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1. Karslioğlu Y, Celasun B, Günhan O: Contribution of morphometry in the differential diagnosis of fine-needle thyroid aspirates. Cytometry B Clin Cytom; 2005 May;65(1):22-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Contribution of morphometry in the differential diagnosis of fine-needle thyroid aspirates.
  • BACKGROUND: Cytologic discrimination of cellular nodules, follicular adenoma, and follicular carcinoma in the thyroid is problematic.
  • Methods are needed to achieve a reliable diagnosis.
  • METHODS: One hundred twelve samples obtained from patients with lesions histopathologically diagnosed as nodular goiter, follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, and papillary carcinoma were used.
  • RESULTS: When the selected dataset instead of data from all measured nuclei was used, the correct classification rates in discriminant analysis improved considerably.
  • This may be particularly helpful when isolated abnormal cells carry most of the diagnostic information.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Cell Biology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Analysis of Variance. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Goiter / diagnosis. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Multivariate Analysis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Software. Statistics as Topic / methods. Thyroid Diseases / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15779051.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-4949
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytometry. Part B, Clinical cytometry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytometry B Clin Cytom
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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2. Camargo RY, Tomimori EK: [Usefulness of ultrasound in the diagnosis and management of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2007 Jul;51(5):783-92
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  • [Title] [Usefulness of ultrasound in the diagnosis and management of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Uso da ultra-sonografia no diagnóstico e seguimento do carcinoma bem diferenciado da tireóide.
  • Thyroid nodules are found in the vast majority of the population, but only 5 to 10% are malignant.
  • Ultrasonography of the thyroid, by virtue of being a straightforward, non-invasive method presenting strong correlation with macroscopic aspects of the thyroid gland, is being increasingly used to identify nodules that present a higher risk of malignancy.
  • Conversely, nodules presenting benign ultrasonographic characteristics such as hyperechogenicity and a mixed sponge-like aspect, and a concordant cytology, have a negative predictive value of 96.6%.
  • Ultrasonography is also highly sensitive in the identification of suspicious cervical lymph nodes during the follow-up of patients with thyroid carcinoma, even when PCI is negative and serum thyroglobulin (Tg) levels are undetectable.
  • Tg measurement in the needle wash-out content is recommended as this has proven to be more sensitive than cytology in the diagnosis of cervical metastasis, especially where there is liquid content, and it is not affected by the presence of anti-Tg antibodies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Carcinoma, Papillary / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Calcinosis / ultrasonography. Humans. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Predictive Value of Tests. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color. Whole Body Imaging

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  • (PMID = 17891242.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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3. Ciobanu D, Vulpoi C, Găluşcă B, Florea N, Giuşcă SE, Căruntu ID: The value of the immunohistochemical exam in the diagnosis of the secondary malignant tumors to the thyroid gland. Rom J Morphol Embryol; 2007;48(2):113-9
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  • [Title] The value of the immunohistochemical exam in the diagnosis of the secondary malignant tumors to the thyroid gland.
  • The aim of the study was to analyze several cases of secondary tumors to the thyroid, by focusing on the role of the immunohistochemical (IHC) exam in specifying the origin of the tumoral process.
  • The final diagnosis was established as follows: metastases of squamocellular carcinoma with different degree of differentiation (seven cases), metastases of adenocarcinoma (four cases), metastases of renal cell carcinoma (two cases), metastases of Hodgkin (one case) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (two cases).
  • In four cases, the primary tumors were identified after the diagnosis of their metastases in thyroid.
  • The immunohistochemical staining was useful in the diagnosis of squamocellular carcinoma metastases, poorly differentiated (CK19 positive), of renal cell carcinoma with clear cells (CK18, CK19 and CD10 positive) and in the establishing of the tumoral origin for adenocarcinomas (CK7 positive--respiratory tract, CK20 positive--digestive tract).
  • Secondary tumors to the thyroid are rare tumors, with miscellaneous histological aspects, reason for which the diagnostic may be difficult.
  • In these cases IHC is a useful method, allowing to the identification of the primary tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Digestive System Neoplasms / diagnosis. Digestive System Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Molecular Diagnostic Techniques. Reproducibility of Results

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  • (PMID = 17641797.001).
  • [ISSN] 1220-0522
  • [Journal-full-title] Romanian journal of morphology and embryology = Revue roumaine de morphologie et embryologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rom J Morphol Embryol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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4. Ayadi L, Chaâbouni S, Dhouib H, Abbès K, Dhouib M, Makni S, Abdelmoula M, Ghorbel A, Khabir A, Boudawara T: [Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma: about two cases]. Tunis Med; 2009 Jun;87(6):403-6
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  • [Title] [Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma: about two cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Adénocarcinome polymorphe de bas grade: à propos de deux cas.
  • BACKGROUND: Polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma (APBG) is a variant of malignant tumour of minor salivary glands usually arising in the palate.
  • AIM: Our aim is to discuss morphology, evolution and differential diagnosis of this rare tumour.
  • Giving that the mass enlarged, a surgical resection carrying off the thyroid with a bilateral neck dissection was performed.
  • Diagnosis was an APBG partially resected with lymph node metastasis.
  • The patient received adjuvant radiotherapy.
  • The patient had no evidence of disease with a follow-up of 54 months.
  • CONCLUSION: APBG is characterised by a morphologic diversity and a cytologic uniformity that may cause a diagnostic dilemma especially with adenoid cystic carcinoma and pleomorphic adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Salivary Glands, Minor

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  • (PMID = 19927787.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
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5. Jung TS, Oh YL, Min YK, Lee MS, Lee MK, Kim KW, Chung JH: A patient with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid intermingled with follicular thyroid carcinoma that remains alive more than 8 years after diagnosis. Korean J Intern Med; 2006 Mar;21(1):73-8
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  • [Title] A patient with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid intermingled with follicular thyroid carcinoma that remains alive more than 8 years after diagnosis.
  • Primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid is an extremely rare tumor with a highly aggressive clinical course.
  • We report here on a patient with primary squamous cell carcinoma of the thyroid who remains alive more than 8 years after diagnosis.
  • A 56-year-old man presented with a hoarse voice and a rapidly progressing mass on the right side of the thyroid gland.
  • The patient underwent a total thyroidectomy without neck lymph node dissection.
  • Histopathologic findings revealed primary squamous cell carcinoma combined with follicular carcinoma of the thyroid.
  • The patient's clinical course has been remarkable over the first 7 years; he has remained stable except for a transient paraplegia due to nerve compression.
  • The patient underwent colectomy for the diagnosis of a colon cancer.
  • Recent evaluation has revealed a new lesion in the lung; this was diagnosed as metastatic follicular carcinoma originating from the thyroid.
  • High dose radioactive iodine therapy was administered, and he remains alive in stable condition.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16646570.001).
  • [ISSN] 1226-3303
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3891069
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6. Chaturvedi S, Gupta S, Kumari R: Meningioma with metastasis from follicular carcinoma thyroid. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2010 Apr-Jun;53(2):316-8
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  • [Title] Meningioma with metastasis from follicular carcinoma thyroid.
  • On the basis of radiological investigations, provisional diagnosis of basal meningioma was made.
  • Tissue sent for histopathological evaluation revealed a dual tumor-meningioma with metastasis from follicular carcinoma, thyroid.
  • To the best of authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a tumor metastasizing to another tumor, where a follicular carcinoma thyroid metastasized to meningioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / complications. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Meningioma / diagnosis. Meningioma / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Blindness / etiology. Face / pathology. Female. Head / radiography. Histocytochemistry. Humans. Hypesthesia / etiology. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Microscopy. Middle Aged. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20551543.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5130
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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7. Park YJ, Kwak SH, Kim DC, Kim H, Choe G, Park DJ, Jang HC, Park SH, Cho BY, Park SY: Diagnostic value of galectin-3, HBME-1, cytokeratin 19, high molecular weight cytokeratin, cyclin D1 and p27(kip1) in the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules. J Korean Med Sci; 2007 Aug;22(4):621-8
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  • [Title] Diagnostic value of galectin-3, HBME-1, cytokeratin 19, high molecular weight cytokeratin, cyclin D1 and p27(kip1) in the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules.
  • The distinction between benign and malignant thyroid tumors is critical for the management of patients with thyroid nodules.
  • We applied immunohistochemical staining for galectin-3, HBME-1, cytokeratin 19 (CK19), high molecular weight cytokeratin (HMWCK), cyclin D1 and p27(kip1) in 295 thyroid lesions to determine their diagnostic accuracy.
  • The expression of all markers was significantly associated with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC).
  • The sensitivity for the diagnosis of DTC was 94.7% with galectin-3, 91.3% with HBME-1, and 90.3% with CK19.
  • These results suggest that 1) galectin-3 is a useful marker in the distinction between benign and malignant thyroid tumors, 2) the combined use of HBME-1 and CK19 can increase the diagnostic accuracy, and 3) the use of CK19 and HMWCK can aid in the differential diagnosis between PC and FC.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / metabolism. Cyclin D1 / analysis. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Galectin 3 / analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / analysis. Keratin-19 / analysis. Keratins / analysis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17728499.001).
  • [ISSN] 1011-8934
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Korean Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDKN1B protein, human; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / HBME-1 antigen; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Keratin-19; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2693809
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8. Lei JY, Huang J: Cytoplasmic staining of TTF-1 in the differential diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma. Expert Opin Med Diagn; 2008 Feb;2(2):151-9

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  • [Title] Cytoplasmic staining of TTF-1 in the differential diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • Thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) is a widely used biomarker in surgical pathology.
  • Its nuclear staining is sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of primary pulmonary and thyroid adenocarcinoma as well as small cell carcinomas arising in many organs.
  • It has been controversial whether TTF-1 cytoplasmic staining is reliable enough to have diagnostic value.
  • This review focuses on this issue and explores the potential application of TTF-1 cytoplasmic staining in the differential diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma from other primary and metastatic malignancies in the liver.

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  • (PMID = 23485135.001).
  • [ISSN] 1753-0059
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on medical diagnostics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Med Diagn
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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9. Sakellariou VI, Mavrogenis AF, Papagelopoulos PJ: Limb salvage surgery using the intramedullary diaphyseal segmental defect fixation system. J Long Term Eff Med Implants; 2008;18(1):59-67
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  • Histological diagnosis included adamantinoma, synovial sarcoma, multiple myeloma, metastatic renal cell carcinoma, myeloid carcinoma of the thyroid gland, and adenocarcinoma of the stomach.
  • At the latest examination, five patients were free of local or distant disease and one patient had deceased with distant disease, without evidence of local recurrence.
  • Revision surgery was necessary in one patient because of mechanical loosening of the proximal fixation of the prosthesis at 24 months.

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  • (PMID = 19348612.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-6934
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of long-term effects of medical implants
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Long Term Eff Med Implants
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Ponikiewska D, Szcześniak-Kłusek B, Stobiecka E, Jaworska M, Lange D: [Oxyphilic and follicular thyroid tumors--the correlation between the cytopathologic diagnosis and the histopathologic examination]. Endokrynol Pol; 2006;57 Suppl A:7-11
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  • [Title] [Oxyphilic and follicular thyroid tumors--the correlation between the cytopathologic diagnosis and the histopathologic examination].
  • INTRODUCTION: Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of the thyroid nodules generally allows to make the diagnosis and to choose the proper clinical management.
  • In about 10% of cases cytopathologic features do not differentiate unequivocally benign and malignant lesions.
  • In these cases the cytopathologic diagnosis of follicular tumor (FT) or oxyphilic tumor (OT) is most often made.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 2001 to 2002 in our Department of Pathology the cytopathologic diagnosis of FT and OT was made in 102 and 25 cases respectively.
  • RESULTS: Histopathological diagnosis of neoplasm was made in 48.7% (19/39) FT and 42% (8/19) OT.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results show how difficult the diagnostics of follicular lesions in FNAB could be because of the frequent overlapping of the cytological features of benign and malignant lesions.
  • Diagnosis of follicular tumor does not mean carcinoma.
  • The use of follicular/ oxyphilic tumor in cytological diagnostic instead of follicular neoplasm seems more advisable.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17091450.001).
  • [ISSN] 2299-8306
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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11. Delellis RA: Challenging lesions in the differential diagnosis of endocrine tumors: parathyroid carcinoma. Endocr Pathol; 2008;19(4):221-5
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  • [Title] Challenging lesions in the differential diagnosis of endocrine tumors: parathyroid carcinoma.
  • While the diagnosis of adenomas is usually straightforward, parathyroid carcinomas (PTCAs) often present considerable diagnostic challenges.
  • Fibrosis and mitotic activity are common in PTCAs, but these features are not specific for malignancy.
  • An unequivocal diagnosis of PTCA should be restricted to those tumors that invade adjacent soft tissues, thyroid gland, blood vessels, or perineural spaces or to those cases with documented metastases.
  • Mutations of the HRPT2 gene, which encodes parafibromin, are responsible for the development of the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome and have also been implicated in the development of a high proportion of sporadic PTCAs.
  • While parafibromin immunohistochemistry represents an important step in the ability to diagnose PTCA, additional studies will be required to test the validity of this approach and to determine the roles of other genes in the development of these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Nucleus / chemistry. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mutation. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19058032.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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12. Rubaltelli L, Corradin S, Dorigo A, Stabilito M, Tregnaghi A, Borsato S, Stramare R: Differential diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid nodules at elastosonography. Ultraschall Med; 2009 Apr;30(2):175-9
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  • [Title] Differential diagnosis of benign and malignant thyroid nodules at elastosonography.
  • PURPOSE: Ultrasound of the neck detects a large number of non-palpable thyroid nodules in the population, but it offers poor diagnostic accuracy (the presence of microcalcifications is the only statistically significant criterion indicative of malignancy).
  • The aim of this study is to evaluate elastography, a technique which allows differentiation between pathological and normal tissue by determining its hardness and which could also prove useful in the characterisation of thyroid nodules.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this prospective study, 51 thyroid nodules in 40 consecutive patients were examined (25 women, 15 men, mean age +/- SD, 54 +/- 13.4).
  • Elastosonography was performed by real-time, free-hand technique, using Logos HiVision equipment with a 10 MHz transducer and lesions were classified and scored in 4 classes of hardness.
  • Final diagnoses were obtained from cytological and/or histological evaluation.
  • RESULTS: Final diagnoses revealed 11 malignant and 40 benign nodules.
  • Only in two cases ultrasound demonstrated signs useful for a differential diagnosis (intrinsic microcalcifications).
  • Predictive negative value (PNV) and predictive positive value (PPV) were 94.5 % and 64 % area under the curve (AUC) 0.86.
  • CONCLUSION: Elastosonography provides an interesting contribution to the differentiation of malignant and benign thyroid nodules.
  • [MeSH-major] Elasticity Imaging Techniques / methods. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / ultrasonography. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Calcinosis / ultrasonography. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography. Thyroidectomy. Ultrasonography, Interventional. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18496776.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-8782
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultraschall in der Medizin (Stuttgart, Germany : 1980)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultraschall Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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13. Balcerzak W, Bednarz W, Domosławski P, Olewiński R, Kolesińska J, Kaminski Z, Dziarkowska K, Wieczorek P: [Preliminary approach towards construction of peptide libraries as potential tools for diagnosis of malignant thyroid tumors]. Endokrynol Pol; 2006 Jul-Aug;57(4):307-13
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  • [Title] [Preliminary approach towards construction of peptide libraries as potential tools for diagnosis of malignant thyroid tumors].
  • INTRODUCTION: Cancer of thyroid gland is the most common malignancy of the endocrine system.
  • The treatment improvement could be achieved by early diagnosis.
  • The aim of the study was to identify cancer specific antigenes with use of peptide libraries.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: The material from 6 patients with thyroid cancer (4 with papillary cancer, 1 with follicular cancer and 1 with oxyphilic tumor) were analyzed.
  • RESULTS: Preliminary results confirm practical value of peptide libraries in early diagnostics of thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Peptide Library. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Feasibility Studies. Female. Galectin 3 / analysis. Humans. Iodide Peroxidase / analysis. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Staining and Labeling / methods

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  • (PMID = 17006829.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / Peptide Library; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase
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14. Dewil B, Van Damme B, Vander Poorten V, Delaere P, Debruyne F: Completion thyroidectomy after the unexpected diagnosis of thyroid cancer. B-ENT; 2005;1(2):67-72
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  • [Title] Completion thyroidectomy after the unexpected diagnosis of thyroid cancer.
  • The optimal surgical management of well-differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) remains a controversial topic.
  • Preoperative and peroperative investigations quite frequently fail to detect thyroid cancer in cold nodules, and only postoperative histological examination reveals malignancy.
  • The aim of our study was to determine the incidence of contralateral malignancy and of complications after completion thyroidectomy.
  • We reviewed the records of 29 patients--25 women and 4 men-- who all underwent completion thyroidectomy because of an unexpected diagnosis of DTC.
  • One patient suffered transient laryngeal nerve injury occurred in one patient and there were no permanent lesions.
  • Because of the rather low re-operation rate, we prefer to perform a completion thyroidectomy to remove potential occult malignancy and to allow for postoperative 131I-treatment in all patients with a diagnosis of malignancy in their thyroid lobectomy specimen, with the exception of papillary carcinoma < 1 cm.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm, Residual. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16044737.001).
  • [ISSN] 1781-782X
  • [Journal-full-title] B-ENT
  • [ISO-abbreviation] B-ENT
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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15. Lange D, Sporny S, Sygut J, Kulig A, Jarzab M, Kula D, Jarzab B: [Histopathological diagnosis of thyroid cancer in a multicenter trial]. Endokrynol Pol; 2006 Jul-Aug;57(4):336-42
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  • [Title] [Histopathological diagnosis of thyroid cancer in a multicenter trial].
  • INTRODUCTION: In the front of the problems related to the differentiation between benign and malignant thyroid tumors we decided to perform a multicentre study in order to validate diagnoses of malignant thyroid tumors and assess the inter-observer variability.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Material included 690 cases of malignant and benign thyroid lesions with primary histopathology established in 1985-1999.
  • These cases were selected to multicentre study.
  • 40 pathologists from 25 centres provided their diagnoses which were compared with the reference ones.
  • RESULTS: 10 547 diagnoses were evaluated, both on their accuracy of the distinction between malignant and benign lesions and on their accuracy of cancer histotype definition.
  • The reference diagnosis was made by an agreement between four expert pathologists (D.L., S.S., J.S. and A.K.).
  • The participants diagnosed 21% of cases differently than experts.
  • Concerning the diagnosis of cancer histotype, the difference between participants diagnosis and the reference one was even higher.
  • The best concordance was achieved in the diagnosis of papillary thyroid cancer, however, on the cost of cancer overdiagnosis by some participants.
  • Follicular cancer was diagnosed accurately only in 75.4% of cases.
  • CONCLUSION: The study documents a high inter-observer variability of thyroid cancer diagnosis and confirms the lesser accuracy of diagnosis of follicular cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Histological Techniques / methods. Histological Techniques / standards. Humans. Multicenter Studies as Topic / statistics & numerical data. Observer Variation. Thyroid Gland

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  • (PMID = 17006833.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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16. Clary KM, Condel JL, Liu Y, Johnson DR, Grzybicki DM, Raab SS: Interobserver variability in the fine needle aspiration biopsy diagnosis of follicular lesions of the thyroid gland. Acta Cytol; 2005 Jul-Aug;49(4):378-82
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  • [Title] Interobserver variability in the fine needle aspiration biopsy diagnosis of follicular lesions of the thyroid gland.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the degree of interobserver variability in the interpretation of fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsies of the thyroid, specifically in the categorization of follicular lesions (FLs), and to examine the accuracy of FNA diagnosis of FLs with surgical follow-up.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Fifty cases were chosen with surgical follow-up and a cytologic diagnosis of either FL (21) or follicular neoplasms (29).
  • Accuracy of the cytologic diagnoses in predicting a nonneoplastic or neoplastic outcome was determined by measuring sensitivity and specificity.
  • The accuracy of the 4 pathologists' cytologic diagnoses in predicting the surgical outcome was 77-90% for follicular neoplasms and 53-74% for nonneoplastic diagnoses.
  • CONCLUSION: FLs present diagnostic difficulties as to cytologic categorization.
  • A wide range of interobserver agreement was found in this study of 4 pathologists from the same institution.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroiditis, Autoimmune / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Observer Variation

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  • (PMID = 16124165.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Hunt JL: Unusual thyroid tumors: a review of pathologic and molecular diagnosis. Expert Rev Mol Diagn; 2005 Sep;5(5):725-34
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  • [Title] Unusual thyroid tumors: a review of pathologic and molecular diagnosis.
  • The most common thyroid neoplasms are either follicular derived (papillary, follicular and Hürthle cell lesions) or C-cell derived (medullary carcinoma).
  • The diagnosis of these tumors can usually be made at the histologic level, with immunohistochemical stains necessary in some circumstances.
  • Specific molecular mutations have been described that can be diagnostically useful or explain, in part, their pathogenesis, including the well-known Ret/PTC and PPARgamma-PAX8 translocations, point mutations in the Ret, Ras and BRAF genes, and loss of heterozygosity of multiple different tumor suppressor genes.
  • Some unusual tumors of the thyroid gland are more difficult to diagnose.
  • These less common thyroid tumors include tall cell and cribriform-morular variants of papillary carcinoma, hyalinizing trabecular tumor, mucoepidermoid and sclerosing mucoepidermoid carcinoma with eosinophilia, poorly differentiated (insular) carcinoma, and undifferentiated (anaplastic) carcinoma.
  • The diagnostic features of these rare tumors, including the histology, immunohistochemical expression profiles and the known molecular mutational profiles of each, are reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Molecular Diagnostic Techniques. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Cell Differentiation. Humans

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  • (PMID = 16149875.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8352
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of molecular diagnostics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev. Mol. Diagn.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 116
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18. Al-Zahrani IH: The value of immunohistochemical expression of TTF-1, CK7 and CK20 in the diagnosis of primary and secondary lung carcinomas. Saudi Med J; 2008 Jul;29(7):957-61
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  • [Title] The value of immunohistochemical expression of TTF-1, CK7 and CK20 in the diagnosis of primary and secondary lung carcinomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the value of immunohistochemical staining of thyroid transcription factor-1 TTF-1, cytokeratin 7 CK7, and cytokeratin 20 CK20 in the differentiation between primary and secondary pulmonary carcinomas.
  • METHODS: Forty-three cases of lung carcinoma, 14 squamous cell carcinoma, 12 adenocarcinoma, 8 small cell carcinoma, 3 mesothelioma, and 6 metastatic tumors, were collected from the files of the Pathology Department, King Abdul-Aziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia between 2004 and 2006.
  • RESULTS: Immunohistochemical staining of 43 cases of lung carcinoma revealed nuclear immunoreactivity for TTF-1 in all primary adenocarcinoma, and small cell carcinoma, while cases of squamous cell carcinoma were negative.
  • Metastatic tumors except for one case metastatic from the thyroid gland were negative to TTF-1.
  • Cytokeratin 7 was positively expressed in primary tumors of lung, as well as metastatic tumors from the thyroid and breast.
  • CONCLUSION: Thyroid transcription factor-1 is a sensitive marker for diagnosis of primary pulmonary adenocarcinoma, and differentiation between poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Keratin-20 / metabolism. Keratin-7 / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 18626520.001).
  • [ISSN] 0379-5284
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / thyroid nuclear factor 1
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19. Lyshchik A, Drozd V, Demidchik Y, Reiners C: Diagnosis of thyroid cancer in children: value of gray-scale and power doppler US. Radiology; 2005 May;235(2):604-13
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  • [Title] Diagnosis of thyroid cancer in children: value of gray-scale and power doppler US.
  • PURPOSE: To prospectively analyze the accuracy of various diagnostic criteria for cancer in solid thyroid nodules in children on the basis of gray-scale and power Doppler ultrasonographic (US) findings.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study protocol was approved by the institutional review board, and patient's parents gave full informed consent.
  • One hundred three consecutive pediatric patients with solid thyroid nodules were included in the study.
  • Thirty-five patients had thyroid cancer (mean age, 14.6 years +/- 2.6 [standard deviation]; range, 10-18 years), and 68 patients had benign thyroid nodules (mean age, 14.2 years +/- 2.9; range 9-18 years).
  • Three-dimensional US was used to determine the volume of thyroid gland and thyroid nodules.
  • Results of nodule cytologic and histologic examination and long-term clinical and US follow-up were used as a proof of final diagnosis.
  • Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the accuracy of US criteria for thyroid cancer in lesions with diameter of 15 mm and smaller and lesions with diameter larger than 15 mm.
  • RESULTS: In thyroid nodules with diameter of 15 mm and smaller, the most reliable diagnostic criteria for malignancy were an irregular outline (sensitivity, 69.6%; specificity, 86.4%; P < .001), subcapsular location (sensitivity, 65.2%; specificity, 86.4%; P < .001), and increased intranodular vascularization (sensitivity, 69.6%; specificity, 87.9%; P < .01).
  • For thyroid nodules larger than 15 mm in diameter, the accuracy of US diagnosis was much lower than that for smaller nodules.
  • CONCLUSION: Study findings indicate that US is most helpful in diagnosis of thyroid malignancy in thyroid nodules with diameter of 15 mm and smaller, with detection of irregular tumor outline, subcapsular location, and increased intranodular vascularization.
  • [MeSH-major] Image Enhancement. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood supply. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Adenoma / blood supply. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / ultrasonography. Adolescent. Calcinosis / pathology. Calcinosis / ultrasonography. Carcinoma, Papillary / blood supply. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / ultrasonography. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Goiter, Nodular / ultrasonography. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology. Neovascularization, Pathologic / ultrasonography. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2005.
  • (PMID = 15770036.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8419
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Shulutko AM, Semikov VI, Griaznov VI, Chakvetadze NG, Popov SV: [Clinical value, diagnosis and treatment of thyroid differentiated microcarcinoma]. Khirurgiia (Mosk); 2007;(12):4-10
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  • [Title] [Clinical value, diagnosis and treatment of thyroid differentiated microcarcinoma].
  • Results of surgical treatment of 240 patients with thyroid differentiated microcarcinoma (less 1 cm in diameter) are analyzed.
  • Papillary and follicular tumor was diagnosed at 212 (88.3%) and 28 (11.7%) respectively.
  • In some cases microcarcinoma had aggressive clinical course: at 10.8% patients the tumor was extended beyond the bounds of thyroid capsule (T3), at 2.1% patients the primary symptoms of disease were metastases into cervical nodes.
  • Recurrence of tumor occurred at 2 (0.8%) patients with initial III and IVA stages of disease despite previous radical operation, one of them died in 4 years after surgery.
  • Microcarcinoma is regarded as early stage of thyroid gland cancer.
  • Ultrasonic examination and fine-needle biopsy permit to diagnose timely this malignant tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroidectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Russia / epidemiology. Severity of Illness Index. Survival Rate. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 18163106.001).
  • [ISSN] 0023-1207
  • [Journal-full-title] Khirurgiia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Khirurgiia (Mosk)
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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21. Enomoto K, Sakurai K, Amano S, Shiono M: [A case of malignant lymphoma that seemed to be thyroid cancer lymph nodes recurrence]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2008 Nov;35(12):2213-5
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  • [Title] [A case of malignant lymphoma that seemed to be thyroid cancer lymph nodes recurrence].
  • After thyroid cancer was resected, we quite often tend to think of cervical lymphadenopathy when metastases to lymph nodes were confirmed.
  • We report our experience with a case of malignant lymphoma when we thought it to be for thyroid carcinoma recurrence cervical part metastases to lymph nodes.
  • The patient is a 59-year-old woman.
  • Right lobe resection and lymphadenectomy were done to the patient with thyroid carcinoma in 1994.
  • A tumor in the survival thyroid gland was confirmed in 1995.
  • In February 2007, the tumor of the survival thyroid gland was enlarged.
  • Echography showed a shape irregularity of the tumor.
  • We concluded it to be thyroid carcinoma recurrent cervical metastases to lymph nodes and performed a survival total thyroietectomy and a cervical part lymphadetectomy.
  • Histopathology diagnosis showed it to be of a papillary adenocarcinoma of thyroid recurrence.
  • However, there was no metastasis image of the thyroid carcinoma at the cervical lymph node.
  • The diagnosis was malignant lymphoma.
  • CONCLUSION: As abrupt cervical lymphadenopathy was confirmed in the thyroid recurrence case, it is important to think of lymphatic disorder instead of metastasis of thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma / complications. Lymphoma / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / complications. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19106574.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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22. Wang LH, Zhao YJ, Wang XY, Yuan P, Xu WQ, Xiao JC, Xu JP, Luo BR: [Significance of galectin-3 and CD44v6 expression in differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2005 Sep;27(9):547-50
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  • [Title] [Significance of galectin-3 and CD44v6 expression in differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the difference of galectin-3 and CD44v6 expression between benign and malignant thyroid nodules, and to evaluate their clinical value in distinguishing thyroid cancer from benign thyroid nodules.
  • METHODS: The expression of galectin-3 and CD44v6 was immunohistochemically detected by the ABC method in 143 benign and malignant thyroid nodule samples.
  • RESULTS: Expression of these two markers in benign thyroid nodules: galectin-3 was negative in 10 cases of para-cancer normal tissue and 14 cases of benign nodules found in the other benign thyroid disease.
  • CD44v6 was negative in 10 cases of para-cancer normal tissue, but positive in 4 of 14 nodular lesions found in benign thyroid diseases (28.6%).
  • The two markers in malignant lesions: galectin-3 was positive in 50 of 52 thyroid adenocarcinoma (96.2%), CD44v6 was positive in 42 of 52 thyroid adenocarcinoma (80.8%).
  • The positive rate of galectin-3 and CD44v6 expression in thyroid cancer was significantly higher than that in benign thyroid nodule and normal tissue (P < 0.001).
  • The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of galectin-3 combined with CD44v6 in differentiating benign from malignant thyroid nodule were 80.8%, 93.4%, 88.8%; they were 96.2%, 90.1%, 92.3% for Galectin-3 alone.
  • CONCLUSION: The immunohistochemical expression of galectin-3 and CD44v6 by the ABC method is significantly higher in thyroid cancers than in benign thyroid nodules, especially galectin-3 in thyrocyte being helpful in differentiating benign thyroid nodule from thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD44 / biosynthesis. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Galectin 3 / biosynthesis. Glycoproteins / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male

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  • (PMID = 16438854.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD44; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD44v6 antigen; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / Glycoproteins
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23. Chu PG, Schwarz RE, Lau SK, Yen Y, Weiss LM: Immunohistochemical staining in the diagnosis of pancreatobiliary and ampulla of Vater adenocarcinoma: application of CDX2, CK17, MUC1, and MUC2. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Mar;29(3):359-67
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical staining in the diagnosis of pancreatobiliary and ampulla of Vater adenocarcinoma: application of CDX2, CK17, MUC1, and MUC2.
  • Pancreatobiliary and ampulla of Vater adenocarcinomas frequently metastasize to regional lymph nodes, liver, or lung and are difficult to diagnose because they lack specific immunohistochemical markers.
  • The expression of MUC2 and CDX2 was restricted to the intestinal, mucinous, and signet-ring cell-type adenocarcinomas of duodenal papillary origin (9 of 11, 82%; 11 of 11, 100%, respectively).
  • In contrast, all 11 cases of the intestinal, mucinous, and signet-ring cell-type adenocarcinomas of duodenal papillary origin showed homogeneous CDX2 nuclear positivity.
  • We concluded that CK17 is a useful marker in separating pancreatobiliary adenocarcinomas from extra-pancreatobiliary nonmucinous adenocarcinomas, including adenocarcinomas from the colon, breast, gynecologic organs, stomach, lung, prostate, thyroid, kidney, and adrenal gland, and malignant mesothelioma.
  • MUC2+/CDX2+ can be used as positive markers for the intestinal-type adenocarcinoma of duodenal papillary origin with a positive predictive value of 82%.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Homeodomain Proteins / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / metabolism. Male. Mucins / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15725805.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDX2 protein, human; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Mucins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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24. Kobayashi M, Hattori M, Miyamoto T, Kakinuma H, Watanabe J, Iwabuchi K, Nishimura Y, Jobo T, Kuramoto H: Basement membrane-like substance in cytologic diagnosis in clear cell adenocarcinoma of the minor salivary gland of the palate. A case report. Acta Cytol; 2007 Nov-Dec;51(6):916-20

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Basement membrane-like substance in cytologic diagnosis in clear cell adenocarcinoma of the minor salivary gland of the palate. A case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCA) of the minor salivary gland accounts for < 1% of all tumors of the salivary gland.
  • CASE: A 32-year-old woman with a history of papillary carcinoma of the thyroid 1 year earlier complained of pain on the left side of the neck.
  • After a detailed examination, the patient underwent the resection of a tumor located at the palate.
  • Imprint cytology of the tumor revealed cohesive tumor cells of uniform size containing an abundant clear cytoplasm and round nuclei with extra but fine granular chromatin and conspicuous nucleoli.
  • Histopathologic analysis confirmed the trabecular or nest-like arrangement of the cells with the clear cytoplasm and BMS substance surrounded by tumor cells, which were positive for laminin and AE1 immunohistochemically.
  • CONCLUSION: Although CCA of the palate is extremely rare, an accurate cytologic diagnosis can be made if the characteristic findings of CCA, including BMS, are imaged.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Basement Membrane / pathology. Palatal Neoplasms / pathology. Salivary Glands, Minor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cytodiagnosis / methods. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Laminin / metabolism. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18077986.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Laminin
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25. Buła G, Waler J, Niemiec A, Koziołek H, Bichalski W, Gawrychowski J: Diagnosis of metastatic tumours to the thyroid gland by fine needle aspiration biopsy. Endokrynol Pol; 2010 Sep-Oct;61(5):427-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnosis of metastatic tumours to the thyroid gland by fine needle aspiration biopsy.
  • INTRODUCTION: Malignant metastases are rarely found in the thyroid gland, the incidence reaching approximately 2% of all thyroid malignant neoplasms.
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA) for diagnosing tumour metastases to thyroid glands.
  • Malignant neoplasm was diagnosed in 733 (4.8%) patients.
  • Malignant metastases to the thyroid gland were detected in 10 patients, namely 2 men and 8 women aged 48-89 years.
  • The group made up 1.4% of all patients operated for malignant thyroid tumour.
  • Preoperative diagnostic procedure consisted of thyroid scintigraphy, thyroid ultrasonography, and cytology of the material obtained through FNA.
  • In addition, the hormonal activity of the thyroid gland was examined.
  • RESULTS: Among 7 patients with thyroid metastases from renal clear cell carcinoma, as diagnosed postoperatively, cytology of the thyroid material obtained through FNA revealed follicular tumour in 3 (43%) patients, tumour cells in 2 (28.5%) and atypical cells in the other 2 (28.5%).
  • Intraoperative histopathology confirmed the presence of metastasis from renal clear cell carcinoma (1) and indicated thyroid medullary cancer (1), follicular tumour (4), or trabecular adenoma with necrosis (1).
  • Among two patients with thyroid metastases from breast cancer, cytology confirmed a metastasis from breast cancer in one (the woman was disqualified for surgical treatment) and indicated follicular tumour in one.
  • Intraoperative histopathology suggested thyroid anaplastic cancer.
  • Examination of biopsy specimen revealed epithelial cells accompanied by cell atypia in one patient with thyroid metastasis from lung cancer.
  • Intra-operative examination also indicated cellular atypia in the same patient.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Follicular tumour diagnosed by fine needle aspiration biopsy in patients after treatment for other cancers, especially renal clear cell carcinoma, should alert the surgeon to the possibility that it could be a metastasis of this cancer to the thyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / secondary. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 21049452.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Thyroid cancer, medullary
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26. Sahoo M, Chintamani, Sekhri T, Tripathi M, Rautela N, Solanki Y: Absence of microfollicular basement membrane: a new indicator in the diagnosis of follicular carcinoma thyroid. Diagn Cytopathol; 2008 Jul;36(7):519-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Absence of microfollicular basement membrane: a new indicator in the diagnosis of follicular carcinoma thyroid.
  • The thyroid follicles represent a biological continuum.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18528882.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Xue WC, Hui YZ: [Problems in the diagnosis of thyroid papillary and follicular carcinoma]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2007 Apr;36(4):220-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Problems in the diagnosis of thyroid papillary and follicular carcinoma].
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis. Thyroiditis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17706110.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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28. D'Antonio A, Addesso M, Marsilia GM, Boscaino A: Fine needle aspiration of a metastatic mucinous tumour of the thyroid gland from ovarian adenocarcinoma: a potential pitfall in the differential diagnosis of thyroid neoplasms. Cytopathology; 2007 Aug;18(4):262-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration of a metastatic mucinous tumour of the thyroid gland from ovarian adenocarcinoma: a potential pitfall in the differential diagnosis of thyroid neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. CA-125 Antigen / analysis. CA-125 Antigen / blood. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / analysis. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratin-7 / analysis. Middle Aged. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17635164.001).
  • [ISSN] 0956-5507
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytopathology : official journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Keratin-7
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29. Fukunari N: [Ultrasonography of thyroid cancer]. Nihon Rinsho; 2007 Nov;65(11):1997-2002
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Ultrasonography of thyroid cancer].
  • The diagnosis and management of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid gland remains a controversial topic.
  • Color-Doppler (CD) imaging has been expected for the differential diagnosis between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma.
  • CD imaging examination of follicular tumors has revealed that high-velocity pulsative blood flow penetrating the tumor is a characteristic finding of follicular carcinoma.
  • Real-time tissue elastography (RTE), which enable to demonstrate the tissue elasticity, has begun to be applied for the thyroid disease.
  • In follicular cancer, the difference of elasticity from core of the tumor and periphery is supposed to be depend on the difference of hypercellurality.
  • RTE can provide new useful information for the differential diagnosis of thyroid follicular lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Elasticity Imaging Techniques. Humans. Thyroidectomy. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color

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  • (PMID = 18018561.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 14
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30. Laghmari M, El-Fadl SH, Gana R, Maaqili MR, Bellakhdar F: [Late cervicodorsal metastasis of thyroid adenocarcinoma treated by anterior cervicotomy]. Neurochirurgie; 2006 Dec;52(6):537-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Late cervicodorsal metastasis of thyroid adenocarcinoma treated by anterior cervicotomy].
  • Metastasis from a thyroid adenocarcinoma is a rare entity with high mortality.
  • The histological diagnosis was follicular adenocarcinoma.
  • The development of a vertebral metastasis from a thyroid adenocarcinoma 11 years after the treatment of the primitive cancer is rare.
  • The anterior cervico-dorsal location in this patient required decompression via an anterior approach.
  • Surgical treatment of the tumor and spinal stabilization were possible via a simple anterior cervicotomy which allowed adequate access to the third thoracic vertebra, without sternotomy or thoracotomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Cervical Vertebrae / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Spinal Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17203903.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3770
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-Chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurochirurgie
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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31. Gong W, Wang E, Da J, Tan Z, Chen W: [Misdiagnosis and mistherapy of ectopic thyroid gland]. Lin Chuang Er Bi Yan Hou Ke Za Zhi; 2006 May;20(9):402-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Misdiagnosis and mistherapy of ectopic thyroid gland].
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinic characteristic, diagnosis and treatment of ectopic thyroid gland (ETG) and avoid the misdiagnosis and mistherapy of ETG.
  • The clinical features, diagnosis and management of ETG were discussed.
  • RESULT: All of patients had a normal thyroid gland in the neck and underwent a surgical resection of neck mass.
  • Postoperative pathologic examination revealed the neck masses originated from accessory thyroid gland, of them, 1 gland enlargement, 1 adenoma and 2 adenocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: The well understanding of ETG and the detailed examination before surgical treatment of neck mass, including ultrasonography, CT or MRI, radioactive isotope scanning and fine needle aspiration biopsy, are keys to adequate diagnosis and management of ETG.
  • [MeSH-major] Choristoma / diagnosis. Diagnostic Errors. Thyroglossal Cyst / diagnosis. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16836074.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Lin chuang er bi yan hou ke za zhi = Journal of clinical otorhinolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lin Chuang Er Bi Yan Hou Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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32. Raparia K, Min SK, Mody DR, Anton R, Amrikachi M: Clinical outcomes for "suspicious" category in thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsy: Patient's sex and nodule size are possible predictors of malignancy. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2009 May;133(5):787-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical outcomes for "suspicious" category in thyroid fine-needle aspiration biopsy: Patient's sex and nodule size are possible predictors of malignancy.
  • CONTEXT: Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is recommended as an initial screening tool for the diagnosis of thyroid nodules.
  • Approximately 10% of thyroid FNA diagnoses are "suspicious for neoplasm," warranting surgical resection.
  • OBJECTIVES: To examine the role of a patient's age, sex, size of nodule, and morphologic features as possible predictors of malignancy in patients with cytologic diagnosis of "suspicious for neoplasm."
  • DESIGN: Cytopathology slides and reports of 402 consecutive thyroid FNAs from 2000-2005 interpreted as "suspicious" were reviewed.
  • Of the 35 cases suspicious for malignancy, 29 had malignant histologic diagnoses.
  • Among cases with cytologic diagnoses of "suspicious for follicular or Hürthle cell neoplasm," the rate of malignancy in female patients was 22% as compared to 43% in male patients (P = .02).
  • No statistically significant difference was noted between the age of the patient and the rate of benign versus malignant diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Malignant tumors were more frequent in male patients with a cytologic diagnosis of "suspicious for follicular or Hürthle cell neoplasm" than in female patients.
  • Age of the patient was not a predictor of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. In Vitro Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Sex Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19415954.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. Scott AW, Cummings TJ, Kirkpatrick JP, Mruthyunjaya P: Choroidal metastasis of follicular thyroid adenocarcinoma diagnosed by 25-gauge transretinal biopsy. Ann Ophthalmol (Skokie); 2008;40(2):110-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Choroidal metastasis of follicular thyroid adenocarcinoma diagnosed by 25-gauge transretinal biopsy.
  • We report a case of a patient with previously treated follicular thyroid carcinoma who presented with a symptomatic amelanotic choroidal mass with low internal reflectivity and a metastatic lytic skull lesion.
  • A 25-gauge vitrector was used to perform transretinal choroidal biopsy (TRCB), confirming the diagnosis of metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Choroid Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19013920.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-4086
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of ophthalmology (Skokie, Ill.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Ophthalmol (Skokie)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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34. Takeyama H, Tabei I, Uchida K, Morikawa T: Sentinel node biopsy for follicular tumours of the thyroid gland. Br J Surg; 2009 May;96(5):490-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sentinel node biopsy for follicular tumours of the thyroid gland.
  • BACKGROUND: It is difficult to differentiate histologically between benign and malignant follicular-type tumours of the thyroid gland.
  • The present study evaluated whether sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy was helpful in obtaining the correct diagnosis of malignant follicular-type tumours, as metastasis to the lymph nodes is sufficient evidence for a diagnosis of cancer.
  • METHODS: SLN biopsy was performed for 37 follicular-type tumours suspected to be malignant on the basis of preoperative examinations, but for which the diagnosis had not been confirmed.
  • There was one false-negative but no false-positive diagnoses.
  • CONCLUSION: Detection of SLN metastasis was helpful in diagnosing follicular thyroid cancer and thus enabling one-stage surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Body Mass Index. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Intraoperative Care. Length of Stay. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 19358183.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2168
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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35. Montone KT, Baloch ZW, LiVolsi VA: The thyroid Hürthle (oncocytic) cell and its associated pathologic conditions: a surgical pathology and cytopathology review. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2008 Aug;132(8):1241-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The thyroid Hürthle (oncocytic) cell and its associated pathologic conditions: a surgical pathology and cytopathology review.
  • CONTEXT: Hürthle cells are eosinophilic, follicular-derived cells that are associated with a variety of nonneoplastic and neoplastic thyroid lesions.
  • The differential diagnosis of Hürthle cell lesions is quite broad.
  • OBJECTIVE: To review the pathologic conditions associated with Hürthle cells in the thyroid and to discuss pathology of thyroid lesions associated with oncocytic cytology.
  • DATA SOURCES: A variety of thyroid nonneoplastic (autoimmune thyroiditis, multinodular goiter) and neoplastic conditions (Hürthle cell adenoma, Hürthle cell carcinoma) are associated with Hürthle cell cytology.
  • In addition, there are several thyroid neoplasms that should be considered when one observes a Hürthle cell neoplasm in the thyroid (oncocytic variant of medullary carcinoma, several variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Oncocytic cytology is seen in a variety of thyroid conditions that are associated with a broad differential diagnosis and care must be used for accurate diagnosis.
  • Newer molecular-based techniques may be useful for further classification of thyroid neoplasms with oncocytic pathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Oxyphil Cells / pathology. Thyroid Diseases / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biopsy, Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. History, 19th Century. Humans. Metaplasia. Pathology, Surgical / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18684023.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 107
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36. Paksoy N: Ectopic lesions as potential pitfalls in fine needle aspiration cytology: a report of 3 cases derived from the thyroid, endometrium and breast. Acta Cytol; 2007 Mar-Apr;51(2):222-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ectopic lesions as potential pitfalls in fine needle aspiration cytology: a report of 3 cases derived from the thyroid, endometrium and breast.
  • Those that are derived from thyroid, breast, endometrium and salivary glands present with palpable masses that can mimic malignancy.
  • Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is a practical procedure for the differential diagnosis of such lesions but can reveal surprising images for a cytopathologist.
  • Upon diagnosis of a submandibular mass with a diameter of 1 cm, FNAC was performed.
  • The smears showed crowded thyroid follicular cells comprising papillary clusters.
  • A cytologic diagnosis of papillary thyroid lesion was rendered, Histopathology revealed that this lesion was ectopic thyroid tissue with focal chronic thyroiditis.
  • The patient had undergone cesarean section 3 years earlier.
  • The case was diagnosed on FNAC as low grade malignancy in which an adenocarcinoma/mesenchymal tumor distinction could not be made.
  • The patient had given birth 1 month earlier and was nursing.
  • An FNAC diagnosis of lactation ectopic breast tissue was made.
  • CONCLUSION: FNAC of ectopic lesions may prove to be a diagnostic pitfall for cytopathologists.
  • A cytopathologist who encounters a cellularpicturefrom a lesion that is outside the normal anatomic location must use a cautious diagnostic approach.
  • Unless there are clear findings, the cytopathologist must refrain from a diagnosis of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Choristoma / pathology. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Endometrium / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Wall / pathology. Abdominal Wall / physiopathology. Adult. Axilla / pathology. Axilla / physiopathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Endometriosis / pathology. Female. Humans. Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms / physiopathology. Submandibular Gland / pathology. Thyroiditis / complications. Thyroiditis / pathology. Thyroiditis / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 17425209.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. D'Antonio A, Addesso M, De Dominicis G, Boscaino A, Liguori G, Nappi O: Mucinous carcinoma of thyroid gland. Report of a primary and a metastatic mucinous tumour from ovarian adenocarcinoma with immunohistochemical study and review of literature. Virchows Arch; 2007 Oct;451(4):847-51
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. THYROGLOBULIN .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mucinous carcinoma of thyroid gland. Report of a primary and a metastatic mucinous tumour from ovarian adenocarcinoma with immunohistochemical study and review of literature.
  • Mucinous carcinoma of the thyroid gland is an uncommon tumour that from the histological point of view, resembles mucinous carcinoma of others sites.
  • Although a mucinous appearance has sometimes been reported in association with cases of typical thyroid carcinoma, true mucinous carcinoma is exceptionally rare.
  • We describe two cases of thyroid tumours with mucinous differentiation studied with immunohistochemistry.
  • Both cases disclosed a similar histological appearance, with small nests and sheets of malignant epithelial cells associated with extensive extracellular mucin that substituted and entrapped the follicular parenchyma of the thyroid.
  • Thyroglobulin and focally thyroid transcription factor (TTF) 1 were positive in one case.
  • From these findings, we classified this tumour as primary mucinous thyroid carcinoma.
  • However, successfully, the patient presented ascites associated to right ovarian mass.
  • In this case, thyroid tumour represents the first clinical sign of an ovarian mucinous adenocarcinoma, and it has not been previously described in literature.
  • Both patients died after few months to diagnosis.
  • In conclusion, primary and secondary mucinous carcinoma are rare and unusual tumours of the thyroid gland that can be a cause of pitfall in differential diagnosis.
  • In these cases, for a correct diagnosis, a complete clinical history, restricted histological criteria and immunohistochemical panel are necessary.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] CA-125 Antigen / metabolism. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Thyroglobulin / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17704943.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / thyroid nuclear factor 1; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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38. Hanna WC, Ponsky TA, Trachiotis GD, Knoll SM: Colon cancer metastatic to the lung and the thyroid gland. Arch Surg; 2006 Jan;141(1):93-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Colon cancer metastatic to the lung and the thyroid gland.
  • The clinical diagnosis of primary thyroid cancer is uncommon, constituting 1.5% of all cancers in the United States.
  • Clinically diagnosed metastatic cancer to the thyroid gland is rare.
  • Colon cancer is one of the most common cancers in the United States, with a high propensity to metastasize; 30% to 40% of patients have metastatic disease at the initial diagnosis.
  • Colon cancer metastasis to the thyroid gland is rare, with only a few reported cases, mainly in the pathology literature.
  • These cases describe metastasis from colon cancer to the thyroid gland that became apparent years after the initial diagnosis of colon cancer and were usually associated with dissemination to the liver, the lung, or both.
  • We report a case of colonic adenocarcinoma metastatic to the thyroid gland and lung without involvement of the liver.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary


39. Hofman V, Lassalle S, Butori C, Guevara N, Santini J, Hofman P: [A diagnostic pitfall: papillary adenocarcinoma arising in ectopic thyroid tissue within a branchial cyst]. Ann Pathol; 2006 Jun;26(3):200-3

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [A diagnostic pitfall: papillary adenocarcinoma arising in ectopic thyroid tissue within a branchial cyst].
  • A case of thyroid papillary carcinoma arising in ectopic thyroid tissue within a branchial cleft cyst is described.
  • Complete dissection of the thyroid gland was necessary to rule out the differential diagnosis of primary thyroid carcinoma.
  • The thyroglossal duct tract is an unusual localization for thyroid carcinomas in ectopic thyroid tissue.
  • Thyroid carcinoma arising in ectopic thyroid tissue within a branchial cyst is extremely rare.
  • Complete thyroidectomy may be necessary to eliminate an occult thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Branchioma / pathology. Choristoma / pathology. Thyroid Gland
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17127850.001).
  • [ISSN] 0242-6498
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de pathologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Pathol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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40. Schmid KW: [Molecular pathology of thyroid tumors]. Pathologe; 2010 Oct;31 Suppl 2:229-33
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  • [Title] [Molecular pathology of thyroid tumors].
  • Molecular genetic analysis is gaining in significance for the differential diagnosis of thyroid tumours.
  • Identifying specific mutations and/or rearrangements offers not only the possibility to distinguish benign from malignant tumours, but also to classify thyroid malignancies more precisely, which can have a substantial influence on the clinical management of patients.
  • In recent years expression analysis of micro-RNA (miRNA) has become an additional tool to improve diagnostic accuracy in thyroid tumours.
  • In addition to its diagnostic contribution, molecular genetic evaluation of thyroid tumours has significantly deepened our understanding of the development, progression and therapy of these tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA Mutational Analysis. Gene Rearrangement / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Humans. MicroRNAs / genetics. Thyroid Carcinoma, Anaplastic. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 20717681.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MicroRNAs
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41. Portocarrero-Ortiz L, Garcia-Lopez R, Romero-Vargas S, Padilla JA, Gómez-Amador JL, Salinas-Lara C, Tena-Suck ML, González AS: Thyroid follicular carcinoma presenting as skull and dural metastasis mimicking a meningioma: a case report. J Neurooncol; 2009 Nov;95(2):281-284
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Thyroid follicular carcinoma presenting as skull and dural metastasis mimicking a meningioma: a case report.
  • Follicular thyroid cancer rarely manifests itself as a distant metastatic lesion.
  • After magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) a suspect diagnosis of meningioma was made.
  • The patient underwent surgery where a soft mass with transverse sinus invasion was encountered, the tumor was successfully resected employing microsurgical techniques.
  • Histological examination revealed a thyroid follicular neoplasm with positive staining for follicular carcinoma in immunohistochemical analysis.
  • Postoperatively levels of thyroid hormones were normal.
  • Treatment was planned for the thyroid gland, but the patient did not consent.
  • The definitive diagnosis of a meningioma should be established only after the histopathological analysis.
  • Thyroid follicular carcinoma should be included in the differential diagnosis in cases of extrinsic tumoral lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Dura Mater / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Meningioma / diagnosis. Skull Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19449147.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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42. Westhoff CC, Hoffmann S, Barth PJ: Clear cell follicular adenoma of the thyroid--a challenge in intra-operative diagnostics. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2010 Jan;118(1):19-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clear cell follicular adenoma of the thyroid--a challenge in intra-operative diagnostics.
  • Pure clear cell lesions of the thyroid gland are rare and prone to pose severe diagnostic challenges.
  • We report the case of a 61-year-old man with a clear cell adenoma of the thyroid.
  • The patient presented with a hypoechoic thyroid nodule.
  • Fine needle aspiration cytology rendered the primary diagnosis of a follicular neoplasia, and right thyroid lobectomy was performed.
  • By intra-operative frozen section, the diagnosis given was clear cell lesion of unknown malignant potential.
  • Based on the light microscopic findings and the immunohistochemical profile, the lesion was diagnosed as clear cell follicular adenoma of the thyroid.
  • A follicular thyroid lesion presenting with clear cell changes in fine needle aspiration cytology or intra-operative frozen section consultation constitutes a diagnostic challenge to every surgical pathologist.
  • As immunohistochemistry of cytologic specimens is hampered by several methodological problems, any thyroid lesion with clear cell features warrants further histologic assessment to render the correct diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Frozen Sections. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Intraoperative Care. Male. Middle Aged

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  • [Copyright] J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.
  • (PMID = 19235130.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3646
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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43. Jogai S, Al-Jassar A, Temmim L, Dey P, Adesina AO, Amanguno HG: Fine needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid: a cytohistologic study with evaluation of discordant cases. Acta Cytol; 2005 Sep-Oct;49(5):483-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration cytology of the thyroid: a cytohistologic study with evaluation of discordant cases.
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the diagnostic efficacy of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in the initial evaluation of thyroid nodules, with special emphasis on discrepant cytologic diagnoses.
  • STUDY DESIGN: A total of 192 thyroid fine needle aspirates with subsequent histopathologic follow-up were analyzed.
  • The cytologic diagnoses were divided into 4 categories: positive for malignancy, negative for malignancy, indeterminate for diagnosis and nondiagnostic.
  • Indeterminate diagnoses accounted for 15.1% of cases.
  • A false positive diagnosis was made in 1 case (0.5%), proven a follicular adenoma on histopathologic examination.
  • A false negative diagnosis was seen in 3.6% of cases.
  • CONCLUSION: FNAC is a safe, sensitive and specific technique in the initial evaluation of thyroid nodules.
  • A correct cytologic diagnosis can be achieved in a majority of cases, thus obviating the need for a second surgical intervention.
  • A careful and diligent search for various cytologic features and accurate sampling can help in reducing the number of indeterminate, false positive and false negative diagnoses.
  • [MeSH-major] Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / standards. Diagnosis, Differential. False Negative Reactions. False Positive Reactions. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Observer Variation. Predictive Value of Tests. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16334023.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. Enomoto K, Sakurai K, Amano S: [Experience of parathyroid cancer which required a differentiation from adenoma]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2325-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We noted a thyroid gland mass by examination and referred for a further checkup.
  • The cervical echography evidence showed a mass image of the border regular in the back of inferior pole of left thyroid gland.
  • It also revealed a mass image with the calcification in the inferior pole of left lobe of thyroid gland at the same time.
  • We performed aspiration biopsy cytology for a thyroid gland mass, and it was class IIIa.
  • We also performed parathyroidectomy and left lobe of thyroid gland ablative surgery because of a diagnosis of the hyperparathyroidism confirmed a primary parathyroid adenoma.
  • Preoperative pathological diagnosis was adenoma.
  • However, histopathology laboratory findings showed it to be of adenocarcinoma of the parathyroid, which metastasized into the thyroid.
  • Many times parathyroid cancer preoperative diagnosis is inconclusive.
  • So we are reporting our experience with parathyroid cancer metastases to the thyroid for reference.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / etiology. Hyperparathyroidism / surgery. Male. Parathyroidectomy. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 21224561.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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45. Gao X, Dai Y, Qian X, Chen J, Chen F: [Thyroid malignant tumor with flare up glottic paralysis for first symptom]. Lin Chuang Er Bi Yan Hou Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Jul;20(13):608-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Thyroid malignant tumor with flare up glottic paralysis for first symptom].
  • OBJECTIVE: To approach clinical feature of thyroid malignant tumor with Flare up glottic paralysis for first symptom, and analysis that should be avoided missed diagnosis and misdiagnosis during diagnosis and treatment.
  • METHOD: Retrospective research five cases of thyroid malignant tumor with flare up glottic paralysis papillary adenocarcinoma of thyroid by pathology.
  • Four cases had one side glottic paralysis, the same side thyroid were moved after dissecting the recurrent laryngeal nerve.
  • The last one had right gliotic paralysis first, then both cricoarytenoid joint had been fixed, hoarse voice was worse and developed to dyspnea since the tumor invaded in larynx one year later.
  • We only did cut the right thyroid and right half larynx, but the tumor came back again in larynx in three months, then had to removal whole larynx without recurrence follow up two years.
  • CONCLUSION: For the flare up glottic paralysis with same side tiny thyroid tumor, we suggest that the thyroid must be made operation research if no other reasons, dissecting and protecting the recurrent laryngeal nerve during operation, and cut reasonable thyroid and others according to fast pathologic diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vocal Cord Paralysis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16981475.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Lin chuang er bi yan hou ke za zhi = Journal of clinical otorhinolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lin Chuang Er Bi Yan Hou Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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46. Cheng SP, Liu CL, Tzen CY, Yang TL, Jeng KS, Liu TP, Lee JJ: Characteristics of well-differentiated thyroid cancer associated with multinodular goiter. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2008 Sep;393(5):729-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Characteristics of well-differentiated thyroid cancer associated with multinodular goiter.
  • BACKGROUND: The likelihood of thyroid cancer is similar in patients with one or more nodules, but tumor characteristics of thyroid cancer in glands with multinodular goiter are unclear.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study consisted of 100 consecutive patients (ages 15-81 years; 84 women), who underwent thyroidectomy for papillary or follicular thyroid carcinoma between 2005 and 2006.
  • Patient demographics, diagnostic tests, operations, and pathological findings were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: In a univariate analysis, cancer diagnosed within multinodular goiter was different from solitary cancer nodule in age of diagnosis (48 vs 40 years, p = 0.002), tumor size (1.42 vs 2.20 cm, p = 0.024), and the presence of cervical lymph node metastases (p = 0.035).
  • Only age (odds ratio, 1.056) and tumor size (odds ratio, 0.730) revealed independent correlation in multivariate analysis.
  • CONCLUSION: Thyroid cancer in glands with multiple nodules is associated with older age at diagnosis and smaller tumor size.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Statistics as Topic. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroidectomy. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18404277.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2451
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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47. Uchida N, Suda T, Inoue T, Fujiwara Y, Ishiguro K: Needle track dissemination of follicular thyroid carcinoma following fine-needle aspiration biopsy: report of a case. Surg Today; 2007;37(1):34-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Needle track dissemination of follicular thyroid carcinoma following fine-needle aspiration biopsy: report of a case.
  • Few reports have been concerned with the risk of needle track dissemination of tumor cells following fine-needle aspiration biopsy, especially for follicular thyroid nodules.
  • A 61-year-old woman who underwent fine-needle aspiration biopsy and surgery 5 years previously for follicular thyroid adenoma presented with nodules that had developed in the sternocleidomastoid and omohyoid muscles of the anterior neck.
  • These nodules were located along a line from the skin to the thyroid that coincided with the needle track of the previous biopsy.
  • Following surgical resection, histological diagnosis determined the nodules to be follicular carcinoma.
  • The clinical course and linear arrangement of the lesions were highly suggestive of needle track dissemination of tumor cells following fine-needle aspiration biopsy.
  • Although fine-needle aspiration biopsy is a useful tool for the diagnosis of thyroid nodules, it is important to consider the risk of tumor cell dissemination.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / adverse effects. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnostic imaging. Neoplasm Seeding. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17186343.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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48. Kumar PV, Monabati A, Tabei SZ, Ramzy M, Husseini SV, Khajeh F: Metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology: a report of 3 cases. Acta Cytol; 2005 Mar-Apr;49(2):177-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology: a report of 3 cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs) usually have a benign clinical course, with an excellent long-term prognosis and a propensity for vascular invasion.
  • CASES: A 68-year-old man presented with a thyroid mass and skin nodule on the scalp.
  • As part of the routine investigation, bone marrow aspiration and biopsy were performed from the posterior iliac crest and diagnosed as metastatic FTC.
  • CONCLUSION: Cytologic diagnosis of metastatic FTC has been reported rarely.
  • Marginal (fire-flare) vacuoles aid in making the diagnosis of metastatic FTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Bone Marrow Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15839624.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Savin S, Cvejic D, Isic T, Paunovic I, Tatic S, Havelka M: The efficacy of the thyroid peroxidase marker for distinguishing follicular thyroid carcinoma from follicular adenoma. Exp Oncol; 2006 Mar;28(1):70-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The efficacy of the thyroid peroxidase marker for distinguishing follicular thyroid carcinoma from follicular adenoma.
  • AIM: Expression of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) in the thyroid gland tissue is well known as a sensitive marker of the thyroid malignancy.
  • We have evaluated immunohistochemical assay of TPO for distinguishing follicular thyroid carcinoma from follicular adenoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sections of formalin-fixed tissues obtained from 92 patients with thyroid tumors (52 follicular carcinomas and 40 follicular adenomas including the Hurthle cell type) were analyzed using a monoclonal antibody (TPO mAb 47) and the avidin-biotin peroxidase complex immunohistochemical technique.
  • RESULTS: TPO immunostaining correlated with the histopathological diagnosis in 24/40 cases of follicular adenomas and 41/52 cases of follicular carcinomas, giving a specificity of 60% and a sensitivity of 79%.
  • CONCLUSION: These results suggest that immunohistochemical assay of TPO expression has limited value for the differential diagnosis of follicular thyroid carcinoma from thyroid follicular adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / pathology. Iodide Peroxidase / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 16614712.001).
  • [ISSN] 1812-9269
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase
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50. Gulcelik NE, Gulcelik MA, Kuru B: Risk of malignancy in patients with follicular neoplasm: predictive value of clinical and ultrasonographic features. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2008 Dec;134(12):1312-5
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  • [Title] Risk of malignancy in patients with follicular neoplasm: predictive value of clinical and ultrasonographic features.
  • OBJECTIVE: To identify clinical and ultrasonographic features that may help in predicting malignant tumors in patients with a diagnosis of follicular neoplasm on findings from fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) because FNAC diagnosis of follicular neoplasm does not differentiate a benign tumor from a malignant tumor.
  • DESIGN: Prospective study of 98 patients having a diagnosis of follicular neoplasm on FNAC.
  • PATIENTS: Ninety-eight patients with thyroid nodules diagnosed by FNAC as being a follicular neoplasm.
  • INTERVENTIONS: Ultrasonography was performed in each patient, and microcalcifications, echo structure, and echogenicity of the nodules were assessed.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of ultrasonographic features.
  • RESULTS: Thyroid cancer was diagnosed in 26 patients (27%).
  • Older age, male sex, solitary nodule, and larger nodule size were not predictive for malignant neoplasms in patients with follicular neoplasm cytologic findings.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 19075128.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-361X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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51. Malani AK, Gupta C, Rangineni S, Gupta V: Thyroid metastasis from colorectal cancer: role of [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography. Clin Colorectal Cancer; 2005 Nov;5(4):287-91
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  • [Title] Thyroid metastasis from colorectal cancer: role of [18F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography.
  • We present a patient with colon carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid.
  • Review of the literature reveals only a few reports of metastatic colorectal carcinoma to the thyroid.
  • Metastatic tumors of the thyroid are no longer considered rare.
  • Unfortunately, they often remain undetected because only a small minority of patients present with a mass lesion or enlargement of the gland.
  • Establishing this diagnosis is important because metastatic deposits in the thyroid can sometimes cause respiratory compromise as well as thyrotoxicosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 16356308.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0028
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical colorectal cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colorectal Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin; IFL protocol
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52. Urken ML: Prognosis and management of invasive well-differentiated thyroid cancer. Otolaryngol Clin North Am; 2010 Apr;43(2):301-28, viii
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prognosis and management of invasive well-differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • Invasive thyroid cancer is often asymptomatic and can take the surgeon and the patient by surprise.
  • Specific guidelines are provided for the management of the various structures in the neck that are at risk for involvement by disease extension outside the gland or extracapsular extension outside a lymph node with involvement by metastatic disease.
  • This article reviews the prognosis, diagnosis, management, and implications of invasive thyroid cancer affecting the various structures of the central and lateral compartments of the neck.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease Progression. Esophagus / pathology. Esophagus / surgery. Humans. Jugular Veins / pathology. Jugular Veins / surgery. Larynx / pathology. Larynx / surgery. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve / pathology. Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve / surgery. Suture Techniques. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Trachea / pathology. Trachea / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20510716.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-8259
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngologic clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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53. Hayashi N, Kitaoka M: [Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid nodule: uses and limitations]. Nihon Rinsho; 2007 Nov;65(11):2003-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid nodule: uses and limitations].
  • Thyroid nodules are a common occurrence in the general population, but only a small number of them are eventually diagnosed as cancers.
  • Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is currently safe, the most accurate, and cost-effective method for the presurgical management of thyroid nodules, but there is a difficulty of the differential diagnosis between thyroid follicular adenomas and follicular carcinomas.
  • At the present time, assessing the likelihood of malignancy by examining various clinical parameters is an useful approach for follicular neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cytodiagnosis / methods. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Galectin 3 / analysis. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18018562.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / HBME-1 antigen
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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54. Ghofrani M, Sosa JA, Ocal IT, Angeletti C: Fine needle aspiration of poorly differentiated oxyphilic (Hürthle cell) thyroid carcinoma: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2006 Sep-Oct;50(5):560-2
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  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration of poorly differentiated oxyphilic (Hürthle cell) thyroid carcinoma: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Poorly differentiated oxyphilic (Hürthle cell) carcinomas are a more recently described variant of poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma and are characterized by a prominent Hürthle cell component in a solid or trabecular arrangement.
  • Although the histology of these rare thyroid tumors has been reported in the literature, the cytologic features on fine needle aspiration biopsy have not been described before.
  • CASE: A 73-year-old man with a long history of radioactive iodine and levothyroxine therapy for multinodular goiter presented with a painful, rapidly expanding, 6-cm, left thyroid mass with aggressive radiologic features.
  • Subsequent thyroidectomy confirmed the malignant nature of this Hürthle cell-rich tumor, warranting a diagnosis of poorly differentiated oxyphilic (Hürthle cell) thyroid carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Poorly differentiated oxyphilic thyroid carcinoma is an aggressive variant of Hürthle cell carcinomas and must enter the differential diagnosis when fine needle aspiration biopsy of a radiologically aggressive thyroid mass yields extremely hypercellular smears with a prominent Hürthle cell component.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Goiter, Nodular / complications. Goiter, Nodular / drug therapy. Goiter, Nodular / radiotherapy. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Thyroidectomy. Thyroxine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17017447.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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55. Rago T, Di Coscio G, Basolo F, Scutari M, Elisei R, Berti P, Miccoli P, Romani R, Faviana P, Pinchera A, Vitti P: Combined clinical, thyroid ultrasound and cytological features help to predict thyroid malignancy in follicular and Hupsilonrthle cell thyroid lesions: results from a series of 505 consecutive patients. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2007 Jan;66(1):13-20
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  • [Title] Combined clinical, thyroid ultrasound and cytological features help to predict thyroid malignancy in follicular and Hupsilonrthle cell thyroid lesions: results from a series of 505 consecutive patients.
  • The diagnostic value of atypia at cytology, clinical parameters and echographic patterns were examined to establish the risk of malignancy in 505 patients with follicular and Hupsilonrthle cell thyroid nodules at cytology.
  • DESIGN AND PATIENTS: The study included 505 consecutive patients who had undergone thyroidectomy from the period 2002-2005.
  • RESULTS: Histological diagnosis of malignancy was carried out in 125 of 505 (25%) patients, the follicular variant of papillary carcinoma being the most frequent histotype.
  • Male gender, normal thyroid volume, single nodularity, nodule hypoechogenicity, size and blurred margins were associated with malignancy, although not significantly.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Twenty-five per cent of patients with a cytological result of follicular and Hupsilonrthle cell thyroid lesion had a final diagnosis of malignancy.
  • Only atypia at cytology and spot microcalcifications at thyroid ultrasound were significantly associated with malignancy.
  • Other clinical parameters and thyroid ultrasound patterns can be used to set up a clinical score useful for predicting the individual risk of malignancy before surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / ultrasonography. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / ultrasonography. Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Calcinosis / ultrasonography. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / ultrasonography. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / ultrasonography. Chi-Square Distribution. Cytodiagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 17201796.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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56. Nonaka D, Tang Y, Chiriboga L, Rivera M, Ghossein R: Diagnostic utility of thyroid transcription factors Pax8 and TTF-2 (FoxE1) in thyroid epithelial neoplasms. Mod Pathol; 2008 Feb;21(2):192-200
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  • [Title] Diagnostic utility of thyroid transcription factors Pax8 and TTF-2 (FoxE1) in thyroid epithelial neoplasms.
  • Thyroid-specific transcription factors, Pax8, TTF-1, and TTF-2, are crucial for thyroid organogenesis and differentiation.
  • The goal of this study is to evaluate the expressions of these markers in thyroid tumors of the full spectrum of differentiation, with special emphasis on anaplastic carcinomas.
  • A total of 94 cases of thyroid neoplasms were studied: 17 papillary carcinomas, 18 follicular adenomas, 16 follicular carcinomas, 7 poorly differentiated carcinomas, 28 anaplastic carcinomas, and 8 medullary carcinomas.
  • Pax8 was expressed in renal tubules, fallopian tubes, ovarian inclusion cysts, and lymphoid follicles as well as renal carcinoma, nephroblastoma, seminoma, and ovarian carcinoma, but not in normal tissue and carcinomas of the lung.
  • Pax8 is a useful marker for the diagnosis of anaplastic carcinomas, particularly when the differential diagnosis includes pulmonary carcinoma.
  • In differentiated thyroid neoplasms, no significant difference in expression was seen in all the three transcription factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenosine Triphosphatases / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Paired Box Transcription Factors / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Calcitonin / metabolism. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Medullary / metabolism. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Humans. Hyperplasia. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18084247.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / PAX8 protein, human; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; 0 / Transcription Factors; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin; EC 3.6.1.- / Adenosine Triphosphatases; EC 3.6.1.- / TTF2 protein, human
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57. Proietti A, Giannini R, Ugolini C, Miccoli M, Fontanini G, Di Coscio G, Romani R, Berti P, Miccoli P, Basolo F: BRAF status of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma and its relationship to its clinical and cytological features. Thyroid; 2010 Nov;20(11):1263-70
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  • [Title] BRAF status of follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma and its relationship to its clinical and cytological features.
  • BACKGROUND: The cytological discrimination between benign and malignant follicular-patterned lesions of the thyroid can represent a diagnostic challenge, even for experienced pathologists.
  • To attempt to clarify this diagnostic problem, we analyzed the BRAF status of thyroid tumors in a group of patients with follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) and its correlation with cytomorphological features.
  • METHODS: The BRAF status was evaluated in a total of 187 patients in whom FVPTC was consecutively diagnosed by histology between January 2006 and January 2009.
  • Each case had a previous fine-needle aspiration diagnosis classified according to the British Thyroid Association Guidelines categorized as inadequate (Thy1) (n = 19), benign (Thy2) (n = 19), follicular lesion and follicular lesion with atypia (Thy3) (n = 109), suspicious of PTC (Thy4) (n = 29), or malignant (Thy5) (n = 11).
  • The first 68 cases were selected for a morphological study by a quantitative analysis of four cytological features (grooves, intranuclear cytoplasmatic inclusions, number of cells per high power field (400 ×), and mean nuclear diameter) of the carcinomas.
  • RESULTS: The BRAF status of each tumor was correlated with the cytological classes.
  • Among the 68 cases selected for the cyto-morphological study, the BRAF status frequency was similar to that of the total case series.
  • BRAF analysis is of limited value in the preoperative diagnosis of FVPTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20950194.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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58. Lappinga PJ, Kip NS, Jin L, Lloyd RV, Henry MR, Zhang J, Nassar A: HMGA2 gene expression analysis performed on cytologic smears to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid nodules. Cancer Cytopathol; 2010 Oct 25;118(5):287-97
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  • [Title] HMGA2 gene expression analysis performed on cytologic smears to distinguish benign from malignant thyroid nodules.
  • BACKGROUND: Up to 80% of thyroid nodules with an indeterminate diagnosis on fine-needle aspiration (FNA) (eg, "suspicious for follicular neoplasm") prove to be benign at the time of surgical resection.
  • Ancillary tests in current use are limited in their ability to improve the preoperative detection of malignant follicular thyroid nodules.
  • Studies using paraffin-embedded tissue have indicated that high mobility group AT-hook 2 (HMGA2) overexpression is present in a high percentage of malignant thyroid neoplasms but not in benign thyroid neoplasms.
  • In the current study, the ability of HMGA2 overexpression analysis to preoperatively distinguish benign from malignant thyroid nodules by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) on suspicious cytologic smears was evaluated.
  • METHODS: Patients who underwent thyroid FNA and subsequent thyroid resection from 2001 through 2007 were identified.
  • A subset of these patients who had a cytologic diagnosis of "suspicious" underwent HMGA2 expression analysis.
  • HMGA2 expression was detected on cells scraped from cytologic smears with 1-step, real-time quantitative RT-PCR.
  • With an HMGA2 overexpression change of 5.9-fold or greater compared with a thyroid tumor cell line as a positive cutoff, the test was found to have the following overall performance for detecting malignant nodules: sensitivity of 71%, specificity of 97%, positive predictive value of 94%, and negative predictive value of 84%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: HMGA2 mRNA expression analysis can be performed on cytologic smears and demonstrates a high specificity and positive predictive value and relatively high sensitivity and negative predictive value for detecting malignancy in "suspicious" thyroid aspirate specimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. HMGA2 Protein / genetics. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Nodule / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / genetics. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Child. Cytodiagnosis / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Goiter / diagnosis. Goiter / genetics. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reproducibility of Results. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 20597139.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-662X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Cytopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HMGA2 Protein; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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59. Miseikyte-Kaubriene E, Ulys A, Trakymas M: [The frequency of malignant disease in cytological group of suspected cancer (ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of nonpalpable thyroid nodules)]. Medicina (Kaunas); 2008;44(3):189-94
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  • [Title] [The frequency of malignant disease in cytological group of suspected cancer (ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of nonpalpable thyroid nodules)].
  • BACKGROUND: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy is the most important procedure for differentiating benign thyroid nodules from malignant ones.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to establish the value of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy in the diagnosis of nonpalpable thyroid cancer and to assess the frequency of malignant disease in the group of suspected cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 184 patients with nonpalpable thyroid nodules (less than 1.5 cm in diameter) were examined by means of ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy.
  • Patients were included in the study based on sonographic findings implicating possible malignant nature of nodules.
  • RESULTS. During 1997-2002, 204 ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsies of thyroid nodules were performed; findings were nondiagnostic in 5.9% of cases.
  • In 45 cases, cytological diagnosis of malignant or suspected thyroid cancer was confirmed by histological examination after surgery.
  • CONCLUSION: We conclude that ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy has a high accuracy in the diagnostic evaluation of nonpalpable thyroid nodule with cytological features of malignancy.
  • However, fine-needle aspiration biopsy is not effective diagnostic method for differentiating benign thyroid nodules from malignant ones in follicular neoplasm group.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Palpation. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 18413985.001).
  • [ISSN] 1648-9144
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Medicina (Kaunas)
  • [Language] lit
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Lithuania
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60. Stolf BS, Santos MM, Simao DF, Diaz JP, Cristo EB, Hirata R Jr, Curado MP, Neves EJ, Kowalski LP, Carvalho AF: Class distinction between follicular adenomas and follicular carcinomas of the thyroid gland on the basis of their signature expression. Cancer; 2006 May 1;106(9):1891-900
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  • [Title] Class distinction between follicular adenomas and follicular carcinomas of the thyroid gland on the basis of their signature expression.
  • BACKGROUND: Nodules of the thyroid gland are observed frequently in patients who undergo ultrasound studies.
  • Among thyroid tumors, the diagnosis of follicular adenocarcinomas by preoperative fine-needle aspiration biopsy is a major challenge, because it requires inspection of the entire capsule to differentiate it from adenoma.
  • METHODS: Using data from gene expression analysis, the authors applied Fisher linear discriminant analysis and searched for expression signatures of individual samples of adenomas and follicular carcinomas that could be used as molecular classifiers for the precise classification of malignant and nonmalignant lesions.
  • RESULTS: Fourteen trios of genes were described that fulfilled the criteria for the correct classification of 100% of samples.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / classification. Adenoma / classification. Thyroid Neoplasms / classification

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  • (PMID = 16565969.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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61. Dralle H, Lorenz K, Machens A, Nguyen Thanh P: [Thyroid carcinoma found incidentally after thyroidectomy: postoperative strategy]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr; 2009 Dec;134(49):2517-20
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  • [Title] [Thyroid carcinoma found incidentally after thyroidectomy: postoperative strategy].
  • Completion operations after thyroid surgery due to incidental postoperative diagnosis of thyroid cancer are indicated in differentiated thyroid cancer with tumor size > 1 cm, extrathyroidal invasion, multifocality, angioinvasion or metastases.
  • By thorough preoperative clinical work-up of nodular goiter (ultrasonography, fine needle aspiration cytology the frequency of completion thyroidectomies are aimed to be less than 10% of all thyroid cancer operations.
  • To facilitate postoperative radioiodine ablation prophylactic completion operations can be postponed to 3 months postoperatively to minimize surgical morbidity, if not performed during the early postoperative period.
  • Prophylactic central node dissection as part of the completion operation is reserved for papillary (PTC) and medullary carcinomas (MTC) but not for follicular cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Medullary / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Goiter / pathology. Goiter / surgery. Incidental Findings. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Postoperative Complications / surgery. Thyroidectomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Calcitonin / blood. Disease Progression. Frozen Sections. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating / pathology. Reoperation / methods. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Ultrasonography

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  • [Copyright] Copyright Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York
  • (PMID = 19941236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4413
  • [Journal-full-title] Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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62. Yousuf K, Archibald SD: Brain metastases from papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid. J Otolaryngol; 2006 Dec;35(6):366-72
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  • [Title] Brain metastases from papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid.
  • BACKGROUND: Papillary thyroid adenocarcinoma (PTA) is the most common type of thyroid malignancy.
  • We present a series of four patients with this development and review their diagnosis and treatment.
  • METHODS: A retrospective chart review analysis of patients diagnosed with PTA between 1983 and 2003 at St. Joseph's Healthcare Centre in Hamilton, Ontario, was conducted.
  • The time between the initial treatment and presentation of distant metastasis ranged from 15 to 167 months (mean 89 months).
  • All patients eventually died of their disease, and the overall survival after the diagnosis of brain metastases was 15.3 months in the four patients.
  • CONCLUSION: This study shows that brain metastasis may or may not be the first site of distant metastasis in patients with PTA.
  • Once brain metastases are diagnosed, palliation with preservation of quality of life becomes the goal of therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 17380829.001).
  • [ISSN] 0381-6605
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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63. Cheung WY, Brierley J, Mackay HJ: Treatment of rectal cancer metastases to the thyroid gland: report of two cases. Clin Colorectal Cancer; 2008 Jul;7(4):280-2
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  • [Title] Treatment of rectal cancer metastases to the thyroid gland: report of two cases.
  • Rectal cancer rarely metastasizes to the thyroid gland.
  • When it does, however, it poses particular problems with regard to diagnosis and management.
  • Despite the use of these treatment modalities, the presence of thyroid metastasis is associated with a very poor prognosis and significant morbidity.
  • Herein, we review the literature and report on 2 cases of rectal carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid gland that were treated with oxaliplatin-containing chemotherapy regimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18650197.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0028
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical colorectal cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colorectal Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 04ZR38536J / oxaliplatin
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64. Yousem SA: Pulmonary intestinal-type adenocarcinoma does not show enteric differentiation by immunohistochemical study. Mod Pathol; 2005 Jun;18(6):816-21
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  • [Title] Pulmonary intestinal-type adenocarcinoma does not show enteric differentiation by immunohistochemical study.
  • Six cases of an unusual variant of primary pulmonary adenocarcinoma resembling colorectal and sinonasal adenocarcinoma are presented.
  • Pulmonary intestinal-type adenocarcinoma occurs in elderly Caucasians and is associated with a histology characteristic of colorectal/enteric adenocarcinoma: a garland-like architecture with a 'gland in gland' periphery, central 'dirty' necrosis, and elongated stratified columnar cells, lacking significant goblet or signet ring differentiation.
  • While a resemblance to intestinal adenocarcinoma by light microscopy is present, immunohistochemical studies comparing these carcinomas with metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma clearly show a respiratory phenotype with the neoplastic cells expressing thyroid transcription factor-1 and cytokeratin 7 to the exclusion of cytokeratin 20, and failing to express CDX-2.
  • The differential diagnosis with other pulmonary adenocarcinomas, especially those with mucinous differentiation, is discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15605076.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / KRT20 protein, human; 0 / KRT7 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / MUC2 protein, human; 0 / MUC5AC protein, human; 0 / Mucin 5AC; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Mucin-2; 0 / Mucins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / thyroid nuclear factor 1; 156560-97-3 / Cdx-2-3 protein; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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65. Letsas KP, Vartholomatos G, Tsepi C, Tsatsoulis A, Frangou-Lazaridis M: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy-RT-PCR expression analysis of prothymosin alpha and parathymosin in thyroid: novel proliferation markers? Neoplasma; 2007;54(1):57-62
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  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration biopsy-RT-PCR expression analysis of prothymosin alpha and parathymosin in thyroid: novel proliferation markers?
  • Fine-needle aspiration biopsy-based cytology has become an established and reliable diagnostic preoperative test in the evaluation of thyroid nodules.
  • Genetic analysis of the aspirates by RT-PCR may contribute, in parallel to the cytology report, to a more precise diagnosis.
  • A semi-quantitative RT-PCR assay was developed to determine prothymosin alpha and parathymosin mRNA expression patterns in thyroid follicular cells obtained from the fine-needle aspiration biopsy specimens of patients diagnosed with simple nodular goitre, follicular adenoma, papillary and follicular well-differentiated carcinomas.
  • Prothymosin alpha and parathymosin mRNA levels were found significantly elevated in well-differentiated carcinomas in relation to adenomas (p<0.05) and goitres (p<0.05), an event possibly linked to the proliferation activity of thyroid follicular cells.
  • Further studies are required to establish prothymosin alpha and parathymosin as diagnostic proliferation markers in thyroid cancer, especially in cases of undetermined cellular morphology of follicular origin which reflect the most common cytohistopathological discrepancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Protein Precursors / genetics. Thymosin / analogs & derivatives. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers / analysis. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cell Proliferation. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reproducibility of Results. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Thyroid Nodule / genetics. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17203893.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2685
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Protein Precursors; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / prothymosin alpha; 61512-21-8 / Thymosin; 95328-48-6 / parathymosin alpha
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66. Albores-Saavedra J, Wu J: The many faces and mimics of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Endocr Pathol; 2006;17(1):1-18
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  • [Title] The many faces and mimics of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • This article provides an overview of the 15 histologic variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma listed by the 2004 World Health Organization (WHO) monograph on endocrine tumors.
  • The histologic features, differential diagnosis, and clinical course of each variant are discussed in some detail.
  • The follicular variants (conventional and macrofollicular) constitute a morphologic challenge because the majority of these tumors are encapsulated and, also, because, in many tumors, not all neoplastic cells show the nuclear features considered to be diagnostic of papillary carcinoma.
  • Moreover, hyperplastic thyroid lesions, follicular adenomas, and Hashimoto's thyroiditis may contain cells with clear nuclei resembling those of papillary carcinoma.
  • Papillary carcinoma with an insular pattern that does not show the artifactual separation of the cell nests has been misinterpreted as the solid variant of papillary carcinoma.
  • Papillary microcarcinomas include not only the conventional type and the follicular variants but also the tall cell and columnar cell variants.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Hashimoto Disease / diagnosis. Humans. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Thyroid Gland / pathology. World Health Organization

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  • (PMID = 16760576.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 68
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67. Blankenship DR, Chin E, Terris DJ: Contemporary management of thyroid cancer. Am J Otolaryngol; 2005 Jul-Aug;26(4):249-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Contemporary management of thyroid cancer.
  • Thyroid cancer is a relatively common and frequently curable malignant neoplasm, accounting for nearly 2% of all new cancers diagnosed annually in the United States.
  • The diagnostic and management options have evolved considerably in the past decade, and a current understanding of these trends in the standard of care have assumed an important consideration in the practices of head and neck surgeons and endocrinologists alike.
  • We sought to review the epidemiology and pathology of the several types of thyroid cancer and to present our evidence-based management algorithm.
  • In addition to reviewing well-established approaches to diagnosis and management, emphasis is placed on newer techniques, including minimally invasive thyroidectomy, molecular detection of disease propensity, and the use of recombinant thyrotropin prior to radioiodine ablation.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / therapy. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / diagnosis. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / therapy. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / therapy. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / therapy. Evidence-Based Medicine. Humans. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma / pathology. Lymphoma / therapy. Thyroid Gland / anatomy & histology. Thyroid Gland / embryology. Thyroid Gland / radionuclide imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15991091.001).
  • [ISSN] 0196-0709
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 90
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68. Montella L, Caraglia M, Abbruzzese A, Soricelli A, Caputi M, Squame G, Salvatore M, Del Prete S, Palmieri G: Mediastinal images resembling thymus following 131-I treatment for thyroid cancer. Monaldi Arch Chest Dis; 2005 Jun;63(2):114-7
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  • [Title] Mediastinal images resembling thymus following 131-I treatment for thyroid cancer.
  • The follow-up of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer conventionally includes serum thyroglobulin and periodic Whole Body Scans.
  • The uptake of 131-I in normal and pathological tissues different from metastatic thyroid cancer sites is a cause of false-positive scans.
  • The aim of the present study was to review a series of 573 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer treated with 131-I after surgery between 1992 and 2003 looking above all for those with mediastinal images resembling thymus.
  • This evaluation is presented together with some hypotheses on the relationships between thymus and thyroid.
  • Moreover, some considerations are made on the differential diagnosis between thymus and mediastinal tumour thyroid residues.

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  • (PMID = 16128228.001).
  • [ISSN] 1122-0643
  • [Journal-full-title] Monaldi archives for chest disease = Archivio Monaldi per le malattie del torace
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Monaldi Arch Chest Dis
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
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69. Bae WK, Shim HJ, Choi YD, Kim JW, Cho SH, Kang HC, Chung IJ: Severe hypothyroidism induced by thyroid metastasis of cholangiocarcinoma. Cancer Res Treat; 2009 Mar;41(1):56-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Severe hypothyroidism induced by thyroid metastasis of cholangiocarcinoma.
  • We report a case of severe hypothyroidism in a cholangiocarcinoma patient with metastasis to the thyroid gland.
  • Abdominal computed tomography (CT) demonstrated the presence of a 4.7-cm tumor in the right hepatic lobe, and core needle biopsy revealed it to be cholangiocarcinoma.
  • Neck CT showed a diffuse, low attenuation thyroid gland, and fine-needle aspiration (FNA) demonstrated metastatic adenocarcinoma.
  • Thyroid function tests were initially normal, but the size of the thyroid gland decreased and severe hypothyroidism developed after chemotherapy was implemented for cholangiocarcinoma.
  • In a patient with malignant disease and a goiter, the possibility of a metastatic tumor involving the thyroid should be seriously considered.
  • Metastatic thyroid cancer and thyroid dysfunction are probably infrequent, but diagnosis is important in the institution of appropriate therapy.

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  • [Cites] Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2005 Feb;62(2):236-41 [15670202.001]
  • [Cites] Cancer. 1950 Jan;3(1):74-85 [15405683.001]
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  • (PMID = 19688074.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-2998
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research and treatment : official journal of Korean Cancer Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res Treat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2699092
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Cholangiocarcinoma / Hypothyroidism / Thyroid metastasis
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70. Sherman JF, Leiman G, Naud S, Nathan MH, Ambaye AB: Follicular and Hürthle cell lesions of the thyroid: can inconclusive results be minimized? Acta Cytol; 2008 Nov-Dec;52(6):659-64
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  • [Title] Follicular and Hürthle cell lesions of the thyroid: can inconclusive results be minimized?
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the cytologic criteria for distinguishing neoplastic from nonneoplastic follicular cell and Hürthle cell thyroid lesions.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Ten previously described and commonly used cytologic criteria were evaluated and graded on a 0-4 scale in a consecutive series of thyroid fine needle aspirations (FNAs) reported as follicular or Hürthle cell neoplasms or lesions.
  • CONCLUSION: In this series, the indeterminate thyroid FNA category could have been reduced by diagnosis of samples with 4 or more of the studied criteria as definite follicular (50% of cases) or Hürthle cell (13.6% of cases) neoplasms and by more astute recognition of papillary carcinomas (14.0% of cases), which blend into this category, often as a result of less-than-optimal sampling or preservation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19068668.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30CA22435
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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71. Pallante P, Visone R, Croce CM, Fusco A: Deregulation of microRNA expression in follicular-cell-derived human thyroid carcinomas. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2010 Mar;17(1):F91-104
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  • [Title] Deregulation of microRNA expression in follicular-cell-derived human thyroid carcinomas.
  • Carcinoma of the thyroid gland is an uncommon cancer, but one of the most frequent malignancies of the endocrine system.
  • Most thyroid cancers are derived from the follicular cells.
  • Follicular carcinoma is considered more malignant than papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is one of the most lethal human cancers.
  • Even though several genetic lesions have been already described in human thyroid cancer, particularly in the papillary histotype, the mechanisms underlying the development of these neoplasias are still far from being completely elucidated.
  • Some years ago, several studies were undertaken to analyze the expression of microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) in thyroid carcinoma to evaluate a possible role of their deregulation in the process of carcinogenesis.
  • These studies showed an aberrant microRNA expression profile that distinguishes unequivocally among PTC, ATC, and normal thyroid tissue.
  • Here, other than summarizing the current findings on microRNA expression in human thyroid carcinomas, we discuss the mechanisms by which microRNA deregulation may play a role in thyroid carcinogenesis, and the possible use of microRNA knowledge in the diagnosis and therapy of thyroid neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. MicroRNAs / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Mice. Mice, Transgenic. Mutation. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / genetics. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / pathology. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Oncogenes

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  • (PMID = 19942715.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MicroRNAs; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm
  • [Number-of-references] 106
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72. Cho Mar K, Eimoto T, Tateyama H, Arai Y, Fujiyoshi Y, Hamaguchi M: Expression of matrix metalloproteinases in benign and malignant follicular thyroid lesions. Histopathology; 2006 Feb;48(3):286-94
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  • [Title] Expression of matrix metalloproteinases in benign and malignant follicular thyroid lesions.
  • AIMS: To examine expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and related proteins in follicular thyroid lesions (FTLs) and to determine their usefulness for differential diagnosis of FTLs, particularly between minimally invasive carcinoma and adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / chemistry. Adenoma / chemistry. Matrix Metalloproteinases / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Male. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / analysis. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / genetics. Matrix Metalloproteinase 7 / analysis. Matrix Metalloproteinase 7 / genetics. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Thyroid Gland / chemistry. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16430475.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinases; EC 3.4.24.23 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 7; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
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73. Foujilas C, Marakaki C, Syrmos N: [Sodium-iodine symporter in thyroid, normal and cancer tissues and its relation to nuclear medicine and to gene cloning treatment]. Hell J Nucl Med; 2009 May-Aug;12(2):189-93
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  • [Title] [Sodium-iodine symporter in thyroid, normal and cancer tissues and its relation to nuclear medicine and to gene cloning treatment].
  • Sodium iodide symporter (NIS) is a transmembrane glucoprotein located in the basolateral membrane of the follicular thyroid cells, as well as in other normal and abnormal tissues such as the lactating mammary gland, well differentiated thyroid carcinoma and breast adenocarcinoma.
  • The importance of NIS to diagnostic and research activities of Nuclear Medicine such as the radioiodine uptake, serum levels of TSH, TPO and TBG and thyroid diseases, especially cancer are described.
  • NIS gene cloning in 1996 opened new prospective in diagnosis and treatment of thyroid and other diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Cloning, Molecular / methods. Molecular Probe Techniques. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Symporters / genetics. Symporters / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 19675882.001).
  • [ISSN] 1790-5427
  • [Journal-full-title] Hellenic journal of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hell J Nucl Med
  • [Language] gre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Symporters; 0 / sodium-iodide symporter
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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74. Zhao J, Leonard C, Gemsenjäger E, Heitz PU, Moch H, Odermatt B: Differentiation of human follicular thyroid adenomas from carcinomas by gene expression profiling. Oncol Rep; 2008 Feb;19(2):329-37
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  • [Title] Differentiation of human follicular thyroid adenomas from carcinomas by gene expression profiling.
  • It is difficult to distinguish benign from malignant follicular thyroid tumors by histological or cytological examination.
  • The goal of this study was to reveal gene expression variations between benign and malignant follicular lesions of the thyroid gland.
  • We investigated gene expression profiles from 24 follicular thyroid tumors (12 carcinomas and 12 adenomas) and 13 normal thyroid tissues using high-density human cDNA arrays.
  • The identification of gene expression changes was based on signal intensity ratios of tumor versus normal thyroid parenchyma.
  • Our results demonstrate a potential use of gene expression profiling for differentiating benign from malignant follicular thyroid tumors.
  • A detailed investigation of the differentially expressed genes could give new insights into molecular pathways of malignant transformation of thyroid follicular neoplasm and may help to develop a molecular tool for the preoperative differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Gene Expression Profiling. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18202778.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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75. Hermann M, Tonninger K, Kober F, Furtlehner EM, Schultheis A, Neuhold N: [Minimally invasive follicular thyroid carcinoma : Not always total thyroidectomy]. Chirurg; 2010 Jul;81(7):627-30, 632-5
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  • [Title] [Minimally invasive follicular thyroid carcinoma : Not always total thyroidectomy].
  • Current treatment guidelines for follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) recommend total thyroidectomy, lymphadenectomy and radioiodine ablation.
  • Considering the low malignant potential of minimally invasive follicular thyroid carcinoma (MIFTC), a limited radical therapeutic procedure may be adequate.
  • Therefore, in 2005 Rosai proposed a clinically more significant classification of FTC based on the extent of capsular and vascular invasion: MIFTC with capsular invasion only, with limited (< or =3) vascular invasion, encapsulated FTC with extensive (>3) vascular invasion and broadly invasive FTC with extensive invasive growth.For the diagnosis of MIFTC a complete investigation of the encapsulated follicular lesion should be performed by the pathologist and examination of at least 10 tissue blocks is mandatory.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Neck Dissection / methods. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating. Prognosis. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20544166.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0385
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift fur alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurg
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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76. Xue LY, Zou SM, Zheng S, Xie YQ, Wen P, Liu XY, Lin DM, Lü N: [Expression of fascin and CK14 in different histological types of cancer and its differential diagnostic significance]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2010 Nov;32(11):838-44
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  • [Title] [Expression of fascin and CK14 in different histological types of cancer and its differential diagnostic significance].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate and analyze the expression of fascin and CK14 in multiple histological types of cancer and to explore the potential value of the two proteins as markers in diagnosis and differential diagnosis of various cancer types.
  • METHODS: Tissue microarray containing esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), lung SCC, larynx SCC, uterine cervical SCC, SCC of external genital organs, lung adenocarcinoma, gastric adenocarcinoma, colorectal adenocarcinoma, heptocellular carcinoma, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, breast infiltrating ductal carcinoma, thyroid papillary carcinoma, uterine endometrioid adenocarcinoma, ovarian serous adenocarcinoma and renal clear cell carcinoma, 30 cases each, as well as corresponding normal controls was constructed.
  • In lung adenocarcinoma, gastric adenocarcinoma, colorectal adenocarcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, breast infiltrating dutal adenocarcinoma, thyroid papillary carcinoma, uterine endometrioid adenocarcinoma, ovarian serous adenocarcinoma and renal clear cell carcinoma, the positive rates were 38.0%, 23.3%, 14.3%, 10.3%, 73.3%, 13.3%, 6.7%, 60.0%, 66.7% and 10.0%, respectively.
  • It was weak and focal in lung adenocarcinoma, gastric adenocarcinoma, colorectal adenocarcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, breast infiltrating dutal adenocarcinoma, thyroid papillary carcinoma, uterine endometrioid adenocarcinoma, ovarian serous adenocarcinoma, and renal clear cell carcinoma, with a positive rate of 13.3%, 13.3%, 20.7%, 41.4%, 46.7%, 6.7%, 40.0%, 13.3%, 20.0% and 6.7%, respectively.
  • Combination of fascin and CK14 should be a valuable marker in diagnosis and differential diagnosis of carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Carrier Proteins / metabolism. Keratin-14 / metabolism. Laryngeal Neoplasms / metabolism. Microfilament Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / metabolism. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / metabolism. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Esophageal Neoplasms / metabolism. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / metabolism. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / metabolism. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21223690.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Keratin-14; 0 / Microfilament Proteins; 146808-54-0 / fascin
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77. Pallante P, Federico A, Berlingieri MT, Bianco M, Ferraro A, Forzati F, Iaccarino A, Russo M, Pierantoni GM, Leone V, Sacchetti S, Troncone G, Santoro M, Fusco A: Loss of the CBX7 gene expression correlates with a highly malignant phenotype in thyroid cancer. Cancer Res; 2008 Aug 15;68(16):6770-8
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  • [Title] Loss of the CBX7 gene expression correlates with a highly malignant phenotype in thyroid cancer.
  • Using gene expression profiling, we found that the CBX7 gene was drastically down-regulated in six thyroid carcinoma cell lines versus control cells.
  • The aims of this study were to determine whether CBX7 is related to the thyroid cancer phenotype and to try to identify new tools for the diagnosis and prognosis of thyroid cancer.
  • We thus evaluated CBX7 expression in various snap-frozen and paraffin-embedded thyroid carcinoma tissues of different degrees of malignancy by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively.
  • Indeed, it decreased in an increasing percentage of cases going from benign adenomas to papillary (PTC), follicular, and anaplastic (ATC) thyroid carcinomas.
  • This finding coincides with results obtained in rat and mouse models of thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • Restoration of CBX7 expression in thyroid cancer cells reduced growth rate, with a retention in the G(1) phase of the cell cycle, suggesting that CBX7 can contribute to the proliferation of the transformed thyroid cells.
  • In conclusion, loss of CBX7 expression correlates with a highly malignant phenotype in thyroid cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Repressor Proteins / genetics. Repressor Proteins / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoviridae / genetics. Animals. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22 / genetics. Colony-Forming Units Assay. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Loss of Heterozygosity. Mice. Mice, Nude. Polycomb Repressive Complex 1. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / metabolism. Rats. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18701502.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CBX7 protein, human; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Repressor Proteins; EC 6.3.2.19 / Polycomb Repressive Complex 1
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78. Tamiolakis D, Tsamis I, Thomaidis V, Lambropoulou M, Alexiadis G, Venizelos I, Jivanakis T, Papadopoulos N: Oral complaints caused from metastases to the mandible and maxilla. Chirurgia (Bucur); 2007 Jul-Aug;102(4):439-42

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The most common malignant bone tumor is metastatic carcinoma, and tumors arising in the breast, prostate, thyroid, lung and kidney have a special propensity to spread to bone.
  • Two cases originated from the thyroid gland while the rest were from the oesophagus and the liver respectively.
  • Patients presented with oral discomforts disregarding the primary tumor.
  • Physicians who frequently advise patients with oral complaints should keep in mind that whereas these symptoms are mostly of a chronic and benign nature, metastases from a malignant tumor must be included in the differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Facial Pain / etiology. Mandibular Neoplasms / secondary. Maxillary Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Medical Records. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17966942.001).
  • [ISSN] 1221-9118
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia (Bucharest, Romania : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurgia (Bucur)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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79. Cavicchi O, Piccin O, Caliceti U, De Cataldis A, Pasquali R, Ceroni AR: Transient hypoparathyroidism following thyroidectomy: a prospective study and multivariate analysis of 604 consecutive patients. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2007 Oct;137(4):654-8
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  • [Title] Transient hypoparathyroidism following thyroidectomy: a prospective study and multivariate analysis of 604 consecutive patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors for postoperative transient hypoparathyroidism in a group of patients undergoing thyroid surgery.
  • STUDY DESIGN: A prospective study was conducted on 604 patients undergoing thyroid surgery.
  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Gender, final diagnosis, extent of resection, biology of pathology, intrathoracic involvement, surgery for recurrent multinodular goiter, and presence and number of parathyroid glands in a surgical specimen were analyzed as risk factors for postoperative transient hypoparathyroidism.
  • CONCLUSION: The extent of surgery to central and/or lateral neck lymph nodes is responsible for a high rate of transient hypoparathyroidism owing to a high probability of unplanned parathyroidectomy or parathyroid gland devascularization.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Child. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Goiter, Nodular / surgery. Goiter, Substernal / surgery. Graves Disease / surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neck Dissection / adverse effects. Parathyroidectomy / adverse effects. Prospective Studies. Recurrence. Reoperation. Risk Factors. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17903586.001).
  • [ISSN] 0194-5998
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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80. Rodier JF, Tuech JJ, Wilt M, Lindas P, Bruant-Rodier C: [A locally advanced intrathyroid metastasis of bronchial cancer]. Ann Otolaryngol Chir Cervicofac; 2008 Sep;125(4):198-203
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  • PURPOSE: To assess the characteristics, the diagnosis and the treatment of intrathyroid metastasis.
  • RESULTS: A 60-year-old woman, treated seven years before for a well-differentiated bronchial adenocarcinoma, developed enlargement of the thyroid gland.
  • Surgical management is decided taking into account the type and the kinetics of the primary tumor, the location of the thyroid metastasis, and the extension of the metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Bronchial Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 18755448.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-438X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'oto-laryngologie et de chirurgie cervico faciale : bulletin de la Société d'oto-laryngologie des hôpitaux de Paris
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Otolaryngol Chir Cervicofac
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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81. Kaprin A, Nesterov P, Fadeev A: The role of renal biopsy in a patient with multiple synchronous cancers: a case report. Cases J; 2009;2:9350

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The role of renal biopsy in a patient with multiple synchronous cancers: a case report.
  • The patient was admitted to surgical clinic of Russian Scientific Center of Roentgen-Radiology of Rosmedtechnology.
  • A renal biopsy and subsequent histopathological tests revealed adenocarcinoma of the right kidney of most likely metastatic origin.
  • This discovery has lead to vigorous diagnostics search for the primary tumor.
  • Finally, the following diagnosis was established: Primarily-multiple synchronous cancer: cancer of the left kidney T1N0M0, cancer of the thyroid gland T2N0M1, metastasis to the right kidney and lungs.
  • The patient had left kidney and thyroid gland removed and was successfully treated with radioiodine therapy.
  • The patient remains alive and well 7 months since his admission to our clinic.
  • We report this case to emphasize the importance of the renal biopsy and thorough histological analysis, which made it possible to diagnose thyroid cancer in this patient.

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  • [Cites] Thyroid. 2001 Aug;11(8):795-804 [11525275.001]
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  • (PMID = 20130791.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2816202
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82. Kazemi M, Assadi M, Kazemi AA, Ghazvini LA: Primary papillary carcinoma in a thyroglossal duct cyst. Hell J Nucl Med; 2006 Jan-Apr;9(1):39-40
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Thyroid Cancer.

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  • Thyroglossal duct cysts (TDC) are the most common congenital anomalies of the thyroid gland and less than 1% of them become malignant.
  • The diagnosis is usually made postoperatively.
  • Invasion of the carcinoma to the adjacent tissues or lymph node metastases were not found.
  • Thyroid function tests were normal as well as the thyroid scan.
  • After a two-year follow up, the patient remained asymptomatic with no evidence of recurrence, as tested clinically and by ultrasonography.
  • Since our patient had no marginal invasion of the carcinoma in the surrounding tissues or lymph node metastases, we recommended the Sistrunk's surgical procedure, suppressive treatment by thyroid hormones and long term follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / complications. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Thyroglossal Cyst / diagnosis. Thyroglossal Cyst / etiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16617393.001).
  • [ISSN] 1790-5427
  • [Journal-full-title] Hellenic journal of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hell J Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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83. Elliott DD, Sellin R, Egger JF, Medeiros LJ: Langerhans cell histiocytosis presenting as a thyroid gland mass. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2005 Oct;9(5):267-74
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  • [Title] Langerhans cell histiocytosis presenting as a thyroid gland mass.
  • We report 2 cases of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) presenting as a thyroid mass.
  • The first case is a 45-year-old woman with a 13-year history of diabetes insipidus who presented with an enlarging thyroid mass with substernal extension.
  • The second case is a 29-year-old man who presented with an enlarging thyroid mass and skin lesions.
  • Histologic evaluation of the thyroid gland in both cases revealed extensive involvement by LCH, confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis showing Langerhans cells that were positive for CD1a and S-100 protein.
  • Langerhans cell histiocytosis can rarely involve the thyroid gland in adults, and we have identified 30 cases reported in literature.
  • Most patients had evidence of LCH involving other anatomic sites, as was true in these 2 cases, and the diagnosis was initially established by examination of other sites in a subset of patients.
  • Thyroid gland involvement as the initial presentation of LCH is a rare phenomenon that can result in misdiagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Histiocytosis, Langerhans-Cell / pathology. Thyroid Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Diabetes Insipidus / complications. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged


84. Savin S, Cvejic D, Isic T, Paunovic I, Tatic S, Havelka M: Thyroid peroxidase and galectin-3 immunostaining in differentiated thyroid carcinoma with clinicopathologic correlation. Hum Pathol; 2008 Nov;39(11):1656-63
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  • [Title] Thyroid peroxidase and galectin-3 immunostaining in differentiated thyroid carcinoma with clinicopathologic correlation.
  • Thyroperoxidase and galectin-3 have been reported as useful immunohistochemical markers of thyroid malignancy.
  • In this study, we evaluated the relationship between immunohistochemical staining results for these markers and clinicopathologic features of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • A total of 193 archival thyroid samples including 28 follicular adenomas, 18 follicular carcinomas, and 147 papillary carcinomas with 114 adjacent thyroid tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemistry.
  • The sensitivity for diagnosis of differentiated thyroid carcinoma was 86.1% for thyroperoxidase and 82.4% for galectin-3, whereas the combination of both markers increased the sensitivity up to 94.5%.
  • Furthermore, tumor size, nodal involvement, extrathyroidal invasion, and high tumor-node-metastasis stage in patients with papillary carcinoma were related to thyroperoxidase absence and high galectin-3 expression in most cases (P < .05).
  • Thus, expression of these markers is related to more or less aggressive biological behavior of differentiated thyroid carcinomas.
  • Although thyroperoxidase presence may indicate favorable prognosis of papillary cancer, expression of galectin-3 illustrates the potential importance of this protein in the pathogenesis and/or progression of differentiated thyroid carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Galectin 3 / metabolism. Iodide Peroxidase / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18657294.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase
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85. Sofiadis A, Dinets A, Orre LM, Branca RM, Juhlin CC, Foukakis T, Wallin G, Höög A, Hulchiy M, Zedenius J, Larsson C, Lehtiö J: Proteomic study of thyroid tumors reveals frequent up-regulation of the Ca2+ -binding protein S100A6 in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid; 2010 Oct;20(10):1067-76
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Proteomic study of thyroid tumors reveals frequent up-regulation of the Ca2+ -binding protein S100A6 in papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The accurate diagnosis of thyroid tumors is challenging.
  • Proteomics has emerged as a promising approach for the discovery of molecular diagnostic markers as a potential complement to routine diagnostics.
  • METHODS: Protein fractions from 29 frozen thyroid tumor tissue samples (10 papillary carcinomas, 9 follicular carcinomas, and 10 follicular adenomas) as well as from normal thyroid tissue were analyzed by surface enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry followed by validation by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry.
  • RESULTS: A Ca2+ binding protein belonging to the S100 family, S100A6, was differentially expressed between papillary and follicular thyroid tumors.
  • Validation by Western blotting displayed a significantly higher expression of S100A6 in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in comparison with the other tumor groups or normal tissue (p < 0.05).
  • BRAF gene mutation was not significantly associated with S100A6 protein levels.
  • CONCLUSION: This study supports a role of S100A6 in thyroid tumorigenesis and as a potential aid in the discrimination between follicular thyroid tumors and PTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Cell Cycle Proteins / genetics. S100 Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Humans. Protein Processing, Post-Translational. Proteomics. Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization. Tandem Mass Spectrometry. Thyroid Gland / radiation effects. Up-Regulation

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  • [CommentIn] Thyroid. 2010 Oct;20(10):1051-2 [20883170.001]
  • (PMID = 20629554.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / S100 Proteins; 105504-00-5 / S100A6 protein, human
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86. Kouso H, Ikegami T, Ezaki T, Ishida T, Aimitsu S, Fujihara M, Mori M: Liver metastasis from thyroid carcinoma 32 years after resection of the primary tumor: report of a case. Surg Today; 2005;35(6):480-2
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  • [Title] Liver metastasis from thyroid carcinoma 32 years after resection of the primary tumor: report of a case.
  • Follicular thyroid carcinoma is a differentiated cancer originating from the follicular cells in the thyroid gland.
  • A 73-year-old woman, who had undergone curative resection of thyroid carcinoma 32 years earlier, was referred to our hospital after ultrasonography showed a solid mass in the liver.
  • Computed tomography showed a round tumor, about 1.5 cm in diameter, which was enhanced early and washed out later, in segment 5 of the liver.
  • Microscopic examination showed follicular cells with minimal atypia growing in a thyroid follicular pattern with colloids, whereby a diagnosis of metastatic liver cancer from thyroid follicular carcinoma was made.
  • Although the reason for the delayed presentation of the metastatic lesion remains unclear, this case shows that patients with differentiated thyroid cancer should be followed up for their entire life.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Thyroidectomy. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15912296.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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87. Papotti M, Rodriguez J, De Pompa R, Bartolazzi A, Rosai J: Galectin-3 and HBME-1 expression in well-differentiated thyroid tumors with follicular architecture of uncertain malignant potential. Mod Pathol; 2005 Apr;18(4):541-6
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  • [Title] Galectin-3 and HBME-1 expression in well-differentiated thyroid tumors with follicular architecture of uncertain malignant potential.
  • Well-differentiated encapsulated tumors of the thyroid gland with a follicular architecture may cause diagnostic difficulties.
  • Questionable vascular or capsular penetration may raise the possibility of a follicular carcinoma, while focal nuclear clearing and grooves may suggest a diagnosis of papillary carcinoma.
  • A proposal has recently been made to designate cases showing suggestive but not conclusive morphological evidence of malignancy along these lines as well-differentiated or follicular tumors of uncertain malignant potential.
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression and diagnostic role in well-differentiated or follicular tumors of uncertain malignant potential of Galectin-3 and HBME-1, two malignancy-related markers.
  • Tumors in the first group expressed HBME-1 and Galectin-3 focally (less than 25% of tumor cells) in 5/8 and 3/8 cases, respectively, with 62.5% of cases reacting for at least one marker.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Galectin 3 / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Gland / chemistry. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15529186.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / HBME-1 antigen
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88. Saggiorato E, De Pompa R, Volante M, Cappia S, Arecco F, Dei Tos AP, Orlandi F, Papotti M: Characterization of thyroid 'follicular neoplasms' in fine-needle aspiration cytological specimens using a panel of immunohistochemical markers: a proposal for clinical application. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2005 Jun;12(2):305-17
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  • [Title] Characterization of thyroid 'follicular neoplasms' in fine-needle aspiration cytological specimens using a panel of immunohistochemical markers: a proposal for clinical application.
  • The distinction of benign from malignant follicular thyroid neoplasms remains a difficult task in diagnostic fine-needle aspiration cytology, and some discrepant results have been reported for the individual immunocytochemical markers of malignancy proposed so far.
  • The aim of this study was to test if the combined use of a panel of markers could improve the diagnostic accuracy in the preoperative cytological evaluation of 'follicular neoplasms' in an attempt to reduce the number of thyroidectomies performed for benign lesions.
  • The immunocytochemical expression of galectin-3, HBME-1, thyroperoxidase, cytokeratin-19 and keratan-sulfate was retrospectively analyzed in 125 consecutive fine-needle aspiration samples (cell blocks) of indeterminate diagnoses of 'follicular thyroid neoplasm', and compared with their corresponding surgical specimens, including 33 follicular carcinomas, 42 papillary carcinomas and 50 follicular adenomas.
  • Our data showed that, as compared with the use of single markers, the sequential combination of two markers represents the most accurate immunohistochemical panel in managing patients with a fine-needle aspiration biopsy diagnosis of 'follicular neoplasms', especially in otherwise controversial categories such as oncocytic tumours.
  • The combination of three or more markers did not substantially improve the diagnostic accuracy of the test.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Immunohistochemistry. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • (PMID = 15947105.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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89. Roth LM, Miller AW 3rd, Talerman A: Typical thyroid-type carcinoma arising in struma ovarii: a report of 4 cases and review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Oct;27(4):496-506
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  • [Title] Typical thyroid-type carcinoma arising in struma ovarii: a report of 4 cases and review of the literature.
  • In this article, we report 3 cases of papillary and 1 of follicular thyroid carcinoma; 2 of these cases were associated with mature cystic teratoma.
  • In regard to the occurrence of thyroid-type carcinoma in struma ovarii, precise terminology should be used, and the expression malignant struma ovarii was avoided as a diagnostic term.
  • Upon review of the literature, papillary carcinoma and follicular carcinoma are the most frequent types of malignancy to occur in ovarian struma; other forms of thyroid carcinoma occur only rarely.
  • The diagnostic criteria for cases of papillary carcinoma are similar to those described in the cervical thyroid gland and are based primarily on nuclear and architectural features.
  • Histological malignancy in a struma does not necessarily equate with biological malignancy, and the majority of thyroid-type carcinomas do not spread beyond the ovary.
  • Because its histological appearance resembles that of nonneoplastic thyroid, HDFCO characteristically cannot be diagnosed until the neoplasm spreads beyond the ovary.
  • In this article, we apply the term typical thyroid carcinoma to those forms of thyroid malignancy arising in ovarian struma that closely resemble the types described in the cervical thyroid gland to distinguish them from HDFCO.
  • Typical follicular carcinoma is more aggressive than the somewhat more common papillary carcinoma, and HDFCO is the least aggressive of these tumor types.
  • Cases of thyroid-type carcinoma arising in the ovary sometimes lack evidence of preexisting struma.
  • The more aggressive thyroid-type neoplasms can arise in thyroid tissue within a mature cystic teratoma, or they may overgrow and replace the struma.
  • Primary thyroid-type carcinoma must be distinguished from rare instances of ovarian metastases that originate in the cervical thyroid gland and the less differentiated forms from other ovarian neoplasms such as clear cell adenocarcinoma and tumors with an oxyphilic appearance.
  • In the differential diagnosis with other ovarian neoplasms, cases of thyroid-type carcinoma associated with strumal carcinoid should not be diagnosed as malignant strumal carcinoid because the latter diagnosis might lead to suboptimal therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Struma Ovarii / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18753973.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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90. Raggio E, Camandona M, Solerio D, Martino P, Franchello A, Orlandi F, Gasparri G: The diagnostic accuracy of the immunocytochemical markers in the pre-operative evaluation of follicular thyroid lesions. J Endocrinol Invest; 2010 Jun;33(6):378-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The diagnostic accuracy of the immunocytochemical markers in the pre-operative evaluation of follicular thyroid lesions.
  • Aim of the study was to consider the diagnostic accuracy of galectine-3 (GAL3) in the pre-operative cytological evaluation of follicular lesions.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 100 patients suffering from thyroid nodular disease submitted to thyroidectomy from 2006 to 2007 in our Institution.
  • The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and diagnostic accuracy of GAL3 was evaluated.
  • RESULTS: GAL3 proved to have 55% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 70% negative predictive value, and 78% diagnostic accuracy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Based on the data from our experience, the patients with a cytological diagnosis of GAL3 positive follicular neoformation should be referred for surgery without any further immunocytological testing.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Galectin 3 / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Biomarkers / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Keratin-19 / biosynthesis. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Preoperative Care. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Gland / chemistry. Thyroid Gland / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19625759.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / HBME-1 antigen; 0 / Keratin-19
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96. Wills TB, Bohn AA, Finch NP, Harris SP, Caplazi P: Thyroid follicular adenocarcinoma in a ferret. Vet Clin Pathol; 2005 Dec;34(4):405-8
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  • [Title] Thyroid follicular adenocarcinoma in a ferret.
  • The patient had been diagnosed previously with an insulinoma, which was managed medically.
  • The cytologic results were most consistent with epithelial neoplasia, likely a carcinoma; thyroid origin was considered likely based on tumor location and cell morphology.
  • The tumor grew rapidly, and the owners elected euthanasia 1 week after examination.
  • At necropsy, a circumscribed, ovoid mass disrupted the right cervical musculature next to the right lobe of the thyroid gland.
  • The histopathologic diagnosis was consistent with thyroid follicular adenocarcinoma.
  • Immunochemical findings confirmed thyroglobulin production by neoplastic cells, but to a lesser extent than in normal ferret thyroid tissue.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first case of thyroid follicular adenocarcinoma to be reported in a ferret, with only 1 other case of thyroid carcinoma, a C-cell carcinoma, described previously.

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  • (PMID = 16270269.001).
  • [ISSN] 0275-6382
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet Clin Pathol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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97. Prodam F, Pagano L, Belcastro S, Golisano G, Busti A, Samà M, Caputo M, Bellone S, Voci A, Valente G, Aimaretti G: Pituitary metastases from follicular thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid; 2010 Jul;20(7):823-30
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  • [Title] Pituitary metastases from follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Metastatic carcinomas to the pituitary gland are uncommon, occurring in only 1% of the pituitary masses.
  • Here we describe a patient with pituitary metastasis from follicular thyroid carcinoma and discuss the unique features of these lesions.
  • Histopathology revealed a metastasis with well-differentiated follicular thyroid architecture.
  • Total thyroidectomy and lymph node dissection was performed with a final histopathological diagnosis of follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Pituitary metastases from thyroid carcinoma are very uncommon.
  • As this patient illustrates, they tend to produce symptoms relating to space-occupying expansion in the parasellar region rather than to those due to destruction of the pituitary gland.
  • Although rare, pituitary metastases caused by thyroid malignancy should be considered in patients with expanding parasellar lesions if they have thyroid cancer or uncharacterized thyroid diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20604687.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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98. Torres-Cabala C, Bibbo M, Panizo-Santos A, Barazi H, Krutzsch H, Roberts DD, Merino MJ: Proteomic identification of new biomarkers and application in thyroid cytology. Acta Cytol; 2006 Sep-Oct;50(5):518-28
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  • [Title] Proteomic identification of new biomarkers and application in thyroid cytology.
  • OBJECTIVE: To validate proteins identified by proteomics as potentially usable markers in thyroid pathology.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Frozen sections of thyroid tumors were manually micro-dissected and proteins extracted.
  • Validation of candidates for tumor markers (galectin-1, galectin-3, S100C and voltage-dependent anion channel 1 [VDAC1]) was done by immunohistochemistry in 21 cell blocks from fine needle aspiration biopsies (FNAB) and corresponding histology specimens (13 cases).
  • CONCLUSION: Immunohistochemical validation of potential markers is a crucial step before clinical application in diagnosis.
  • Galectin-3, galectin-1 and S100C can be used to help in discriminating benign and malignant thyroid lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Proteomics / methods. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Chromatography, Liquid / methods. Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional / methods. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Galectin 1 / analysis. Galectin 1 / metabolism. Galectin 3 / analysis. Galectin 3 / metabolism. Goiter / diagnosis. Humans. Mass Spectrometry / methods. Predictive Value of Tests. Reproducibility of Results. S100 Proteins / analysis. S100 Proteins / metabolism. Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 1 / analysis. Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 1 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17017437.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 1; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / LGALS1 protein, human; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / VDAC1 protein, human; 146909-89-9 / S100A11 protein, human; EC 1.6.- / Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 1
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99. Iijima M, Nakayama J, Nishizawa T, Ishida A, Ishii K, Ota H, Katsuyama T, Saida T: Usefulness of monoclonal antibody HIK1083 specific for gastric O-glycan in differentiating cutaneous metastasis of gastric cancer from primary sweat gland carcinoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2007 Oct;29(5):452-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Usefulness of monoclonal antibody HIK1083 specific for gastric O-glycan in differentiating cutaneous metastasis of gastric cancer from primary sweat gland carcinoma.
  • Distinguishing cutaneous metastasis of gastric cancer from primary sweat gland carcinoma can be problematic in some cases, especially with a single lesion.
  • Previously we showed that a monoclonal antibody HIK1083 directed to alpha1,4-GlcNAc-capped O-glycans expressed in gastric gland mucin reacts to gastric cancer cells.
  • By contrast, it was reported that immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin 20 (CK20) may be helpful in the differential diagnosis between cutaneous metastasis of gastric cancer and primary sweat gland carcinoma.
  • Here, we immunohistochemically examined the expression of alpha1,4-GlcNAc-capped O-glycans and CK20 in 7 primary sweat gland carcinomas, 7 cutaneous metastases of gastric cancer, and 21 cutaneous metastases of other origin including breast, lung, colorectum, prostate, thyroid and pancreas using HIK1083 and CK20-specific Ks 20.8 antibodies and then assessed the usefulness of these antibodies in distinguishing cutaneous metastases of gastric cancer from primary sweat gland carcinoma and other cutaneous metastatic tumors.
  • Both alpha1,4-GlcNAc-capped O-glycans and CK20 were positive in 5 of 7 cases of cutaneous metastases of gastric cancer, while neither alpha1,4-GlcNAc-capped O-glycans nor CK20 were detected in any of the primary sweat gland carcinomas.
  • By contrast, alpha1,4-GlcNAc-capped O-glycans was not detected in any of the cutaneous metastases other than that of gastric cancer, whereas CK20 was detected in cutaneous metastases of colorectal cancer (2/2), breast cancer (2/13), and lung adenocarcinoma (1/3).
  • These findings indicate that immunohistochemistry using HIK1083 antibody is superior to immunohistochemistry for CK20 in distinguishing cutaneous metastasis of gastric cancer from primary sweat gland carcinomas and other cutaneous metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Antibodies, Monoclonal. Polysaccharides / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Stomach / metabolism. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratin-20 / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17890913.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / Polysaccharides
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100. Peña S, Loehn B, Robertson H, Walvekar RR: Thyroid hemiagenesis: report of a case and review of the literature. Laryngoscope; 2010;120 Suppl 4:S174

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  • [Title] Thyroid hemiagenesis: report of a case and review of the literature.
  • OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to report an incidental finding of thyroid hemiagenesis in a patient who presented with a left neck mass, present a review of literature, and to discuss management of this diagnosis.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Case report and review of literature.
  • METHODS: An internet-based literature search was performed via Pubmed with key words, "hemithyroid agenesis, thyroid hemiagenesis, absent thyroid gland".
  • A diagnostic CT scan of the head and neck revealed an unrelated finding of an absent left thyroid lobe.
  • A review of the CT imaging did not reveal ectopic thyroid tissue.
  • Thyroid function tests were within normal limits.
  • In follow-up, patient remains asymptomatic.
  • Pathology that can be associated in the remnant thyroid lobe includes adenocarcinoma, adenoma, multinodular goiter, and chronic thyroiditis.
  • Incidental thyroid agenesis with a negative work up can then be observed.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Dysgenesis / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Thyroid Function Tests. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 21225772.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-4995
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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