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1. Sakata J, Wakai T, Shirai Y, Sakata E, Hasegawa G, Hatakeyama K: Humoral hypercalcemia complicating adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon: report of a case. Surg Today; 2005;35(8):692-5
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  • [Title] Humoral hypercalcemia complicating adenocarcinoma of the sigmoid colon: report of a case.
  • Humoral hypercalcemia can arise from a variety of malignancies, but its association with primary colorectal carcinoma is rare, with only 20 such cases documented in the English-language literature to date.
  • We report an additional case to clarify the clinicopathologic features of colorectal carcinoma with humoral hypercalcemia.
  • A 54-year-old woman was admitted with symptomatic hypercalcemia of 14.2 mg/dl and multiple hepatic metastases, 2 years after resection of sigmoid colon cancer.
  • The hypercalcemia was caused by the circulating parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) produced by poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in the liver.
  • A review of the 21 reported cases, including ours, suggests that colorectal carcinoma associated with humoral hypercalcemia is characterized by a poorly differentiated tumor with or without squamous or neuroendocrine features, distant metastases, and a dismal prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Sigmoid Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / complications. Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein / blood

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  • (PMID = 16034553.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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2. Hussein HA, Mebeed AH, Saber TKh, Farhat IG: Hyperparathyroidism with bone tumor-like presentation, approach for diagnosis and surgical intervention. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst; 2009 Mar;21(1):1-11
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  • [Title] Hyperparathyroidism with bone tumor-like presentation, approach for diagnosis and surgical intervention.
  • AIM OF WORK: This work aims to find out a clinical approach for diagnosis of cases with hyperparathyroidism presented with bone tumor like condition as first and main presentation in order to differentiate primary bone tumors or secondary bone metastases from different types of hyperparathyroidism and to clear out the indications and type of surgery in such cases.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: It is a prospective case series study done in the National Cancer Institute from April 2000 to May 2009.
  • RESULTS: Preoperative diagnosis was: 80% cases of primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT), 15.5% cases of secondary hyperparathyroidism (sHPT), 4.5% tertiary hyperparathyroidism (tHPT), benign adenoma in 73.3%, diffuse hyperplasia in 8.8% and one case of parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Intact P.T.H and calcium (total &ionic), renal functions, 24 hours urine calcium, neck ultrasonography, and Tc 99m pertechnitate/Tc99m sestsmibi subtraction scan can establish the diagnosis.
  • KEY WORDS: Hyperparathyroidism - Bone tumor-like presentation - Diagnosis - Surgical approach.

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  • (PMID = 20601966.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-0362
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Egypt Natl Canc Inst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
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3. Venkatraman L, Kalangutkar A, Russell CF: Primary hyperparathyroidism and metastatic carcinoma within parathyroid gland. J Clin Pathol; 2007 Sep;60(9):1058-60
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  • [Title] Primary hyperparathyroidism and metastatic carcinoma within parathyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Bronchiolo-Alveolar / secondary. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / complications. Lung Neoplasms. Parathyroid Neoplasms / secondary


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4. VanderWalde LH, Haigh PI: Surgical approach to the patient with familial hyperparathyroidism. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2006 Jul;7(4):326-33
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  • All patients should undergo bilateral neck exploration and identification of all four or more parathyroid glands to evaluate for gross abnormalities.
  • However, MEN-2A patients may best be treated by selective resection of abnormal parathyroid glands, although some experts recommend a total parathyroidectomy and autotransplantation in the forearm.
  • Familial isolated hyperparathyroidism is a rare disorder, and authors have described success in treatment with subtotal parathyroidectomy or limited adenoma resections.
  • Some patients with familial isolated hyperparathyroidism also have jaw tumors, and members of these families are more likely to have parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Concurrent cryopreservation of parathyroid tissue for all of these disorders is recommended if there is any concern for possible permanent hypoparathyroidism.

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  • (PMID = 16916493.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-2729
  • [Journal-full-title] Current treatment options in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Treat Options Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Diaconescu MR, Glod M, Costea I, Grigorovici M, Covic A: [Parathyroid carcinoma in a patient on hemodialysis for renal failure]. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi; 2006 Jan-Mar;110(1):152-6
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  • [Title] [Parathyroid carcinoma in a patient on hemodialysis for renal failure].
  • [Transliterated title] Cancer paratiroidian la un bolnav cu insuficienţă renală cronică în regim de hemodializă.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare endocrine neoplasm with difficult histological diagnostic and unpredictable evolution.
  • Clinical and ultrasonographical examinations revealed a left "thyroid nodule" of 44 x 37 mm but no images of the parathyroid.
  • Upon surgery, three parathyroid glands (two from the right side and the superior left one) were identified and excised after the frozen section.
  • The fourth gland was not found but the resected "nodule" together with the adjacent thyroid lobe proved a parathyroid carcinoma upon paraffin examination.
  • The authors underlined the criteria and difficulties in the pathologic diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma and also the principles of surgical treatment based on their experience of three cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / complications. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / etiology. Kidney Failure, Chronic / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Renal Dialysis

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  • (PMID = 19292096.001).
  • [ISSN] 0048-7848
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista medico-chirurgicală̆ a Societă̆ţ̜ii de Medici ş̧i Naturaliş̧ti din Iaş̧i
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi
  • [Language] rum
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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6. Lee PK, Jarosek SL, Virnig BA, Evasovich M, Tuttle TM: Trends in the incidence and treatment of parathyroid cancer in the United States. Cancer; 2007 May 1;109(9):1736-41
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  • [Title] Trends in the incidence and treatment of parathyroid cancer in the United States.
  • BACKGROUND: Parathyroid cancer is a rare cause of hyperparathyroidism.
  • The objectives of this study were to determine the patterns of disease, treatment trends, and outcomes among patients with parathyroid cancer by using a population-based data source.
  • METHODS: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) cancer registry data were used to identify patients who were diagnosed with parathyroid cancer from 1988 through 2003.
  • To assess whether the incidence rate, treatment, tumor size, and cancer stage changed over time, the Cochrane-Armitage trend test was used, and Cox proportional-hazards modeling was used to identify the factors associated with an improved overall survival rate.
  • RESULTS: From 1988 through 2003, 224 patients with parathyroid cancer were reported in the SEER data.
  • Over that 16-year study period, the incidence of parathyroid cancer increased by 60% (1988-1991, 3.58 per 10,000,000 population; 2000-2003, 5.73 per 10,000,000 population).
  • The 10-year all-cause mortality rate was 33.2%, and the 10-year cancer-related mortality rate was 12.4%.
  • Patient age (P<.0001), sex (P=.0106), the presence of distant metastases at diagnosis (P=.0004), and the year of diagnosis (P=.0287) were associated significantly with the overall survival rate.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although parathyroid cancer is rare, the incidence increased significantly in the United States from 1988 through 2003.
  • Young age, female gender, recent year of diagnosis, and absence of distant metastases were associated significantly with an improved survival rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / therapy. Parathyroidectomy / trends

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2007 American Cancer Society
  • (PMID = 17372919.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Grodski S, Gill A, Robinson BG, Sidhu S: Nonfunctioning parathyroid cancer presenting as a cervical mass. Thyroid; 2008 Apr;18(4):473-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Nonfunctioning parathyroid cancer presenting as a cervical mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Medical Oncology / methods. Middle Aged. Thyroidectomy. Trachea / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18346007.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Agarwal G, Prasad KK, Kar DK, Krishnani N, Pandey R, Mishra SK: Indian primary hyperparathyroidism patients with parathyroid carcinoma do not differ in clinicoinvestigative characteristics from those with benign parathyroid pathology. World J Surg; 2006 May;30(5):732-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Indian primary hyperparathyroidism patients with parathyroid carcinoma do not differ in clinicoinvestigative characteristics from those with benign parathyroid pathology.
  • INTRODUCTION: No foolproof preoperative diagnostic indicators of parathyroid carcinoma (PC) exist in absence of nonskeletal metastases.
  • Palpable parathyroid tumor, advanced skeletal and renal manifestations, and very high serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels are considered strong predictors.
  • Various parameters of patient groups with parathyroid adenoma (n = 84), primary hyperplasia (n = 12), and carcinoma (n = 4) were compared using ANOVA, with P value < 0.05 considered significant.
  • Two patients with PC and 27 (32%) with adenoma had palpable parathyroid tumor.
  • Mean tumor weight (milligram) in carcinoma patients (15,080 +/- 5,638.02) was significantly higher than those with adenoma (5,724 +/- 1,257.9) (P = 0.002).
  • Postoperative course and recovery in carcinoma patients were similar to those with adenoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Indian patients with parathyroid adenoma, hyperplasia, and carcinoma were not found to differ in their clinical, biochemical, and pathological characteristics except for significantly higher tumor weight in the carcinoma group.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. India. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 16680588.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. DeLellis RA, Mazzaglia P, Mangray S: Primary hyperparathyroidism: a current perspective. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2008 Aug;132(8):1251-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Eighty percent to 85% of cases are due to parathyroid adenomas while hyperplasia and carcinoma account for 10% to 15% and less than 1%, of cases, respectively.
  • The past decade has witnessed remarkable advances in the understanding of the molecular basis of parathyroid hyperplasia and neoplasia.
  • Additionally, imaging studies and the development of the intraoperative assay for parathyroid hormone have transformed the diagnosis and management of patients with these disorders.
  • OBJECTIVE: To review the pathology of parathyroid lesions associated with P-HPT, their molecular and genetic bases, including heritable hyperparathyroidism syndromes, and their clinical diagnosis and management.
  • DATA SOURCES: Review of pertinent epidemiology, pathology, radiology, and surgery literature on the diagnosis, classification, and treatment of P-HPT.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although heritable causes of P-HPT including multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 and 2A and hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome account for a minority of cases of P-HPT, advances in the characterization of the affected genes have provided insights into the genetic basis of sporadic parathyroid neoplasms.
  • Parafibromin, the protein product of the HRPT2 gene responsible for hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome, has been implicated in the development of sporadic parathyroid carcinomas and loss of immunohistochemical expression of this protein has been suggested to be of value in making the diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Sestamibi scanning and ultrasound have revolutionized the planning of surgical approaches and the intraoperative parathyroid hormone assay has become the standard in guiding completion or extension of surgery.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. Humans. Hyperplasia / genetics. Incidence. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Parathyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Syndrome


10. Sathe PA, Madiwale CV, Kandalkar BM, Bandgar TR, Shah NS, Menon PS: Primary hyperparathyroidism: a clinicopathological experience. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2009 Jul-Sep;52(3):313-20
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  • BACKGROUND: Parathyroid neoplasms form a small percentage of head and neck neoplasms.
  • Primary hyperparathyroidism is caused by parathyroid adenomas, hyperplasia or, rarely, a carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: We had 43 adenomas, three hyperplasias and two carcinomas.
  • The pre-operative diagnosis was assisted by ultrasonography in 11 cases, computerized tomography of the neck in 10 cases and sestamibi scans in three cases.
  • There was a discrepancy between frozen section diagnosis and paraffin section diagnosis in two cases.
  • CONCLUSION: Histopathologic diagnosis is an important guide to decide the type of surgical management.
  • Although pathologic features of parathyroid carcinoma are diagnostically reliable, those of the more commonly encountered lesions of adenoma and hyperplasia may be overlapping and, therefore, indistinctive, more so if only a single gland is available for examination.
  • Because parathyroid lesions are only occasionally encountered by the surgical pathologist, awareness of the spectrum of histologic features along with knowledge of recent trends in diagnosis and surgical management are important.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Histocytochemistry. Humans. Male. Neck / radiography. Prevalence. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19679950.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5130
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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11. Singhal T, Jacobs M, Mantil JC: Tc-99m pertechnetate/sestamibi subtraction scan in a case of parathyroid carcinoma. Clin Nucl Med; 2008 Mar;33(3):196-7
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  • [Title] Tc-99m pertechnetate/sestamibi subtraction scan in a case of parathyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi

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  • (PMID = 18287845.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi; A0730CX801 / Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m
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12. Mittendorf EA, McHenry CR: Parathyroid carcinoma. J Surg Oncol; 2005 Mar 1;89(3):136-42
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  • [Title] Parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma is an uncommon malignancy.
  • The etiology of parathyroid carcinoma is unknown, however, the recently discovered HRPT2 gene, a tumor suppressor gene encoding for the protein parafibromin, has been implicated in the pathogenesis.
  • Identification of inactivating germ-line mutations in HRPT2 has significant implications for diagnosis and management.
  • This article summarizes the genetic aspects of parathyroid carcinoma, reviews its clinical manifestations, and outlines the principles of surgical therapy, the indications for adjuvant therapy, and the use of bisphosphonate and calcimimetic agents for management of hypercalcemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / genetics. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Cyclin D1 / genetics. Genes, Retinoblastoma. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Germ-Line Mutation. Humans. Hypercalcemia / complications. Hyperparathyroidism / complications. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Proteins / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15719375.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / MEN1 protein, human; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
  • [Number-of-references] 77
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13. Osamura RY, Hunt JL: Current practices in performing frozen sections for thyroid and parathyroid pathology. Virchows Arch; 2008 Nov;453(5):433-40
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  • [Title] Current practices in performing frozen sections for thyroid and parathyroid pathology.
  • In this review article, current trends in thyroid and parathyroid frozen sections are discussed.
  • The decline in the number of thyroid frozen sections has been attributed to two major factors: highly diagnostic preoperative fine needle aspiration for papillary carcinomas, the most frequent type of thyroid cancers, and the acknowledgment in the literature of the disadvantageous frozen sections for follicular tumors.
  • Several authors have argued that the frozen section of thyroid nodules should be limited only to cases that have a preoperative cytology diagnosis as "atypical" or "suspicious".
  • In contrast, frozen sections for parathyroid glands have been increasing in numbers.
  • Frozen sections are usually performed to confirm the removal of parathyroid tissue for either cyropreservation or auto-transplantation.
  • It is concluded that thyroid and parathyroid frozen section examination is restricted to selected situations.
  • [MeSH-major] Frozen Sections / methods. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cryoultramicrotomy / methods. Humans. Japan

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  • (PMID = 18830623.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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14. Wang CY, Wang O, Nie M, Zhao DC, Xia WB, Li M, Guan H, Meng XW, Xing XP: [Clinical and molecular genetic analyses for a sporadic parathyroid carcinoma]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2010 Jun 22;90(24):1694-7
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  • [Title] [Clinical and molecular genetic analyses for a sporadic parathyroid carcinoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical and molecular genetic characteristics of one patient with sporadic parathyroid carcinoma (s-PC).
  • Parafibromin was completely lost while comparing the normal parathyroid tissues by immunohistochemistry.
  • [MeSH-major] Mutation. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20979880.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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15. Doblado R, Zielinski H, Piskula M, Kozlowska H, Muñoz R, Frías J, Vidal-Valverde C: Effect of processing on the antioxidant vitamins and antioxidant capacity of Vigna sinensis Var. Carilla. J Agric Food Chem; 2005 Feb 23;53(4):1215-22
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  • Bacterial counts and pH values, vitamins C and E, carotenoids, glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase-like activity (SOD-like activity), peroxyl radical-trapping capacity (PRTC), lipid peroxidation in unilamillar liposomes, and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) were evaluated in raw and processed cowpea flours. gamma-Tocopherol and delta-tocopherol were found in raw cowpea, whereas vitamin C and carotenoids were not detected.
  • Fermentation or heat treatment in an autoclave after fermentation produced processed cowpea flours with lower PRTC, glutathione content, and SOD-like activity than those of the raw seeds.

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  • (PMID = 15713044.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-8561
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of agricultural and food chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Agric. Food Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Vitamins; 1406-66-2 / Tocopherols; EC 1.15.1.1 / Superoxide Dismutase; GAN16C9B8O / Glutathione
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16. Rawat N, Khetan N, Williams DW, Baxter JN: Parathyroid carcinoma. Br J Surg; 2005 Nov;92(11):1345-53
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  • [Title] Parathyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare malignancy affecting 0.5-5 per cent of all patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • This article reviews the literature on the pathogenesis, pathology, clinical features, diagnosis and management of parathyroid carcinoma.
  • The search words included 'parathyroid carcinoma', 'pathology', 'genetics', 'management' and 'radiotherapy'.
  • RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The exact aetiology of parathyroid carcinoma remains obscure.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 16237743.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 71
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17. Carlson D: Parathyroid pathology: hyperparathyroidism and parathyroid tumors. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 Nov;134(11):1639-44
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  • [Title] Parathyroid pathology: hyperparathyroidism and parathyroid tumors.
  • Parathyroid adenomas are common, unlike other parathyroid tumors.
  • This review presents a brief summary of current updates in parathyroid pathology.
  • OBJECTIVE: To review parathyroid development and discuss issues in hyperparathyroidism and diagnosis of parathyroid lesions, including the application of immunohistochemistry and molecular biology.
  • DATA SOURCES: Current texts, PubMed (National Library of Medicine) articles, and Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center archives.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Primary hyperparathyroidism is most commonly seen with sporadic adenomas, followed by hyperplasia, multiple adenomas, and carcinoma.
  • Autosomal dominant familial hyperparathyroidism syndromes should be considered in the evaluation of patients with parathyroid lesions, particularly in association with parathyroid carcinoma.
  • While the incidence of parathyroid carcinoma is quite low, it is seen with a greater frequency in those patients with hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome.
  • Inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene HRPT2 can be identified in a large number of parathyroid carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Hyperparathyroidism / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21043817.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Iihara M, Okamoto T, Suzuki R, Kawamata A, Nishikawa T, Kobayashi M, Obara T: Functional parathyroid carcinoma: Long-term treatment outcome and risk factor analysis. Surgery; 2007 Dec;142(6):936-43; discussion 943.e1
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  • [Title] Functional parathyroid carcinoma: Long-term treatment outcome and risk factor analysis.
  • BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to evaluate the long-term outcome of surgical treatment in patients with functional parathyroid carcinoma and to clarify factors determining prognosis.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review of 38 patients with parathyroid carcinoma was performed.
  • RESULTS: Fifteen patients developed persistent or recurrent parathyroid carcinoma, and 9 patients died of the disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Parathyroid carcinomas with locoregional extension at initial surgery have potential for recurrence.
  • Our data suggest that aggressive surgical resection of recurrent parathyroid carcinoma is beneficial for palliation of hypercalcemia in selected patients.
  • Ki-67 staining may be a valuable prognostic factor for patients with parathyroid carcinoma, especially as tumors with indices greater than 10% are more likely to recur in the early postoperative period.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / mortality. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [ErratumIn] Surgery. 2008 Feb;143(2):302
  • (PMID = 18063079.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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19. Caron P, Maiza JC, Renaud C, Cormier C, Barres BH, Souberbielle JC: High third generation/second generation PTH ratio in a patient with parathyroid carcinoma: clinical utility of third generation/second generation PTH ratio in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2009 Apr;70(4):533-8
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  • [Title] High third generation/second generation PTH ratio in a patient with parathyroid carcinoma: clinical utility of third generation/second generation PTH ratio in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP) is caused by parathyroid adenomas or hyperplasia, and occasionally by parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Recently a high third generation/second generation PTH ratio has been observed in some patients with parathyroid carcinoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We report the case of a 60-year old woman who was presented a fourth episode of PTH-related hypercalcaemia due to a parathyroid carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: Before surgery of the patient with parathyroid carcinoma, second generation PTH was 229 pg/ml, third generation PTH was 675 pg/ml and third generation/second generation PTH ratio was 2.95.
  • CONCLUSION: A high third generation/second generation PTH ratio could be observed in patients with parathyroid carcinoma, is uncommon in benign PHP and is absent in osteoporotic patients without PHP.
  • Therefore, PTH level can be measured using second and third generation assays in some PHP patients, and a specific surgical protocol for possible parathyroid carcinoma could be discussed in patients with a high third generation/second generation PTH ratio.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / blood. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroid Neoplasms / blood

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  • [ErratumIn] Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2009 Oct;71(4):605
  • (PMID = 18782355.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / parathyroid hormone (7-84); SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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20. Bhatia V, Saini MK, Shen X, Bi LX, Qiu S, Weigel NL, Falzon M: EB1089 inhibits the parathyroid hormone-related protein-enhanced bone metastasis and xenograft growth of human prostate cancer cells. Mol Cancer Ther; 2009 Jul;8(7):1787-98
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  • [Title] EB1089 inhibits the parathyroid hormone-related protein-enhanced bone metastasis and xenograft growth of human prostate cancer cells.
  • Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) plays a major role in prostate carcinoma progression and bone metastasis.
  • Once prostate cancers become androgen-independent, treatment options become limited.
  • Using the prostate cancer cell line C4-2 as a model, we studied the effects of PTHrP and the noncalcemic vitamin D analogue EB1089 on markers of prostate cancer cell progression in vitro and in vivo.
  • A direct correlation between PTHrP immunoreactivity and increasing tumor grade is observed in human prostate cancer specimens.
  • Thus, decreasing PTHrP production by treatment with vitamin D analogues may prove therapeutically beneficial for prostate cancer.

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  • (PMID = 19584236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-8514
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer Ther.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA083940-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA083940; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA83940; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA083940-08
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein; FXC9231JVH / Calcitriol; Q0OZ0D9223 / seocalcitol
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS120202; NLM/ PMC2727128
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21. Silverberg SJ, Rubin MR, Faiman C, Peacock M, Shoback DM, Smallridge RC, Schwanauer LE, Olson KA, Klassen P, Bilezikian JP: Cinacalcet hydrochloride reduces the serum calcium concentration in inoperable parathyroid carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Oct;92(10):3803-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cinacalcet hydrochloride reduces the serum calcium concentration in inoperable parathyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Management of inoperable parathyroid carcinoma presents a challenge because until recently, effective medical therapy was not available.
  • We assessed the ability of the calcimimetic cinacalcet HCl to reduce serum calcium in patients with parathyroid carcinoma as well as its effect on PTH concentrations, bone turnover markers, safety, and health-related quality of life variables.
  • METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with parathyroid carcinoma were enrolled in this open-label, single-arm study consisting of titration and maintenance phases.
  • RESULTS: Mean (+/- se) serum calcium (14.1 +/- 0.4 mg/dl) and PTH (697 +/- 94 pg/ml) were markedly elevated at baseline.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Cinacalcet effectively reduces hypercalcemia in approximately two thirds of patients with inoperable parathyroid carcinoma and may represent an important new treatment option for these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcium / blood. Hypercalcemia / drug therapy. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / drug therapy. Naphthalenes / administration & dosage. Parathyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cinacalcet Hydrochloride. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Quality of Life. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17666472.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00037518
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K24 DK074457; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK032333; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK066329
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Naphthalenes; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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22. Shahapuni I, Monge M, Oprisiu R, Mazouz H, Westeel PF, Morinière P, Massy Z, Choukroun G, Fournier A: Drug Insight: renal indications of calcimimetics. Nat Clin Pract Nephrol; 2006 Jun;2(6):316-25
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  • Calcimimetics suppress the secretion of parathyroid hormone by sensitizing the parathyroid calcium receptor to serum calcium.
  • We extend our discussion to encompass other indications for calcimimetics -- secondary hyperparathyroidism in predialysis chronic kidney disease patients, hypercalcemic hyperparathyroidism in renal transplant recipients, primary hyperparathyroidism, and hypercalcemia associated with parathyroid carcinoma -- as well as providing guidance on optimal usage of this drug.
  • [MeSH-minor] Calcium / blood. Cinacalcet Hydrochloride. Cost-Benefit Analysis. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / complications. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / drug therapy. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Kidney Failure, Chronic / blood. Kidney Failure, Chronic / complications. Kidney Failure, Chronic / therapy. Kidney Transplantation. Parathyroid Neoplasms / blood. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 16932453.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-8323
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Nephrol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Naphthalenes; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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23. Goldner B, Milosević Z, Sadiković S, Stojanović M: [Clinical and radiological manifestations of paraneoplastic syndrome of bronchogenic carcinoma]. Srp Arh Celok Lek; 2005 May-Jun;133(5-6):248-53
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  • [Title] [Clinical and radiological manifestations of paraneoplastic syndrome of bronchogenic carcinoma].
  • The objective of this study was to present some clinical and radiological manifestations of PNS in relation to bronchogenic carcinoma (BC) and to evaluate the usefulness of imaging findings in the diagnosis of asymptomatic BC.
  • In the study group of 204 patients (146 male and 58 female) with proven bronchogenic carcinoma, PNS was present in 18 (8.62%) patients.
  • The predominant disorder was Lambert-Eaton Syndrome, associated with small-cell carcinoma.
  • Endocrine manifestations included: inappropriate antidiuretic hormone production syndrome (small-cell carcinoma), a gonadotropin effect with gynaecomastia and testicular atrophy (planocellular carcinoma, small-cell carcinoma), a case of Cushing Syndrome (small-cell carcinoma), and hypercalcaemia, due to the production of the parathyroid hormone-related peptide, which was associated with planocellular carcinoma.
  • A rare case of bilateral exophthalmos was found as PNS at adenocarcinoma.
  • Digital clubbing and hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HO) were associated with planocellular and adenocarcinoma, while clubbing was much more common than HO, especially among women.
  • In the first group, PNS occurred late on in the illness, while in the second group, PNS preceded the diagnosis of BC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Bronchogenic / complications. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16392281.001).
  • [ISSN] 0370-8179
  • [Journal-full-title] Srpski arhiv za celokupno lekarstvo
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Srp Arh Celok Lek
  • [Language] srp
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia and Montenegro
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24. Antoniades C, Tousoulis D, Marinou K, Papageorgiou N, Bosinakou E, Tsioufis C, Stefanadi E, Latsios G, Tentolouris C, Siasos G, Stefanadis C: Effects of insulin dependence on inflammatory process, thrombotic mechanisms and endothelial function, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary atherosclerosis. Clin Cardiol; 2007 Jun;30(6):295-300
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  • However, TNF-alpha was negatively correlated with protein C (PrtC) only in INS (r = - 0.726, p = 0.01) but not in TABL group (r = - 0.066, p = 0.738).
  • Similarly, sVCAM-1 was correlated with PrtC only among INS patients (r = - 0.451, p = 0.046) but not in TABL (r = 0.069, p = 0.727).


25. Eichler S, Kolvenbach M, Koischwitz D: [Sonographic diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma]. Ultraschall Med; 2006 Oct;27(5):478-82
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  • [Title] [Sonographic diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma].
  • Prognosis and survival of patients suffering from parathyroid carcinoma are completely dependent on correct surgical therapy in form of an en-bloc resection of the tumour.
  • A correct preoperative diagnosis of this rare carcinoma is therefore absolutely mandatory in order to perform a curative operation.
  • We demonstrate a case of parathyroid carcinoma in which scintigraphy and CT diagnostics did not produce the right diagnosis.
  • Preoperative high-resolution ultrasound (8 MHz) in combination with power-Doppler-sonography, however, led to the right diagnosis by demonstrating the correct topography, signs of malignancy and the feeding vessels of the tumour.
  • As it could be demonstrated that the inferior thyroid artery was displaced by the tumour and was not a tumour feeding artery, the inferior thyroid artery was an important additional landmark for making the decision between thyroid or parathyroid carcinoma.
  • The use of power-Doppler-sonography for identification of feeding arteries associated with parathyroid carcinoma in addition to high-resolution small parts sonography is of great value for the distinction between thyroid or parathyroid tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma / radiography. Carcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma / ultrasonography. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Reproducibility of Results. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex / methods

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  • (PMID = 16596507.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-4614
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultraschall in der Medizin (Stuttgart, Germany : 1980)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultraschall Med
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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26. Vieira JG, Ohe MN, Hauache OM, Oliveira UM, Delana JM, Gonçalves A, Lazaretti-Castro M: [Parathyroid carcinoma]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2005 Oct;49(5):811-5
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  • [Title] [Parathyroid carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinoma de paratiróide.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare condition, comprising less than 1% of the cases of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP).
  • Nonetheless, due to its aggressiveness, and having prognosis dependent on the precocity of diagnosis and radical therapeutic approach, it is paramount that the clinical suspicion be made before surgery.
  • Clinical presentation is typical of severe PHP, with a parathyroid tumor >1.5 cm, usually palpable.
  • The long-term prognosis depends upon the precocity of diagnosis, surgical success and control of hypercalcemia.
  • New therapeutic approaches, based on bisphosphonates and calcimimetic drugs, as well as the possibility of genetic diagnosis, tend to ameliorate the prognosis of this severe affection.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma. Parathyroid Neoplasms

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  • [CommentIn] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol. 2006 Jun;50(3):571; author reply 572 [16937001.001]
  • (PMID = 16444365.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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27. Sahasranam P, Tran MT, Mohamed H, Friedman TC: Multiglandular parathyroid carcinoma: a case report and brief review. South Med J; 2007 Aug;100(8):841-4
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  • [Title] Multiglandular parathyroid carcinoma: a case report and brief review.
  • The pathology showed multiglandular parathyroid carcinoma.
  • It is important for the physician and surgeon dealing with primary hyperparathyroidism to look for parathyroid carcinoma.
  • A better knowledge and understanding of this condition would aid in early diagnosis and possibly increase the survival rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / surgery. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers / blood. Calcium / blood. Creatinine / blood. Humans. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroidectomy / methods. Serum Albumin / analysis. Thyroidectomy / methods. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17713315.001).
  • [ISSN] 0038-4348
  • [Journal-full-title] Southern medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] South. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Serum Albumin; AYI8EX34EU / Creatinine; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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28. Megino Moreno T, Herranz Antolín S, Bernal Bello D, Alvarez De Frutos V: [Primary hyperparathyroidism due to parathyroid carcinoma]. Endocrinol Nutr; 2010 Dec;57(10):504-6
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  • [Title] [Primary hyperparathyroidism due to parathyroid carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Hiperparatiroidismo primario por carcinoma de paratiroides.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / complications. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 20951655.001).
  • [ISSN] 1579-2021
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinología y nutrición : órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol Nutr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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29. Lin SD, Tu ST, Hsu SR, Chang JH, Yang KT, Yang LH: Synchronous parathyroid and papillary thyroid carcinoma. J Chin Med Assoc; 2005 Feb;68(2):87-91
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  • [Title] Synchronous parathyroid and papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • However, the simultaneous occurrence of parathyroid and thyroid carcinoma is extremely rare.
  • Preoperative investigation for exclusion of multiple endocrine neoplasia did not find evidence of medullary thyroid carcinoma or pheochromocytoma, but imaging studies revealed the presence of nodules in the right lobe and a parathyroid lesion over the left inferior pole of the thyroid gland.
  • The resected specimens were pathologically identified as papillary thyroid carcinoma and parathyroid carcinoma, respectively.
  • Although parathyroid carcinoma is an uncommon cause of parathyroid hormone-dependent hypercalcemia, it should nonetheless be given due consideration because its surgical approach differs from that of parathyroid adenoma.
  • As the coexistence of parathyroid and non-medullary thyroid carcinoma has previously been reported, the possibility of both malignancies must also be considered in the setting of primary hyperparathyroidism with thyroid nodules.
  • If confirmed with preoperative parathyroid scintigraphic and other laboratory studies, an optimal outcome may be achieved with complete resection of both tumors at the time of initial operation, followed by adjunctive therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / etiology. Male. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / surgery. Parathyroidectomy. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Gland / surgery. Thyroidectomy. Treatment Outcome. Urinary Calculi / etiology

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  • (PMID = 15759821.001).
  • [ISSN] 1726-4901
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Chinese Medical Association : JCMA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chin Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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30. Pérez-Martínez FC, Alonso V, Sarasa JL, Manzarbeitia F, Vela-Navarrete R, Calahorra FJ, Esbrit P: Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL) as a novel prognostic marker in prostate carcinoma. Histol Histopathol; 2008 06;23(6):709-15
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  • [Title] Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL) as a novel prognostic marker in prostate carcinoma.
  • Combined immunodetection of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL) has shown to successfully distinguish poorly- and well-differentiated prostate carcinoma (PCa).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism. RANK Ligand / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein / metabolism. Prognosis. Prostate / metabolism. Prostate / pathology. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood

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  • (PMID = 18366009.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-5848
  • [Journal-full-title] Histology and histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histol. Histopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein; 0 / RANK Ligand; 0 / TNFSF11 protein, human; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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31. Vestergaard P, Sanden AK: [Management of serum calcium with cinacelet in parathyroid cancer]. Ugeskr Laeger; 2009 Oct 5;171(41):3004-6
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  • [Title] [Management of serum calcium with cinacelet in parathyroid cancer].
  • Treatment with cinacalcet and intravenous bisphosphonate has improved the previously often fatal prognosis of parathyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcium / blood. Naphthalenes / therapeutic use. Parathyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19814929.001).
  • [ISSN] 1603-6824
  • [Journal-full-title] Ugeskrift for laeger
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ugeskr. Laeg.
  • [Language] dan
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Imidazoles; 0 / Naphthalenes; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride; 6XC1PAD3KF / zoledronic acid; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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32. Lin L, Czapiga M, Nini L, Zhang JH, Simonds WF: Nuclear localization of the parafibromin tumor suppressor protein implicated in the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome enhances its proapoptotic function. Mol Cancer Res; 2007 Feb;5(2):183-93
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  • Parafibromin is a tumor suppressor protein encoded by HRPT2, a gene recently implicated in the hereditary hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome, parathyroid cancer, and a subset of kindreds with familial isolated hyperparathyroidism.

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  • (PMID = 17314275.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-7786
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer research : MCR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Localization Signals; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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33. Ruf J, Seehofer D, Nadjari B, Amthauer H, Rayes N: Incidental parathyroid adenoma mimicking tumor recurrence in a patient with follicular thyroid carcinoma. Clin Nucl Med; 2006 Feb;31(2):74-6
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  • [Title] Incidental parathyroid adenoma mimicking tumor recurrence in a patient with follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • We report the case of a 59-year-old woman with a history of follicular thyroid cancer who had reoperation for suspected local tumor recurrence as laboratory (tumor marker), imaging findings (ultrasound, I-131 scintigraphy and Tc-99m-MIBI scintigraphy), and also fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology were equivocal.
  • However, postoperative histopathology revealed a parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radionuclide imaging. Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16424689.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Rossetto M, Vanzani P, De Marco V, Zennaro L, Scarpa M, Rigo A: Fast and simple method for the simultaneous evaluation of the capacity and efficiency of food antioxidants in trapping peroxyl radicals in an intestinal model system. J Agric Food Chem; 2008 May 28;56(10):3486-92
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  • This method permits one to obtain from a single experimental run the peroxyl radical trapping capacity (PRTC, that is, the number of moles of peroxyl radicals trapped by a given amount of food), the peroxyl radical trapping efficiency (PRTE, that is, the reciprocal of the amount of food that reduces to half the steady-state concentration of peroxyl radicals), and the half-life of the antioxidant ( t(1/2)) when only a small fraction of peroxyl radicals reacts with the antioxidants present in foods.

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  • (PMID = 18454542.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-8561
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of agricultural and food chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Agric. Food Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Free Radical Scavengers; 0 / Peroxides; 3170-83-0 / perhydroxyl radical
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35. Hewitt KM, Sharma PK, Samowitz W, Hobbs M: Aberrant methylation of the HRPT2 gene in parathyroid carcinoma. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol; 2007 Dec;116(12):928-33
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  • [Title] Aberrant methylation of the HRPT2 gene in parathyroid carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVES: The incidence of parathyroid carcinoma in hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome (HPT-JT) is reported to be as high as 15%.
  • We used a methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MS-PCR) technique to investigate whether hypermethylation is one mechanism of HRPT2 gene inactivation in parathyroid tumors.
  • METHODS: DNA was extracted from samples of parathyroid tumors embedded in paraffin.
  • MS-PCR was performed on 11 parathyroid carcinomas, 37 sporadic parathyroid adenomas from control subjects, and 6 parathyroid adenomas from 3 patients with HPT-JT.
  • Methylated and unmethylated PCR products from 2 tumors (Nos.
  • RESULTS: Two of 11 (18%) parathyroid carcinomas showed amplification patterns consistent with methylation, compared to 0 of 37 sporadic parathyroid adenomas, and 1 of 6 (17%) parathyroid tumor samples from 3 HPT-JT patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: There is increasing evidence that loss of HRPT2 gene expression is strongly associated with parathyroid carcinomas.
  • Our data indicate that methylation of the HRPT2 promoter may be another mechanism by which HRPT2 gene inactivation gives rise to parathyroid carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / genetics. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18217513.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4894
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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36. Ippolito G, Palazzo FF, Sebag F, De Micco C, Henry JF: Intraoperative diagnosis and treatment of parathyroid cancer and atypical parathyroid adenoma. Br J Surg; 2007 May;94(5):566-70
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  • [Title] Intraoperative diagnosis and treatment of parathyroid cancer and atypical parathyroid adenoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Distinction of parathyroid cancer from atypical parathyroid adenoma (APA) at operation is difficult.
  • The aim of this study was to determine whether parathyroid cancer and APA have different operative findings and long-term outcomes.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review was undertaken of patients with suspicious or malignant parathyroid tumours treated between 1974 and 2005.
  • Parathyroid cancer was defined as a lesion with vascular or tissue invasion, and APA as a neoplasm with broad fibrous bands, trabecular growth, mitosis and nuclear atypia.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients with suspicious or malignant parathyroid tumours were identified.
  • After histological review, parathyroid cancer was confirmed in 11 patients (group 1) and 16 tumours were classified as APA (group 2).
  • CONCLUSION: Operative findings cannot distinguish APA from parathyroid cancer reliably.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroidectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Intraoperative Period. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / etiology. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Br J Surg. 2007 Aug;94(8):1043; author reply 1043-4 [17636522.001]
  • [CommentIn] Br J Surg. 2007 Aug;94(8):1042-3; author reply 1043-4 [17636521.001]
  • (PMID = 17380564.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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37. Hwang CS, Park SY, Yu SH, Park JY, Park CT, Han KO: Hypercalcemia induced by ovarian clear cell carcinoma producing all transcriptional variants of parathyroid hormone-related peptide gene during pregnancy. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 Nov;103(2):740-4
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  • [Title] Hypercalcemia induced by ovarian clear cell carcinoma producing all transcriptional variants of parathyroid hormone-related peptide gene during pregnancy.
  • BACKGROUND: Parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) appears as the major causative agent responsible for the humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM).
  • CASE: A 35-year-old woman was diagnosed as an ovarian clear cell carcinoma with HHM caused by elevated serum PTHrP after delivery.
  • CONCLUSION: An ovarian clear cell carcinoma induced PTHrP-related HHM, which resulted from the high expression of all isoforms for PTHrP gene.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / genetics. Hypercalcemia / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein / genetics. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / genetics


38. Nakanishi S, Fukagawa M: [Therapeutic agents for disorders of bone and calcium metabolism. The calcimimetic cinacalcet HCl]. Clin Calcium; 2007 Jan;17(1):88-92
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  • Calcimimetics drug such as cinacalcet suppress the secretion of parathyroid hormone by sensitizing parathyroid calcium receptors to extracellular ionized calcium.
  • And some studies were reported the use of cinacalcet not only to manage primary hyperparathyroidism, but also secondary hyperparathyroidism in nondialyzed stage, renal transplant patients and parathyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cinacalcet Hydrochloride. Clinical Trials as Topic. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / drug therapy. Kidney Failure, Chronic / drug therapy. Kidney Transplantation. Mutation. Parathyroid Hormone / secretion. Parathyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17211098.001).
  • [ISSN] 0917-5857
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical calcium
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Calcium
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Naphthalenes; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride
  • [Number-of-references] 9
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39. Yip L, Seethala RR, Nikiforova MN, Nikiforov YE, Ogilvie JB, Carty SE, Yim JH: Loss of heterozygosity of selected tumor suppressor genes in parathyroid carcinoma. Surgery; 2008 Dec;144(6):949-55; discussion 954-5
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  • [Title] Loss of heterozygosity of selected tumor suppressor genes in parathyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The histologic diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is challenging.
  • LOH was determined for PC or parathyroid adenoma (PA) using a panel of 12 tumor suppressor gene loci.
  • Evaluation of LOH may be useful for the definitive diagnosis of PC.
  • [MeSH-major] Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / surgery. Loss of Heterozygosity. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology


40. Vestergaard P, Nielsen LR, Mosekilde L: [Cinacalcet--a new drug for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with uraemia, parathyroid cancer or primary hyperparathyroidism]. Ugeskr Laeger; 2006 Jan 3;168(1):29-32
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  • [Title] [Cinacalcet--a new drug for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with uraemia, parathyroid cancer or primary hyperparathyroidism].
  • It increases the sensitivity of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) to calcium, thus inducing a decrease in plasma parathyroid (PTH) levels.
  • Cinacalcet decreases plasma calcium and plasma PTH levels in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism or parathyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / drug therapy. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / drug therapy. Naphthalenes / therapeutic use. Parathyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uremia / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Calcium / blood. Cinacalcet Hydrochloride. Humans. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Receptors, Calcium-Sensing / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 16393559.001).
  • [ISSN] 1603-6824
  • [Journal-full-title] Ugeskrift for laeger
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ugeskr. Laeg.
  • [Language] dan
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Naphthalenes; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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41. Rubello D, Armigliato M, Rampin L, Massaro A, Cittadin S, Pelizzo MR, Menaldo G, Muzzio PC, Gross MD: Intrathyroid parathyroid adenoma potentially mimicking a parathyroid carcinoma. Minerva Endocrinol; 2006 Sep;31(3):247-8
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  • [Title] Intrathyroid parathyroid adenoma potentially mimicking a parathyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma. Carcinoma. Parathyroid Neoplasms. Thyroid Diseases

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  • (PMID = 17213791.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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42. Hahn MA, Howell VM, Gill AJ, Clarkson A, Weaire-Buchanan G, Robinson BG, Delbridge L, Gimm O, Schmitt WD, Teh BT, Marsh DJ: CDC73/HRPT2 CpG island hypermethylation and mutation of 5'-untranslated sequence are uncommon mechanisms of silencing parafibromin in parathyroid tumors. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2010 Mar;17(1):273-82
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  • [Title] CDC73/HRPT2 CpG island hypermethylation and mutation of 5'-untranslated sequence are uncommon mechanisms of silencing parafibromin in parathyroid tumors.
  • The tumor suppressor HRPT2/CDC73 is mutated in constitutive DNA from patients with the familial disorder hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome and in approximately 70% of all parathyroid carcinomas.
  • We sought to determine whether hypermethylation of a 713 bp CpG island extending 648 nucleotides upstream of the HRPT2 translational start site and 65 nucleotides into exon 1 might be a mechanism contributing to the loss of expression of parafibromin in parathyroid tumors.
  • We investigated a pool of tissue from 3 normal parathyroid glands, as well as 15 individual parathyroid tumor samples including 6 tumors with known HRPT2 mutations, for hypermethylation of the HRPT2 CpG island.
  • Methylation was not identified in any specimens despite complete loss of parafibromin expression in two parathyroid carcinomas with a single detectable HRPT2 mutation and retention of the wild-type HRPT2 allele.
  • [MeSH-major] 5' Untranslated Regions / genetics. Adenoma / genetics. CpG Islands / genetics. DNA Methylation. Gene Silencing. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Base Sequence. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism. DNA Mutational Analysis. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Molecular Sequence Data. Mutation / physiology. Parathyroid Glands / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20026646.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 5' Untranslated Regions; 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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43. Sharretts JM, Kebebew E, Simonds WF: Parathyroid cancer. Semin Oncol; 2010 Dec;37(6):580-90
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  • [Title] Parathyroid cancer.
  • Parathyroid cancer is an uncommon malignancy and rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) with a high morbidity and patient death in advanced cases usually resulting from intractable hypercalcemia.
  • Inactivation of the HRPT2/CDC73 gene, encoding the putative tumor-suppressor protein parafibromin and discovered in the context of the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT) syndrome, is a common, somatic event in most parathyroid cancers.
  • Approximately 25% of patients with apparently sporadic parathyroid cancer carry germline HRPT2/CDC73 mutation.
  • Germline DNA analysis for HRPT2/CDC73 mutation is recommended in all patients with parathyroid cancer because of the potential benefit for first-degree relatives, who should nevertheless undergo serum calcium screening.
  • The histopathologic diagnosis of parathyroid cancer is nonspecific unless vascular, lymphatic, capsular, or soft tissue invasion is seen, or metastases are clinically evident.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of parathyroid tumors for loss of parafibromin expression offers promise as a diagnostic tool.
  • En bloc tumor resection offers the highest chance of cure in patients with suspected parathyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • [Copyright] Published by Elsevier Inc.
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  • (PMID = 21167377.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8708
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 DK043012-06; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 DK043320-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS245489; NLM/ PMC3059245
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44. Sheikh A, Islam N: Minimally symptomatic severe hypercalcaemia in a patient with parathyroid carcinoma. J Pak Med Assoc; 2006 Jan;56(1):40-1
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  • [Title] Minimally symptomatic severe hypercalcaemia in a patient with parathyroid carcinoma.
  • The case of a 38 years old man with generalized pains fatigue, anorexia, constipation, polyuria serum calcium level of 20.6mg/dl in paired renal function parathyroid hormone is presented.
  • Sestamibi scan showed a functioning left inferior parathyroid tumor, which was successfully removed.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcium / blood. Carcinoma / complications. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroidectomy. Severity of Illness Index. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16454135.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-9982
  • [Journal-full-title] JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pak Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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45. Stepien T, Krupinski R, Sopinski J, Kuzdak K, Komorowski J, Lawnicka H, Stepien H: Decreased 1-25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 concentration in peripheral blood serum of patients with thyroid cancer. Arch Med Res; 2010 Apr;41(3):190-4
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  • [Title] Decreased 1-25 dihydroxyvitamin D3 concentration in peripheral blood serum of patients with thyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Vitamin D(3), in addition to its role in calcium homeostasis, has been recognized as playing a role in human cancer development.
  • However, little is known about the association between vitamin D status and the development of thyroid cancer.
  • METHODS: The 25-hydroxyvitamin D(3) ,1-25- dihydoxyvitamin D(3), PTH and calcium serum levels of 50 consecutive patients with epithelial thyroid cancer 27 cases of papillary cancers (PTC), 16 follicular cancers (FTC), and seven cases of anaplastic cancers (ATC) and 34 multinodular nontoxic goiter (MNG) were measured by specific immunoassay.
  • Levels of 1-25 (OH)(2) D(3) varied by cancer stage and were also significantly different.
  • There were no significant differences when comparing serum levels of 25(OH) D(3), PTH or calcium concentrations among individuals with multinodular goiter, thyroid cancer and age- and sex-matched control volunteers.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / blood. Adult. Aged. Calcifediol / blood. Calcium / blood. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / blood. Case-Control Studies. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Hormone / blood

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • [CommentIn] Arch Med Res. 2010 Jul;41(5):392; author reply 393 [20851300.001]
  • (PMID = 20682176.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-5487
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of medical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Med. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; FXC9231JVH / Calcitriol; P6YZ13C99Q / Calcifediol; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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46. Grzesiak JJ, Smith KC, Chalberg C, Burton DW, Deftos LJ, Bouvet M: Type I collagen and divalent cation shifts disrupt cell-cell adhesion, increase migration, and decrease PTHrP, IL-6, and IL-8 expression in pancreatic cancer cells. Int J Gastrointest Cancer; 2005;36(3):131-46
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  • [Title] Type I collagen and divalent cation shifts disrupt cell-cell adhesion, increase migration, and decrease PTHrP, IL-6, and IL-8 expression in pancreatic cancer cells.
  • BACKGROUND: We have shown in FG pancreatic cancer cells that alpha2beta1 integrin-mediated type I collagen adhesion decreases parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression, decreases the localization of E-cadherin and beta-catenin in cell-cell contacts, increases cell migration, and increases glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) and protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) phosphorylation states relative to alpha5beta1 integrin-mediated fibronectin (Fn) adhesion.
  • AIM OF THE STUDY: To extend our observations in FG cells to other pancreatic cancer cell lines, and to determine whether E-cadherin-mediated cell-cell adhesion and its downstream effectors were functionally involved in the ECM-mediated regulation of PTHrP, IL-6, and IL-8.
  • METHODS: We used standard biochemical techniques to determine ECM-specific differences in E-cadherin and beta-catenin localization, GSK3 and PKB/Akt phosphorylation, haptokinetic cell migration, and cytokine expression in pancreatic cancer cells.
  • RESULTS: Differences in E-cadherin and beta-catenin localization along with GSK3 and PKB/Akt phosphorylation occur in multiple pancreatic cancer cell lines, resulting in differences in ECM-mediated haptokinesis and cytokine expression that are generally consistent with previous observations in FG cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that alpha2beta1 integrin-mediated type I collagen adhesion disrupts cell-cell adhesion architecture, resulting in increased migration and decreased PTHrP, IL-6, and IL-8 expression in pancreatic cancer cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcium / metabolism. Collagen Type I / metabolism. Interleukin-6 / metabolism. Interleukin-8 / metabolism. Magnesium / metabolism. Pancreatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Cadherins / metabolism. Cell Adhesion. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 / metabolism. Humans. Integrins / metabolism. Microscopy, Fluorescence. Phosphorylation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism. Signal Transduction. Tumor Cells, Cultured


47. Kebig A, Mohr K: [Cinacalcet - an allosteric enhancer at the Ca2+-receptor]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr; 2008 Aug;133(33):1681-3
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  • Cinacalcet (trade name: Mimpara) enhances allosterically the action of Ca (2+)-ions at the parathyroid gland Ca (2+)-receptor which belongs to the superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors.
  • As a consequence blood levels of Ca (2+) and parathyroid hormone decline.
  • Cinacalcet is orally administered and approved for a) the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with end stage renal disease receiving hemodialysis and b) to lower hypercalcemia in patients with parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Therapeutic monitoring includes measurement of blood levels of Ca (2+) and parathyroid hormone.
  • The stable suppression of parathyroid hormone levels under chronic treatment was shown in clinical trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypercalcemia / drug therapy. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / drug therapy. Kidney Failure, Chronic / complications. Naphthalenes / therapeutic use. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Receptors, Calcium-Sensing / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Calcium / blood. Cinacalcet Hydrochloride. Drug Monitoring / methods. Humans. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Renal Dialysis

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  • (PMID = 18661462.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4413
  • [Journal-full-title] Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Naphthalenes; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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48. Schoretsanitis G, Daskalakis M, Melissas J, Tsiftsis DD: Parathyroid carcinoma: clinical presentation and management. Am J Otolaryngol; 2009 Jul-Aug;30(4):277-80
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  • [Title] Parathyroid carcinoma: clinical presentation and management.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma constitutes a rare cause of hyperparathyroidism.
  • Five patients, presenting with symptoms and clinical signs of parathyroid hyperfunction, were diagnosed with parathyroid carcinoma in our department over a 12-year period.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroidectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19563942.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-818X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Yonekawa H, Sugitani I, Fujimoto Y, Arai M, Yamamoto N: A family of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A) with Cys630Tyr RET germline mutation: report of a case. Endocr J; 2007 Aug;54(4):531-5
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  • A 67-year-old woman presented a firm thyroid nodule, and preoperative examination revealed medullary thyroid carcinoma with primary hyperparthyoidism and no pheochromocytoma.
  • At surgery, bilateral medullary thyroid carcinomas and parathyroid adenoma were found.
  • Computed tomography scans and laboratory examination of blood have shown no evidence of tumor recurrence and no abnormality of parathyroid function during the 4 years after surgery.
  • A 40-year-old man, the proband's son, was shown to have the same RET mutation, underwent total thyroidectomy prophylactically, and only microscopic foci of medullary thyroid carcinoma were found.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Child. Family Health. Female. Genotype. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / genetics. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / pathology. Male. Mutation, Missense. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Pedigree. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17527003.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-8959
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human
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50. Zhang JH, Panicker LM, Seigneur EM, Lin L, House CD, Morgan W, Chen WC, Mehta H, Haj-Ali M, Yu ZX, Simonds WF: Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein is a conserved target of tumor suppressor HRPT2/CDC73. Cell Death Differ; 2010 Oct;17(10):1551-65
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  • Parafibromin, a tumor suppressor protein encoded by HRPT2/CDC73 and implicated in parathyroid cancer and the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT) familial cancer syndrome, is part of the PAF1 transcriptional regulatory complex.

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  • (PMID = 20339377.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5403
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell death and differentiation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Death Differ.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / CPEB1 protein, Drosophila; 0 / CPEB1 protein, human; 0 / Drosophila Proteins; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / mRNA Cleavage and Polyadenylation Factors; EC 4.1.1.- / Carboxy-Lyases; EC 4.1.1.- / parafibromin protein, Drosophila
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS294982; NLM/ PMC3109426
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51. Agha A, Carpenter R, Bhattacharya S, Edmonson SJ, Carlsen E, Monson JP: Parathyroid carcinoma in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome: two case reports of an unrecognised entity. J Endocrinol Invest; 2007 Feb;30(2):145-9
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  • [Title] Parathyroid carcinoma in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome: two case reports of an unrecognised entity.
  • CONTEXT: Primary hyperparathyroidism occurs in almost all patients with the syndrome of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), but the association of MEN1 with parathyroid carcinoma has only been described previously in a single patient.
  • In this report, we describe two further cases of parathyroid carcinoma presenting in MEN1 syndrome.
  • CASE REPORTS: The first patient was a 69-yr-old woman, who presented with severe primary hyperparathyroidism and tracheal compression by a large mediastinal mass, which was shown histologically to be a parathyroid carcinoma with a second similar lesion in the neck.
  • Neck exploration revealed two parathyroid glands only.
  • One of the parathyroid glands contained a tumor with fibrous banding, atypical mitoses, extra-capsular extension and moderate Ki 67 staining; features which are highly suggestive of carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This case report describes two further patients in whom parathyroid carcinomas occurred in the context of MEN1, which gives a new insight to the possible presenting phenotype of this condition.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Syndrome


52. Kleinpeter KP, Lovato JF, Clark PB, Wooldridge T, Norman ES, Bergman S, Perrier ND: Is parathyroid carcinoma indeed a lethal disease? Ann Surg Oncol; 2005 Mar;12(3):260-6
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  • [Title] Is parathyroid carcinoma indeed a lethal disease?
  • BACKGROUND: Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare malignancy with a wide range of aggressiveness.
  • Our primary aim was to review the presentation, diagnosis, surgical treatment, and outcomes of patients, with the goal of assessing the incidence of death related to parathyroid carcinoma.
  • METHODS: The authors present a retrospective chart review on patients with parathyroid carcinoma from 1975 to 2004, identified by the tumor registry of a single tertiary-care center.
  • Median parathyroid hormone was 290 pg/mL.
  • Three of ten deaths were attributed to parathyroid carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Long-term survival is possible with parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Death associated with parathyroid carcinoma was uncommon.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / mortality. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Calcium / blood. Female. Humans. Male. Medical Records. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15827819.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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53. Fanthome B, Bharadwaj R, Suryanarayana KM: Parathyroid Neoplasms: The Army Hospital (Research & Referral) Experience. Med J Armed Forces India; 2006 Oct;62(4):312-5
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  • [Title] Parathyroid Neoplasms: The Army Hospital (Research & Referral) Experience.
  • BACKGROUND: Neoplasms of the parathyroid are common but parathyroid carcinoma is exceptionally rare.
  • In contrast to most other malignant endocrine tumours that are usually less hormonally active, malignant parathyroid tumours are hyper functional.
  • Malignant parathyroid tumours pose a diagnostic dilemma for the pathologist.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the clinicopathological profile of a case series of parathyroid neoplasms and determine features which facilitate a malignant diagnosis.
  • METHODS: A retrospective analysis of seven cases of surgically treated parathyroid tumours over a three-year period at a single centre was done.
  • Thick fibrous capsule and broad septal fibrosis was seen in both the carcinomas; these were thin in the adenomas.
  • CONCLUSION: Elevated serum calcium and parathormone values point to a parathyroid neoplasm.

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  • (PMID = 27688529.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-1237
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical journal, Armed Forces India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med J Armed Forces India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adenoma / Carcinoma / Parathyroid
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54. Cavalier E, Daly AF, Betea D, Pruteanu-Apetrii PN, Delanaye P, Stubbs P, Bradwell AR, Chapelle JP, Beckers A: The ratio of parathyroid hormone as measured by third- and second-generation assays as a marker for parathyroid carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Aug;95(8):3745-9
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  • [Title] The ratio of parathyroid hormone as measured by third- and second-generation assays as a marker for parathyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Parathyroid carcinoma (PCa) is a rare disease that can be difficult to differentiate initially from severe benign parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / blood. Immunoassay / methods. Parathyroid Hormone / analysis. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroid Neoplasms / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers / blood. Female. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / blood. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20519352.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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55. Hastings RH, Laux AM, Casillas A, Xu R, Lukas Z, Ernstrom K, Deftos LJ: Sex-specific survival advantage with parathyroid hormone-related protein in non-small cell lung carcinoma patients. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Jan 15;12(2):499-506
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  • [Title] Sex-specific survival advantage with parathyroid hormone-related protein in non-small cell lung carcinoma patients.
  • PURPOSE: Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is commonly expressed in non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC).
  • Expression of the protein could have implications for progression of the disease because it regulates cancer cell growth, apoptosis, and angiogenesis.
  • Sex-dependent effects of PTHrP in lung cancer would open new avenues of research into the role of sex in cancer progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Aged. Carcinoma, Large Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Large Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Case-Control Studies. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Lung / metabolism. Lung / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Sex Distribution. Survival Rate

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  • [ErratumIn] Clin Cancer Res. 2006 Jul 1;12(13):4130
  • (PMID = 16428492.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA 23100
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein
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56. Lu M, Forsberg L, Höög A, Juhlin CC, Vukojević V, Larsson C, Conigrave AD, Delbridge LW, Gill A, Bark C, Farnebo LO, Bränström R: Heterogeneous expression of SNARE proteins SNAP-23, SNAP-25, Syntaxin1 and VAMP in human parathyroid tissue. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2008 Jun 11;287(1-2):72-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Heterogeneous expression of SNARE proteins SNAP-23, SNAP-25, Syntaxin1 and VAMP in human parathyroid tissue.
  • Whether parathyroid cells express these proteins is not known.
  • In this study, we have examined the expression of the SNARE protein SNAP-25 and its cellular homologue SNAP-23, as well as syntaxin1 and VAMP (vesicle-associated membrane protein) in samples of normal parathyroid tissue, chief cell adenoma, and parathyroid carcinoma, using immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis.
  • SNAP-23 and VAMP were evenly expressed in all studied parathyroid tissues using immunohistochemistry and/or Western blot analysis.
  • SNAP-25 (and Syntaxin1) was not expressed in normal parathyroid tissue, but in approximately 20% of chief cell adenomas, and in approximately 45% of parathyroid carcinoma samples.
  • It is likely that the SNARE proteins SNAP-23 and VAMP play a role in the stimulus-secretion coupling and exocytosis of parathyroid hormone as these proteins were expressed in all of the parathyroid samples we studied.
  • SNAP-25 (and Syntaxin1) appears to be a tumour-specific protein(s) in parathyroid tissues since its expression was restricted to pathological tissues.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Glands / metabolism. SNARE Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Animals. Blotting, Western. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Humans. Male. Mice. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Qb-SNARE Proteins / metabolism. Qc-SNARE Proteins / metabolism. R-SNARE Proteins / metabolism. Synaptosomal-Associated Protein 25 / metabolism. Syntaxin 1 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18457912.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Qb-SNARE Proteins; 0 / Qc-SNARE Proteins; 0 / R-SNARE Proteins; 0 / SNAP23 protein, human; 0 / SNARE Proteins; 0 / Synaptosomal-Associated Protein 25; 0 / Syntaxin 1
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57. Iacobone M, Ruffolo C, Lumachi F, Favia G: Results of iterative surgery for persistent and recurrent parathyroid carcinoma. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2005 Sep;390(5):385-90
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  • [Title] Results of iterative surgery for persistent and recurrent parathyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is a rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Predictive Value of Tests. Reoperation. Sensitivity and Specificity. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 15933877.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2443
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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58. Bergero N, De Pompa R, Sacerdote C, Gasparri G, Volante M, Bussolati G, Papotti M: Galectin-3 expression in parathyroid carcinoma: immunohistochemical study of 26 cases. Hum Pathol; 2005 Aug;36(8):908-14
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  • [Title] Galectin-3 expression in parathyroid carcinoma: immunohistochemical study of 26 cases.
  • The diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is difficult and based on morphological features that are not totally reliable.
  • With the aim of identifying a marker of malignancy in parathyroid tumors, we tested the expression of galectin-3 (Gal-3), a lectin expressed in several malignant tumors, including follicular carcinomas (but not adenomas) of the thyroid.
  • Twenty-six PCs and 30 control parathyroid adenomas (PAs) were collected.
  • All cases were immunohistochemically tested for Gal-3 and for other markers claimed to be useful in the differential diagnosis of parathyroid neoplasms, namely, Ki67, p27, and bcl2.
  • We conclude that Gal-3 immunostaining is a valuable tool to support a diagnosis of PC in highly proliferating (Ki67 >6%) tumors affecting a single parathyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Galectin 3 / biosynthesis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16112008.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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59. Poissonnet G, Castillo L, Bozec A, Peyrottes I, Ettore F, Santini J, Demard F, Dassonville O: [Parathyroid carcinoma]. Bull Cancer; 2006 Mar 1;93(3):283-7
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  • [Title] [Parathyroid carcinoma].
  • Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare disease accounting for 1 to 5% of parathyroid neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 16567315.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6917
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin du cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Cancer
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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60. Fang JG, Ma HZ, Zhang ZB, Huang ZG, Chen XH, Zhou WG, Chen XJ, Han DM: [Total thyroidectomy: indications and complications]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2010 Nov;45(11):904-7
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  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the indications and complications of the total thyroidectomy in the management of thyroid cancer.
  • METHODS: Fifty-one patients with thyroid cancer operated with total thyroidectomy in a period from April 2007 to June 2010, were retrospective analyzed.
  • There were 48 cases of papillary adenocarcinoma, 1 follicular adenocarcinoma, and 2 medullary carcinoma as well, 2 cases with hyperthyroidism, 3 cases with remote metastasis.
  • The recurrent laryngeal nerve and the parathyroid gland, and supper laryngeal nerve were exposed routinely.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Under the skilled hand, total thyroidectomy is a safe procedure in the management of thyroid cancer.
  • Totally exposing the parathyroid gland and laryngeal nerve is the key point to prevent the major complications.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Medullary / surgery. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Postoperative Complications. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21215203.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-0860
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Thyroid cancer, medullary
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61. Temmim L, Sinowatz F, Hussein WI, Al-Sanea O, El-Khodary H: Intrathyroidal parathyroid carcinoma: a case report with clinical and histological findings. Diagn Pathol; 2008;3:46
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  • [Title] Intrathyroidal parathyroid carcinoma: a case report with clinical and histological findings.
  • The chance of an intrathyroidal occurrence of a parathyroid gland is about 1-3%.
  • Among the causes of hyperparathyroidism, parathyroid cases occur in less than 1% of patients.
  • Here we present the case of a 63 year old Saudi female suffering from an intrathyroidal parathyroid carcinoma.
  • The suspicion coming from the clinical investigations that the removed tumor tissue may be a parathyroid carcinoma could be confirmed by histology.
  • Although parathyroid adenoma and carcinoma have disparate natural history, it can be difficult to differentiate between the two entities.
  • Clinical presentation, operative findings may raise suspicion, but may not be conclusive especially if there is no evidence of invasion or metastasis, especially if the gland was intrathyroidal.

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  • (PMID = 19032735.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2627811
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62. Kung B, Winokur R, Cognetti D, O'Hara B, Rosen D: Parathyroid carcinoma: a rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism. Ear Nose Throat J; 2009 Sep;88(9):E10-3
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  • [Title] Parathyroid carcinoma: a rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Most cases of primary hyperparathyroidism (80 to 90%) are caused by a parathyroid adenoma; most of the rest are caused by either parathyroid gland hyperplasia or multiple adenomas.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma can be the cause of primary hyperparathyroidism in 1 to 5% of patients.
  • When the appropriate clinical scenario is presented, it must be considered in the differential diagnosis.
  • A sestamibi scan and magnetic resonance imaging detected the presence of what appeared to be a right inferior parathyroid adenoma.
  • Her intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) level was 2,257 pg/ml.
  • Following placement of bilateral ureteral stents and adequate hydration, the patient was taken to the operating room for a neck exploration and removal of a parathyroid adenoma with rapid intraoperative PTH monitoring.
  • A 4 x 2.5-cm, 10-g mass was removed from the right inferior pole of the thyroid gland.
  • On final pathologic examination, the mass was confirmed to be a parathyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 19750462.001).
  • [ISSN] 1942-7522
  • [Journal-full-title] Ear, nose, & throat journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ear Nose Throat J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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63. Tamler R, Lewis MS, LiVolsi VA, Genden EM: Parathyroid carcinoma: ultrasonographic and histologic features. Thyroid; 2005 Jul;15(7):744-5
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  • [Title] Parathyroid carcinoma: ultrasonographic and histologic features.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 16053394.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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64. Kebebew E: Parathyroid carcinoma, a rare but important disorder for endocrinologists, primary care physicians, and endocrine surgeons. Thyroid; 2008 Apr;18(4):385-6
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  • [Title] Parathyroid carcinoma, a rare but important disorder for endocrinologists, primary care physicians, and endocrine surgeons.
  • [MeSH-major] Endocrinology / methods. Medical Oncology / methods. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / therapy. Primary Health Care / methods

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  • (PMID = 18348705.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Editorial; Introductory Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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65. Svedlund J, Aurén M, Sundström M, Dralle H, Akerström G, Björklund P, Westin G: Aberrant WNT/β-catenin signaling in parathyroid carcinoma. Mol Cancer; 2010;9:294
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  • [Title] Aberrant WNT/β-catenin signaling in parathyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is a very rare malignancy with a high tendency to recur locally, and recurrent disease is difficult to eradicate.
  • We suggest that adjuvant epigenetic therapy should be considered as an additional option in the treatment of patients with recurrent or metastatic parathyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Parathyroid Neoplasms / microbiology. Wnt Proteins / metabolism. beta Catenin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 21078161.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-4598
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2993678
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66. Tousoulis D, Bosinakou E, Kotsopoulou M, Antoniades C, Katsi V, Stefanadis C: Effects of early administration of atorvastatin treatment on thrombotic process in normocholesterolemic patients with unstable angina. Int J Cardiol; 2006 Jan 26;106(3):333-7
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  • Plasma levels of PrtC were significantly increased in both controls (p < 0.01) and atorvastatin-treated patients (p < 0.05) at 1 week, while remained unaffected in atorvastatin-treated group at 6th week.

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  • [CommentIn] Int J Cardiol. 2008 Aug 18;128(2):282-4 [17655947.001]
  • (PMID = 16337041.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-5273
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cardiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cardiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Blood Coagulation Factors; 0 / Blood Proteins; 0 / Heptanoic Acids; 0 / Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrroles; 48A5M73Z4Q / Atorvastatin Calcium; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol
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67. Juhlin CC, Haglund F, Villablanca A, Forsberg L, Sandelin K, Bränström R, Larsson C, Höög A: Loss of expression for the Wnt pathway components adenomatous polyposis coli and glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta in parathyroid carcinomas. Int J Oncol; 2009 Feb;34(2):481-92
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  • [Title] Loss of expression for the Wnt pathway components adenomatous polyposis coli and glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta in parathyroid carcinomas.
  • The development of parathyroid carcinoma has been associated with inactivating mutations of the Hyperparathyroidism type 2 (HRPT2) gene encoding parafibromin, a member of the human RNA Polymerase II-Associated Factor Complex (hPAF) and functionally linked to the Wingless type (Wnt) pathway.
  • In this study, we characterized the expression of Wnt pathway molecules in parathyroid benign and malignant tumors.
  • The study comprised 13 tumors from 12 cases of unequivocal parathyroid carcinoma, 18 cases of parathyroid adenoma, as well as non-tumorous parathyroid tissue.
  • Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) was uniformly expressed in non-tumorous parathyroid tissue and adenomas, but absent in carcinomas from 9 of 12 patients (75%).
  • Expression of glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta (GSK3-beta) was lost in 4/12 carcinomas and in 1/18 adenomas.
  • Loss of APC immunoreactivity was significantly associated with parathyroid carcinoma as compared to adenomas (p<0.001), giving a high specificity (100%) and sensitivity (75%) for the detection of parathyroid malignancy.
  • The results suggest the involvement of Wnt-pathway members APC and GSK3-beta in parathyroid carcinoma development.
  • In addition, APC immunohistochemistry could become a useful tool for improved recognition of parathyroid carcinoma together with immunohistochemistry for parafibromin and proliferation index.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / genetics. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 / genetics. Parathyroid Neoplasms / enzymology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Wnt Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / enzymology. Adenoma / genetics. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma / enzymology. Carcinoma / genetics. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / genetics. Sensitivity and Specificity


68. Tan GC, Shiran MS, Swaminathan M, Phang KS, Rohaizak M: Large retrosternal parathyroid carcinoma with primary hyperparathyroidism. Asian J Surg; 2007 Oct;30(4):286-9
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  • [Title] Large retrosternal parathyroid carcinoma with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma is an uncommon cause of parathyroid hormone (PTH)-dependent hypercalcaemia, accounting for less than 1% of all cases of hyperparathyroidism.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma is an indolent tumour with rather low malignant potential.
  • Consideration of parathyroid carcinoma in the differential diagnosis of hypercalcaemic disorders is important because the morbidity and mortality are substantial and the best prognosis is associated with early recognition and surgical resection.
  • Clinical indicators favouring parathyroid carcinoma over benign disease include markedly raised serum calcium levels, PTH and alkaline phosphatase.
  • A palpable neck mass with both kidney and skeletal manifestations also give a high index of suspicion of parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Histopathology alone is not sufficient to diagnose parathyroid cancer; it has to be correlated with the clinical findings.
  • The initial and most effective treatment for parathyroid carcinoma is complete resection of the primary lesion, and repeated operations for recurrence are useful.
  • The prognosis of parathyroid carcinomas is quite variable; 5-year survival rates vary from 40% to 86%, while the 10-year survival rate is approximately 49%.
  • We report a case of parathyroid carcinoma occurring in a 55-year-old woman who presented with bone pain and hypercalcaemia.

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  • (PMID = 17962134.001).
  • [ISSN] 1015-9584
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian J Surg
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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69. Placzkowski K, Christian R, Chen H: Radioguided parathyroidectomy for recurrent parathyroid cancer. Clin Nucl Med; 2007 May;32(5):358-60
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  • [Title] Radioguided parathyroidectomy for recurrent parathyroid cancer.
  • We report a case of radioguided parathyroidectomy in a patient with parathyroid carcinoma.
  • A 61-year-old woman presented to our center with persistent hypercalcemia (17.2 mg/dL) and hyperparathyroidism (PTH=324 pg/mL) following her second neck resection for recurrent parathyroid carcinoma at an outside facility.
  • With the intraoperative guidance of a hand-held gamma probe, a 2 cm recurrent parathyroid carcinoma was located and successfully excised.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroidectomy / methods. Radiosurgery / methods

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  • (PMID = 17452861.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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70. Messerer CL, Bugis SP, Baliski C, Wiseman SM: Normocalcemic parathyroid carcinoma: an unusual clinical presentation. World J Surg Oncol; 2006;4:10
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  • [Title] Normocalcemic parathyroid carcinoma: an unusual clinical presentation.
  • BACKGROUND: Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism and may be associated with significant disease related morbidity and mortality.
  • Preoperative diagnosis remains a challenge, which may jeopardize appropriate and successful patient treatment.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of parathyroid carcinoma diagnosed in a 60-year-old woman that presented with a tender nodule located at the left lower thyroid pole and had been present for several years.
  • Histopathological evaluation was diagnostic for a parathyroid carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare endocrine tumor which must be considered in the differential diagnosis of a nodular thyroid mass.

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  • (PMID = 16504029.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
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  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
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  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1397832
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71. Witteveen JE, Haak HR, Kievit J, Morreau H, Romijn JA, Hamdy NA: Challenges and pitfalls in the management of parathyroid carcinoma: 17-year follow-up of a case and review of the literature. Horm Cancer; 2010 Aug;1(4):205-14
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  • [Title] Challenges and pitfalls in the management of parathyroid carcinoma: 17-year follow-up of a case and review of the literature.
  • He was severely hypercalcaemic with 10-fold increased parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations.
  • A diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism was established and the patient was referred for parathyroidectomy.
  • At neck exploration, an enlarged parathyroid gland with invasive growth into the thyroid gland was found and removed, lymph nodes were cleared and hemithyroidectomy was performed.
  • A suspected diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma was confirmed histologically.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hypercalcemia / blood. Hypercalcemia / drug therapy. Hypercalcemia / surgery. Male. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroidectomy. Renal Dialysis

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  • (PMID = 21258429.001).
  • [ISSN] 1868-8500
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormones & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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72. Padhi D, Salfi M, Emery M: Cinacalcet does not affect the activity of cytochrome P450 3A enzymes, a metabolic pathway for common immunosuppressive agents : a randomized, open-label, crossover, single-centre study in healthy volunteers. Drugs R D; 2008;9(5):335-43
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  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cinacalcet HCl (cinacalcet) is approved for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in subjects receiving dialysis and for the reduction of hypercalcaemia in patients with parathyroid carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 18721002.001).
  • [ISSN] 1174-5886
  • [Journal-full-title] Drugs in R&D
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drugs R D
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcium Channel Agonists; 0 / Hypnotics and Sedatives; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Naphthalenes; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride; EC 1.14.14.1 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A; R60L0SM5BC / Midazolam; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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73. Wirowski D, Wicke C, Böhner H, Lammers BJ, Pohl P, Schwarz K, Goretzki PE: Presentation of 6 cases with parathyroid cysts and discussion of the literature. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2008 Aug;116(8):501-6
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  • [Title] Presentation of 6 cases with parathyroid cysts and discussion of the literature.
  • INTRODUCTION: Cystic lesions of the parathyroid glands are uncommon, and rare are those that cause primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Preoperative diagnosis can be challenging and some of these tumors might be misinterpreted as parathyroid carcinoma.
  • With an expertise of more than 1700 patients operated on primary hyperparathyroidism, we present six cases with cystic degeneration of a parathyroid gland causing primary hyperparathyroidism in five patients.
  • As cervical exploration was unsuccessful, sternotomy was performed and a cystic adenoma of a parathyroid gland could be resected from the anterior mediastinum.
  • The second patient - a 63-year-old female with severe hypercalcaemic crisis, operated on under suspicion of a parathyroid carcinoma - had a functional cyst of the parathyroid gland with a parathyroid hormone level of 700,000 pg/ml in the aspirated fluid.
  • Third, operation on a 70-year-old woman with a benign euthyreot goiter and the laboratory findings of primary hyperparathyroidism revealed a cystic adenoma adjacent to the thyroid gland, whose aspirate had a parathyroid hormone level of 1,500,000 pg/ml.
  • In the fourth case of a 67-year-old female with an adenoma of the right inferior parathyroid gland localized by ultrasonography, the cystic parathyroid adenoma was operated on by video-assistance.
  • It was suspected to be a thyroid cyst at the left-lower pole of the thyroid gland.
  • After hemithyroidectomy pathological evaluation revealed a large parathyroid cyst.
  • Final histopathological examination exposed multiple gland disease with a parathyroid adenoma as well as a cystic parathyroid gland.
  • DISCUSSION: Cystic adenomas of the parathyroid glands are often misdiagnosed as thyroid cysts or - in the case of extremely elevated parathyroid hormone levels - even as parathyroid carcinoma.
  • The routine preoperative diagnostic tools, such as ultrasonography or (99m)Tc-sestamibi-scintigraphy, cannot clearly distinguish between these entities and might be jeopardized by mediastinal localization, which is not uncommon in parathyroid adenomas with cystic degeneration.
  • [MeSH-major] Cysts / pathology. Cysts / surgery. Hyperparathyroidism / surgery. Parathyroid Diseases / pathology. Parathyroid Diseases / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18523916.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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74. Meng Z, Tan J, Zhang M, Dong F, Jia Q, Zhang F: Tc-99m pertechnetate/sestamibi imaging in a case of recurrent parathyroid carcinoma with metabolic bone disorder. Clin Nucl Med; 2009 Jul;34(7):479-82
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  • [Title] Tc-99m pertechnetate/sestamibi imaging in a case of recurrent parathyroid carcinoma with metabolic bone disorder.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Diseases, Metabolic / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Calcium / blood. Humans. Male. Parathyroid Hormone / blood

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  • (PMID = 19542965.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0229
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi; A0730CX801 / Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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75. Turki ZM, Hajri H, Zrig N, Kourda N, Ferjaoui M, Ben Slama C: [Toxic nodular goitre associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma and primary hyperparathyroidism]. Rev Laryngol Otol Rhinol (Bord); 2006;127(4):239-42
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  • [Title] [Toxic nodular goitre associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma and primary hyperparathyroidism].
  • [Transliterated title] Association d'un goitre multinodulaire toxique, d'un carcinome papillaire de la thyroïde, et d'une hyperparathyroïdie primaire.
  • The association of a toxic multinodular goitre with papillary thyroid carcinoma and primary hyperparathyroidism is very rare.
  • The diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism was made following renal complications and the discovery of papillary thyroid carcinoma was incidental during the surgical treatment of parathyroid adenoma.
  • It is recognised that hyperparathyroidism can be found in hyperthyroid patients, but the diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism in these cases is very difficult.
  • The fortuitous discovery of papillary thyroid carcinoma during parathyroid surgery has already been reported but in most cases it is a microcarcinoma.
  • In patients presenting with hyperthyroidism the risk of an associated carcinoma is generally felt to be negligeable.
  • The association of primary hyperparathyroidism, hyperthyroidism and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid is rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / epidemiology. Goiter, Nodular / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 17315788.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-1334
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue de laryngologie - otologie - rhinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Laryngol Otol Rhinol (Bord)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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76. Moran CA, Suster S: Primary parathyroid tumors of the mediastinum: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 17 cases. Am J Clin Pathol; 2005 Nov;124(5):749-54
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  • [Title] Primary parathyroid tumors of the mediastinum: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 17 cases.
  • We describe 17 cases (9 women, 8 men; aged 36 to 72 years) of primary parathyroid tumors occurring primarily in the anterior mediastinum.
  • Of 17 patients, 13 had clinical primary hyperparathyroidism, 1 had secondary hyperparathyroidism due to polycystic kidney disease, and 1 had a history of prostatic carcinoma and 1 of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
  • Histologically, 2 tumors showed features of parathyroid carcinoma, and 15 tumors showed more conventional features of parathyroid adenomas.
  • Immunohistochemical studies for chromogranin, synaptophysin, low-molecular-weight keratin (CAM 5.2), and parathyroid hormone were performed in 10 cases (8 parathyroid adenomas and 2 parathyroid carcinomas).
  • The cases highlight the importance of keeping primary parathyroid tumors in the differential diagnosis of anterior mediastinal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16203274.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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77. Troilo VL, D'Eredità G, Fischetti F, Berardi T: Parathyroid cancer as rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism. Case report and review of the literature. G Chir; 2009 Oct;30(10):432-6
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  • [Title] Parathyroid cancer as rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism. Case report and review of the literature.
  • Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) due to parathyroid carcinoma is rare, and affects more frequently women in their 4th-5th decades of life.
  • Parathyroid cancer (PC) accounts for 0.5% up to 5% of the patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT).
  • Diagnosis of PC is not easy, and a lot of patients with PHPT receive no pre-operative or intra-operative diagnosis of malignancy.
  • We report the case of a 52 years old woman that underwent a single parathyroidectomy for hyperfunctioning gland.
  • Histological examination revealed carcinoma.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma is rare and surgery represent the only curative approach, although there can be a local recurrence of the disease.
  • A pre-operative diagnosis is not easy, and many features that suggest the diagnosis of malignancy are controversial.
  • According to the literature, we think that the cure of the parathyroid cancer is difficult to achieve.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / complications. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 19954585.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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78. Szmuilowicz ED, Utiger RD: A case of parathyroid carcinoma with hypercalcemia responsive to cinacalcet therapy. Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab; 2006 May;2(5):291-6; quiz 297
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  • [Title] A case of parathyroid carcinoma with hypercalcemia responsive to cinacalcet therapy.
  • His serum calcium concentration was 4.2 mmol/l and his serum parathyroid hormone concentration was 36 pmol/l.
  • INVESTIGATIONS: Sestamibi parathyroid scan, chest and abdominal CT scans, neck ultrasonography, liver biopsy, fine-needle aspiration of neck mass, and measurement of parathyroid hormone in an aspirate of the neck mass.
  • DIAGNOSIS: Primary hyperparathyroidism caused by metastatic parathyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Hypercalcemia / drug therapy. Naphthalenes / therapeutic use. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Alcohol Drinking / adverse effects. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Calcitriol / blood. Calcium / blood. Cinacalcet Hydrochloride. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / etiology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neck / ultrasonography. Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Parathyroid Hormone / blood

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  • (PMID = 16932300.001).
  • [ISSN] 1745-8366
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Endocrinol Metab
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Naphthalenes; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride; FXC9231JVH / Calcitriol; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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79. Hung HC, Ou HY, Huang JS, Chuang MC, Wu TJ: Tumor-associated Hypercalcemia in a patient with Paget's disease. Kaohsiung J Med Sci; 2008 Mar;24(3):152-6
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  • Asymptomatic hypercalcemia with a low-normal intact parathyroid hormone level developed 9 years later.
  • After analysis of tumor markers and imaging studies, a clinical diagnosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma with multiple hepatic and lung metastases with pleural effusion was made.

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  • (PMID = 18364276.001).
  • [ISSN] 1607-551X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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80. Saggiorato E, Bergero N, Volante M, Bacillo E, Rosas R, Gasparri G, Orlandi F, Papotti M: Galectin-3 and Ki-67 expression in multiglandular parathyroid lesions. Am J Clin Pathol; 2006 Jul;126(1):59-66
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  • [Title] Galectin-3 and Ki-67 expression in multiglandular parathyroid lesions.
  • Hyperplastic and neoplastic parathyroid lesions may present overlapping morphologic features, and several markers have been proposed to distinguish benign from malignant growths.
  • Recently, it was reported that galectin-3 is a useful marker of malignancy in uniglandular parathyroid diseases.
  • To investigate galectin-3 and Ki-67 immunoexpression in parathyroid hyperplastic disease, 63 multiglandular lesions (13 primary, 40 secondary, and 10 tertiary hyperplasia cases) were analyzed and compared with 45 control cases of parathyroid adenomas and 24 carcinomas.
  • Our data showed that hyperplastic lesions responsible for primary nonfamilial or tertiary hyperparathyroidism, as well as parathyroid adenomas, were negative for galectin-3, as opposed to carcinomas.
  • Based on these findings, secondary hyperplasia has a low proliferative potential but an unexplained galectin-3 reactivity, which reduces its diagnostic role in differentiating benign from malignant nodules in the context of multiglandular parathyroid diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenoma / metabolism. Galectin 3 / metabolism. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Parathyroid Glands / metabolism. Parathyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16753595.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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81. Mellanby RJ, Craig R, Evans H, Herrtage ME: Plasma concentrations of parathyroid hormone-related protein in dogs with potential disorders of calcium metabolism. Vet Rec; 2006 Dec 16;159(25):833-8
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  • [Title] Plasma concentrations of parathyroid hormone-related protein in dogs with potential disorders of calcium metabolism.
  • The plasma concentrations of total calcium, ionised calcium, albumin, parathyroid hormone and parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrp) were measured in 25 dogs with lymphoma, nine dogs with primary hyperparathyroidism and seven dogs with adenocarcinoma of the apocrine gland of the anal sac.
  • Plasma total calcium, ionised calcium, albumin and parathyroid hormone-related protein were measured in 18 clinically normal control dogs.
  • The concentration of PTHrp was high in 12 of the 14 dogs that were hypercalcaemic because of an underlying malignancy but was within the reference range in all the control dogs, in the 17 normocalcaemic dogs with lymphoma and in the seven dogs which were hypercalcaemic because of a parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Dog Diseases / diagnosis. Hypercalcemia / veterinary. Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / veterinary. Anal Sacs. Animals. Case-Control Studies. Dogs. Hyperparathyroidism / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism / veterinary. Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma / veterinary. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 17172477.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-4900
  • [Journal-full-title] The Veterinary record
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Rec.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein
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82. Al-Maghrabi JA, Asa SL: Expression of nm23 antimetastatic gene product in parathyroid hyperplasia, adenoma and carcinoma. An immunohistological assessment. Saudi Med J; 2005 May;26(5):728-31
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  • [Title] Expression of nm23 antimetastatic gene product in parathyroid hyperplasia, adenoma and carcinoma. An immunohistological assessment.
  • OBJECTIVE: The nm23 gene was initially cloned as a metastasis suppressor gene, but the clinical relevance of nm23 as a metastasis suppressor or prognostic indicator for human cancers remain controversial.
  • To evaluate the role of nm23 protein as a prognostic factor and its role in parathyroid neoplasia, we studied nm23 protein expression by immunohistochemical staining in parathyroid lesions.
  • They included parathyroid carcinomas (5 cases), adenomas (22 cases), hyperplasia (21 cases), and normal parathyroid tissue (10 cases).
  • RESULTS: Expression of nm23 protein was noted in adenomas and carcinomas as well as in hyperplastic parathyroid glands and there was no significant statistical difference between these groups.
  • Normal parathyroid glands did not show any intense immunoreactivity.
  • CONCLUSION: The results suggest that expression of nm23 in parathyroid lesions is correlated with tumor proliferation rather than suppression of invasion and metastasis.
  • While our data suggest that nm23 may help in the distinction of normal from proliferative parathyroids, these results do not point to nm23 as a reliable prognostic marker in parathyroid lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / metabolism. Monomeric GTP-Binding Proteins. Nucleoside-Diphosphate Kinase. Parathyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15951858.001).
  • [ISSN] 0379-5284
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / NM23 Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinases; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 2.7.4.6 / NME1 protein, human; EC 2.7.4.6 / Nucleoside-Diphosphate Kinase; EC 3.6.5.2 / Monomeric GTP-Binding Proteins
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83. Baek KH, Jeon HM, Lee SS, Lim DJ, Oh KW, Lee WY, Rhee EJ, Han JH, Cha BY, Lee KW, Son HY, Kang SK, Kang MI: Short-term changes in bone and mineral metabolism following gastrectomy in gastric cancer patients. Bone; 2008 Jan;42(1):61-7
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  • [Title] Short-term changes in bone and mineral metabolism following gastrectomy in gastric cancer patients.
  • This study investigated 46 patients undergoing gastrectomy for gastric adenocarcinoma and analyzed 36 patients (58.1+/-10.8 years, 24 men and 12 women) who had dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) performed before and 1 year after gastrectomy.
  • Blood was sampled from all patients to determine serum calcium, phosphorous, and bone turnover marker levels before gastrectomy and at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months after surgery and for serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels before and 12 months after surgery.
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biomarkers. Body Weight. Collagen Type I. Female. Gastrectomy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Peptide Fragments / blood. Peptides. Procollagen / blood. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 17942383.001).
  • [ISSN] 8756-3282
  • [Journal-full-title] Bone
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bone
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Collagen Type I; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Peptides; 0 / Procollagen; 0 / collagen type I trimeric cross-linked peptide
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84. Cotant CL, Rao PS: Elevated fibroblast growth factor 23 in a patient with metastatic prostate cancer and hypophosphatemia. Am J Kidney Dis; 2007 Dec;50(6):1033-6
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  • [Title] Elevated fibroblast growth factor 23 in a patient with metastatic prostate cancer and hypophosphatemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / blood. Fibroblast Growth Factors / blood. Hypophosphatemia / blood. Osteomalacia / blood. Osteomalacia / diagnosis. Prostatic Neoplasms / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Humans. Male. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Syndrome. Vitamin D / analogs & derivatives. Vitamin D / blood

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  • (PMID = 18037105.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-6838
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Kidney Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / fibroblast growth factor 23; 1406-16-2 / Vitamin D; 62031-54-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factors; 64719-49-9 / 25-hydroxyvitamin D; 66772-14-3 / 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D
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85. Hastings RH, Burton DW, Nefzi A, Montgrain PR, Quintana R, Deftos LJ: Combinatorial library discovery of small molecule inhibitors of lung cancer proliferation and parathyroid hormone-related protein expression. Cancer Biol Ther; 2010 Nov 15;10(10):1067-75
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  • [Title] Combinatorial library discovery of small molecule inhibitors of lung cancer proliferation and parathyroid hormone-related protein expression.
  • PTHrP (parathyroid hormone-related protein) is abnormally expressed in a substantial majority of lung cancers, especially non-small cell lung cancers, and plays a key role in tumor progression.
  • Thus, this oncoprotein could be a target for treating patients with lung cancer.
  • Two libraries of over 780,000 bis-cyclic thiourea and guanidine compounds each were tested in BEN lung carcinoma cells.
  • Similar effects on PTHrP mRNA were observed in A549 and H441 lung adenocarcinoma cells and in H727 lung carcinoid cells.
  • These results suggest that cyclic thiourea compounds inhibit PTHrP expression mediated by the P3 promoter, which is widely used in the majority of PTHrP-expressing cells, and that they may inhibit growth of lung cancer cells through the same mechanism.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Combinatorial Chemistry Techniques. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein / antagonists & inhibitors. Peptides, Cyclic / chemistry. Peptides, Cyclic / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Blotting, Western. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Humans. Luciferases / metabolism. Promoter Regions, Genetic. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 20890111.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-8576
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biology & therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 1.13.12.- / Luciferases
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86. Cavicchi O, Piccin O, Caliceti U, De Cataldis A, Pasquali R, Ceroni AR: Transient hypoparathyroidism following thyroidectomy: a prospective study and multivariate analysis of 604 consecutive patients. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2007 Oct;137(4):654-8
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  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Gender, final diagnosis, extent of resection, biology of pathology, intrathoracic involvement, surgery for recurrent multinodular goiter, and presence and number of parathyroid glands in a surgical specimen were analyzed as risk factors for postoperative transient hypoparathyroidism.
  • CONCLUSION: The extent of surgery to central and/or lateral neck lymph nodes is responsible for a high rate of transient hypoparathyroidism owing to a high probability of unplanned parathyroidectomy or parathyroid gland devascularization.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Child. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Goiter, Nodular / surgery. Goiter, Substernal / surgery. Graves Disease / surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neck Dissection / adverse effects. Parathyroidectomy / adverse effects. Prospective Studies. Recurrence. Reoperation. Risk Factors. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17903586.001).
  • [ISSN] 0194-5998
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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87. Yang YJ, Han JW, Youn HD, Cho EJ: The tumor suppressor, parafibromin, mediates histone H3 K9 methylation for cyclin D1 repression. Nucleic Acids Res; 2010 Jan;38(2):382-90
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  • Parafibromin, a component of the RNA polymerase II-associated PAF1 complex, is a tumor suppressor linked to hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome and sporadic parathyroid carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 19906718.001).
  • [ISSN] 1362-4962
  • [Journal-full-title] Nucleic acids research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucleic Acids Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / Histones; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1; EC 2.1.1. / SUV39H1 protein, human; EC 2.1.1.- / Methyltransferases; EC 2.1.1.- / histone methyltransferase; EC 2.1.1.43 / Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2811029
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88. Akinci B, Comlekci A, Tankurt E: Hypercalcemia of primary hyperparathyroidism was treated by cinacalcet in a patient with liver cirrhosis. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2009 Mar;117(3):142-5
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  • Cinacalcet is a type II calcimimetic agent which is an allosteric modulator of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) located on the surface of the parathyroid cells.
  • Increasing sensitivity of CaR causes reduced secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and suppression of serum calcium levels.
  • Cinacalcet has recently been approved by Federal Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism on maintenance dialysis and hypercalcemia in patients with parathyroid cancer.
  • As she refused having parathyroid surgery for her parathyroid adenoma at first, her hypercalcemia was treated successfully with 30 mg/day cinacalcet for 6 months.
  • As she accepted surgery this time, her parathyroid adenoma was removed by minimally invasive parathyroidectomy.
  • Parathyroid adenoma was confirmed pathologically.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cinacalcet Hydrochloride. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 18561096.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3646
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Naphthalenes; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride
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89. Liu J, Wang JD: [Diagnosis and treatment of primary parathyroid carcinoma: report of 2 cases]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2008 Feb;43(2):150-1
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and treatment of primary parathyroid carcinoma: report of 2 cases].
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / therapy. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18510227.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-0860
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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90. Huang SC, Wu VC, Chou G, Huang TY, Lin SY, Sheu WH: Benign parathyroid adenoma presenting with unusual parathyroid crisis, anemia and myelofibrosis. J Formos Med Assoc; 2007 Feb;106(2 Suppl):S13-6
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  • [Title] Benign parathyroid adenoma presenting with unusual parathyroid crisis, anemia and myelofibrosis.
  • Although the clinical symptoms of patients with benign parathyroid adenoma are usually nonspecific and benign, a malignant presentation of the benign disease may sometimes occur.
  • Excision of a parathyroid adenoma was performed, and the anemia and bone marker regressed later.
  • These findings suggested that benign parathyroid adenoma may mimic the clinical presentation of parathyroid carcinoma, releasing excess parathyroid hormone and resulting in hyperparathyroid crisis.

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  • (PMID = 17493890.001).
  • [ISSN] 0929-6646
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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91. Goldfarb M, O'Neal P, Shih JL, Hartzband P, Connolly J, Hasselgren PO: Synchronous parathyroid carcinoma, parathyroid adenoma, and papillary thyroid carcinoma in a patient with severe and long-standing hyperparathyroidism. Endocr Pract; 2009 Jul-Aug;15(5):463-8
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  • [Title] Synchronous parathyroid carcinoma, parathyroid adenoma, and papillary thyroid carcinoma in a patient with severe and long-standing hyperparathyroidism.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe a patient presenting with the rare constellation of synchronous parathyroid carcinoma, parathyroid adenoma, and papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: The patient was a 59-year-old man who presented with severe clinical manifestations of long-standing primary hyperparathyroidism, a serum calcium concentration of 14.4 mg/dL, and a parathyroid hormone level of 2,023 pg/mL.
  • He was found to have a 3.4-cm parathyroid carcinoma on the left side and a 3.2-cm papillary carcinoma in the right thyroid lobe.
  • In addition, a 917-mg parathyroid adenoma was found on the right side.
  • CONCLUSION: Synchronous parathyroid and thyroid carcinomas are extremely rare.
  • To our knowledge, our patient is the first documented case with a parathyroid adenoma in addition to synchronous parathyroid and thyroid carcinomas.
  • The presence of concurrent parathyroid carcinoma and parathyroid adenoma can cause diagnostic confusion and should be considered in patients presenting with severe hyperparathyroidism.
  • Any concomitant thyroid nodules must be investigated to rule out thyroid carcinoma.

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  • [Cites] Ear Nose Throat J. 2002 Jun;81(6):395-8, 400-1 [12092283.001]
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  • (PMID = 19491068.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINR NIH HHS / NR / NR008545-06; United States / NINR NIH HHS / NR / R56 NR008545; United States / NINR NIH HHS / NR / R56 NR008545-06
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS217054; NLM/ PMC2917245
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92. Akkaş BE, Vural GU, Tan G: Parathyroid adenomas seen in the clinical follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma: a diagnostic dilemma. Clin Nucl Med; 2009 Feb;34(2):70-1
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  • [Title] Parathyroid adenomas seen in the clinical follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma: a diagnostic dilemma.
  • The coexistence of nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma and parathyroid adenoma is an uncommon clinical entity.
  • In most of the previously published studies, thyroid carcinomas are diagnosed incidentally during or after the treatment of parathyroid disease, mostly in the pathology specimens.
  • Here, we report 2 cases of parathyroid adenoma who presented years after the treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • Neither of the patients had symptoms of hypercalcemia and hyperparathyroidism, and parathyroid adenomas were diagnosed on routine physical examination of the neck and on routine monitoring of serum calcium levels.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 19352252.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0229
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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93. Tamura G, Miyoshi H, Ogata SY, Sasou S, Kudoh S, Kikuchi J, Yanagawa N, Motoyama T: Parathyroid carcinoma with anaplastic feature: association of a p53 gene mutation with anaplastic transformation. Pathol Int; 2009 Feb;59(2):107-10
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  • [Title] Parathyroid carcinoma with anaplastic feature: association of a p53 gene mutation with anaplastic transformation.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare neoplasm that accounts for only 1-3% of cases of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma is a well-differentiated tumor that is sometimes difficult to differentiate histopathologically from its benign counterpart, parathyroid adenoma.
  • The molecular mechanism of parathyroid carcinogenesis remains unknown, and investigators have reported that abnormalities of the p53 gene do not play a significant role in parathyroid carcinogenesis, unlike in other human malignancies.
  • The present report describes parathyroid carcinoma with anaplastic transformation of differentiated parathyroid carcinoma in a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Nuclear accumulation of p53 protein was found in anaplastic carcinoma cells but not in differentiated carcinoma cells.
  • Polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism followed by direct sequencing showed that anaplastic carcinoma cells carried a missense mutation at codon 248 (CGG to CAG) of the p53 gene, while the remaining differentiated carcinoma cells had the wild-type p53 gene.
  • These findings suggest that the p53 gene mutation is associated with anaplastic transformation of parathyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Genes, p53. Mutation, Missense. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. DNA Mutational Analysis. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism / etiology. Male. Parathyroidectomy. Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19154265.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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94. Pino Rivero V, Pantoja Hernández CG, Mora Santos ME, González Palomino A, Pardo Romero G, Gómez de Tejada Romero R, Blasco Huelva A: [Morphology of the parathyroid glands. A study of 146 samples and review of the literature]. An Otorrinolaringol Ibero Am; 2007;34(2):135-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Morphology of the parathyroid glands. A study of 146 samples and review of the literature].
  • [Transliterated title] Morfología de las glándulas paratiroides. Estudio de 146 muestras y revisión de la literatura.
  • Parathyroid hyperfunction condition has a very diverse and unspecific symptoms and signs.
  • We have performed an anatomopathologic study of 146 parathyroid gland from patients diagnosed from hyperparathyroidism.
  • About a 72.6% of the patients presented a parathyroid adenoma while in the rest 27.4% it was observed principal cells hyperplasia.
  • Up to now we have not registered any cases of parathyroid carcinoma after anatomopathological exam of the removed gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17549960.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-8874
  • [Journal-full-title] Anales otorrinolaringológicos ibero-americanos
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Otorrinolaringol Ibero Am
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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95. Travaini L, Trifiro G, Paganelli G: A parathyroid carcinoma within a cold thyroid nodule. Ecancermedicalscience; 2009;3:150
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  • [Title] A parathyroid carcinoma within a cold thyroid nodule.
  • A right emithyroidectomy and right superior and inferior parathyroidectomy was performed and histopathological examination showed a parathyroid carcinoma (immunohistochemistry positive for PTH and chromogranin A, Ki-67 10%) associated with follicular hyperplasia.

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  • (PMID = 22276015.001).
  • [ISSN] 1754-6605
  • [Journal-full-title] Ecancermedicalscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ecancermedicalscience
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3223989
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96. Grandjean M, Legrand L, Waterkeyn M, Baurain JF, Jadoul P, Donnez J, Marbaix E: Small cell carcinoma of pulmonary type inside a microinvasive mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary: a case report. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2007 Oct;26(4):426-31
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  • [Title] Small cell carcinoma of pulmonary type inside a microinvasive mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the ovary: a case report.
  • We report the occurrence of a small cell carcinoma of pulmonary type developed within a large borderline mucinous cystic tumor of the ovary, with another focus of microinvasive mucinous adenocarcinoma, in a 32-year-old woman.
  • The small cell carcinoma expresses several neuroendocrine markers, thyroid transcription factor 1 and parathyroid hormone.
  • Carbohydrate antigen 15.3 and carcinoembryonic antigen were focally detected but not cancer antigen 125.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17885493.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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97. Dudney WC, Bodenner D, Stack BC Jr: Parathyroid carcinoma. Otolaryngol Clin North Am; 2010 Apr;43(2):441-53, xi
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  • [Title] Parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare tumor that is prone to recurrence and poor local-regional control.
  • Despite advances in technologies that have shown promise for accurate diagnosis, the mainstay of initial diagnosis remains pathologic analysis and clinical assessment.
  • A surgeon's intraoperative analysis is important in managing patients with parathyroid carcinoma.
  • If parathyroid carcinoma is suspected intraoperatively, a more aggressive surgical strategy should be implemented.
  • This article presents a case series and summary of the existing parathyroid carcinoma literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hypercalcemia / blood. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Male. Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / secondary. Mediastinal Neoplasms / surgery. Middle Aged. Neck Dissection. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroidectomy. Ribs / pathology. Ribs / surgery. Thoracotomy. Thyroidectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20510726.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-8259
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngologic clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 69
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98. Domínguez JM, Velasco S, Goñi I, León A, González H, Claure R, Arteaga E, Campusano C, Fardella C, López JM, Mosso L, Rodríguez JA, González G: [Usefulness of intraoperative parathormone measurement to predict surgical cure in primary hyperparathyroidism]. Rev Med Chil; 2009 Dec;137(12):1591-6
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  • [Transliterated title] Utilidad de la PTH intraoperatoria como predictor de curación quirúrgica en hiperparatiroidismo primario.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Serum PTH was measured to all patients operated for PHPT between 2003 and 2008, before and five and ten minutes after the excision of the parathyroid gland causing the disease.
  • The criteria for complete cure were normal serum calcium at 24 hours and 6 months after surgery and the pathological confirmation of parathyroid gland excision.
  • The pathological study disclosed an adenoma in 69 (78%), and multiglandular disease in 16 (18%), a parathyroid cancer in one and a normal gland in one patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Calcium / blood. Hyperparathyroidism / surgery. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20361135.001).
  • [ISSN] 0034-9887
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista médica de Chile
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Chil
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Chile
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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99. Yang ZQ, Zhu LW, Wang PZ: [Diagnosis and surgical treatment of 48 cases of parathyroid adenoma and parathyroid carcinoma]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2006 Aug;28(8):625-7
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and surgical treatment of 48 cases of parathyroid adenoma and parathyroid carcinoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To summarize the experience in diagnosis and surgical treatment of parathyroid adenoma and carcinoma (PTA and PTC) in our department.
  • Among the 48 cases, 46 cases were of parathyroid adenoma and 2 cases of parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Serum calcium and PTH assays are both reliable methods for the diagnosis of PTA and PTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Calcium / blood. Echocardiography, Doppler, Color. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hypocalcemia / etiology. Male. Middle Aged. Neck Dissection. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroidectomy / adverse effects. Parathyroidectomy / methods. Retrospective Studies. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi

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  • (PMID = 17236561.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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100. Hahn MA, Marsh DJ: Identification of a functional bipartite nuclear localization signal in the tumor suppressor parafibromin. Oncogene; 2005 Sep 15;24(41):6241-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Parafibromin is a putative tumor suppressor encoded by HRPT2, mutations in which have been implicated in the familial tumor syndrome hyperparathyroidism jaw tumor syndrome (HPT-JT), and sporadic parathyroid carcinoma.
  • In support of these findings, specific HRPT2 mutations identified in HPT-JT or sporadic parathyroid carcinoma predicted to truncate parafibromin upstream of or within this NLS disrupt nuclear localization.
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Base Sequence. Cell Line. DNA Primers. Humans. Molecular Sequence Data. Mutagenesis, Site-Directed. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Sequence Homology, Amino Acid

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  • [Copyright] Oncogene (2005) 24, 6241-6248.
  • [ErratumIn] Oncogene. 2007 Feb 1;26(5):788
  • (PMID = 16116486.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-9232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Nuclear Localization Signals; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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