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1. Eickhoff A, Spiethoff A, Hartmann D, Jakobs R, Weickert U, Schilling D, Eickhoff JC, Bohrer MH, Riemann JF: [Space-occupying lesions in the liver: incidence of adenocarcinoma metastases of unknown primary site]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr; 2007 Feb 23;132(8):369-74
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  • [Title] [Space-occupying lesions in the liver: incidence of adenocarcinoma metastases of unknown primary site].
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The diagnostic approach to newly detected space-occupying lesions in the liver can be difficult and a histogenetic classification of the primary tumor is impossible in some cases.
  • Such cases of metastatic disease without a detectable primary tumor are classified as cancer of unknown primary site (CUP).
  • It was the main aim of this study to analyze the true incidence of adenocarcinoma metastases of the liver with an unknown primary cancer after application of a standardized protocol of clinical and immunhistochemical diagnostic tests and a long-term follow-up.
  • Primary tumors of the liver were found in 21 cases and non-hepatocellular tumors (metastases) were documented in 106 patients, 82 of the latter (77%) had metastases of an adenocarcinoma.
  • The further diagnostic approach was based on histochemistry, immunhistochemistry and imaging techniques, making possible a full diagnosis of primary tumor in a further 59 (72%) cases.
  • Thus the incidence of an adenocarcinoma of the liver of unknown primary site was 23 of 127 cases (18%).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17299675.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-0472
  • [Journal-full-title] Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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2. Merchant NB, Rymer J, Koehler EA, Ayers GD, Castellanos J, Kooby DA, Weber SH, Cho CS, Schmidt CM, Nakeeb A, Matos JM, Scoggins CR, Martin RC, Kim HJ, Ahmad SA, Chu CK, McClaine R, Bednarski BK, Staley CA, Sharp K, Parikh AA: Adjuvant chemoradiation therapy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma: who really benefits? J Am Coll Surg; 2009 May;208(5):829-38; discussion 838-41
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  • [Title] Adjuvant chemoradiation therapy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma: who really benefits?
  • The primary aim of this study was to determine if CRT improved survival in patients with resected pancreatic cancer in a large, multiinstitutional cohort of patients.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Patients undergoing resection for pancreatic adenocarcinoma from seven academic medical institutions were included.
  • Exclusion criteria included patients with T4 or M1 disease, R2 resection margin, preoperative therapy, chemotherapy alone, or if adjuvant therapy status was unknown.
  • Primary analysis was performed between patients that had surgery alone (n=374) and those receiving adjuvant CRT (n=299).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This large multiinstitutional study emphasizes the importance of analyzing subsets of patients with pancreas adenocarcinoma who have LN metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19476845.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1190
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K08 CA098240
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS627213; NLM/ PMC4167601
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3. Pugsley D, Bailly G, Gupta R, Wilke D, Wood L: Can Urol Assoc J; 2009 Jun;3(3):E4-E6
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  • [Transliterated title] A case of metastatic adenocarcinoma of the prostate arising in a meningioma.
  • We present the case of a 70-year-old man who had a prostate adenocarcinoma that metastatized to a previously unknown cranial meningioma.
  • Central nervous system (CNS) metastases are very uncommon in patients with prostate cancer, and metastases to pre-existing primary CNS tumours are even more uncommon.

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  • (PMID = 19543455.001).
  • [ISSN] 1911-6470
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian Urological Association journal = Journal de l'Association des urologues du Canada
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can Urol Assoc J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
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4. Speel EJ, van de Wouw AJ, Claessen SM, Haesevoets A, Hopman AH, van der Wurff AA, Osieka R, Buettner R, Hillen HF, Ramaekers FC: Molecular evidence for a clonal relationship between multiple lesions in patients with unknown primary adenocarcinoma. Int J Cancer; 2008 Sep 15;123(6):1292-300
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  • [Title] Molecular evidence for a clonal relationship between multiple lesions in patients with unknown primary adenocarcinoma.
  • Unknown primary adenocarcinoma (UPA) comprises a group of heterogeneous cancers of great clinical and biological interest.
  • UPA presents as metastatic disease without a detectable primary site after medical workup.
  • A molecular resemblance would argue for an early clonal outgrowth of tumor cells from the primary lesion, a mutual feature observed within this group of neoplasms.
  • The molecular data indicated that the multiple lesions in the 14 UPA patients, including the primary tumors, are clonally related.
  • In agreement with the theory of tumor progression, some metastatic lesions showed additional genetic alterations besides the characteristics that were shared with the primary tumor.
  • Our data provide molecular evidence for a clonal relationship between multiple metastases and the primary tumor within individual UPA patients, independent of the anatomical origin of the cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Neoplasm Metastasis / genetics. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18561313.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD44; 0 / CD44v6 antigen
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5. Bourke JL, Langer SW, Jensen HL: Metastasizing malignant pleomorphic adenoma in a young man. APMIS; 2007 Jul;115(7):866-8
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  • We present the case of a younger man with metastasizing carcinoma of unknown primary site, where autopsy revealed a malignant pleomorphic adenoma (MPA) of the submandibular gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenoma, Pleomorphic / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Submandibular Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17614856.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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6. Pérez-Fidalgo JA, Oltra Ferrando A, López Jiménez A, Maestu Maiques I: Primary carcinoid tumour of the pancreas. Clin Transl Oncol; 2006 Jan;8(1):54-6
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  • [Title] Primary carcinoid tumour of the pancreas.
  • We present the case of a patient initially diagnosed as having liver metastasis of unknown origin.
  • PET identified a primary pancreatic site and the initial histologic diagnosis was adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Liver Transplantation. Male. Pancreatectomy. Positron-Emission Tomography. Remission Induction

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  • (PMID = 16632441.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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7. Hayashi Y, Nishida T, Kondo J, Yamamoto K, Iijima H, Tsutsui S, Hiramatsu N, Tsujii M, Tsuji S, Ito H, Takehara T, Hayashi N: [Modified FOLFOX6 was effective for advanced adenocarcinoma with unknown origin in a patient with Crohn's disease]. Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi; 2009 Jan;106(1):69-76
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  • [Title] [Modified FOLFOX6 was effective for advanced adenocarcinoma with unknown origin in a patient with Crohn's disease].
  • Primary lesion was not detected by the surveillance of whole gastro-intestinal tract.
  • Liver tumor biopsy samples were histologicaly analyzed and were diagnosed as adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Crohn Disease / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19122424.001).
  • [ISSN] 0446-6586
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai zasshi = The Japanese journal of gastro-enterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; Folfox protocol
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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8. Chiosea S, Shuai Y, Cieply K, Nikiforova MN, Dacic S: EGFR fluorescence in situ hybridization-positive lung adenocarcinoma: incidence of coexisting KRAS and BRAF mutations. Hum Pathol; 2010 Aug;41(8):1053-60
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  • [Title] EGFR fluorescence in situ hybridization-positive lung adenocarcinoma: incidence of coexisting KRAS and BRAF mutations.
  • The incidence of KRAS and V-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) mutations in EGFR-amplified or EGFR FISH-positive lung adenocarcinomas remains unknown.
  • Of 386 primary lung adenocarcinomas, 77 (20%) were EGFR FISH positive by University of Colorado criteria.
  • The incidence of KRAS mutations in EGFR FISH-positive lung adenocarcinomas was 23% and was not significantly different from the incidence of KRAS mutations in EGFR FISH-negative subsets of adenocarcinoma (32%).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics. ras Proteins / genetics


9. Nieto Y, Shpall EJ, Bearman SI, McSweeney PA, Cagnoni PJ, Matthes S, Gustafson D, Long M, Barón AE, Jones RB: Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of docetaxel combined with melphalan and carboplatin, with autologous hematopoietic progenitor cell support, in patients with advanced refractory malignancies. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant; 2005 Apr;11(4):297-306
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  • Fifty-nine patients with advanced refractory malignancy (32 breast cancer, 10 non-Hodgkin lymphoma, 6 germ cell tumors, 4 Hodgkin disease, 4 ovarian cancer, 2 sarcoma, and 1 unknown primary adenocarcinoma) with a median of 3 prior chemotherapy regimens and a median of 3 organs involved were enrolled.

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  • (PMID = 15812395.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-8791
  • [Journal-full-title] Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; Q41OR9510P / Melphalan
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10. Kang JJ, Eaton MS, Ma Y, Streeter O, Kumar P: Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and concurrent adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Rare Tumors; 2010;2(3):e54
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  • [Title] Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma and concurrent adenocarcinoma of the prostate.
  • Primary mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the prostate is a rare disease that characteristically follows an indolent course.
  • It is believed that infection or chronic inflammation may be triggers for malignant transformation in the prostate, but it is of unknown etiology.
  • Reports of MALT lymphomas of the prostate with other concurrent primary prostate cancers are even more limited.
  • We present the unique case of a 67-year-old male with concurrent adenocarcinoma of the prostate and primary MALT lymphoma of the prostate.
  • The patient was treated with standard therapy for prostate adenocarcinoma, which would also treat a primary MALT lymphoma.
  • He has been disease-free for over one year for both his primary malignancies.
  • This case confirms that MALT lymphoma can arise concurrently with adenocarcinoma of the prostate.

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  • (PMID = 21139969.001).
  • [ISSN] 2036-3613
  • [Journal-full-title] Rare tumors
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rare Tumors
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2994529
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; MALT / prostate cancer / prostate lymphoma
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11. Yu DC, Grabowski MJ, Kozakewich HP, Perez-Atayde AR, Voss SD, Shamberger RC, Weldon CB: Primary lung tumors in children and adolescents: a 90-year experience. J Pediatr Surg; 2010 Jun;45(6):1090-5
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  • [Title] Primary lung tumors in children and adolescents: a 90-year experience.
  • PURPOSE: Primary lung tumors in children are rare.
  • The incidence of these lesions and their outcomes are still largely unknown.
  • This study aims to determine the incidence of different primary lung tumors in children and to contribute data leading to the development of evidence-based treatment models.
  • Patients were included if they had primary, nonhematologic lung tumors.
  • Rare pediatric lung tumors including small cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, and pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis were also seen.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Primary lung tumors in children are rare and histopathologically diverse.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20620301.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Fizazi K: Treatment of patients with specific subsets of carcinoma of an unknown primary site. Ann Oncol; 2006 Sep;17 Suppl 10:x177-80
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  • [Title] Treatment of patients with specific subsets of carcinoma of an unknown primary site.

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  • (PMID = 17018719.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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13. Ramljak V, Sarcević B, Vrdoljak DV, Kelcec IB, Agai M, Ostović KT: Fine needle aspiration cytology in diagnosing rare breast carcinoma--two case reports. Coll Antropol; 2010 Mar;34(1):201-5
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  • First case, sebaceous carcinoma, is still quite unknown regarding its morphological characteristics and biological behavior.
  • In the second case, squamous carcinoma, also very rare, was found in a patient who previously had a number of diagnosed head and neck skin carcinomas, and was diagnosed as primary squamous breast carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Sebaceous / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20432752.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / May-Grunwald Giemsa; T42P99266K / Methylene Blue; TDQ283MPCW / Eosine Yellowish-(YS)
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14. Pneumaticos SG, Chatziioannou SN, Savvidou C, Pilichou A, Rontogianni D, Korres DS: Routine needle biopsy during vertebral augmentation procedures. Is it necessary? Eur Spine J; 2010 Nov;19(11):1894-8
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  • For the last patient, namely the one with pancreatic cancer, the workup did not identify the origin of the primary tumor, although the patient was considered to have a compression fracture secondary to metastatic disease of unknown origin, the vertebral biopsy suggested the presence of adenocarcinoma which eventually was proven to be pancreatic cancer.

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  • (PMID = 20372942.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0932
  • [Journal-full-title] European spine journal : official publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Spine J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2989251
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15. Yui S, Tomita K, Kudo T, Ando S, Yamazaki M: Induction of multicellular 3-D spheroids of MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells by neutrophil-derived cathepsin G and elastase. Cancer Sci; 2005 Sep;96(9):560-70
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  • However, the mechanism by which aggregates form in the tumor mass is unknown.
  • The proteases secreted by infiltrated neutrophils in tumors are implicated in the dissemination of tumor aggregates from primary tumor sites.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Cathepsins / physiology. Neoplasm Metastasis / physiopathology. Pancreatic Elastase / physiology. Serine Endopeptidases / physiology. Spheroids, Cellular / physiology

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  • [Copyright] (Cancer Sci 2005; 96: 560 -570).
  • (PMID = 16128741.001).
  • [ISSN] 1347-9032
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cadherins; EC 3.4.- / Cathepsins; EC 3.4.21.- / Serine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.21.20 / CTSG protein, human; EC 3.4.21.20 / Cathepsin G; EC 3.4.21.20 / Ctsg protein, rat; EC 3.4.21.36 / Pancreatic Elastase
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16. Moore ML, Teitell MA, Kim Y, Watabe T, Reiter RE, Witte ON, Dubey P: Deletion of PSCA increases metastasis of TRAMP-induced prostate tumors without altering primary tumor formation. Prostate; 2008 Feb 1;68(2):139-51
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  • [Title] Deletion of PSCA increases metastasis of TRAMP-induced prostate tumors without altering primary tumor formation.
  • However, its function is unknown.
  • Spontaneous or radiation-induced primary epithelial tumor formation was also similar in wild-type and PSCA knockout mice.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Kidney Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Member 25 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18044730.001).
  • [ISSN] 0270-4137
  • [Journal-full-title] The Prostate
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostate
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA92131; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA107300; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA90571; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA084128
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Birc5 protein, mouse; 0 / GPI-Linked Proteins; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Psca protein, mouse; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Member 25; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / Tnfrsf25 protein, mouse; EC 2.7.11.1 / Aurka protein, mouse; EC 2.7.11.1 / Aurkb protein, mouse; EC 2.7.11.1 / Aurora Kinase A; EC 2.7.11.1 / Aurora Kinase B; EC 2.7.11.1 / Aurora Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
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17. Brouwer J, Senft A, de Bree R, Comans EF, Golding RP, Castelijns JA, Hoekstra OS, Leemans CR: Screening for distant metastases in patients with head and neck cancer: is there a role for (18)FDG-PET? Oral Oncol; 2006 Mar;42(3):275-80
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  • The detection of distant metastases and second primary tumours at the time of initial evaluation changes the prognosis and influences the selection of treatment modality in patients with HNSCC.
  • In this observational cohort study we prospectively compared the yield of whole body (18)FDG-PET and chest CT to detect distant metastases and synchronous primary tumours.
  • Four patients were diagnosed with distant metastases or second primary tumours: CT as well as (18)FDG-PET identified one patient with lung metastases and another with primary lung cancer.
  • In addition, (18)FDG-PET detected second primary tumours in two patients (hepatocellular carcinoma and abdominal adenocarcinoma).
  • The added value of whole body (18)FDG-PET versus chest CT was to identify unknown malignancy in 6% of the patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Second Primary / radionuclide imaging. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16266820.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-8375
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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18. Bloom GC, Eschrich S, Zhou JX, Coppola D, Yeatman TJ: Elucidation of a protein signature discriminating six common types of adenocarcinoma. Int J Cancer; 2007 Feb 15;120(4):769-75
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  • [Title] Elucidation of a protein signature discriminating six common types of adenocarcinoma.
  • Pathologists are commonly facing the problem of attempting to identify the site of origin of a metastatic cancer when no primary tumor has been identified, yet few markers have been identified to date.
  • These findings demonstrate the use of proteomics to construct a highly accurate ANN-based classifier for the detection of an individual tumor type, as well as distinguishing between 6 common tumor types in an unknown primary diagnosis setting.

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  • (PMID = 17131332.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112215; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA098522; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21-CA101355; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112215-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K24-CA85429; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01-CA85052; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA112215-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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19. Rivas E, Sanchez-Herrero J, Alonso M, Alvarez MJ, Teijeira S, Ballestín C, Tardio A, Navarro C: Miliary brain metastases presenting as rapidly progressive dementia. Neuropathology; 2005 Jun;25(2):153-8
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  • Neuropathological examination revealed an extensive miliary metastatic dissemination from an unknown primary adenocarcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 15875909.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-6544
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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20. Lehman CD, DeMartini W, Anderson BO, Edge SB: Indications for breast MRI in the patient with newly diagnosed breast cancer. J Natl Compr Canc Netw; 2009 Feb;7(2):193-201
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  • In addition, the guidelines indicate that breast MRI may be used for patients with axillary nodal adenocarcinoma to identify the primary malignancy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Axilla. Biopsy, Needle. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Sensitivity and Specificity. Surgery, Computer-Assisted

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  • (PMID = 19200417.001).
  • [ISSN] 1540-1405
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network : JNCCN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Natl Compr Canc Netw
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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21. Burbano RR, Assumpção PP, Leal MF, Calcagno DQ, Guimarães AC, Khayat AS, Takeno SS, Chen ES, De Arruda Cardoso Smith M: C-MYC locus amplification as metastasis predictor in intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinomas: CGH study in Brazil. Anticancer Res; 2006 Jul-Aug;26(4B):2909-14
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  • BACKGROUND: The genetic events involved in gastric cancer, the third most frequent cancer in the world with a high incidence in Pard State, Brazil, remain largely unknown.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-one primary gastric adenocarcinomas were investigated by comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and the relationships between genomic abnormalities and histopathological features were evaluated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Chromosome Aberrations. Genes, myc. Stomach Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16886612.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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22. Ettl T, Kleinheinz J, Mehrotra R, Schwarz S, Reichert TE, Driemel O: The buccal minor salivary glands as starting point for a metastasizing adenocarcinoma--report of a case. Head Face Med; 2008;4:16
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  • [Title] The buccal minor salivary glands as starting point for a metastasizing adenocarcinoma--report of a case.
  • BACKGROUND: With the 2005 WHO classification of salivary gland tumours and its increasingly recognized diagnostic entities, the frequency of adenocarcinoma (NOS) has decreased significantly.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: This paper describes a fast growing adenocarcinoma (NOS), originating from the minor salivary glands of the left buccal mucosa with a rapid onset of multiple local and distant metastases, especially in the lung.
  • A lung primary was unlikely as the tumour was characterized by positivity for cytokeratin 20 and negativity for the thyroid transcription factor-1 protein (TTF-1) in immunohistochemistry.
  • CONCLUSION: A rare case of an adenocarcinoma (NOS) of the minor salivary glands with a rapid development and an unfavourable clinical course is reported.
  • It shows that additional immunohistochemical analysis can decisively contribute to determine the site of the primary tumour in cases with unknown primary.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasm Metastasis. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18667060.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-160X
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & face medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Face Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2515301
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23. Burrows N, Resch J, Cowen RL, von Wasielewski R, Hoang-Vu C, West CM, Williams KJ, Brabant G: Expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha in thyroid carcinomas. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2010 Mar;17(1):61-72
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  • Its regulation and function in thyroid carcinomas are unknown.
  • We evaluated the regulation of HIF-1 alpha and target gene expression in primary thyroid carcinomas and thyroid carcinoma cell lines (BcPAP, WRO, FTC-133 and 8505c).

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  • (PMID = 19808899.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / C7820/A8696
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Chromones; 0 / Glucose Transporter Type 1; 0 / HIF1A protein, human; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 0 / Morpholines; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 154447-36-6 / 2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one; 3G0H8C9362 / Cobalt; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase; EC 4.2.1.1 / CA9 protein, human; EC 4.2.1.1 / Carbonic Anhydrases; EVS87XF13W / cobaltous chloride
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2828807
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24. Amillet JM, Ferbus D, Real FX, Antony C, Muleris M, Gress TM, Goubin G: Characterization of human Rab20 overexpressed in exocrine pancreatic carcinoma. Hum Pathol; 2006 Mar;37(3):256-63
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  • In contrast to other members, it contains an insertion of 40 amino acids of unknown function and an inversion of 3 amino acids at the position corresponding to codon 61 in p21ras proteins.
  • Rab20 expression was detected by Western blot analysis in 11 of 11 pancreatic tumor cell lines and 7 of 8 primary pancreatic carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Pancreas, Exocrine / metabolism. Pancreatic Neoplasms / genetics. rab GTP-Binding Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16613320.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.6.1- / Rab20 protein, human; EC 3.6.1.- / rab GTP-Binding Proteins
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25. Mhawech-Fauceglia P, Odunsi K, Dim D, Nowak N, Lele S, Cheney RT, Pejovic T: Array-comparative genomic hybridization analysis of primary endometrial and ovarian high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma associated with adenocarcinoma: mystery resolved? Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Oct;27(4):539-46
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  • [Title] Array-comparative genomic hybridization analysis of primary endometrial and ovarian high-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma associated with adenocarcinoma: mystery resolved?
  • Because of their rarity, the molecular characteristics of these tumors are still unknown.
  • To shed some light, we studied the genetic abnormalities of each of the 2 components, NEC and adenocarcinoma, in 4 cases arising in the ovary and the uterine corpus using array-comparative genomic hybridization.
  • However, the NEC components exhibited more genetic abnormalities in comparison with the adenocarcinoma, suggesting that when the NEC clones become more dedifferentiated, they acquire additional genetic abnormalities.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / genetics. Endometrial Neoplasms / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18753966.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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26. Zielińska-Leś I, Kamiński J, Kozielski J: [Diagnostic difficulties in diffuse pulmonary infiltrations]. Wiad Lek; 2006;59(9-10):724-6
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  • Histopathological examination of supraclavicular lymph nodes and lung tissue obtained by transbronchial biopsy revealed metastatic adenocarcinoma.
  • Despite several examinations, including gastroscopy- the primary site of cancer was not established.
  • Post-mortem examination revealed diffuse gastric carcinoma as the primary neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis. Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17338139.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5147
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiadomości lekarskie (Warsaw, Poland : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wiad. Lek.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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27. Li XF, Carlin S, Urano M, Russell J, Ling CC, O'Donoghue JA: Visualization of hypoxia in microscopic tumors by immunofluorescent microscopy. Cancer Res; 2007 Aug 15;67(16):7646-53
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  • Tumor hypoxia is commonly observed in primary solid malignancies but the hypoxic status of subclinical micrometastatic disease is largely unknown.
  • Tumors derived from human colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines HT29 and HCT-8 ranged in size from a few hundred microns to several millimeters in diameter.

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  • (PMID = 17699769.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA84596; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R24 CA83084
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 142M471B3J / Carbon Dioxide; 8063-77-2 / carbogen; S88TT14065 / Oxygen
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28. Sancho-Chust JN, Ferreres J, Blanquer J: Mini-bronchoalveolar lavage (mini-BAL) in the cytological diagnosis of interstitial disorders with acute respiratory failure and mechanical ventilation. Arch Bronconeumol; 2010 Feb;46(2):101-2
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  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid / cytology. Escherichia coli Infections / diagnosis. Lung Diseases, Interstitial / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary. Pneumonia, Bacterial / diagnosis. Respiration, Artificial. Respiratory Insufficiency / etiology


29. Wang XW, Ni DF: [Investigation of the characters of cervical lymph node metastases of primary malignant tumor beyond head and neck]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2007 Jun;42(6):413-6
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  • [Title] [Investigation of the characters of cervical lymph node metastases of primary malignant tumor beyond head and neck].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characters of cervical lymph node metastases of primary tumors beyond head and neck.
  • RESULTS: The primary sites of these 77 cases of malignant tumor consisted of lung, stomach, esophagus, galactophore, colon, mediastinum, ovary, uterus, pancreas, liver, mesentery, adrenal gland and rectum.
  • The proportion of the metastases of malignant tumor from primary site beyond head and neck in each region was 2.1% in LEVEL I, 3.7% in LEVEL III, 14.3% in LEVEL IV, 70.8% in LEVEL V.
  • Among the cervical lymph node metastases of primary tumor beyond head and neck, 51.9% were low-grade adenocarcinoma, 15.6% were medial-grade adenocarcinoma, 11.7% were low-grade squamous cell carcinoma, 10.4% were medial-grade squamous carcinoma.
  • The metastases from primary sites beyond head and neck usually focus on LEVEL V (81.8%), especially in the left.
  • And the primary tumors beyond head and neck metastasis in this region were more than the tumors from head and neck locally.
  • The histological type of the primary tumors were frequently low-medial grade carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary

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  • (PMID = 17702413.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-0860
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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30. Ohi S, Hashimoto H, Tachibana T, Tabei I, Nakajima M, Sato K, Yanaga K, Ishikawa H: Establishment and characterization of EB virus-free normal B-lymphocyte and interleukin-6-producing poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma cell lines derived from gastric tumor tissue. Hum Cell; 2005 Mar;18(1):35-44
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  • [Title] Establishment and characterization of EB virus-free normal B-lymphocyte and interleukin-6-producing poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma cell lines derived from gastric tumor tissue.
  • We successfully established two cell lines, an adenocarcinoma cell line (designated as HIGS) and Epstein-Barr virus-free normal B-lymphocyte cell line (designated as HIGS-BL), derived from a moderately to poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the stomach, and examined their characteristics.
  • HIGS and HIGS-BL were established from each individual dish after the onset of primary culture.
  • Because of these factors, we have considered until now that HIGS-BL cells may inhibit the growth of HIGS cells or cause damage to HIGS cells by unknown mechanisms.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma. B-Lymphocytes. Interleukin-6 / biosynthesis. Stomach Neoplasms

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31. Presneau N, Shen Z, Provencher D, Mes-Masson AM, Tonin PN: Identification of novel variant, 1484delG in the 3'UTR of H3F3B, a member of the histone 3B replacement family, in ovarian tumors. Int J Oncol; 2005 Jun;26(6):1621-7
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  • In contrast to three other EOC cell lines (TOV81D, TOV112D and TOV21G) and primary cultures derived from normal ovarian surface epithelial cells (NOSE), sequence analysis of the cDNA revealed a deletion of G at position 1484 of the transcribed sequence which is located within the 3'UTR of H3F3B.
  • OV90 was derived from ascites fluid of an undifferentiated adenocarcinoma of ovarian origin.
  • The functional significance of the variant is unknown, however its presence in rare subtypes of ovarian epithelial tumors warrants further investigation.

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  • (PMID = 15870878.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 3' Untranslated Regions; 0 / Histones
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32. Gallagher CJ, Reznek RH: Cancer of unknown primary site. Clin Med (Lond); 2008 Aug;8(4):451-4
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  • [Title] Cancer of unknown primary site.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18724619.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-2118
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical medicine (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Med (Lond)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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33. Hoque MO, Soria JC, Woo J, Lee T, Lee J, Jang SJ, Upadhyay S, Trink B, Monitto C, Desmaze C, Mao L, Sidransky D, Moon C: Aquaporin 1 is overexpressed in lung cancer and stimulates NIH-3T3 cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth. Am J Pathol; 2006 Apr;168(4):1345-53
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  • Most tumors have been shown to exhibit high vascular permeability and interstitial fluid pressure, but the transport pathways for water within tumors remain unknown.
  • We next examined the distribution of the AQP1 protein in several types of primary lung tumors (16 squamous cell carcinomas, 21 adenocarcinomas, and 7 bronchoalveolar carcinomas) by immunohistochemical staining.
  • AQP1 was overexpressed in 62% (13 of 21) and 75% (6 of 8) of adenocarcinoma and bronchoalveolar carcinoma, respectively, whereas all cases of squamous cell carcinoma and normal lung tissue were negative.

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  • (PMID = 16565507.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9440
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA096784; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA16620; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA96784-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 146410-94-8 / Aquaporin 1
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1606549
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34. Iizuka Y, Iizuka H, Tsutsumi S, Nakagawa Y, Nakajima T, Sorimachi Y, Ara T, Nishinome M, Seki T, Takagishi K: Diagnosis of a previously unidentified primary site in patients with spinal metastasis: diagnostic usefulness of laboratory analysis, CT scanning and CT-guided biopsy. Eur Spine J; 2009 Oct;18(10):1431-5
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  • [Title] Diagnosis of a previously unidentified primary site in patients with spinal metastasis: diagnostic usefulness of laboratory analysis, CT scanning and CT-guided biopsy.
  • When the primary site is unknown in patients with spinal metastases, there can be problems in locating the site of tumor origin.
  • Most previous reports on metastases of unknown origin have not been limited to the spine.
  • The purpose of this study is to assess the usefulness of laboratory analysis, chest, abdominal and pelvic CT and CT-guided biopsy in patients with spinal metastases of unknown origin (SMUO).
  • Eleven primary tumor sites (40.7%) were detected (6 lung, 1 prostate, 1 kidney, 1 thyroid, 1 liver, and 1 pancreas) by chest, abdominal and CT scanning.
  • In the remaining 15 patients, biopsy did not lead to determination of the final diagnosis, because the histological diagnosis was either an adenocarcinoma or an undifferentiated carcinoma, the tissue sample was not diagnostic.
  • [MeSH-major] Clinical Laboratory Techniques / methods. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis. Spinal Neoplasms / etiology. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 19533181.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0932
  • [Journal-full-title] European spine journal : official publication of the European Spine Society, the European Spinal Deformity Society, and the European Section of the Cervical Spine Research Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Spine J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2899376
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35. Hoshikawa M, Mochizuki H, Saito M, Noguchi T, Sawabe M, Takahashi H: Contralateral cervicomediastinal lymph node metastases from clinically occult adenocarcinoma of the lung. Clin Lung Cancer; 2009 Jul;10(4):249-51
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  • [Title] Contralateral cervicomediastinal lymph node metastases from clinically occult adenocarcinoma of the lung.
  • A 69-year-old woman with a right cervical lymphadenopathy presented with an adenocarcinoma on excisional biopsy.
  • A clinical diagnosis of lung cancer arising from an unknown primary site was made based on the radiologic and immunohistochemical findings.
  • Serial CT scans showed a growing nodule in the left apex from pinpoint size to 1 cm in diameter after several months, which was defined as the primary site at autopsy.

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  • (PMID = 19632942.001).
  • [ISSN] 1938-0690
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical lung cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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36. Schmalbach CE, Miller FR: Occult primary head and neck carcinoma. Curr Oncol Rep; 2007 Mar;9(2):139-46
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  • [Title] Occult primary head and neck carcinoma.
  • Unknown primary carcinoma presenting as cervical lymph node metastasis accounts for approximately 5% of all head and neck malignancies.
  • The remainder are comprised of adenocarcinoma, melanoma, and other rare histologic variants.
  • The ability to identify the occult primary tumor is imperative because identification allows site-specific therapy and avoidance of wide-field radiation side effects.
  • Following confirmation of metastatic cervical disease with fine-needle aspiration, all patients presenting with an unknown primary carcinoma require a thorough head and neck history and physical examination, radiographic imaging, panendoscopy with directed biopsies of Waldeyer's ring, and bilateral tonsillectomy.
  • Positron emission tomography has proved helpful in identifying occult primary tumors of the head and neck region.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17288881.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-3790
  • [Journal-full-title] Current oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Oncol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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37. Bing Z, Pasha T, Tomaszewski JE, Zhang P: CDX2 expression in yolk sac component of testicular germ cell tumors. Int J Surg Pathol; 2009 Oct;17(5):373-7
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  • CDX2 has been detected in the majority of colorectal adenocarcinoma cases and may be useful in determining the sites of origin of tumors.
  • The positivity of CDX2 in GCTs warrants including YST in the differential diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of unknown origin.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Glypicans / metabolism. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19578052.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDX2 protein, human; 0 / Glypicans; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins
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38. Yahata T, Kawasaki T, Serikawa T, Suzuki M, Tanaka K: Adenocarcinoma arising from respiratory ciliated epithelium in benign cystic teratoma of the ovary: a case report with analyzes of the CT, MRI, and pathological findings. J Obstet Gynaecol Res; 2008 Jun;34(3):408-12
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  • [Title] Adenocarcinoma arising from respiratory ciliated epithelium in benign cystic teratoma of the ovary: a case report with analyzes of the CT, MRI, and pathological findings.
  • Adenocarcinoma occurs with less frequency.
  • We herein present a patient with an ovarian mature cystic teratoma who demonstrated a malignant transformation to well-differentiated adenocarcinoma.
  • Microscopically and immunohistochemically, the adenocarcinoma was considered to have arisen from the ciliated respiratory epithelium.
  • This is the third reported case of adenocarcinoma arising in the respiratory epithelium of an ovarian mature cystic teratoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Teratoma / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary. Respiratory Mucosa / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18588616.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-8076
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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39. Gopaldas R, Kunasani R, Plymyer MR, Bloch RS: Hepatoid malignancy of unknown origin--a diagnostic conundrum: review of literature and case report of collision with adenocarcinoma. Surg Oncol; 2005 Jul;14(1):11-25
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  • [Title] Hepatoid malignancy of unknown origin--a diagnostic conundrum: review of literature and case report of collision with adenocarcinoma.
  • Based on a review of literature, we discuss the guidelines for differentiating these tumors and utilize these criteria to differentiate these tumors irrespective of their primary tissue of origin.
  • We also describe an unusual case of hepatoid variant of primary peritoneal yolk sac tumor presenting with extensive carcinomatosis and as a collision with two synchronous primary colonic adenocarcinomas, neither of which has been reported to our knowledge to date, thereby falsely mimicking metastatic dedifferentiated colonic adenocarcinoma.
  • In the absence of a primary identifiable liver disease, this is consistent with either hepatoid variant of primary yolk sac tumor or hepatoid carcinoma arising from the peritoneum.
  • The right colectomy specimen revealed two mucosal ulcers consistent with colonic adenocarcinoma abutting two large tumor nodules on the serosal surface.
  • With no evidence of yolk sac component within the colonic tumor or in the draining lymphatics, this essentially excludes the commonly observed metastatic dedifferentiation (opisthoplasia) of adenocarcinoma to primitive forms (also known as combination tumors).
  • This unusual presentation of two entirely different primary malignancies in close proximity is defined as "collision tumor".
  • This is the first reported case of collision tumors involving dual colonic and primary peritoneal hepatoid-YST.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Colonic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Peritoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15777886.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-7404
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 52
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40. Daliakopoulos SI, Klimatsidas MN, Korfer R: Solitary metastatic adenocarcinoma of the sternum treated by total sternectomy and chest wall reconstruction using a Gore-Tex patch and myocutaneous flap: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2010;4:75
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  • [Title] Solitary metastatic adenocarcinoma of the sternum treated by total sternectomy and chest wall reconstruction using a Gore-Tex patch and myocutaneous flap: a case report.
  • Although the exact incidence of bone metastasis is unknown, it is estimated that 350,000 people die of bone metastasis annually in the United States.
  • The incidence of local recurrences after mastectomy and breast-conserving therapy varies between 5% and 40% depending on the risk factors and primary therapy utilized.

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  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2844379
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41. Cheng YY, Yu J, Wong YP, Man EP, To KF, Jin VX, Li J, Tao Q, Sung JJ, Chan FK, Leung WK: Frequent epigenetic inactivation of secreted frizzled-related protein 2 (SFRP2) by promoter methylation in human gastric cancer. Br J Cancer; 2007 Oct 8;97(7):895-901
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  • The role of secreted frizzled-related protein (SFRP) genes in gastric cancer remains largely unknown.
  • The expression and methylation status of four SFRP members (SFRP1, 2, 4, and 5) in primary gastric cancer samples was screened.
  • Promoter hypermethylation of SFRP2 was detected in 73.3% primary gastric cancer tissues, 37.5% of samples showing intestinal metaplasia and 20% adjacent normal gastric tissues.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Animals. Apoptosis. Azacitidine. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. DNA Primers / chemistry. Eye Proteins / genetics. Eye Proteins / metabolism. Flow Cytometry. Gene Silencing. Humans. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism. Mice. Mice, Nude. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17848950.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Eye Proteins; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / SFRP1 protein, human; 0 / SFRP2 protein, human; 0 / SFRP4 protein, human; 0 / SFRP5 protein, human; M801H13NRU / Azacitidine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2360406
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42. Takahashi S, Takada K, Kawano Y, Miyanishi K, Ishiwatari H, Hayashi T, Sagawa T, Sato T, Sato Y, Takimoto R, Kobune M, Kuroiwa G, Hirayama M, Tobioka H, Hirata K, Omatsu M, Hasegawa T, Kato J: [Cholangiocarcinoma with bile duct adenoma and hamartoma-like lesion in the bile duct]. Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi; 2010 Mar;107(3):461-9
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  • A 76-year-old man presented with fever of unknown origin.
  • The tumor was subsequently resected, and histopathology showed a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Cholangiocarcinoma / pathology. Hamartoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20203450.001).
  • [ISSN] 0446-6586
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai zasshi = The Japanese journal of gastro-enterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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43. Mansberg R, Son H, Kean AM: Occult carcinoma of the thyroid presenting with orbital metastasis. Clin Nucl Med; 2006 Feb;31(2):109-11
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  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Eye Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Eye Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / radiotherapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 16424702.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
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44. Allen TC, Moran C: Synchronous pulmonary carcinoma and pleural diffuse malignant mesothelioma. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2006 May;130(5):721-4
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  • Two had positive smoking histories; the smoking history of the other patient is unknown.
  • One patient had a positive history of asbestos exposure; one patient had no history of asbestos exposure; and one patient's history of asbestos exposure is unknown.
  • The patients underwent surgery for treatment of adenocarcinoma that was diagnosed preoperatively.
  • Diffuse malignant mesothelioma was suspected on the basis of pleural involvement by tumor with histology differing from that of the adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Bronchiolo-Alveolar / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Mesothelioma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Pleural Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16683892.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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45. Miao N, Pingpank JF, Alexander HR, Royal R, Steinberg SM, Quezado MM, Beresnev T, Quezado ZM: Cytoreductive surgery and continuous hyperthermic peritoneal perfusion in patients with mesothelioma and peritoneal carcinomatosis: hemodynamic, metabolic, and anesthetic considerations. Ann Surg Oncol; 2009 Feb;16(2):334-44
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  • However, it is unknown whether the primary disease (mesothelioma versus peritoneal carcinomatosis) affects hemodynamic and metabolic perturbations during the course of CHPP with cisplatin.
  • We examined the perioperative course of patients undergoing CHPP with cisplatin and evaluated the effect of primary diagnosis (mesothelioma versus peritoneal carcinomatosis) on hemodynamic and metabolic parameters in response to peritoneal perfusion.
  • We conclude that the transient hemodynamic and metabolic perturbations associated with cytoreductive surgery and CHPP with cisplatin can vary according to the primary diagnosis (mesothelioma versus peritoneal carcinomatosis) warranting this therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Cancer, Regional Perfusion. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / therapy. Hyperthermia, Induced. Mesothelioma / therapy. Peritoneal Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19050961.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 CL999999; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIA CL009009-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anesthetics; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS84033; NLM/ PMC2637468
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46. Parvez T, Ibraheim MI: Diagnostic and prognostic yield of tumor markers in cancer of unknown primary site. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak; 2006 Feb;16(2):154-6
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  • [Title] Diagnostic and prognostic yield of tumor markers in cancer of unknown primary site.
  • A case of metastatic carcinoma of unknown primary is reported that had widely disseminated disease from the very outset.
  • Every effort was made to find out the primary by integrating all results and specially tumor markers.
  • It was assumed that lung was the most possible site for primary.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. CA-125 Antigen / blood. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16499817.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-386X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen
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47. Hashim AR, Al-Quryni AM: Carcinoma of unknown primary site. Saudi Med J; 2005 Jan;26(1):47-50
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  • [Title] Carcinoma of unknown primary site.
  • OBJECTIVE: To verify the spectrum of manifestations of carcinoma of unknown primary site, histopathological type and outcome, as well as to identify the prognostic factors for patient's outcome and their survival rate.
  • METHODS: From January 2001 to July 2002, in Basrah Teaching Hospital, Basrah, Iraq, 60 patients (27 males and 33 females), (mean age 58.8 +/- 11.1 years) who had fulfilled the criteria for carcinoma of unknown primary site were studied.
  • Adenocarcinoma was the most common histopathological type (63% of cases), while sequamous cell carcinoma was the least (13%).
  • Age > or = 60, smoking, adenocarcinoma type and multiple site of metastasis were bad prognostic factors for the outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Carcinoma / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • [CommentIn] Saudi Med J. 2005 Nov;26(11):1840-3 [16311687.001]
  • (PMID = 15756352.001).
  • [ISSN] 0379-5284
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
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48. Gökçe M, Korkmaz L, Oz D, Orem C, Kiris A, Ahmetoğlu A: Metastatic adenocarcinoma in the right atrium and secondary Budd-Chiari syndrome (a case report). Int J Cardiol; 2009 Feb 6;132(1):e1-4
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  • [Title] Metastatic adenocarcinoma in the right atrium and secondary Budd-Chiari syndrome (a case report).
  • Metastatic cardiac tumors (MCT) are much more common than the primary cardiac tumors.
  • We report an unusual case of Budd-Chiari syndrome which was associated with metastatic right atrial adenocarcinoma with unknown origin in a 60-year-old woman.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Budd-Chiari Syndrome / etiology. Heart Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary

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  • (PMID = 18023895.001).
  • [ISSN] 1874-1754
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cardiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cardiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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49. Cohen SJ, Engstrom PF, Lewis NL, Langer CJ, McLaughlin S, Beard M, Weiner LM, Meropol NJ: Phase I study of capecitabine and oxaliplatin in combination with the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib in patients with advanced solid tumors. Am J Clin Oncol; 2008 Feb;31(1):1-5
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  • Three objective tumor responses were noted (squamous cell of anus, adenocarcinoma of unknown primary, adenocarcinoma of rectum).

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  • (PMID = 18376220.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-453X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA006927
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Boronic Acids; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 0 / Pyrazines; 04ZR38536J / oxaliplatin; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; 69G8BD63PP / Bortezomib; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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50. Faivre S, Delbaldo C, Vera K, Robert C, Lozahic S, Lassau N, Bello C, Deprimo S, Brega N, Massimini G, Armand JP, Scigalla P, Raymond E: Safety, pharmacokinetic, and antitumor activity of SU11248, a novel oral multitarget tyrosine kinase inhibitor, in patients with cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2006 Jan 1;24(1):25-35
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  • Six objective responses were observed in three renal cell carcinomas, one neuroendocrine tumor, one stromal tumor, and one unknown primary adenocarcinoma patient.


51. Yokomuro S, Arima Y, Mizuguchi Y, Shimizu T, Kawahigashi Y, Kannda T, Arai M, Tajiri T: Occult gallbladder carcinoma after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a report of four cases. J Nippon Med Sch; 2007 Aug;74(4):300-5
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  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic. Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Gallstones / surgery. Humans. Male. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17878700.001).
  • [ISSN] 1345-4676
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Nippon Medical School = Nippon Ika Daigaku zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Nippon Med Sch
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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52. Shaw PH, Adams R, Jordan C, Crosby TD: A clinical review of the investigation and management of carcinoma of unknown primary in a single cancer network. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2007 Feb;19(1):87-95
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  • [Title] A clinical review of the investigation and management of carcinoma of unknown primary in a single cancer network.
  • AIMS: Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) is a common encounter in oncological practice and represents 2.0-6.0% of all invasive malignancies.
  • Evidence to support particular therapeutic strategies in this patient population is scarce, and empirical therapies are frequently derived from research on patients where the primary tumour site is known.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study reviewed the management of all patients recorded to have a diagnosis of CUP in a single cancer centre over a period of 12 months.
  • Health records were reviewed documenting the CUP subtype, the investigations carried out both in the referring cancer unit and subsequently at the cancer centre and the recommended treatment (type and regimen), together with survival.
  • RESULTS: One hundred and sixty-six patients were recorded to have a diagnosis of CUP, representing 3.7% of all referrals to the cancer centre.
  • The three most common CUP subgroups were CUP-liver/multiple sites (25.0%), CUP-bone (21.0%) and CUP-brain (16.0%).
  • Even within a single subtype, 41 patients with CUP-liver/multiple sites underwent a total of 19 different investigations before any treatment being given.
  • Nine different 5-fluorouracil-containing regimens were used in 11 patients treated with chemotherapy for CUP-liver.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The appropriate management of patients with CUP is unclear and this study revealed a high degree of variation in clinical practice.
  • This area is in urgent need of clinical research to ensure that the treatment of CUP is evidence based.
  • Therapeutic progress will be facilitated by designating a clinical lead for CUP in each clinical network.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17305260.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-6555
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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53. Briasoulis E, Fountzilas G, Bamias A, Dimopoulos MA, Xiros N, Aravantinos G, Samantas E, Kalofonos H, Makatsoris T, Mylonakis N, Papakostas P, Skarlos D, Varthalitis I, Pavlidis N: Multicenter phase-II trial of irinotecan plus oxaliplatin [IROX regimen] in patients with poor-prognosis cancer of unknown primary: a hellenic cooperative oncology group study. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2008 Jul;62(2):277-84
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  • [Title] Multicenter phase-II trial of irinotecan plus oxaliplatin [IROX regimen] in patients with poor-prognosis cancer of unknown primary: a hellenic cooperative oncology group study.
  • BACKGROUND: Cancer of unknown primary (CUP) lacks established therapy although it affects 3% of cancer patients.
  • We evaluated the irinotecan-oxaliplatin combination (IROX regimen) in previously untreated patients with non-favorable subsets of unknown primary carcinomas.
  • The primary end points were response rate and toxicity, and secondary end points were time to progression and survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The IROX regimen demonstrated similar efficacy and a favorable toxicity profile compared to other more toxic chemotherapy combinations in patients with poor-prognosis CUP.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17901952.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5704
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 04ZR38536J / oxaliplatin; 7673326042 / irinotecan; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin; IROX protocol
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54. Tohfe M, Baki SA, Saliba W, Ghandour F, Ashou R, Ghazal G, Bahous J, Chamseddine N: Metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma presenting with pulmonary symptoms: a case report and review of the literature. Cases J; 2008;1(1):316
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  • [Title] Metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma presenting with pulmonary symptoms: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Despite the absence of any detectable osseous lesions and with the presence of multiple hilar, mediastinal, para-aortic, and pelvic lymphadenopathy, the patient had a complete work-up in search for the primary adenocarcinoma.
  • His prostate specific antigen was 146 ng/ml and a prostatic biopsy done, revealing an acinar prostatic adenocarcinoma.
  • A tru-cut biopsy of a lung lesion under computed tomography guidance showed a metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma positive for prostate specific antigen stain.
  • CONCLUSION: This case sheds light on an unusual metastatic pattern of prostatic adenocarcinoma.
  • It also emphasizes the importance of including prostate cancer in the differential diagnosis of men with adenocarcinoma of unknown origin.

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  • [Cites] CA Cancer J Clin. 2008 Mar-Apr;58(2):71-96 [18287387.001]
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  • (PMID = 19014682.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2590613
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55. Ghosh SB, Tempe A: Retroperitoneal adenocarcinoma of unknown origin presenting as a rare cause of obstructed labor. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2009 Mar;279(3):427-9
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  • [Title] Retroperitoneal adenocarcinoma of unknown origin presenting as a rare cause of obstructed labor.
  • BACKGROUND: Metastatic retroperitoneal adenocarcinoma presenting as obstructed labor is extremely rare.
  • A diagnosis of retroperitoneal adenocarcinoma with an unknown primary was made based on histopathology and a negative workup for the possible primary sites.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Dystocia / etiology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / pathology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 18665376.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0711
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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56. Ogata H, Sekikawa A, Yamagishi H, Ichikawa K, Tomita S, Imura J, Ito Y, Fujita M, Tsubaki M, Kato H, Fujimori T, Fukui H: GROα promotes invasion of colorectal cancer cells. Oncol Rep; 2010 Dec;24(6):1479-86
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  • However, the pathophysiological role of GROα in human colorectal cancers (CRCs) is still unknown.
  • Specimens of 62 primary CRCs were examined immunohistochemically for GROα, and the relationship between GROα expression and clinicopathological features was investigated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Chemokine CXCL1 / physiology. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21042742.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-2431
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CXCL1 protein, human; 0 / Chemokine CXCL1
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57. Miura K, Yoshizawa K, Tamaki M, Okumura K, Furukita Y: [Mediastinal lymph node carcinoma of unknown primary site; report of a case]. Kyobu Geka; 2009 Mar;62(3):255-7
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  • [Title] [Mediastinal lymph node carcinoma of unknown primary site; report of a case].
  • No preoperative examination could detect the primary lesion.
  • Histological examination revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma.
  • She was diagonosed as metastatic mediastinal lymph node carcinoma of unknown primary site.
  • Good results may be obtained by multimodality therapies for cancer in mediastinal lymph node of unknown primary site.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary

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  • (PMID = 19280962.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5252
  • [Journal-full-title] Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kyobu Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen
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58. Vang R, Gown AM, Farinola M, Barry TS, Wheeler DT, Yemelyanova A, Seidman JD, Judson K, Ronnett BM: p16 expression in primary ovarian mucinous and endometrioid tumors and metastatic adenocarcinomas in the ovary: utility for identification of metastatic HPV-related endocervical adenocarcinomas. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 May;31(5):653-63
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  • [Title] p16 expression in primary ovarian mucinous and endometrioid tumors and metastatic adenocarcinomas in the ovary: utility for identification of metastatic HPV-related endocervical adenocarcinomas.
  • Distinction of primary ovarian epithelial tumors from metastatic adenocarcinomas is challenging for tumors exhibiting mucinous, endometrioid, or mixed endometrioid/mucinous differentiation.
  • Most endocervical adenocarcinomas exhibit mucinous and/or endometrioid differentiation; they infrequently metastasize to the ovaries but may simulate primary ovarian tumors [both atypical proliferative (borderline) and carcinoma].
  • The performance of this expression pattern for identifying metastatic endocervical adenocarcinomas in the ovaries among primary ovarian tumors and other metastatic adenocarcinomas having mucinous and/or endometrioid/endometrioidlike differentiation has not been evaluated.
  • Immunohistochemical expression of p16 was assessed in 195 tumors, including 98 primary ovarian tumors (51 mucinous, 47 endometrioid, and 4 mixed mucinous-endometrioid tumors), 93 metastatic adenocarcinomas of known primary sites (colorectum: 34, endocervix: 19, pancreaticobiliary tract: 17, appendix: 7, stomach: 5), 11 metastatic adenocarcinomas of unknown origin (7 established as noncervical), and 4 adenocarcinomas of uncertain (primary ovarian vs. metastatic) origin.
  • Mean and median expression values for HPV-positive endocervical adenocarcinomas (99%, 100%; range 90% to 100%) were substantially higher than those for primary ovarian mucinous (5%, 0%; range 0% to 70%) and endometrioid (20%, 10%; range 0% to 100%) tumors, HPV-unrelated endocervical adenocarcinomas (0%, 0%; range 0% to 60%), metastatic adenocarcinomas of unknown origin (11%, 0%; range 0% to 30%), and adenocarcinomas of uncertain (primary ovarian vs. metastatic) origin (40%, 35%; range 0% to 90%); only the 15 HPV-positive endocervical adenocarcinomas and 6 other tumors had values of 80% or greater.
  • Diffuse (>75% positive tumor cells) moderate to strong p16 expression is a sensitive (100%) and specific (97%) marker for identifying HPV-related endocervical adenocarcinomas metastatic to the ovary among the primary ovarian tumors and metastatic adenocarcinomas from other sites that are in the differential diagnosis of ovarian tumors having mucinous and/or endometrioid/endometrioidlike differentiation. p16 is useful as part of a panel of immunohistochemical markers for distinguishing primary ovarian tumors from metastases and, when diffusely positive, can suggest the cervix as a potential primary site for metastatic adenocarcinomas of unknown origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / metabolism. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism


59. Kaya A, Olmezoglu A, Eren CS, Bayol U, Altay T, Karapinar L, Ozturk H, Oztekin D, Guvenli Y, Karadogan I: Solitary bone metastasis in the tibia as a presenting sign of endometrial adenocarcinoma: a case report and the review of the literature. Clin Exp Metastasis; 2007;24(2):87-92
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  • [Title] Solitary bone metastasis in the tibia as a presenting sign of endometrial adenocarcinoma: a case report and the review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Metastasis to bone from endometrial adenocarcinoma is rare, when metastasises it usually locates in axial skeleton.
  • In the present study we report the 10th cases of bone metastasis in the literature which located at tibial diaphysis and originated from endometrial adenocarcinoma as a presenting feature of the primary disease.
  • Biopsy confirmed metastatic adenocarcinoma of the unknown origin.
  • We couldn't find the primary origin with aggressive work-up.
  • Endometrial adenocarcinoma is detected after the end of disease-free one year with the symptom of vaginal bleeding.
  • DISCUSSION: Patients with endometrial adenocarcinoma presenting an isolated skeletal metastasis may exhibit an unusual group with a better prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Tibia / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17364220.001).
  • [ISSN] 0262-0898
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & experimental metastasis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Metastasis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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60. Vang R, Gown AM, Barry TS, Wheeler DT, Yemelyanova A, Seidman JD, Ronnett BM: Cytokeratins 7 and 20 in primary and secondary mucinous tumors of the ovary: analysis of coordinate immunohistochemical expression profiles and staining distribution in 179 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Sep;30(9):1130-9
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  • [Title] Cytokeratins 7 and 20 in primary and secondary mucinous tumors of the ovary: analysis of coordinate immunohistochemical expression profiles and staining distribution in 179 cases.
  • Coordinate expression profiles for cytokeratins 7 and 20 (CK7 and CK20) are useful for distinguishing certain types of adenocarcinomas but use for distinction of primary and secondary mucinous tumors in the ovary is limited due to the existence of a number of tumor types exhibiting overlapping CK7/CK20 immunoprofiles; the use of staining distribution patterns in the distinction of tumors with shared profiles has not been evaluated in detail.
  • We report analysis of both coordinate expression profiles and staining distribution in 179 rigorously classified mucinous tumors in the ovary, including 53 primary tumors [35 atypical proliferative (borderline) mucinous tumors of gastrointestinal type and 18 invasive mucinous carcinomas] and 126 secondary tumors [28 colorectal adenocarcinomas, 54 appendiceal tumors (23 adenocarcinomas, 31 low-grade adenomatous mucinous tumors associated with pseudomyxoma peritonei), 14 pancreatic adenocarcinomas, 8 endocervical adenocarcinomas, 5 gastric adenocarcinomas, 4 gallbladder/biliary tract adenocarcinomas, and 13 adenocarcinomas of unknown primary sites).
  • A CK7+/CK20+ immunoprofile was the most common profile in primary ovarian tumors (74%), upper gastrointestinal tract tumors (78%), and endocervical tumors (88%) but was occasionally observed in lower intestinal tract tumors (colorectal: 11%; appendiceal: 13% of low-grade tumors, 35% of carcinomas).
  • A CK7-/CK20+ immunoprofile was the most common profile in lower intestinal tract tumors (79%) and was uncommon in upper gastrointestinal tract tumors (9%), rarely seen in primary ovarian tumors (4%), and not seen in endocervical tumors.
  • A CK7+/CK20- profile was observed in some primary ovarian (23%), upper gastrointestinal tract (13%), and endocervical tumors (13%) but not in lower intestinal tract tumors.
  • For CK7+ tumors, staining distribution was very frequently diffuse (>50% of tumors cells positive) in primary ovarian, upper gastrointestinal tract, and endocervical tumors, whereas staining distribution was often focal (<50% of tumors cells positive) when present in colorectal and appendiceal carcinomas but not in low-grade appendiceal tumors.
  • For CK20+ tumors, staining distribution was variable but often focal in primary ovarian tumors and nonlower intestinal tract tumors, whereas the pattern was almost always diffuse in lower intestinal tract tumors.
  • Immunohistochemical staining distribution can supplement CK7/CK20 coordinate expression profiles to distinguish subsets of primary ovarian and metastatic lower intestinal tract mucinous tumors having overlapping immunoprofiles but neither coordinate expression profiles nor staining distribution distinguishes primary ovarian tumors from the nonlower intestinal tract metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / chemistry. Keratins / analysis. Ovarian Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / chemistry. Coloring Agents. Female. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / chemistry. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratin-20. Keratin-7. Pseudomyxoma Peritonei / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 16931958.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / KRT20 protein, human; 0 / KRT7 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / Keratin-7; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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61. Nguyen DX, Chiang AC, Zhang XH, Kim JY, Kris MG, Ladanyi M, Gerald WL, Massagué J: WNT/TCF signaling through LEF1 and HOXB9 mediates lung adenocarcinoma metastasis. Cell; 2009 Jul 10;138(1):51-62
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  • [Title] WNT/TCF signaling through LEF1 and HOXB9 mediates lung adenocarcinoma metastasis.
  • Metastasis from lung adenocarcinoma can occur swiftly to multiple organs within months of diagnosis.
  • The mechanisms that confer this rapid metastatic capacity to lung tumors are unknown.
  • Activation of the canonical WNT/TCF pathway is identified here as a determinant of metastasis to brain and bone during lung adenocarcinoma progression.
  • Gene expression signatures denoting WNT/TCF activation are associated with relapse to multiple organs in primary lung adenocarcinoma.
  • Metastatic subpopulations isolated from independent lymph node-derived lung adenocarcinoma cell lines harbor a hyperactive WNT/TCF pathway.
  • Thus, a distinct WNT/TCF signaling program through LEF1 and HOXB9 enhances the competence of lung adenocarcinoma cells to colonize the bones and the brain.


62. Kumar R, Deopujari CE, Shah R, Kumar A: Metastatic adenocarcinoma of bilateral cavernous sinus and optic nerve with unknown primary mimicking orbital pseudotumor. Neurol India; 2009 Jan-Feb;57(1):82-4
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  • [Title] Metastatic adenocarcinoma of bilateral cavernous sinus and optic nerve with unknown primary mimicking orbital pseudotumor.
  • We report an extremely rare case of metastatic adenocarcinoma of bilateral cavernous sinus and optic nerve with unknown primary presenting as orbital pseudotumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Cavernous Sinus / pathology. Optic Nerve Neoplasms / pathology. Optic Nerve Neoplasms / secondary. Orbital Pseudotumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19305087.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3886
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurology India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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63. Choi SY, Lee JI, Noh TJ, Jang JY, Nam KD, Kim NH, Lee SK, Joo KR, Dong SH, Kim HJ, Kim BH, Chang YW, Chang R: [A case of stump MALT lymphoma after partial gastrectomy]. Korean J Gastroenterol; 2006 May;47(5):394-6
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  • Gastrectomy is known to be a risk factor for adenocarcinoma in remnant stomach.
  • It is suggested that reflux of bile juice or duodenal secretion to remnant stomach induces atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric adenocarcinoma.
  • Gastric MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) lymphoma is associated with Helicobacter pylori infection but the mechanism of lymphoma development in remnant stomach is still unknown.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrectomy. Gastric Stump. Lymphoma, B-Cell, Marginal Zone. Neoplasms, Second Primary. Stomach Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16714883.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-9992
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] kor
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
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64. Rodríguez JM, Sanz Peláez O, Santana L, Rey A, Suárez Ortega S, Betancor León P: [The Sister Joseph's nodule-like manifestation of carcinoma of unknown origin: presentation of one case]. An Med Interna; 2005 Jun;22(6):285-7
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  • [Title] [The Sister Joseph's nodule-like manifestation of carcinoma of unknown origin: presentation of one case].
  • We presents a 71-year-old male, with the Sister Joseph's nodule, detected in the context of unknown origin carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Umbilicus

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  • (PMID = 16011409.001).
  • [ISSN] 0212-7199
  • [Journal-full-title] Anales de medicina interna (Madrid, Spain : 1984)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Med Interna
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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65. Pereira TC, Saad RS, Liu Y, Silverman JF: The diagnosis of malignancy in effusion cytology: a pattern recognition approach. Adv Anat Pathol; 2006 Jul;13(4):174-84
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  • [MeSH-major] Mesothelioma / pathology. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology. Pattern Recognition, Automated / methods. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Algorithms. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Epithelium / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Pericardial Effusion / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16858151.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-4109
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 90
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66. Rubenstein JH, Inadomi JM: Defining a clinically significant adverse impact of diagnosing Barrett's esophagus. J Clin Gastroenterol; 2006 Feb;40(2):109-15
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  • It is unknown whether the mere diagnosis of Barrett's esophagus (BE) adversely impacts patients' preferences (health-state utility) sufficiently to impair the cost-effectiveness of endoscopic screening for esophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • The primary outcomes were the threshold decrements in utility incurred by diagnosing BE based on willingness to pay (WTP) of dollar 50,000 and dollar 100,000 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) gained.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Barrett Esophagus / diagnosis. Esophageal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gastroesophageal Reflux / complications. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16394870.001).
  • [ISSN] 0192-0790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / 1 T32 DK062708
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Arevalo JF, Fernandez CF, Garcia RA: Optical coherence tomography characteristics of choroidal metastasis. Ophthalmology; 2005 Sep;112(9):1612-9
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  • PURPOSE: To report 4 patients (7 eyes) with choroidal metastasis (primary: breast [2], lung [1], and unknown [1]) visualized with optical coherence tomography (OCT).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Choroid Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16039718.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-4713
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Fernández Cotarelo MJ, Guerra Vales JM: [Diagnostic approach to cancer of unknown primary site]. Rev Clin Esp; 2009 Jul-Aug;209(7):347-51
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  • [Title] [Diagnostic approach to cancer of unknown primary site].
  • Cancer of unknown primary site (CUPS) is a heterogeneous entity defined by the presence of a histologically-proven metastatic neoplasm, in which the original tumor cannot be identified after a targeted study.
  • The current guidelines for CUPS focus is not based on the search for the primary neoplasm but rather on the identification of patients who may benefit from a treatment that will prolong their survival, based on the clinical and histological characteristics of each case.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Neuroendocrine Tumors / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Positron-Emission Tomography. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19709540.001).
  • [ISSN] 0014-2565
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista clínica española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Clin Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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69. Gray MJ, Dallas NA, Van Buren G, Xia L, Yang AD, Somcio RJ, Gaur P, Mangala LS, Vivas-Mejia PE, Fan F, Sanguino AM, Gallick GE, Lopez-Berestein G, Sood AK, Ellis LM: Therapeutic targeting of Id2 reduces growth of human colorectal carcinoma in the murine liver. Oncogene; 2008 Dec 4;27(57):7192-200
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  • Id2 expression has been detected in cancer cells, yet its cellular function and validity as a therapeutic target remains largely unknown.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of colorectal cancer (CRC) specimens revealed that Id2 was undetectable in normal colonic mucosa, but occurs in 40% of primary tumors and in most CRC liver metastases (P<0.0001).

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  • (PMID = 18806828.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5594
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009599; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5T32 CA09599
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ID2 protein, human; 0 / Inhibitor of Differentiation Protein 2; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS323759; NLM/ PMC3199128
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70. Sève P, Dumontet C: Is class III beta-tubulin a predictive factor in patients receiving tubulin-binding agents? Lancet Oncol; 2008 Feb;9(2):168-75
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  • High expression of class III beta-tubulin has been found to be correlated either with low response rates in patients treated with regimens containing taxanes or vinorelbine or with reduced survival in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer, in breast, ovarian, and gastric cancers, and in cancers of unknown primary site.
  • Further analyses in operable and advanced non-small-cell lung cancer showed a relation between high expression of class III beta-tubulin and baseline factors such as age under 60 years, adenocarcinoma and large-cell carcinoma histologies, and advanced stage of disease.

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  • (PMID = 18237851.001).
  • [ISSN] 1474-5488
  • [Journal-full-title] The Lancet. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Tubulin; 0 / Tubulin Modulators
  • [Number-of-references] 60
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71. Centeno BA, Bloom G, Chen DT, Chen Z, Gruidl M, Nasir A, Yeatman TY: Hybrid model integrating immunohistochemistry and expression profiling for the classification of carcinomas of unknown primary site. J Mol Diagn; 2010 Jul;12(4):476-86
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  • [Title] Hybrid model integrating immunohistochemistry and expression profiling for the classification of carcinomas of unknown primary site.
  • Identification of the site of origin for 'malignancy with unknown primary' remains a challenge for modern pathology.
  • Standard pathological approaches combine morphology and immunohistochemical (IHC) studies to first subclassify cytokeratin-positive carcinomas into adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, neuroendocrine carcinoma, and urothelial carcinoma.
  • Subsequently, organ-specific IHC-markers, if available, are used to assign the tumor's primary site of origin.
  • Dependent on initial classification, one of three second-tier classifiers assign primary site resulting in both carcinoma subtype and primary site classification.
  • Second tier accuracies were 87%, 90%, and 87% for adenocarcinoma, squamous, and neuroendocrine carcinoma respectively.
  • Therefore, we can successfully separate the four main subtypes of carcinoma and subsequently assign primary site by incorporation of gene expression-based classifiers into the standard algorithmic pathology approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Profiling / methods. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Models, Biological. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / classification. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20558571.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-7811
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of molecular diagnostics : JMD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Mol Diagn
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA076292; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112215; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112215
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2893632
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72. Hu M, Li MH, Kong L, Liu NB, Yang GR, Yu JM: [(18)F-FDG PET-CT in detecting the primary tumor in patients with metastatic cancers of unknown primary origin]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2008 Sep;30(9):699-701
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  • [Title] [(18)F-FDG PET-CT in detecting the primary tumor in patients with metastatic cancers of unknown primary origin].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the value of (18)F-FDG PET-CT in detecting the primary tumor in patients with metastatic cancers of unknown primary origin.
  • METHODS: Sixty-seven patients with metastatic cancers of unknown primary origin after extensive conventional diagnostic work-up were enrolled into this study. (18)F-FDG PET-CT scans were performed at approximately 60 minutes after the intravenous injection of 7.4 MBq (18)F-FDG/kg, then delayed imaging scans was done at approximately 180 minutes for detecting the primary focus.
  • The correlation between (18)F-FDG PET-CT results and histopathological and clinical findings were analyzed, and the SUV of detected primary focus and that of metastatic cancers were compared.
  • RESULTS: Of the 67 patients, the primary tumors were identified in 39 (53.7%) by (18)F-FDG PET-CT, and 36 of them were confirmed by pathology or follow-up.
  • The SUV of metastatic tumors was significantly lower than that of primary tumors (t = 3.470,P = 0.001) and closely correlated with that of the primary tumors (r = 0.738, P = 0.000).
  • CONCLUSION: (18)F-FDG PET-CT is not only valuable in identifying the unknown primary tumor in patients with metastatic carcinoma, but can also be used to reveal the biological characteristics of the tumors by functional imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Lung Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / radionuclide imaging. Ovarian Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / radionuclide imaging. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19173915.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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73. Cho JY, Shim EJ, Kim IS, Nam EM, Choi MY, Lee KE, Mun YC, Seoung CM, Lee SN, Song DE, Han WS: Cancer of unknown primary finally revealed to be a metastatic prostate cancer: a case report. Cancer Res Treat; 2009 Mar;41(1):45-9
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  • [Title] Cancer of unknown primary finally revealed to be a metastatic prostate cancer: a case report.
  • Here, we report a patient who presented with a periureteral tumor of unknown primary site that was confirmed as prostate adenocarcinoma after three years with using specific immunohistochemical examination.
  • At that time, we treated him as having a cancer of unknown primary site.
  • We suggest the usefulness of newly developed immunohistochemical markers such as P504S to determine the specific primary site of metastatic poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in men.

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  • (PMID = 19688071.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-2998
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research and treatment : official journal of Korean Cancer Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res Treat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2699091
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Cancer of unknown primary / Metastatic prostate cancer / P504S
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74. Dennis JL, Hvidsten TR, Wit EC, Komorowski J, Bell AK, Downie I, Mooney J, Verbeke C, Bellamy C, Keith WN, Oien KA: Markers of adenocarcinoma characteristic of the site of origin: development of a diagnostic algorithm. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 May 15;11(10):3766-72
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  • [Title] Markers of adenocarcinoma characteristic of the site of origin: development of a diagnostic algorithm.
  • PURPOSE: Patients with metastatic adenocarcinoma of unknown origin are a common clinical problem.
  • Knowledge of the primary site is important for their management, but histologically, such tumors appear similar.
  • In the first (training) round, we studied 352 primary adenocarcinomas, from seven main sites (breast, colon, lung, ovary, pancreas, prostate and stomach) and their differential diagnoses.
  • In the second (validation) round, we studied 100 primary adenocarcinomas and 30 paired metastases.
  • RESULTS: In the first round, we generated expression profiles for all 27 candidate markers in each of the seven main primary sites.
  • The 10 markers and diagnostic algorithm were then tested in a second, independent, set of primary and metastatic tumors and again 88% were correctly classified.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This classification scheme should enable better prediction on biopsy material of the primary site in patients with metastatic adenocarcinoma of unknown origin, leading to improved management and therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15897574.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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75. Umudum H, Oysul A, Mentes O, Ozgul O, Ozdemir M: Axillary mass without a primary tumour. Cytopathology; 2006 Feb;17(1):53-4
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  • [Title] Axillary mass without a primary tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Axilla. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary

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  • (PMID = 16417566.001).
  • [ISSN] 0956-5507
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytopathology : official journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
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76. Asakura H, Takashima H, Mitani M, Haba R, Seo R, Yokoe K, Toyama Y, Ohkawa M: Unknown primary carcinoma, diagnosed as inflammatory breast cancer,and successfully treated with trastuzumab and vinorelbine. Int J Clin Oncol; 2005 Aug;10(4):285-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Unknown primary carcinoma, diagnosed as inflammatory breast cancer,and successfully treated with trastuzumab and vinorelbine.
  • Here we describe a case of IBC, which arose as an unknown primary carcinoma; the patient presented with axillary lymph node metastasis, and was successfully treated with trastuzumab and vinorelbine.
  • Although she underwent various examinations, the primary site of the disease was not revealed.
  • Axillary lymph node dissection was performed, and the lesion was diagnosed as a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Axilla. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Lymphatic Diseases. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Tomography, Emission-Computed. Trastuzumab. Treatment Outcome. Vinblastine / administration & dosage. Vinblastine / analogs & derivatives


77. Khunamornpong S, Suprasert P, Chiangmai WN, Siriaunkgul S: Metastatic tumors to the ovaries: a study of 170 cases in northern Thailand. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 Jan-Feb;16 Suppl 1:132-8
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  • The medical records, the radiologic findings, and the follow-up outcome in the cases suspicious or diagnostic of metastases were reviewed to confirm the diagnosis and to determine the primary sites.
  • Nongynecologic metastatic tumors were from large intestine (31%), stomach (14%), intrahepatic bile duct (10%), breast (9%), extrahepatic bile duct/gallbladder (7%), appendix (5%), hematologic tumors (3%), others (4%), and unknown primary site (16%).
  • However, the distribution of the primary sites was different and was correlated with the cancer incidence in Thai women.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / epidemiology. Ovarian Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16515581.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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78. Shiao YM, Chang YH, Liu YM, Li JC, Su JS, Liu KJ, Liu YF, Lin MW, Tsai SF: Dysregulation of GIMAP genes in non-small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer; 2008 Dec;62(3):287-94
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  • GIMAP genes encode GTP-binding proteins that share a unique primary structure and whose function is largely unknown.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Lung / metabolism. Lung / pathology. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Pilot Projects. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 18462827.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-5002
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; EC 3.6.1.- / GTP-Binding Proteins
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79. Abdulkareem FB, Rotimi O: Immunophenotypical categorization of omental and liver metastatic tumours in Lagos, Nigeria. Nig Q J Hosp Med; 2008 Oct-Dec;18(4):198-201
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  • INTRODUCTION: Immunohistochemistry(IHC), used routinely in developed countries to identify primary sites of metastatic tumours has scarcely available I Nigeria where majority of patients present with advanced metastases.
  • CONCLUSION: This study has further corroborated previous studies that adenocarcinoma is the most common metastatic omental and liver metastases and the common primary sites are within the gastrointestinal tract.
  • Since many patients in Africa present late with advanced metastases, immunohistochemistry is will be useful in identifying primary sites before initiating specific treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Omentum / pathology. Peritoneal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Immunophenotyping. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / genetics. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology. Nigeria

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  • (PMID = 19391319.001).
  • [ISSN] 0189-2657
  • [Journal-full-title] Nigerian quarterly journal of hospital medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nig Q J Hosp Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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80. Stakia P, Lagos P, Gourgiotis S, Tzilalis VD, Aloizos S, Salemis NS: Large mass affecting retroperitoneal great vessels: a rare presentation of a cancer of unknown primary with diagnostic dilemma and challenged surgical intervention. J Gastrointest Cancer; 2009;40(1-2):55-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Large mass affecting retroperitoneal great vessels: a rare presentation of a cancer of unknown primary with diagnostic dilemma and challenged surgical intervention.
  • INTRODUCTION: Cancers of unknown primary site (CUPs) consist of a clinical entity which accounts for 3-5% of all solid tumor patients.
  • They are metastatic solid tumors whose fundamental characteristic is the absence of identifiable site of the primary tumor.
  • A complete resection of the mass was performed while the histological examination revealed a solitary retroperitoneal lymph node categorized as metastatic adenocarcinoma of unknown primary site.
  • CONCLUSION: It is essential to assess the high incidence of patients with cancer who present with CUP.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Blood Vessels / pathology. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • [Cites] Eur J Cancer. 2003 Sep;39(14):1990-2005 [12957453.001]
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  • (PMID = 19513858.001).
  • [ISSN] 1941-6636
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gastrointest Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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81. Nicholl MB, Ahuja V, Conway WC, Vu VD, Sim MS, Singh G: Small bowel adenocarcinoma: understaged and undertreated? Ann Surg Oncol; 2010 Oct;17(10):2728-32
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  • [Title] Small bowel adenocarcinoma: understaged and undertreated?
  • BACKGROUND: Primary small bowel adenocarcinoma (SBA) is a rare, chemoresistant tumor with an aggressive clinical nature.
  • Surgery is the mainstay of therapy, but the extent of lymph node (LN) recovery necessary for optimal care of jejunoileal SBA is unknown.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The SEER database was queried to identify patients whose primary jejunoileal SBA was diagnosed between 1995 and 2005.
  • RESULTS: Of 1444 patients with primary SBA, 93 (6.4%), 529 (36.6%), 356 (24.7%), and 466 (32.3%) were initially diagnosed with stage I, II, III, and IV disease, respectively.
  • Multivariate analysis identified age, AJCC stage, site of primary tumor, recovery of ≥10 LNs, and number of positive nodes as significant for OS.

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  • (PMID = 20458546.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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82. Italiano A, Cortot AB, Ilie M, Martel-Planche G, Fabas T, Pop D, Mouroux J, Hofman V, Hofman P, Pedeutour F: EGFR and KRAS status of primary sarcomatoid carcinomas of the lung: implications for anti-EGFR treatment of a rare lung malignancy. Int J Cancer; 2009 Nov 15;125(10):2479-82
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  • [Title] EGFR and KRAS status of primary sarcomatoid carcinomas of the lung: implications for anti-EGFR treatment of a rare lung malignancy.
  • Although epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted therapies have emerged as a promising therapeutic approach in patients with advanced typical NSCLC such as adenocarcinoma, the potential clinical activity of these drugs in lung SC is still unknown.
  • EGFR protein expression, EGFR gene copy number, EGFR mutational status and KRAS mutational status were assessed in a series of 22 consecutive cases of primary lung SC.

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  • [CommentIn] Int J Cancer. 2011 Feb 1;128(3):732-5; author reply 736 [20309946.001]
  • (PMID = 19681124.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / KRAS protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / EGFR protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
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83. Coca Pelaz A, Llorente JL, Suárez C: Infratemporal metastasis from occult follicular thyroid carcinoma. J Craniofac Surg; 2009 Jan;20(1):165-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Cranial Fossa, Middle / pathology. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology. Skull Base Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19165017.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3732
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of craniofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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84. Singh A, Singh P, Sahni K, Shukla P, Shukla V, Pant NK: Non-small cell lung cancer presenting with choroidal metastasis as first sign and showing good response to chemotherapy alone: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2010;4:185
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  • The primary sites for choroidal metastasis in decreasing order and by gender are: breast, lung, unknown primary, gastrointestinal and pancreas, skin melanoma and other rare sources in females, and lung, unknown primary, gastrointestinal and pancreas, prostate, kidney, skin melanoma and other rare sources in males.
  • He was found to have an adenocarcinoma of the lung with choroidal metastasis as the first presenting sign.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Chemotherapy alone can be used as an effective mode of treatment in patients who have primary tumors that respond to chemotherapy.

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  • [Cites] Arch Ophthalmol. 1973 Feb;89(2):97-9 [4683617.001]
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  • (PMID = 20565905.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2916915
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85. Kubisch CH, Beigel F, Ihrler S, Goke B, Reiser MF, Hoffmann RT: Oesophageal ulceration after selective internal radiation therapy in a patient with carcinoma of unknown primary. Z Gastroenterol; 2010 May;48(5):546-50
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  • [Title] Oesophageal ulceration after selective internal radiation therapy in a patient with carcinoma of unknown primary.
  • BACKGROUND: Cancer of unknown primary (CUP) is defined as histologically confirmed metastases in the absence of an identifiable primary tumor.
  • CASE: We present a patient with hepatic CUP.
  • CONCLUSIONS: SIRT is a new, effective treatment in patients with hepatic CUP.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Brachytherapy / adverse effects. Duodenal Ulcer / pathology. Embolization, Therapeutic. Esophageal Diseases / pathology. Esophagus / radiation effects. Liver Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / radiotherapy. Radiation Injuries / pathology. Stomach Ulcer / pathology. Ulcer / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20449787.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-7803
  • [Journal-full-title] Zeitschrift für Gastroenterologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Z Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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86. Elert A, Forst F, Ihling C, Schneider A: [Cyst, endometriosis, borderline tumor, CUP : diagnostic stations of a supposedly simple renal cyst]. Urologe A; 2010 Dec;49(12):1522-4, 1526
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  • [Title] [Cyst, endometriosis, borderline tumor, CUP : diagnostic stations of a supposedly simple renal cyst].
  • [Transliterated title] Zyste, Endometriose, Borderlinetumor, CUP : Diagnostische Stationen einer vermeintlichen simplen Nierenzyste.
  • We report the case of a female patient in whom the diagnosis of a supposedly simple symptomatic renal cyst changed over endometriosis and borderline malignancy to a CUP.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Endometriosis / diagnosis. Kidney Diseases, Cystic / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis


87. Liebrich C, Brummer O, Von Wasielewski R, Wegener G, Meijer C, Iftner T, Petry KU: Primary cervical cancer truly negative for high-risk human papillomavirus is a rare but distinct entity that can affect virgins and young adolescents. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2009;30(1):45-8
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  • [Title] Primary cervical cancer truly negative for high-risk human papillomavirus is a rare but distinct entity that can affect virgins and young adolescents.
  • No instances of a rapid-onset cancer or true HPV-DNA negative cancer were found among our hospital cohort of 178 women with primary cancer of the uterine cervix.
  • Registry data identified four out of 5,878 patients who were diagnosed with primary cervical cancer at 14 to 20 years of age.
  • They were classified as clear-cell and endometriod adenocarcinoma and tested persistently negative for high-risk HPV-DNA.
  • Fourteen more cases of cervical cancer in virgins and very young women were identified by a Medline search, mostly with unknown histologic type or rare subtypes of adenocarcinoma.
  • In conclusion, rare adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix may represent an entity unrelated to HPV, thus explaining instances of rapid onset cervical cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


88. Calzolari F, Sartori PV, Talarico C, Parmeggiani D, Beretta E, Pezzullo L, Bovo G, Sperlongano P, Monacelli M, Lucchini R, Misso C, Gurrado A, D'Ajello M, Uggeri F, Puxeddu E, Nasi P, Testini M, Rosato L, Barbarisio A, Avenia N: Surgical treatment of intrathyroid metastases: preliminary results of a multicentric study. Anticancer Res; 2008 Sep-Oct;28(5B):2885-8
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  • RESULTS: The site of the primary tumor was: kidney (15), lung (4), colon (3), breast (1), melanoma (1), and unknown in 1 patient.
  • Ten patients (40%) complained of preoperative symptoms, in the others, thyroid involvement was incidentally discovered during the follow-up for the primary cancer.
  • A long delay between the primary tumor and the recurrence warrants surgery and total thyroidectomy seems to be the treatment of choice because of the multifocality of metastasis to the thyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19031929.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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89. Destombe C, Botton E, Le Gal G, Roudaut A, Jousse-Joulin S, Devauchelle-Pensec V, Saraux A: Investigations for bone metastasis from an unknown primary. Joint Bone Spine; 2007 Jan;74(1):85-9
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  • [Title] Investigations for bone metastasis from an unknown primary.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the respective contributions of various investigations used to identify the primary tumor in a cohort of patients referred for diagnostic evaluation of one or more bone metastases.
  • METHODS: A single-center retrospective study was conducted in a cohort of patients admitted between October 1990 and January 2000 for evaluation of one or more bone metastases with no known primary.
  • The primary was located in the lung in 37 patients, prostate in 26, breast or female genital tract in 24, urinary system in 11, gastrointestinal tract in 11, head and neck in 6, and other organs in 4.
  • In 33 patients, no primary was identified.
  • The histological biopsy findings indicated adenocarcinoma in 58 cases, epidermoid carcinoma in 28 cases, undifferentiated carcinoma in 2 cases, and other histological patterns in 9 cases.
  • Tumor marker assays were of limited value for determining the site of the primary, with the exception of prostate-specific antigen.
  • CONCLUSION: Bone biopsies performed by rheumatologists, generally under fluoroscopic guidance, usually indicate the site of the primary or at least the histological type.
  • Tumor markers are often positive but are of limited usefulness for identifying the primary.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor. Biopsy. Bone and Bones / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Cohort Studies. Diagnostic Imaging. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Urogenital Neoplasms / diagnosis. Urogenital Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Joint Bone Spine. 2008 Jan;75(1):100; author reply 100-1 [18083617.001]
  • (PMID = 17218141.001).
  • [ISSN] 1778-7254
  • [Journal-full-title] Joint, bone, spine : revue du rhumatisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Joint Bone Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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90. Sato KT, Lewandowski RJ, Mulcahy MF, Atassi B, Ryu RK, Gates VL, Nemcek AA Jr, Barakat O, Benson A 3rd, Mandal R, Talamonti M, Wong CY, Miller FH, Newman SB, Shaw JM, Thurston KG, Omary RA, Salem R: Unresectable chemorefractory liver metastases: radioembolization with 90Y microspheres--safety, efficacy, and survival. Radiology; 2008 May;247(2):507-15
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Primary sites (origins) included colon, breast, neuroendocrine, pancreas, lung, cholangiocarcinoma, melanoma, renal, esophageal, ovary, adenocarcinoma of unknown primary, lymphoma, gastric, duodenal, bladder, angiosarcoma, squamous cell carcinoma, thyroid, adrenal, and parotid.

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2008.
  • (PMID = 18349311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-1315
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00532740
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Yttrium Radioisotopes
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91. Al-Brahim N, Ross C, Carter B, Chorneyko K: The value of postmortem examination in cases of metastasis of unknown origin-20-year retrospective data from a tertiary care center. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2005 Apr;9(2):77-80
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  • [Title] The value of postmortem examination in cases of metastasis of unknown origin-20-year retrospective data from a tertiary care center.
  • BACKGROUND: Metastasis of unknown origin (MUO) is a diagnostic challenge in clinical practice even with the state of current advanced diagnostic technology.
  • To evaluate the value of autopsy in determining the primary site of MUO, this study reviewed the Hamilton experience-over the last 20 years-with patients autopsied with clinical diagnosis of MUO.
  • Fifty-three cases of MUO were identified (MUO was defined as a patient with pathological and/or radiological diagnosis of a metastatic tumor for which the primary site of malignancy was unknown).
  • Pathological diagnoses at autopsy were adenocarcinoma (n = 37), small cell carcinoma (n = 6), anaplastic carcinoma (n = 3), and undifferentiated carcinoma (n = 3).
  • Primary tumors were identified in 27 patients (51%), most commonly in the lung (n = 8), large bowel (n = 6), and pancreas (n = 4).
  • Histochemical and immunohistochemical stains were helpful in reaching the diagnosis of a primary tumor in 4 of 27 cases.
  • (1) in this series, autopsy was helpful in establishing the diagnosis of a primary tumor in 51% of the cases, reaffirming the value of postmortem examination in these instances;.
  • (2) adenocarcinoma was the most frequent tumor presenting as MUO;.
  • (3) the lung and the large bowel were the most frequent sites for primary tumors; and (4) careful gross and histological examinations remain the most important tools in identifying the primary site.
  • [MeSH-major] Autopsy / standards. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15806513.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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92. Winters A, Friedlander P, Jaffe BM, Khalek MA, Moroz K, Kandil E: A postmenopausal woman with gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 and estrogen receptor-positive recurrence of papillary thyroid cancer. Thyroid; 2010 Dec;20(12):1413-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • However, the role of ERs in mediating these effects is by no means clear-cut, and the significance of ER expression by thyroid carcinomas is currently unknown.
  • However, evaluation for a possible primary breast cancer was negative.
  • This case represents an unusual presentation of a rapidly recurring papillary thyroid carcinoma masquerading immunohistochemically as a primary breast cancer.
  • Further, this case is the first to our knowledge to document gross cystic disease fluid protein 15 expression by a primary thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary. Female. Humans. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 21054209.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / PIP protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / estrogen receptor alpha, human
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93. Miwa K, Fujioka S, Adachi Y, Haruki T, Taniguchi Y, Nakamura H: Mediastinal lymph node carcinoma of an unknown primary site: clinicopathological examination. Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2009 May;57(5):239-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mediastinal lymph node carcinoma of an unknown primary site: clinicopathological examination.
  • PURPOSE: We examined the clinicopathological features of four mediastinal lymph node carcinomas from an unknown primary site.
  • METHODS: Four patients with mediastinal lymph node carcinoma from an unknown primary site were treated at our hospital during the past 6 years.
  • Histologically, one lesion was poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, two were poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, and one was undifferentiated carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Radical resection of mediastinal lymph node carcinoma with an unknown primary site has the possibility of a good prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology

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  • [Cites] Br Med J. 1979 Jun 9;1(6177):1530-3 [466103.001]
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  • (PMID = 19440819.001).
  • [ISSN] 1863-6705
  • [Journal-full-title] General thoracic and cardiovascular surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen
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94. Kim JH, Choi YD, Lee JS, Lee JH, Nam JH, Choi C: Utility of thyroid transcription factor-1 and CDX-2 in determining the primary site of metastatic adenocarcinomas in serous effusions. Acta Cytol; 2010 May-Jun;54(3):277-82
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  • [Title] Utility of thyroid transcription factor-1 and CDX-2 in determining the primary site of metastatic adenocarcinomas in serous effusions.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the usefulness of thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1) and CDX-2 in determining the primary tumor site of metastatic adenocarcinomas (ACs) in serous effusions.
  • Primary tumor sites included the lungs (n = 52), ovaries (n = 6), pancreas (n = 4), breasts (n = 3), bile duct (n = 2) and gastrointestinal (GI) tract (30), including stomach (n = 28) and colon (n = 2).
  • Primary sites were determined by tissue confirmation of the original tumor or review of the clinical charts.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / metabolism. Homeodomain Proteins / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / metabolism. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20518411.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDX2 protein, human; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / thyroid nuclear factor 1
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95. Morawietz L, Floore A, Stork-Sloots L, Folprecht G, Buettner R, Rieger A, Dietel M, Huebner G: [Comparing immunohistochemical diagnosis of cancer of unknown primary with gene expression-based tumor classification]. Pathologe; 2009 Dec;30 Suppl 2:168-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Comparing immunohistochemical diagnosis of cancer of unknown primary with gene expression-based tumor classification].
  • If the primary tumor cannot be identified after diagnostic workup, the disease is referred to as cancer of unknown primary (CUP) and is classified as C80.9 according to ICD-10.
  • In Germany, CUP is among the ten most common causes of tumor-related death, with mortality similar to mortality in gastric or pancreatic cancer.
  • Gene expression profiling (GEP) is a new diagnostic technique that might further contribute to tumor specification.In a retrospective study, 43 CUP cases underwent central immunohistochemical review and centrally performed GEP using a classifier based on 495 genes.
  • In four cases, the combination of methods led to an unequivocal identification of the primary tumor.In conclusion, we regard detailed IHC workup and complementary GEP advisable for the purposes of targeted therapy, as well as to identify or exclude specific tumors in a CUP situation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / secondary. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / genetics. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19756615.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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96. Sasaki T, Shinya S, Nakagawa Y, Hisamatsu Y, Sukehiro S, Guiqing Z, Yamamoto F: Diffusion-weighted imaging is a feasible method for screening colorectal cancer: report of a case. Hepatogastroenterology; 2007 Oct-Nov;54(79):1951-3
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  • It is sometimes difficult to detect the primary site.
  • We describe herein the feasibility of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for searching primary site of liver metastases.
  • However, these examinations revealed no primary tumor.
  • A histopathological analysis demonstrated the tumor to be moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma.
  • We consider that DWI is a feasible method for screening colorectal cancer, especially for unknown primary site cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Rectal Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18251135.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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97. Wang ZP, Liu YT, Yang J: [Classification and regression tree analysis of 154 patients with cancer of unknown primary]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2010 Sep;32(9):690-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Classification and regression tree analysis of 154 patients with cancer of unknown primary].
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the prognostic factors and their impact on survival of patients with cancer of unknown primary (CUP).
  • METHODS: The clinical and follow up data of 154 CUP patients referred to the Cancer Hospital & Institute, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences from January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2007 were analyzed.
  • RESULTS: The median survival for 154 eligible consecutive CUP patients was 18.2 months, and the 5-year survival rate was 1.3%.
  • The median survival of the 5 subsets ranged from 5.5 months (younger than 34 years old subgroup) to 61.8 months for patients at age of 34 to 60, with one or two organ sites involved, and non-adenocarcinoma histology subsets.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / classification

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  • (PMID = 21122385.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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98. Pawar A, Schlader E, Mac-Thiong JM, Maurais G, Dion D, Bédard D: Rare metastatic adenocarcinoma to the spine infiltrating three adjacent foramen in lumbar vertebrae. Orthopedics; 2010 Dec;33(12):928
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Rare metastatic adenocarcinoma to the spine infiltrating three adjacent foramen in lumbar vertebrae.
  • Computed tomography-guided biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic adenocarcinoma.
  • However, the primary site could not be found despite several investigations.
  • It is usually thought that the primary tumor spreads to the spine through the valveless Batson's plexus or by direct arterial seeding into vertebral bodies.
  • A paravertebral primary tumor such as a lymphoma, a primary tumor from the lungs, or a renal cell carcinoma can potentially infiltrate the vertebral bodies and enter the spinal canal through the neural foramen.
  • But a large retroperitoneal metastatic mass from an unknown primary adenocarcinoma is a rare condition.
  • Thus, the pathogenesis of metastatic adenocarcinomas, particularly when the primary site is unknown, is not completely understood and can give a varied radiological presentation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Lumbar Vertebrae / pathology. Lumbar Vertebrae / surgery. Spinal Neoplasms / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010, SLACK Incorporated.
  • (PMID = 21162500.001).
  • [ISSN] 1938-2367
  • [Journal-full-title] Orthopedics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orthopedics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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99. Haraguchi S, Hioki M, Takushima M, Yanagimoto K, Koizumi K, Shimizu K: Metastatic chest wall tumor suspected to be of lung origin by immunoreactivity for cytokeratin 7 and 20. Jpn J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg; 2006 Mar;54(3):132-6
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  • We report a rare case of unknown primary carcinoma.
  • The resected chest wall tumor was pathologically diagnosed as metastatic adenocarcinoma, showing positive immunoreactivity for cytokeratin 7 and negative immunoreactivity for cytokeratin 20, suggesting lung origin.
  • The resected tumor was pathologically diagnosed as primary lung adenocarcinoma, showing the same immunoreactivity as in the chest wall tumor.
  • The combination of immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin 7 and 20 appeared to be a useful tool in determining the site of origin and helpful for premortem diagnosis of the origin of unknown primary carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Keratins / immunology. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis. Thoracic Neoplasms / secondary. Thoracic Wall

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  • (PMID = 16613234.001).
  • [ISSN] 1344-4964
  • [Journal-full-title] The Japanese journal of thoracic and cardiovascular surgery : official publication of the Japanese Association for Thoracic Surgery = Nihon Kyobu Geka Gakkai zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / KRT20 protein, human; 0 / KRT7 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / Keratin-7; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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100. Xu S, Furukawa T, Kanai N, Sunamura M, Horii A: Abrogation of DUSP6 by hypermethylation in human pancreatic cancer. J Hum Genet; 2005;50(4):159-67
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  • DUSP6 was frequently underexpressed in primary pancreatic cancer tissues by an unknown mechanism.
  • In this study, we demonstrated that hypermethylation of the expressional control region of DUSP6 could account for its abrogation in cultured human pancreatic cancer cells and in primary pancreatic cancer tissues.
  • We checked the methylation state of this region by a methylation-specific PCR method in 12 primary pancreatic cancer tissues and compared it with the expression state of DUSP6 investigated by immunohistochemistry.
  • Methylation was detected in five of eight cases with abolished expressions of DUSP6, four of which were poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma.
  • The methylation state significantly correlated with both the abolishment of protein expression (p = 0.038) and the histological subtype of adenocarcinoma (p = 0.023) by chi-square test.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acetylation. Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Azacitidine / pharmacology. Base Sequence. Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal / genetics. Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal / metabolism. Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal / pathology. Cell Differentiation. CpG Islands. Dual Specificity Phosphatase 6. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors. Histones / metabolism. Humans. Hydroxamic Acids / pharmacology. Molecular Sequence Data. Neoplasm Invasiveness / genetics. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 15824892.001).
  • [ISSN] 1434-5161
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of human genetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Hum. Genet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors; 0 / Histones; 0 / Hydroxamic Acids; 3X2S926L3Z / trichostatin A; EC 3.1.3.48 / DUSP6 protein, human; EC 3.1.3.48 / Dual Specificity Phosphatase 6; EC 3.1.3.48 / Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases; M801H13NRU / Azacitidine
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