroid tumors with well-documented clinicopathological data was subjected to BRAF mutation analysis (complete exon 15) by automated sequencing.
  • RESULTS: The series of oncocytic thyroid tumors consisted of 21 adenomas (oncoAds: 17 females, 4 males; mean age, 54.5 years; range, 27-80 years), 20 follicular carcinomas (oncoFTCs: 14 females, 6 males; mean age, 61.4 years; range, 39-80 years), and 3 "classic" papillary carcinomas (oncoPTCs: 3 females; mean age, 58.1 years; range, 46-70 years; 3x T2 tumors).
  • The follicular variants of oncocytic cancers are divided into 11x T2, 5x T3, and 4x T4 tumor stages (International Union Against Cancer [UICC] TNM 5th edition).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results add to the evidence that, in contrast to follicular variants of oncoPTCs, predominantly follicular oncocytic thyroid tumors harbor neither RET/PTC rearrangements nor BRAF mutations.
  • Furthermore, the findings support the concept that oncocytic neoplasms of the thyroid gland are oncocytic counterparts of the respective histotype (adenoma, FTC, PTC, or poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma) rather than a separate tumor entity.
  • Molecular characterization of oncocytic thyroid malignancies for RET/PTC or BRAF genetic alterations may help with (preoperative) classification and prognostic evaluation of these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18235983.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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80. Jakubowski M, Hunt JL: BRAF mutational analysis in papillary carcinomas with mixed follicular and papillary growth patterns. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Nov;33(11):1590-3
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  • [Title] BRAF mutational analysis in papillary carcinomas with mixed follicular and papillary growth patterns.
  • BACKGROUND: Current literature suggests that up to 60% of papillary carcinomas have mutations in the BRAF gene.
  • However, follicular variant of papillary carcinoma has a much lower frequency of mutation.
  • Tumors with mixed patterns of growth, including distinctive area of follicular and papillary growth, have not been well studied for the presence of the BRAF gene mutation.
  • DESIGN: Cases of papillary carcinoma were identified with well-defined conventional papillary growth pattern, alongside other areas with follicular growth pattern.
  • In comparing the follicular and the papillary growth patterned areas, the BRAF mutation was concordant in all cases.
  • Four cases had an additional separate focus of microscopic papillary carcinomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Papillary carcinomas of the thyroid with papillary growth and areas of follicular growth have a high frequency of BRAF mutations.
  • The BRAF mutational profile is identical in the follicular areas and in the conventional papillary growth areas.
  • These molecular data support the common diagnostic decision that a tumor with any amount of conventional papillary growth should be designated as a conventional papillary carcinoma, regardless of the presence of follicular growth pattern areas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19738460.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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81. Proietti A, Giannini R, Ugolini C, Miccoli M, Fontanini G, Di Coscio G, Romani R, Berti P, Miccoli P, Basolo F: BRAF status of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma and its relationship to its clinical and cytological features. Thyroid; 2010 Nov;20(11):1263-70
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  • [Title] BRAF status of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma and its relationship to its clinical and cytological features.
  • BACKGROUND: The cytological discrimination between benign and malignant follicular-patterned lesions of the thyroid can represent a diagnostic challenge, even for experienced pathologists.
  • To attempt to clarify this diagnostic problem, we analyzed the BRAF status of thyroid tumors in a group of patients with follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) and its correlation with cytomorphological features.
  • Each case had a previous fine-needle aspiration diagnosis classified according to the British Thyroid Association Guidelines categorized as inadequate (Thy1) (n = 19), benign (Thy2) (n = 19), follicular lesion and follicular lesion with atypia (Thy3) (n = 109), suspicious of PTC (Thy4) (n = 29), or malignant (Thy5) (n = 11).
  • 54.5% and 27.6% of Thy5 and Thy4, respectively, were BRAF-mutated, against 12.1% of follicular lesions and 9.3% of follicular lesion with atypia (Thy3).
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20950194.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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82. Carvalho GA, Graf H: [Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2005 Oct;49(5):719-24
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  • [Title] [Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinoma indiferenciado de tireóide.
  • Well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma (TC), as papillary and follicular carcinoma, usually follows a relatively benign course after total thyroidectomy and thyroid remnant ablation with 131I.
  • In contrast, anaplastic TC or undifferentiated TC, also derived from the thyroid follicular epithelium, refers to one of the more aggressive human malignancies, which have lost most or all characteristics of the tissue from which it originated.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma. Thyroid Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Disease Progression. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16444354.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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83. Kapur U, Wojcik EM: Follicular neoplasm of the thyroid--vanishing cytologic diagnosis? Diagn Cytopathol; 2007 Aug;35(8):525-8
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  • [Title] Follicular neoplasm of the thyroid--vanishing cytologic diagnosis?
  • The significance of making a diagnosis of follicular neoplasm on fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy remains a controversial issue, considering that the diagnosis of follicular carcinoma is based on histological criteria and the significantly decreasing incidence of follicular carcinoma in the general population.
  • On FNA the main differential diagnoses of follicular neoplasm includes follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (FVPC), follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma and benign solitary nodule occurring in a goiter.
  • Although, FVPC is a distinct entity from the follicular neoplasm group, it is not always possible to separate it from the other follicular lesions because of overlapping cytologic features and often-sporadic presence of nuclear features, follicular variant of papillary carcinoma remains the main pitfall in a diagnosis of follicular neoplasm.
  • Since a significant number of cases that are malignant on follow-up are usually FVPC, consequently, follicular neoplasm is an essential diagnostic consideration on FNA.
  • In addition, follicular carcinoma, despite a decreasing incidence continues to be a real entity.
  • Therefore, it is essential that follicular neoplasm continue to be part of our diagnostic repertoire.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17636488.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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84. Sheu SY, Grabellus F, Schwertheim S, Worm K, Broecker-Preuss M, Schmid KW: Differential miRNA expression profiles in variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma and encapsulated follicular thyroid tumours. Br J Cancer; 2010 Jan 19;102(2):376-82
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  • [Title] Differential miRNA expression profiles in variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma and encapsulated follicular thyroid tumours.
  • BACKGROUND: Recent studies showed a significant upregulation of distinct microRNAs (miRNAs) in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).
  • The objective of this study was to explore whether this upregulation could also be assigned to distinct histomorphological variants of PTC, especially the follicular variant and other encapsulated follicular thyroid tumours.
  • METHODS: We used total RNA of 113 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues of 50 PTCs ((10 conventional type (PTC-CT), 10 tall cell variants (PTC-TCVs), 30 follicular variants (PTC-FVs)), 10 follicular adenomas (FAs), 10 multinodular goitres (MNGs), 21 follicular thyroid carcinomas and 22 well-differentiated tumours of unknown malignant potential (WDT-UMP) to analyse the miRNA expression pattern of five selected miRNAs (146b, 181b, 21, 221 and 222) using RT-PCR TaqMan miRNA assay to explore the diagnostic utility of this method.
  • CONCLUSION: We conclude that analysis of a set of five selected miRNAS distinguish common variants of PTC from FA/MNG but failed to be a useful diagnostic method in individual and doubtful cases, especially in the differential diagnosis of encapsulated follicular thyroid tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / genetics. MicroRNAs / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Goiter, Nodular / genetics. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Diseases / genetics. Thyroid Diseases / pathology. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 20029416.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MicroRNAs
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2816660
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85. Santarpia L, Sherman SI, Marabotti A, Clayman GL, El-Naggar AK: Detection and molecular characterization of a novel BRAF activated domain mutation in follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Hum Pathol; 2009 Jun;40(6):827-33
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  • [Title] Detection and molecular characterization of a novel BRAF activated domain mutation in follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • [ErratumIn] Hum Pathol. 2009 Aug;40(8):1212
  • (PMID = 19200582.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-16672
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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86. Chung D, Ghossein RA, Lin O: Macrofollicular variant of papillary carcinoma: a potential thyroid FNA pitfall. Diagn Cytopathol; 2007 Sep;35(9):560-4
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  • [Title] Macrofollicular variant of papillary carcinoma: a potential thyroid FNA pitfall.
  • Macrofollicular variant of papillary carcinoma (MFPC) is a rare variant of papillary carcinoma in which over 50% of the follicles are represented by macrofollicles.
  • Most cases were moderately to highly cellular with presence of both microfollicles as well as macrofollicles, but nuclear features of papillary thyroid carcinoma were absent or focal in all cases.
  • MFPC is a variant of papillary carcinoma that can be extremely difficult to diagnose cytologically.
  • The presence of abundant colloid, macrophages, macrofollicular follicular cell arrangement and/or absence of widespread cytologic features associated with papillary carcinoma can lead to an erroneous diagnosis of goiter.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17703452.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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87. Liu FH, Liou MJ, Hsueh C, Chao TC, Lin JD: Thyroid follicular neoplasm: analysis by fine needle aspiration cytology, frozen section, and histopathology. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Nov;38(11):801-5
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  • [Title] Thyroid follicular neoplasm: analysis by fine needle aspiration cytology, frozen section, and histopathology.
  • We performed a retrospective analysis of follicular neoplasm data obtained from frozen section examinations of thyroid nodules.
  • Patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma were excluded from this study.
  • In 971 cases, frozen section examination was performed during the surgical treatment of follicular neoplasm that was diagnosed via FNAC.
  • Thyroid malignancies were histologically confirmed in 25.1% of cases (244/971).
  • Among the patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma, 45 were diagnosed with the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas (27.4%).
  • The diagnostic sensitivity of frozen section for the nonfollicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma was better than that for the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (89.1% versus 78.9%; P = 0.1023).
  • For 12 cases the diagnosis was atypical follicular adenomas.
  • The diagnostic accuracy of frozen section in cases of follicular neoplasm was 76.9% with a sensitivity of 84.8% and a specificity of 98.9%.
  • In conclusion, our analysis revealed high rates of accuracy when using frozen tissue sections for early diagnosis and treatment of follicular neoplasm; thus, an early decision to extent of surgery prevents a risky follow-up surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Frozen Sections. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20014303.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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88. Bhatoe HS, Badwal S, Dutta V, Kannan N: Pituitary metastasis from medullary carcinoma of thyroid: case report and review of literature. J Neurooncol; 2008 Aug;89(1):63-7
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  • [Title] Pituitary metastasis from medullary carcinoma of thyroid: case report and review of literature.
  • Pituitary is a rare site for metastases from thyroid cancer.
  • Most reported cases have been of papillary and follicular carcinoma.
  • Metastases from medullary thyroid carcinoma have not been reported.
  • We report a case of intrapituitary metastasis from medullary carcinoma thyroid in a 38-year-old male, who had been operated for pituitary adenoma 5 years earlier.
  • At the time of presentation in Nov 2006, he had visual field defects and a painless thyroid nodule.
  • Further evaluation revealed medullary carcinoma thyroid, cervical and mediastinal lymphadenopathy, elevated serum calcitonin levels, and lobulated pituitary tumor.
  • After surgical excision of thyroid and lymph node clearance, he underwent craniotomy and subfrontal excision of pituitary tumor.
  • All the tumors were of identical histology, i.e., medullary carcinoma thyroid.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / secondary. Pituitary Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Calcitonin / analysis. Calcitonin / blood. Humans. Lymphatic Diseases / etiology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neurosurgical Procedures. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Pituitary Gland / physiopathology. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / physiopathology. Treatment Outcome. Vision, Low / etiology. Vision, Low / pathology. Vision, Low / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 18408891.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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89. Donckier JE, Mertens-Strijthagen J, Flamion B: Role of the endothelin axis in the proliferation of human thyroid cancer cells. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2007 Oct;67(4):552-6
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  • [Title] Role of the endothelin axis in the proliferation of human thyroid cancer cells.
  • ET-1 axis is overexpressed in thyroid carcinoma.
  • We investigated the expression and the production of ET-1 by thyroid cancer cells as well as the effect of ET-1 receptor antagonism on cell proliferation.
  • DESIGN: Human papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma cell lines were cultured.
  • MEASUREMENTS: (i) Prepro-ET-1, ET-1 receptors (ETA R and ETB R) and ET-1 converting enzyme (ECE) by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR);.
  • RESULTS: RT-PCR detected the presence of mRNA for prepro-ET-1, ETA R and ECE in papillary and follicular carcinoma cells.
  • ETB R was only expressed by follicular cells.
  • ETA R antagonism with atrasentan reduced cell proliferation by 16% in papillary carcinoma cells (P < 0.05) and by 51% in follicular carcinoma cells (P < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Papillary and follicular carcinoma cells express all components of the ET-1 axis.
  • ETA R antagonism exerts antiproliferative effects, which opens up new therapeutic perspectives in thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Endothelin-1 / physiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17561979.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Endothelin A Receptor Antagonists; 0 / Endothelin-1; 0 / Pyrrolidines; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptor, Endothelin A; 0 / Receptor, Endothelin B; EC 3.4.23.- / Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.24.- / Metalloendopeptidases; EC 3.4.24.71 / endothelin-converting enzyme; G34N38R2N1 / Bromodeoxyuridine; V6D7VK2215 / atrasentan; VC2W18DGKR / Thymidine
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90. Karslioğlu Y, Celasun B, Günhan O: Contribution of morphometry in the differential diagnosis of fine-needle thyroid aspirates. Cytometry B Clin Cytom; 2005 May;65(1):22-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Contribution of morphometry in the differential diagnosis of fine-needle thyroid aspirates.
  • BACKGROUND: Cytologic discrimination of cellular nodules, follicular adenoma, and follicular carcinoma in the thyroid is problematic.
  • Some sophisticated tools, such as microarrays, offer great potential but lack accompanying morphologic information.
  • METHODS: One hundred twelve samples obtained from patients with lesions histopathologically diagnosed as nodular goiter, follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, and papillary carcinoma were used.
  • In the second, a subset of data representing the most extreme values of variables was extracted from the entire dataset to simulate the "selection procedure" performed during conventional morphologic examination.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Morphologic examination is based primarily on selection.
  • Morphometric studies may also be planned with a proper selection "bias."
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Cell Biology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Analysis of Variance. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Goiter / diagnosis. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Multivariate Analysis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Software. Statistics as Topic / methods. Thyroid Diseases / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15779051.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-4949
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytometry. Part B, Clinical cytometry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytometry B Clin Cytom
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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91. Rivera M, Ricarte-Filho J, Knauf J, Shaha A, Tuttle M, Fagin JA, Ghossein RA: Molecular genotyping of papillary thyroid carcinoma follicular variant according to its histological subtypes (encapsulated vs infiltrative) reveals distinct BRAF and RAS mutation patterns. Mod Pathol; 2010 Sep;23(9):1191-200
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  • [Title] Molecular genotyping of papillary thyroid carcinoma follicular variant according to its histological subtypes (encapsulated vs infiltrative) reveals distinct BRAF and RAS mutation patterns.
  • The follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma usually presents as an encapsulated tumor and less commonly as a partially/non-encapsulated infiltrative neoplasm.
  • The molecular profile of the follicular variant was shown to be close to the follicular adenoma/carcinoma group of tumors with a high RAS and very low BRAF mutation rates.
  • A comprehensive survey of oncogenic mutations in the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma according to its encapsulated and infiltrative forms has not been performed.
  • Paraffin tissue from 28 patients with encapsulated and 19 with infiltrative follicular variant were subjected to mass spectrometry genotyping encompassing the most significant oncogenes in thyroid carcinomas: 111 mutations in RET, BRAF, NRAS, HRAS, KRAS, PIK3CA, AKT1 and other related genes.
  • One encapsulated carcinoma showed a PAX8/PPARgamma rearrangement, whereas two infiltrative tumors harbored RET/PTC fusions.
  • Encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas have a molecular profile very close to follicular adenomas/carcinomas (high rate of RAS and absence of BRAF mutations).
  • Infiltrative follicular variant has an opposite molecular profile closer to classical papillary thyroid carcinoma than to follicular adenoma/carcinoma (BRAF>RAS mutations).
  • The molecular profile of encapsulated and infiltrative follicular variant parallels their biological behavior (ie, metastatic nodal and invasive patterns).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Genes, ras / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20526288.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA050706; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA072597
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS720090; NLM/ PMC4573468
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92. Widder S, Guggisberg K, Khalil M, Pasieka JL: A pathologic re-review of follicular thyroid neoplasms: the impact of changing the threshold for the diagnosis of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Surgery; 2008 Jul;144(1):80-5
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  • [Title] A pathologic re-review of follicular thyroid neoplasms: the impact of changing the threshold for the diagnosis of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Histopathologic criterion for follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer (FVPTC) has only recently been utilized universally.
  • The purpose was to determine whether, on review, these criteria would result in a change in diagnosis of follicular neoplasm (FN).
  • METHODS: A ten-year clinical cohort included patients with a diagnosis of a follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma (FC), or FVPTC.
  • Clinical follow-up, including ultrasonography, was carried out on all patients with a change in diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: One hundred eighty-five patients met the inclusion criteria.
  • None of these patients had evidence of recurrent or persistent disease.
  • A third independent thyroid pathologist also reviewed the histopathologic slides of these 46 patients and concurred with the change in diagnosis in 41 of the 46 patients.
  • Although there have been no clinical ramifications in the patients with a changed diagnosis, the ethical issues surrounding these 46 patients are important and present a substantive quandary to the clinicians responsible for their care.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Diagnostic Errors / ethics. Ethics, Clinical. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Surgery. 2009 Jun;145(6):687-8; author reply 688-9 [19486776.001]
  • [CommentIn] Surgery. 2008 Jul;144(1):99-100 [18571592.001]
  • (PMID = 18571588.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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93. Iwase K: [Outline of general rules for the description of thyroid cancer (6th edition)]. Nihon Rinsho; 2007 Nov;65(11):1943-51
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  • [Title] [Outline of general rules for the description of thyroid cancer (6th edition)].
  • General rules for the description of thyroid tumors is essential for the medical practice on thyroid tumors.
  • The Japanese Society of Thyroid Surgery has published the general rules since 1977, and has revised it 5 times according to the revision of UICC TNM classification or WHO histological classification by the latest 6th edition of the rules published in 2005.
  • The histological classification was revised according to that of WHO in which the poorly differentiated carcinoma was separately classified from papillary and follicular carcinoma, and newly accepted histological types of tumor such as CASTLE and SETTLE were included.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 18018553.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 2
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94. Lam AK, Lo CY, Leung P, Lang BH, Chan WF, Luk JM: Clinicopathological roles of alterations of tumor suppressor gene p16 in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 May;14(5):1772-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinicopathological roles of alterations of tumor suppressor gene p16 in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Alterations of the p16 gene are common in human cancers, but their roles in thyroid cancers have not been clearly defined.
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinicopathological roles of the p16 gene in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).
  • In follicular variant of PTC (FVPTC), there was a frequent lack of p16 protein expression and promoter methylation.
  • PTCs showing p16 promoter methylation were often associated with a high AMES (age, metastasis to distant sites, extrathyroidal invasion, size) risk group and advanced pTNM (tumor-lymph node-metastasis) stages.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17195959.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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95. El Demellawy D, Nasr AL, Babay S, Alowami S: Diagnostic utility of CD56 immunohistochemistry in papillary carcinoma of the thyroid. Pathol Res Pract; 2009;205(5):303-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnostic utility of CD56 immunohistochemistry in papillary carcinoma of the thyroid.
  • Diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), in many but not all cases, is an easily achievable diagnosis with almost minimal interobservable variability between pathologists.
  • However, some cases of PTC, particularly the follicular variant, are quite challenging and show wide interobservable variability even among expert thyroid pathologists.
  • In this study, we assessed the protein expression and loss using antibodies against CD56 in normal follicular thyroid epithelium, follicular thyroid lesions, and follicular thyroid neoplasms in an attempt to evaluate its diagnostic value.
  • A total of 185 cases were studied with tissues from 75 carcinomas (72 papillary, 2 follicular, 1 Hürthle cell) and 35 adenomas (32 follicular and 3 Hürthle cell) evaluated by immunohistochemistry for the expression of this marker.
  • Non-neoplastic thyroids included 65 cases: nodular hyperplasia (n=25), thyrotoxic hyperplasia (Grave's disease) (n=5), lymphocytic thyroiditis (n=19), and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (n=6).
  • Positive expression of the markers in 10% or more of follicular epithelium within the tumor or lesional cells was considered positive.
  • Diffuse CD56 expression was consistently present in normal, lesional, and neoplastic follicular epithelium, except for PTC, including the follicular variant.
  • We concluded that CD56 is of value to distinguish PTC from other thyroid follicular pathology/histology with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 100%.
  • We suggest that CD56 is extremely useful in the diagnosis of PTC, including the follicular variant, and to distinguish it from other follicular cell-derived thyroid tumors/lesions.
  • Application of CD56 by a group of expert pathologists on a larger series of follicular thyroid neoplasms of uncertain malignant potentials may potentially provide an objective diagnostic tool.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Antigens, CD56 / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19153015.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-0631
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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96. Xu L, Zhong F, Guo FF, Zhao WJ, Sun XR, Wei XF: [Expression of motilin and its precursor mRNA in normal parenchyma, benign and malignant tumors of human thyroid]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2008 Apr;37(4):243-9
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  • [Title] [Expression of motilin and its precursor mRNA in normal parenchyma, benign and malignant tumors of human thyroid].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of motilin and its precursor mRNA in normal human thyroid.
  • To compare the expression differences of motilin and it precursor mRNA between normal thyroid and intestines.
  • To study the expression of motilin and its precursor mRNA in human thyroid tumors and their clinical implications.
  • METHODS: RT-PCR, Southern blot and molecular cloning were used to detect motilin transcript expression in human thyroid and mucous membrane of small intestine.
  • Real-time PCR and immunohistochemical techniques were used to quantify motilin precursor mRNA and motilin peptide in thyroid tissue samples including adenoma, medullary carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, papillary carcinoma and nodular goiter. RESULTS:.
  • (1) The expression of motilin and its precursor mRNA in normal human thyroid was primarily in the thyroid C cells. (2) RT-PCR and Southern blot showed that motilin mRNA expressed in human thyroid was identical to that expressed in duodenum with identical sequence deposited in NCBI Genbank of America. (3) Immunohistochemistry, Western blot research and real-time PCR studies showed that motilin and its precursor mRNA were expressed in normal and tumor tissues of human thyroid.
  • Thyroid tumors (acidophilic adenoma, medullary carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, papillary carcinoma and nodular goiter) showed intense and diffuse immunostaining for motilin peptide.
  • Moreover, the expression of motilin and its precursor mRNA in thyroid medullar carcinoma and acidophilic adenoma were significantly higher than those of normal thyroid tissue (P < 0.05).
  • The expression in thyroid follicular and papillary carcinomas were significantly lower than those of normal thyroid tissue (P < 0.05).
  • There was no difference of the expression between nodular goiter and normal thyroid tissue (P > 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Motilin peptide and its precursor mRNA are expressed in C cells of human thyroid.
  • The expressions of both motilin and its precursor mRNA in thyroid medullary carcinoma and acidophilic adenoma are significantly increased.
  • In contrast, their expressions in thyroid follicular and papillary carcinomas are significantly decreased.
  • Motilin may regulate physiological functions of the thyroid through parafollicular cells.
  • Motilin may be involved in the pathogenesis of medullary carcinoma and acidophilic adenoma of the thyroid.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Motilin / metabolism. RNA Precursors / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Female. Humans. Intestines / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Nervous System Neoplasms / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18844033.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA Precursors; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 52906-92-0 / Motilin
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97. Szporn AH, Yuan S, Wu M, Burstein DE: Cellular swirls in fine needle aspirates of papillary thyroid carcinoma: a new diagnostic criterion. Mod Pathol; 2006 Nov;19(11):1470-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cellular swirls in fine needle aspirates of papillary thyroid carcinoma: a new diagnostic criterion.
  • No single cytologic feature is specifically diagnostic for papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • We report herein the presence of swirl-like cellular aggregates in fine needle aspirates of papillary thyroid carcinoma but not in other thyroid entities.
  • One hundred Papanicolaou- and/or Diff-Quik-stained FNAs of the thyroid diagnosed as papillary carcinoma, including seven fine needle aspirates of cervical lymph nodes showing metastatic papillary carcinoma, with or without cell blocks, were reviewed for the presence of cellular swirls.
  • An additional 100 thyroid FNAs, similarly stained and prepared, diagnosed as nodular goiter, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and follicular neoplasm were also reviewed for the presence of cellular swirls.
  • Seventeen of 100 FNAs (17%) of papillary carcinoma contained cellular swirls.
  • No cases diagnosed as nodular goiter, Hashimoto's thyroiditis or follicular neoplasm contained these structures.
  • These comprised seven papillary carcinomas with classical histopathology, two designated 'differentiated papillary carcinoma,' two with follicular variant histopathology; one with a minor component of follicular variant histopathology; one papillary carcinoma metastatic to a cervical lymph node with classic histopathology.
  • Swirls occurred in cases with relatively little pleomorphism, or in well-differentiated regions of papillary carcinoma that also displayed less well-differentiated components.
  • Cellular swirls are a finding that is highly specific to papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Their presence in a FNA specimen may be helpful in cases where classic criteria for papillary thyroid carcinoma are scarce, particularly in well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • While the size and scope of this study are insufficient to conclude that cellular swirls alone are diagnostic of papillary thyroid carcinoma in the absence of other criteria, we believe these structures should be added to the list of diagnostic criteria.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Hashimoto Disease / pathology. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16951672.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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98. Malhotra P, Deewan U, Krishnani N: Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma mimicking adenoid cystic carcinoma on aspiration cytology: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2009 Sep-Oct;53(5):591-3
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  • [Title] Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma mimicking adenoid cystic carcinoma on aspiration cytology: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Spherical hyaline globules present a characteristic cytologic picture classically seen in salivary gland tumors.
  • This pattern in fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of thyroid malignancies is rare.
  • Sporadic reports of papillary and follicular carcinoma with adenoid cystic pattern are described in the literature.
  • CASE: We report, to our knowledge, the first documented case of poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma with adenoid cystic pattern on aspiration cytology.
  • An 80-year-old man presented with a thyroid nodule of 3 years' duration.
  • FNAC smears consisted predominantly of cells arranged around spherical hyaline globules resembling adenoid cystic carcinoma.
  • Histopathologic examination showed a poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Poorly differentiated carcinoma of the thyroid presents a variable cytologic picture.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Diagnostic Errors. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19798891.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 68238-35-7 / Keratins; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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99. Miccoli P, Materazzi G, Antonelli A, Panicucci E, Frustaci G, Berti P: New trends in the treatment of undifferentiated carcinomas of the thyroid. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2007 Jul;392(4):397-404
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] New trends in the treatment of undifferentiated carcinomas of the thyroid.
  • INTRODUCTION: Malignant tumours of the thyroid are generally classified as either well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma, which is composed of papillary and follicular carcinoma, or undifferentiated/anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC).
  • ATC is not only the most lethal disease in the field of endocrine surgery but also one of the most aggressive tumours characterized by an almost invariable fatal outcome, which only very rarely exceeds a 1-year course.
  • Neither doxorubicin (the most commonly used) nor other drugs, such as cisplatin, bleomycin, fluorouracil or cyclophosphamide, showed any real efficacy in controlling the disease.

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  • (PMID = 17131154.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2443
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
  • [Number-of-references] 64
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100. Clerici T, Kolb W, Beutner U, Bareck E, Dotzenrath C, Kull C, Niederle B, German Association of Endocrine Surgeons: Diagnosis and treatment of small follicular thyroid carcinomas. Br J Surg; 2010 Jun;97(6):839-44
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  • [Title] Diagnosis and treatment of small follicular thyroid carcinomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Follicular thyroid microcarcinomas (mFTCs) of 10 mm or less in size rarely manifest clinically and their clinical significance is controversial.
  • Most initial diagnoses had to be revised because of incorrect size assessment or incorrect diagnosis (benign adenoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), follicular variant of PTC).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20473996.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2168
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Investigator] Kaserer K; Perren A; Schmid KW; Köberle-Wührer R; Wenzl E; Asari R; Klinge U; Müller G; Kroell KP; Blankenburg C; Voss H; Cupisti K; Witte J; Knoefel WT; Simon D; Lienenlüke RH; Vorländer C; Wacha H; Schabram J; Lorenz K; Dralle H; Wojciechowski B; Kussmann J; Weber Y; Schürmann G; Goretzki PE; Ulitzer H; Eberle A; Mayer M; Stabenow R; Stegmaier C; Bühlmann R; Schlumpf R; Triponez F; Ess SM
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