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1. Turrini R, Lanzani G, Salmi A: [Gallbladder adenoma with focal adenocarcinoma: a case report]. Recenti Prog Med; 2007 Oct;98(10):506-8
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  • [Title] [Gallbladder adenoma with focal adenocarcinoma: a case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Adenoma con focale adenocarcinoma della colecisti: descrizione di un caso.
  • Gallbladder polyps represent a frequent and asymptomatic finding on abdominal sonography.
  • We describe the ultrasound features of an asymptomatic 13-mm gallbladder polyp in a 29-year-old male.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report of a gallbladder polyp already presenting severe dysplasia in a young Caucasian male without risk factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic. Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Polyps / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cholecystitis / complications. Cholecystitis / diagnosis. Cholecystitis / surgery. Chronic Disease. Humans. Male. Video-Assisted Surgery

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  • (PMID = 17970176.001).
  • [ISSN] 0034-1193
  • [Journal-full-title] Recenti progressi in medicina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Recenti Prog Med
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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2. Okada K, Kijima H, Imaizumi T, Hirabayashi K, Matsuyama M, Yazawa N, Oida Y, Dowaki S, Tobita K, Ohtani Y, Tanaka M, Inokuchi S, Makuuchi H: Stromal laminin-5gamma2 chain expression is associated with the wall-invasion pattern of gallbladder adenocarcinoma. Biomed Res; 2009 Feb;30(1):53-62
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  • [Title] Stromal laminin-5gamma2 chain expression is associated with the wall-invasion pattern of gallbladder adenocarcinoma.
  • Our previous study demonstrated that the pT2 and pT3-4 gallbladder carcinomas can be classified into two groups, i.e. infiltrative growth type (IG type) and destructive growth type (DG type) and that the DG type is associated with poor differentiation, aggressive infiltration, and decreased postoperative survival.
  • The present study focused on the clinicopathologic significance of laminin-5gamma2 chain expression as an indicator of local aggressiveness and Ki-67 labeling index (Ki-67 LI) as an indicator of the cell proliferation activity of gallbladder carcinoma.
  • Gallbladder carcinoma cases with high Ki-67 LI were significantly associated with poorly differentiation (P = 0.089) and distant lymph node metastasis (P = 0.079).
  • Laminin-5gamma2 expression patterns of gallbladder carcinoma were divided into two distinct types, extracellular staining and cytoplasmic staining.
  • The cytoplasmic staining was not significantly correlated with invasion pattern in gallbladder carcinoma (P = 0.545).
  • In conclusion, high-grade cell proliferation and stromal laminin-5gamma2 staining were significantly correlated with a wall-invasion pattern of aggressive gallbladder carcinoma indicating destructive growth (DG type).
  • [MeSH-major] Gallbladder Neoplasms / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Laminin / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19265264.001).
  • [ISSN] 1880-313X
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomedical research (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomed. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / LAMC2 protein, human; 0 / Laminin
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3. Jahan M, Xiao P, Go A, Cheema M, Hameed A: Intraductal and invasive adenocarcinoma of duct of Luschka, mimicking chronic cholecystitis and cholelithiasis. World J Surg Oncol; 2009;7:4
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  • [Title] Intraductal and invasive adenocarcinoma of duct of Luschka, mimicking chronic cholecystitis and cholelithiasis.
  • BACKGROUND: Intraductal and invasive adenocarcinoma of duct of Luschka is rare.
  • Ultrasound examination revealed thickening of gallbladder wall with abnormal septation around liver bed.
  • Histologic examination confirmed an intraductal and invasive adenocarcinoma arising from Luschka ducts.
  • CONCLUSION: Adenocarcinoma of ducts of Luschka should be considered among differential diagnoses for the patients with typical clinical presentations of chronic cholecystitis and cholelithiasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic. Cholecystitis / diagnosis. Cholelithiasis / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chronic Disease. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • [Cites] J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg. 2001;8(5):494-8 [11702263.001]
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  • (PMID = 19128463.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2631453
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4. Hjartåker A, Langseth H, Weiderpass E: Obesity and diabetes epidemics: cancer repercussions. Adv Exp Med Biol; 2008;630:72-93
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  • [Title] Obesity and diabetes epidemics: cancer repercussions.
  • There is convincing evidence of a positive association between overweight/obesity and risk for adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus and the gastric cardia, colorectal cancer, postmenopausal breast cancer, endometrial cancer and kidney cancer (renal-cell).
  • Premenopausal breast cancer seems to be inversely related to obesity.
  • For all other cancer sites the evidence of an association between overweight/obesity and cancer is inadequate, although there are studies suggesting an increased risk of cancers of the liver, gallbladder, pancreas, thyroid gland and in lymphoid and haematopoietic tissue.
  • Far less is known about the association between diabetes mellitus type I (also called insulin dependent diabetes mellitus or juvenile diabetes), type II diabetes (called non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus or adult onset diabetes mellitus) and cancer risk.
  • The most common type of diabetes mellitus, type II, seems to be associated with liver and pancreas cancer and probably with colorectal cancer.
  • Some studies suggest an association with endometrial and postmenopausal breast cancer.
  • Studies reporting on the association between type I diabetes mellitus, which is relatively rare in most populations and cancer risk are scanty, but suggest a possible association with endometrial cancer.
  • Avoiding overweight and obesity, as well as preventing type II diabetes mellitus, is an important purpose to prevent cancer and other diseases.
  • Substantial public investments in preventing overweight, obesity and type II diabetes mellitus are both appropriate and necessary in order to have a major impact on their adverse health effects including cancer.

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  • (PMID = 18637486.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-2598
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in experimental medicine and biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 107
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5. El-Serag H, Hill C, Jones R: Systematic review: the epidemiology of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in primary care, using the UK General Practice Research Database. Aliment Pharmacol Ther; 2009 Mar 1;29(5):470-80
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  • BACKGROUND: Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common diagnosis in primary care; however, there has been no comprehensive review of the epidemiology of GERD in this setting.
  • A new diagnosis of GERD was associated with being overweight, obese or an ex-smoker.
  • Prior diagnoses of ischaemic heart disease, peptic ulcer disease, nonspecific chest pain, nonspecific abdominal pain, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma were associated with a subsequent new GERD diagnosis.
  • A first diagnosis of GERD was associated with an increased risk of a subsequent diagnosis of oesophageal adenocarcinoma, oesophageal stricture, chronic cough, sinusitis, chest pain, angina, gallbladder disease, irritable bowel syndrome or sleep problems.
  • Mortality may be higher in patients with a GERD diagnosis than in those without in the first year after diagnosis, but not long term.

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  • (PMID = 19035977.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2036
  • [Journal-full-title] Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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11. Ansari SM, Banu S, Awal MA, Siddique AB, Alam MM: Polypoid gall bladder lesions: is it necessary for immediate surgery? Bangladesh Med Res Counc Bull; 2007 Aug;33(2):44-7
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  • In 31 patients, who underwent surgery, the histological findings were cholesterol polyp/cholesterosis (n=14), cholesterosis with fibrous displasia of gall bladder (n=7), adenomyomatosis (n=3), hyperplastic cholecystosis (n=5) and adenocarcinoma (n=2).
  • Remaining 26 patients were under follow-up up to 18 months from first diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Gallbladder Diseases / surgery. Polyps / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Cholecystectomy. Cholesterol / metabolism. Gallbladder Neoplasms / metabolism. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18481437.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-9238
  • [Journal-full-title] Bangladesh Medical Research Council bulletin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bangladesh Med Res Counc Bull
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bangladesh
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol
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12. Lung PF, Cresswell AB, Psaila J, Patel AG: Novel deployment of a covered duodenal stent in open surgery to facilitate closure of a malignant duodenal perforation. World J Surg Oncol; 2009;7:79
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  • CASE PRESENTATION: A 38 year old Vietnamese man presented with a carcinoma of the colon which had invaded the gallbladder and duodenum with a sealed perforation of the second part of the duodenum.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Colonic Neoplasms / surgery. Duodenal Obstruction / surgery. Palliative Care / methods. Stents
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anastomosis, Surgical / methods. Cholecystectomy. Colonoscopy. Duodenal Neoplasms / secondary. Fatal Outcome. Gallbladder Neoplasms / secondary. Humans. Length of Stay. Male. Postoperative Complications / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19860895.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2774690
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13. Inoue T, Shiraki K, Fuke H, Yamanaka Y, Miyashita K, Ito K, Suzuki M, Sugimoto K, Murata K, Nakano T: Cardiac metastases of gallbladder carcinoma. World J Gastroenterol; 2005 Apr 7;11(13):2048-9
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  • [Title] Cardiac metastases of gallbladder carcinoma.
  • This report describes the case of a 68-year-old woman diagnosed with advanced gallbladder cancer, whose autopsy revealed multiple metastases, including cardiac metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Heart Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 15801006.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4305737
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14. Wirowski D, Treckmann J, Böhner H: [Paraneoplastic thrombosis of the internal jugular and subclavian veins as first manifestation of gall bladder cancer]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr; 2008 Dec;133(49):2562-4
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  • [Title] [Paraneoplastic thrombosis of the internal jugular and subclavian veins as first manifestation of gall bladder cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Paraneoplastische Thrombose der Vena jugularis interna und Vena subclavia als Erstmanifestation eines Gallenblasenkarzinoms.
  • INVESTIGATION AND DIAGNOSIS: Computed tomograph (CT) and phlebography showed extensive thrombosis of sigmoid sinus and the internal jugular, brachiocephalic and subclavian veins on the left side.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Jugular Veins. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / radiography. Subclavian Vein. Thrombosis / radiography


15. Park HS, Lim JY, Yoon DS, Park JS, Lee DK, Lee SJ, Choi HJ, Song SY, Lee WJ, Cho JY: Outcome of adjuvant therapy for gallbladder cancer. Oncology; 2010;79(3-4):168-73
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  • [Title] Outcome of adjuvant therapy for gallbladder cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of adjuvant therapy on the overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) after curative resection (RO) of patients with TNM stage II gallbladder (GB) cancer.
  • Among 61 stage II GB cancer patients, 43 received adjuvant therapy, while 18 others received surgery alone.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The data from this study do not provide evidence that adjuvant therapy is an effective treatment option for curative resected GB cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / therapy


16. Kurosaki I, Hatakeyama K, Minagawa M, Sato D: Portal vein resection in surgery for cancer of biliary tract and pancreas: special reference to the relationship between the surgical outcome and site of primary tumor. J Gastrointest Surg; 2008 May;12(5):907-18
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  • [Title] Portal vein resection in surgery for cancer of biliary tract and pancreas: special reference to the relationship between the surgical outcome and site of primary tumor.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Postoperative outcomes were compared between surgery with and without VR in each of the three disease-based groups: hilar cholangiocarcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with hilar extension (HIC, 56), middle and distal cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder carcinoma (DGC, 118), and pancreatic head adenocarcinoma (PHC, 77).
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / surgery. Cholangiocarcinoma / surgery. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery. Pancreatic Neoplasms / surgery. Portal Vein / surgery


17. Mojica P, Smith D, Ellenhorn J: Adjuvant radiation therapy is associated with improved survival for gallbladder carcinoma with regional metastatic disease. J Surg Oncol; 2007 Jul 1;96(1):8-13
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  • [Title] Adjuvant radiation therapy is associated with improved survival for gallbladder carcinoma with regional metastatic disease.
  • BACKGROUND: Gallbladder carcinoma is a rare malignancy and is associated with dismal outcomes.
  • The aim of this study was to better define the role of adjuvant radiation therapy in the management of gallbladder carcinoma.
  • METHODS: The Surveillance, Epidemiological, and End Results (SEER) survey from the National Cancer Institute was queried from 1992 to 2002.
  • RESULTS: There were a total of 3,187 cases of gallbladder carcinoma in the registry from 1992 to 2002.
  • CONCLUSION: The use of adjuvant radiation therapy is associated with improved survival in patients with locally advanced gallbladder cancer or gallbladder cancer with regional disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Gallbladder Neoplasms / mortality. Gallbladder Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17516546.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Kefeli M, Gonullu G, Can B, Malatyalioglu E, Kandemir B: Metastasis of adenocarcinoma of the gall bladder to an endometrial polyp detected by endometrial curettage: case report and review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 Jul;28(4):343-6
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  • [Title] Metastasis of adenocarcinoma of the gall bladder to an endometrial polyp detected by endometrial curettage: case report and review of the literature.
  • Breast carcinoma is the most frequent extragenital cancer that metastasizes to the endometrial polyp.
  • We report the case of a 63-year-old with metastatic gall bladder adenocarcinoma involving endometrial polyps detected by endometrial curetting.
  • After this diagnosis, bone metastases were detected during radiologic screening.
  • Gastrointestinal tumor metastasis to an endometrial polyp is a very rare event, but if a patient with a known primary extragenital tumor has abnormal vaginal bleeding, the possibility of metastasis should be included in the differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Endometrial Neoplasms / secondary. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Polyps / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19483630.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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19. Giatromanolaki A, Sivridis E, Simopoulos C, Polychronidis A, Gatter KC, Harris AL, Koukourakis MI: Hypoxia inducible factors 1alpha and 2alpha are associated with VEGF expression and angiogenesis in gallbladder carcinomas. J Surg Oncol; 2006 Sep 1;94(3):242-7
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  • [Title] Hypoxia inducible factors 1alpha and 2alpha are associated with VEGF expression and angiogenesis in gallbladder carcinomas.
  • AIMS: To investigate the significance of the hypoxia inducible factors HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha in gallbladder adenocarcinomas and their relation to angiogenesis and to the expression of VEGF, an angiogenic factor transcriptionally regulated by HIFalphas.
  • METHODS: HIF-1alpha and 2alpha expression was assessed immunohistochemically in 60 patients with early gallbladder adenocarcinomas, treated with surgery alone.
  • CONCLUSION: Hypoxia inducible factors are upregulated in a large proportion of gallbladder adenocarcinomas, a feature strongly related to increased expression of VEGF and intensified angiogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors / biosynthesis. Gallbladder Neoplasms / metabolism. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit / biosynthesis. Neovascularization, Pathologic / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / biosynthesis

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  • [Copyright] 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16900513.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / endothelial PAS domain-containing protein 1
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20. Akcali Z, Ozyilkan O, Sakalli H, Bal N, Noyan T: Gallbladder adenosquamous cell carcinoma: report of two cases. Acta Gastroenterol Belg; 2005 Oct-Dec;68(4):440-2
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  • [Title] Gallbladder adenosquamous cell carcinoma: report of two cases.
  • Adenocarcinoma is the usual histological presentation of the very rare gallbladder carcinoma.
  • Adenosquamous cell carcinoma accounts for less than 3.5% of gallbladder carcinomas, and is characterised by invasive growth, a reduced tendency for lymph node metastasis, an increased tendency for hepatic infiltration or liver metastasis, and a poorer prognosis than adenocarcinoma.
  • Adenosquamous carcinoma of the gallbladder was diagnosed on the post-operative pathological specimen.
  • Abdominal computed tomography (CT) imaging showed marked thickening of the gallbladder with direct extension of a mass into the left liver lobe.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / surgery. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16432998.001).
  • [ISSN] 1784-3227
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta gastro-enterologica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Gastroenterol. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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21. Brevet M, Brehant O, Dumont F, Regimbeau JM, Dupas JL, Chatelain D: [Adenomatous polyposis of the gallbladder and Gardner's syndrome. A rare association]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2007 Apr;31(4):425-7
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  • [Title] [Adenomatous polyposis of the gallbladder and Gardner's syndrome. A rare association].
  • [Transliterated title] Polypose adénomateuse vésiculaire et syndrome de Gardner: une association rare.
  • We report one case of adenomatous polyposis of the gallbladder in a 57 year-old woman with Gardner's syndrome presenting with cholangitis.
  • On gross examination the gallbladder contained two calculi and numerous flat or polypoid adenomas less than 1 cm in size.
  • Only 10 cases of gallbladder adenomas have been reported in the literature in patients presenting with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP).
  • These adenomatous gallbladder lesions are discovered late, often when the patient is older than 40.
  • Pathogenesis of gallbladder adenomas is still unclear.
  • It is difficult to assess the risk of malignancy: only 6 cases of gallbladder adenocarcinomas have been reported in patients with FAP.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyps / complications. Gallbladder Neoplasms / complications. Gardner Syndrome / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Cholecystectomy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gallbladder / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 17483782.001).
  • [ISSN] 0399-8320
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroentérologie clinique et biologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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22. Furuse J, Okusaka T, Boku N, Ohkawa S, Sawaki A, Masumoto T, Funakoshi A: S-1 monotherapy as first-line treatment in patients with advanced biliary tract cancer: a multicenter phase II study. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2008 Oct;62(5):849-55
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  • [Title] S-1 monotherapy as first-line treatment in patients with advanced biliary tract cancer: a multicenter phase II study.
  • A pilot phase II study showed S-1 monotherapy to be safe and active against biliary tract cancer (BTC).
  • Eligible patients had pathologically proven, unresectable adenocarcinoma with no prior chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
  • The primary tumor sites were as follows: gallbladder (n = 20), extrahepatic bile duct (n = 15), and the ampulla of Vater (n = 5).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / drug therapy. Oxonic Acid / therapeutic use. Tegafur / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18214482.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5704
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Drug Combinations; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid
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23. Oguzkurt L, Ozkan U, Gumus B: Percutaneous transhepatic cutting balloon papillotomy for removal of common bile duct stones. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol; 2009 Sep;32(5):1117-9
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  • We report the case of a 66-year-old female who presented with jaundice secondary to recurrent adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder and several common bile duct stones.

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  • (PMID = 19093146.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-086X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cardiovascular and interventional radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 451W47IQ8X / Sodium Chloride
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24. Petersen M, Meyer F, Kalinski T, Bischoff J, Bohr UR, Lippert H: [Rare neuroendocrine carcinoma of the gall bladder. Coincidental occurrence of an endometrioid ovarian adenocarcinoma]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr; 2009 Jan;134(1-2):19-22
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  • [Title] [Rare neuroendocrine carcinoma of the gall bladder. Coincidental occurrence of an endometrioid ovarian adenocarcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Seltenes neuroendokrines Karzinom der Gallenblase. Abgrenzung zur metachronen Koinzidenz mit einem endometrioiden Adenokarzinom des Ovars.
  • DIAGNOSIS: The tumor lesion within the gall bladder and lymph node was classified as a neuroendocrine carcinoma, not a metastasis of the ovarian carcinoma.
  • But for eight years there has been no recurrence of the endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the left ovary.
  • This is the first case, according to the available literature, of an endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the ovary concomitant with a neuroendocrine carcinoma of the gall bladder.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / diagnosis. Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [ErratumIn] Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2019 Sep;134(39):1915
  • (PMID = 19090447.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4413
  • [Journal-full-title] Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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25. Liu DC, Yang ZL, Jiang S: Identification of musashi-1 and ALDH1 as carcinogenesis, progression, and poor-prognosis related biomarkers for gallbladder adenocarcinoma. Cancer Biomark; 2010-2011;8(3):113-21
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  • [Title] Identification of musashi-1 and ALDH1 as carcinogenesis, progression, and poor-prognosis related biomarkers for gallbladder adenocarcinoma.
  • In this study, we investigated the expressions of Msi-1 and ALDH1 in gallbladder adenocarcinoma (n=100), peritumoral tissues (n=46), adenomatous polyp (n=15), and chronic cholecystitis (n=35) using immunohistochemical method.
  • The percentage of cases with positive Msi-1 and ALDH1 expression were significantly higher in gallbladder adenocarcinoma than that in peritumoral tissues, adenomatous polyp and chronic cholecystitis (ps < 0.01).
  • The expression of Msi-1 and ALDH1 was significantly associated with differentiation, tumor mass, lymph node metastasis and invasion of adenocarcinoma.
  • The expression of Msi-1 and ALDH1 was found to be highly consistent in gallbladder adenocarcinoma (p < 0.01).
  • Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that positive expression of Msi-1 or ALDH1 (p=0.016, p=0.006, respectively) was an independent bad-prognostic predictor in gallbladder adenocarcinoma.
  • Our study suggested that Msi-1 and/or ALDH1 expression might be closely related to the carcinogenesis, progression, clinical biological behaviors, and prognosis of gallbladder adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / physiopathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Gallbladder Neoplasms / physiopathology. Isoenzymes / analysis. Nerve Tissue Proteins / analysis. RNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Retinal Dehydrogenase / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenomatous Polyps / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Cholecystitis / metabolism. Disease Progression. Female. Gallbladder / chemistry. Gallbladder / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 22012766.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-8592
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biomarkers : section A of Disease markers
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biomark
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Isoenzymes; 0 / MSI1 protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins; EC 1.2.1.- / aldehyde dehydrogenase 1; EC 1.2.1.36 / Retinal Dehydrogenase
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26. Kaufman M, Mehrotra B, Limaye S, White S, Fuchs A, Lebowicz Y, Nissel-Horowitz S, Thomas A: EGFR expression in gallbladder carcinoma in North America. Int J Med Sci; 2008;5(5):285-91
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  • [Title] EGFR expression in gallbladder carcinoma in North America.
  • Small studies from Asia and Australia have demonstrated EGFR over-expression in gallbladder cancer.
  • We sought to evaluate the expression of EGFR in a series of 16 gallbladder cancer patients from North America.
  • Eight patients had poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, six had moderately differentiated and two had well-differentiated tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Gallbladder Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18825277.001).
  • [ISSN] 1449-1907
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2556051
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; differentiation / endothelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) / gallbladder cancer / her-2-neu / survival
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27. Cho JY, Nam JS, Park MS, Yu JS, Paik YH, Lee SJ, Lee DK, Yoon DS: A Phase II study of capecitabine combined with gemcitabine in patients with advanced gallbladder carcinoma. Yonsei Med J; 2005 Aug 31;46(4):526-31
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  • [Title] A Phase II study of capecitabine combined with gemcitabine in patients with advanced gallbladder carcinoma.
  • The authors evaluated survival, response, and toxicity associated with using a combination of capecitabine and gemcitabine to treat patients with unresectable or metastatic gallbladder adenocarcinoma (GBC).
  • Median age at the time of diagnosis was 62 years (range, 41-78 years).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16127778.001).
  • [ISSN] 0513-5796
  • [Journal-full-title] Yonsei medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Yonsei Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2815838
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28. Okada K, Kijima H, Imaizumi T, Hirabayashi K, Matsuyama M, Yazawa N, Oida Y, Dowaki S, Tobita K, Ohtani Y, Tanaka M, Inokuchi S, Makuuchi H: Wall-invasion pattern correlates with survival of patients with gallbladder adenocarcinoma. Anticancer Res; 2009 Feb;29(2):685-91
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  • [Title] Wall-invasion pattern correlates with survival of patients with gallbladder adenocarcinoma.
  • Gallbladder carcinomas (GBC) frequently show vascular invasion and metastasis when the carcinoma cells invade the perimuscular connective tissue (pT2 according to the TNM classification) through the muscular layer.
  • Sixty-six surgically resected gallbladder adenocarcinomas invading the perimuscular connective tissue (pT2) and beyond the gallbladder wall, including the visceral serosa, (pT3/pT4) were examined.
  • In conclusion, the DG invasion pattern is an indicator of high malignant potential and indirectly worsens the prognosis of patients with gallbladder adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19331223.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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29. Mukhia R, Shrestha S, Malla K, Sharma VK: Cutaneous metastases from carcinoma of gall bladder. JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc; 2009 Oct-Dec;48(176):318-20
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  • Fine needle aspiration cytology and excisional biopsy revealed a metastatic adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / secondary. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 21105558.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2715
  • [Journal-full-title] JNMA; journal of the Nepal Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nepal
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30. Rajagopalan S, Loudon M: Images in clinical medicine. Abdominal-wall abscess. N Engl J Med; 2010 Feb 25;362(8):e24
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  • [MeSH-major] Abscess / radiography. Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20181968.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4406
  • [Journal-full-title] The New England journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] N. Engl. J. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Gumbs AA, Gayet B: Multimedia article. Totally laparoscopic extended right hepatectomy. Surg Endosc; 2008 Sep;22(9):2076-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / blood supply. Adenocarcinoma / complications. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic. Cholelithiasis / complications. Cholelithiasis / surgery. Embolization, Therapeutic. Gallbladder Neoplasms / blood supply. Gallbladder Neoplasms / complications. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery. Gallbladder Neoplasms / therapy. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Portal Vein

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  • (PMID = 18553117.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Video-Audio Media
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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32. Kitajima K, Kobayashi S, Shiba H, Uwagawa T, Ishida Y, Aiba K, Kawakami M, Yanaga K: Successful treatment of advanced gallbladder cancer with an anticancer drug S-1: assessment based on intratumoral gene. Int J Clin Oncol; 2008 Dec;13(6):545-51
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  • [Title] Successful treatment of advanced gallbladder cancer with an anticancer drug S-1: assessment based on intratumoral gene.
  • While surgical resection is the most effective treatment for gallbladder cancer, most of these cancers are not resectable at the time of diagnosis, and therefore, chemotherapy serves as the primary therapy in many cases.
  • However, to date, there is no standard chemotherapy for this cancer.
  • We report a case of advanced gallbladder cancer for which the anticancer drug S-1 was effective.
  • On workup, all abdominal images revealed the presence of advanced gallbladder cancer that had invaded the liver.
  • Because the gallbladder formed a relatively hard and swollen mass involving the omentum, as revealed during exploration, the surgical resection of the gallbladder was not possible at that time, and only hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed.
  • Pathologically, the tumor was diagnosed as an adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder, and no evidence of liver invasion was found.
  • Intratumoral gene expression analysis of the resected gallbladder revealed significantly elevated DPD expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Dihydrouracil Dehydrogenase (NADP) / genetics. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / genetics. Oxonic Acid / therapeutic use. Tegafur / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19093184.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Drug Combinations; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid; EC 1.3.1.2 / Dihydrouracil Dehydrogenase (NADP); U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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33. Saikusa N, Naito S, Iinuma Y, Ohtani T, Yokoyama N, Nitta K: Invasive cholangiocarcinoma identified in congenital biliary dilatation in a 3-year-old boy. J Pediatr Surg; 2009 Nov;44(11):2202-5
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  • A diagnosis of Todani's type 1a CBD was made.
  • The excision of extrahepatic bile duct and gallbladder and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy were performed.
  • However, the postoperative histopathologic examinations confirmed the presence of well-differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma with lymphovascular invasion.

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  • (PMID = 19944233.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Huang CP, Chiou YY, Chou YH, Chiang JH, Chang CY: Imaging findings in mucin-producing carcinoma of the gallbladder. J Formos Med Assoc; 2006 May;105(5):427-30
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  • [Title] Imaging findings in mucin-producing carcinoma of the gallbladder.
  • Mucin-producing carcinoma of the gallbladder is rare, and its imaging features have not been well documented.
  • We present a 73-year-old male with mucin-producing carcinoma of the gallbladder, emphasizing its imaging features on ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.
  • The tumor usually presents as a cauliflower-like soft tissue mass with small calcified spots in the gallbladder wall and some laminated high viscosity fluid inside the gallbladder cavity.
  • Recognition of these features can provide clues to the diagnosis of mucin-producing carcinoma of the gallbladder.

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  • (PMID = 16638655.001).
  • [ISSN] 0929-6646
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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35. Ikeda T, Ohgaki K, Miura M, Aishima S, Shimizu T, Maehara Y: Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor-producing gallbladder cancer without recurrence more than 2 years after resection: report of a case. Surg Today; 2005;35(7):590-3
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  • [Title] Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor-producing gallbladder cancer without recurrence more than 2 years after resection: report of a case.
  • Patients with gallbladder carcinoma rarely have remarkable granulocytosis.
  • Although surgical resection is the most effective treatment, patients with gallbladder carcinoma generally have a very poor prognosis.
  • We report a case of a rapidly growing gallbladder tumor associated with remarkable granulocytosis in a patient who has survived without recurrence for more than 2 years since undergoing resection.
  • A histological diagnosis of moderately differentiated gallbladder carcinoma with sarcomatous change invading the hepatic parenchyma was confirmed.
  • An immunohistochemical examination using polyclonal antibody against G-CSF was performed to stain the tumor cells, which confirmed the diagnosis of a G-CSF-producing tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Gallbladder Neoplasms / metabolism. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 15976958.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor
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36. Kundu AK, Karmakar PS, Bera AB, Pal SK: Carcinoma of the gall bladder presenting as dermatomyositis. J Assoc Physicians India; 2005 Mar;53:219-22
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  • We present such a case of DM associated with characteristic skin lesions and subacute onset of proximal muscle weakness, acquired from a very rare malignancy like adenocarcinoma of gall bladder.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Dermatomyositis / etiology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / etiology

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  • (PMID = 15926608.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-5772
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Assoc Physicians India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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37. Singh S, Gupta P, Khanna R, Khanna AK: Simultaneous breast and ovarian metastasis from gallbladder carcinoma. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int; 2010 Oct;9(5):553-4
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  • [Title] Simultaneous breast and ovarian metastasis from gallbladder carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Gallbladder carcinoma is a common malignancy in the Indian subcontinent.
  • METHOD: This report describes an unusual case of carcinoma gallbladder metastasizing to the breast and ovary at the same time.
  • Ultrasound of the abdomen revealed hepatomegaly with thick-walled gallbladder with multiple stones and a mass at the fundus, but normal uterus and ovary.
  • Contrast-enhanced computer tomography of the abdomen showed a gallbladder mass infiltrating the liver parenchyma.
  • Histopathological examination revealed a poorly-differentiated adenocarcinoma with mar-gins free from tumor infiltration.
  • Simple mastectomy and salphingo-opherectomy were performed, and histopathological examination revealed a metastatic adenocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: This is an unusual case of carcinoma of the gallbladder with metastasis to the breast and ovary, which has not been documented before.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 20943468.001).
  • [ISSN] 1499-3872
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatobiliary & pancreatic diseases international : HBPD INT
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HBPD INT
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine
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38. Deshpande V, Chicano S, Finkelberg D, Selig MK, Mino-Kenudson M, Brugge WR, Colvin RB, Lauwers GY: Autoimmune pancreatitis: a systemic immune complex mediated disease. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Dec;30(12):1537-45
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  • Extrapancreatic lesions included bile duct (n=3), salivary glands (n=3), lung (n=2), gallbladder (n=11), and kidney (n=4).
  • A control cohort composed of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (n=19) and chronic pancreatitis-not otherwise specified (NOS) (n=14) was also evaluated.
  • The AIP cases showed significantly more pancreatic IgG4 positive plasma cells than chronic pancreatitis-NOS or adenocarcinoma (P=0.001).
  • However, IgG4 positive cells were identified in 57.1% of chronic pancreatitis-NOS and 47.4% of ductal adenocarcinoma.
  • Documentation of increased numbers of tissue IgG4 positive plasma cells, although not an entirely specific marker for AIP, may provide ancillary evidence for the diagnosis of a IgG4-related systemic disease.

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  • [ErratumIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2007 Feb;31(2):328. Chiocca, Sonia [corrected to Chicano, Sonia]
  • (PMID = 17122509.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigen-Antibody Complex; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Immunoglobulin G
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39. Nakazawa K, Dobashi Y, Suzuki S, Fujii H, Takeda Y, Ooi A: Amplification and overexpression of c-erbB-2, epidermal growth factor receptor, and c-met in biliary tract cancers. J Pathol; 2005 Jul;206(3):356-65
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  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Ampulla of Vater / pathology. Bile Duct Neoplasms / genetics. Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / pathology. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / pathology. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / genetics. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Gallbladder Neoplasms / genetics. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Gene Amplification / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence / methods. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 15892172.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3417
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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40. Ogren M, Bergqvist D, Wåhlander K, Eriksson H, Sternby NH: Trousseau's syndrome - what is the evidence? A population-based autopsy study. Thromb Haemost; 2006 Mar;95(3):541-5
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  • Despite numerous studies documenting the association between cancer and venous thromboembolism (VTE), the reason for the excessive risk in certain cancers remains obscure.
  • No large-scale studies have yet investigated the independent effects of cancer type, site and growth pattern.
  • The relationship between cancer and PE was evaluated with logistic regression.
  • Forty-two per cent of pancreatic cancer patients had PE (OR 2.55; 95% CI 2.10-3.09) (p<0.001); gall bladder, gastric, colorectal and pulmonary adenocarcinomas were similarly independently associated with PE.
  • In comparison with squamous cell lung cancer, patients with pulmonary adenocarcinoma had 1.65 times higher odds for PE (95% CI 1.20-2.29).
  • Adenocarcinoma and metastatic cancer were independently associated with PE risk (OR 1.27; 95% CI 1.16-1.40; p<0.001, and OR 1.10;95% CI 1.01-1.20; p=0.024, respectively) but when controlling for cancer type and spread, pancreatic cancer was still associated with an OR of 2.10 (95% CI 1.71-2.58) of PE (p<0.001).
  • We conclude that the risk of PE in cancer patients depends not only on the cancer site and spread but also on the histological type.
  • The excess independent risk in pancreatic cancer is intriguing and should warrant further research.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Gallbladder Neoplasms / complications. Pancreatic Neoplasms / complications. Pulmonary Embolism / etiology. Stomach Neoplasms / complications


41. Engeland A, Tretli S, Austad G, Bjørge T: Height and body mass index in relation to colorectal and gallbladder cancer in two million Norwegian men and women. Cancer Causes Control; 2005 Oct;16(8):987-96
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  • [Title] Height and body mass index in relation to colorectal and gallbladder cancer in two million Norwegian men and women.
  • OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed at exploring the relations between BMI and stature and colorectal and gallbladder cancer in a huge Norwegian cohort with measured height and weight.
  • During follow-up, 47,117 colorectal and 1715 gallbladder cancer cases were registered.
  • Relative risks (RRs) of colorectal and gallbladder cancer were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression.
  • RESULTS: The risk of colon cancer increased with increasing BMI in men; the RR of colon cancer per unit increase in BMI was 1.04 (95% CI: 1.04-1.05).
  • For mucinous colorectal adenocarcinomas, the risk increased to a larger extent with increasing BMI in both sexes.
  • The RR of colorectal cancer associated with 10 cm increase in height was 1.14 (95% CI: 1.11-1.16) in men and 1.17 (95% CI: 1.14-1.20) in women.
  • The risk of gallbladder cancer increased with increasing BMI in women; the overall RR associated with one unit increase in BMI was 1.06 (95% CI: 1.04-1.07).
  • There was no association between height and gallbladder cancer in either sex.
  • CONCLUSION: The risk of colon cancer increased with increasing BMI in men, and the risk of gallbladder cancer increased with increasing BMI in women.
  • In both sexes, the risk of colon cancer increased with increasing height.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / epidemiology. Body Height. Body Mass Index. Colorectal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / epidemiology


42. Tewari M, Kumar V, Mishra RR, Kumar M, Shukla HS: Is there a role for cholecystectomy in gallbladder carcinoma discovered to be unresectable for cure at laparotomy? World J Surg; 2008 Dec;32(12):2683-7
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  • [Title] Is there a role for cholecystectomy in gallbladder carcinoma discovered to be unresectable for cure at laparotomy?
  • BACKGROUND: Palliative operative resection in patients with locally advanced cancer of the gallbladder (GBC) found not to be amenable to radical resection for cure at exploration has received little attention.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Cholecystectomy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery. Palliative Care

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  • [CommentIn] World J Surg. 2008 Dec;32(12):2688-9 [18850247.001]
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  • (PMID = 18836852.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. Costantini M, Montalti R, Rossi G, Luisa L, Masetti M, Di Benedetto F, Giorgio G: Adenocarcinoid tumor of the extrahepatic biliary tract. Int J Surg Pathol; 2008 Oct;16(4):455-7
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  • The term adenocarcinoid was first coined by Warkel et al in 1978 to describe a group of uncommon low-grade malignant appendiceal tumors with morphologic and histochemical evidence of both glandular (adenocarcinoma) and neuroendocrine (carcinoid) differentiation for which several terms have been used in the past.
  • Although the appendix is the most frequent site of this tumor, similar neoplasms have been reported also in other sites, such as colon, gallbladder, Vater's ampulla, and stomach.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Klatskin Tumor / pathology. Middle Aged. Ovarian Cysts / complications. Sjogren's Syndrome / complications. Tonsillectomy

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  • (PMID = 18480386.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. Ikeda T, Nakayama Y, Hamada Y, Takeshita M, Iwasaki H, Maeshiro K, Yamashita Y, Kuroki M, Ikeda S: FU-MK-1 expression in human gallbladder carcinoma: an antigenic prediction marker for a better postsurgical prognosis. Am J Clin Pathol; 2009 Jul;132(1):111-7
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  • [Title] FU-MK-1 expression in human gallbladder carcinoma: an antigenic prediction marker for a better postsurgical prognosis.
  • Gallbladder carcinoma is an aggressive type of neoplasm difficult to cure by conventional procedures.
  • Because of the lack of reliable markers for assessing the prognosis, this retrospective study was designed to investigate the prognostic significance of MK-1 overexpression in human carcinoma of the gallbladder.
  • Immunohistochemical staining using monoclonal antibody FU-MK-1 (MK-1 antigen) was performed on paraffin-embedded tissues from 63 patients who had undergone surgical resection for gallbladder carcinoma.
  • All 21 papillary and 12 of 13 well-differentiated tubular adenocarcinomas but only 1 of 8 poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas were positive for FU-MK-1.
  • These results suggest that MK-1 expression is a prognostic marker in gallbladder carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Cell Adhesion Molecules / metabolism. Cholecystectomy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19864241.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-7722
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / EPCAM protein, human
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45. Shukla VK, Chauhan VS, Kumar M: Telomerase activation--one step on the road to carcinoma of the gall bladder. Anticancer Res; 2006 Nov-Dec;26(6C):4761-6
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  • BACKGROUND: As information on telomeres and telomerase dynamics in the regulation of cell cycle events accumulates, new opportunities for application to gerontology and cancer therapy are emerging.
  • Telomerase activity was mainly concentrated in poorly-differentiated adenocarcinomas (83.33%) and increased expression was noted in advanced stages.
  • CONCLUSION: The presence of telomerase may serve as a molecular marker for the diagnosis of gall bladder carcinoma and may have prognostic and therapeutic implications in the treatment of patients in the future.
  • [MeSH-major] Gallbladder Neoplasms / enzymology. Telomerase / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / enzymology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Alkaline Phosphatase / metabolism. Antibodies, Monoclonal / chemistry. Enzyme Activation. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17214337.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase
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46. Orts JA, Morell L, Camps J, Traba ML, Belenguer A, Guerrero A: [Multiple enterolithiasis, coexisting with bladder and gallbladder lithiasis, associated with colon adenocarcinoma]. An Med Interna; 2005 May;22(5):227-30
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  • [Title] [Multiple enterolithiasis, coexisting with bladder and gallbladder lithiasis, associated with colon adenocarcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Enterolitiasis múltiple, coexistiendo con litiasis biliar y vesical, asociada a adenocarcinoma de colon.
  • We report a case of multiple enterolithiasis, very infrequent pathology, coexisting with bladder and gall bladder lithiasis in a patient with colon adenocarcinoma.
  • Diagnosis was made by X-rays and CT images.
  • No risk factors for lithogenesis were found in this patient excluding the intestinal stasis caused by intestinal narrowing as a result of adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Calculi / complications. Cholelithiasis / complications. Colonic Neoplasms / complications. Intestinal Diseases / complications. Urinary Bladder Calculi / complications

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  • (PMID = 16001938.001).
  • [ISSN] 0212-7199
  • [Journal-full-title] Anales de medicina interna (Madrid, Spain : 1984)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Med Interna
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 27YLU75U4W / Phosphorus; I38ZP9992A / Magnesium; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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47. Ueda S, Kubota M, Kuroki S, Wada M: Gallbladder cancer in a patient with Miller-Dieker syndrome. Acta Paediatr; 2006 Jan;95(1):113-4
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  • [Title] Gallbladder cancer in a patient with Miller-Dieker syndrome.
  • We report the case of a male patient with Miller-Dieker syndrome (MDS) and gallbladder cancer.
  • Chromosome analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed a deletion in the 17p13.3 region, an area thought to contain tumour suppressor genes, including the hypermethylated in cancer 1 gene.
  • Considering the rarity of gallbladder cancer in children, we propose that MDS as the genetic background of this patient may have played a role in the occurrence of gallbladder cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Abnormalities, Multiple / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / etiology. Chromosome Deletion. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17. Gallbladder Neoplasms / etiology


48. Tsuchiya A, Endo Y, Yazawa T, Saito A, Inoue N: Adenoendocrine cell carcinoma of the gallbladder: report of a case. Surg Today; 2006;36(9):849-52
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  • [Title] Adenoendocrine cell carcinoma of the gallbladder: report of a case.
  • Adenoendocrine cell carcinoma of the gallbladder is an uncommon form of cancer.
  • The abnormality was diagnosed to be a tumor-like mass in the gallbladder, and adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder was strongly suspected.
  • A laparoscopic cholecystectomy was successfully performed, and the histopathological finding was adenoendocrine cell carcinoma of the gallbladder.
  • The tumor cells of the small round cell carcinoma partly stained positively for synaptophysin, neuron-specific enolase, and CD 56, while adenocarcinoma cells showed positive reactions to keratin, which was thus suggestive of adenoendocrine cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / surgery. Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [Cites] Pathol Res Pract. 1989 Mar;184(3):279-86 [2748451.001]
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  • (PMID = 16937295.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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49. Medina-Franco H, Ramos-Gallardo G, Orozco-Zepeda H, Mercado-Díaz MA: [Prognostic factor in gallbladder cancer]. Rev Invest Clin; 2005 Sep-Oct;57(5):662-5
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  • [Title] [Prognostic factor in gallbladder cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Factores pronósticos en cáncer de vesícula.
  • BACKGROUND: Gallbladder cancer is a rare and aggressive neoplasm.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this manuscript was to evaluate the prognostic factors associated with overall survival in gallbladder cancer patients.
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of the patients with gallbladder cancer who received attention in a tertiary referral center in Mexico City during a 13 year period (1990-2002).
  • Fifty-seven percent of patients had previous diagnosis of cholelithiasis.
  • Ninety-eight percent of the tumors were adenocarcinoma and 25% were poorly differentiated.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Most cases of gallbladder cancer presented with advanced stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Gallbladder Neoplasms / mortality

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  • (PMID = 16419459.001).
  • [ISSN] 0034-8376
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de investigación clínica; organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev. Invest. Clin.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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50. Ariyama H, Qin B, Baba E, Tanaka R, Mitsugi K, Harada M, Nakano S: Gefitinib, a selective EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, induces apoptosis through activation of Bax in human gallbladder adenocarcinoma cells. J Cell Biochem; 2006 Mar 1;97(4):724-34
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  • [Title] Gefitinib, a selective EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, induces apoptosis through activation of Bax in human gallbladder adenocarcinoma cells.
  • Although gefitinib, a selective inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase, has been clinically demonstrated to be effective for certain cancer cell types, the molecular mechanisms of the anti-tumor activity have not been fully elucidated.
  • In this study, we investigated the mechanism of gefitinib-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in HAG-1 human gallbladder adenocarcinoma cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Apoptosis / drug effects. Gallbladder Neoplasms / metabolism. Quinazolines / pharmacology. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. bcl-2-Associated X Protein / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16229013.001).
  • [ISSN] 0730-2312
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cellular biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cell. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Quinazolines; 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases; S65743JHBS / gefitinib
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51. Lódi C, Szabó E, Holczbauer A, Batmunkh E, Szíjártó A, Kupcsulik P, Kovalszky I, Paku S, Illyés G, Kiss A, Schaff Z: Claudin-4 differentiates biliary tract cancers from hepatocellular carcinomas. Mod Pathol; 2006 Mar;19(3):460-9
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  • Intense membranous immunolabeling was found for claudin-4 in all biliary tract cancers unrelated to the primary site of origin, namely intrahepatic, extrahepatic or gallbladder cancers.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Blotting, Western. Claudin-4. Diagnosis, Differential. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratin-7. Keratins / analysis. Laminin / analysis. Liver / metabolism. Liver / pathology. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tissue Array Analysis / methods

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  • (PMID = 16439986.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CLDN4 protein, human; 0 / Claudin-4; 0 / KRT7 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / Laminin; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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52. Chakravarty KD, Yeh CN, Jan YY, Chen MF: Factors influencing long-term survival in patients with T3 gallbladder adenocarcinoma. Digestion; 2009;79(3):151-7
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  • [Title] Factors influencing long-term survival in patients with T3 gallbladder adenocarcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: This study aimed to identify the factors influencing the surgical outcome in patients with T3 gallbladder adenocarcinoma (GBA).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19329854.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9867
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestion
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Digestion
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-19-9 Antigen; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen
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53. Sakamoto K, Kimura N, Tokumura H, Ogasawara T, Moriya T, Sasano H: Hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder. Histopathology; 2005 Dec;47(6):649-51
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  • [Title] Hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16324210.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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54. Li LF, Hu HZ, Liu C, Wang JH, Wu HP, Jin HJ, Su CQ, Jiang XQ, Liu J, Gu JZ, Wu MC, Qian QJ: [Establishment and characterization of a human gallbladder carcinoma cell line EH-GB1 originated from a metastatic tumor]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2010 Feb;32(2):84-7
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  • [Title] [Establishment and characterization of a human gallbladder carcinoma cell line EH-GB1 originated from a metastatic tumor].
  • OBJECTIVE: To establish a human gallbladder carcinoma cell line derived from a metastatic gallbladder carcinoma and identify its biological characteristics.
  • RESULTS: A novel metastatic gallbladder carcinoma cell line was successfully established and named "EH-GB1".
  • CONCLUSION: EH-GB1 cells might be the first stable cell line of human gallbladder carcinoma established from a metastatic focus of gallbladder carcinoma.
  • This cell line with continuous expressions of GFP and Red2 might be a novel and perfect experimental model for clinical and basic research on gallbladder carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / secondary. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Cell Line, Tumor / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20403235.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-19-9 Antigen; 147336-22-9 / Green Fluorescent Proteins
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55. Tayo JR, Al-Abdulkarim H, Al-Rayess M: Brain metastasis as an initial manifestation of a gallbladder carcinoma. Neurosciences (Riyadh); 2005 Jul;10(3):235-7
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  • [Title] Brain metastasis as an initial manifestation of a gallbladder carcinoma.
  • Though autopsy studies demonstrated 5% metastasis to the brain, clinical presentation of a central nervous system metastasis from gallbladder cancer is rare.
  • We report a case of a 72-year-old woman who initially presented with a solitary brain metastasis from an adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder, which was diagnosed pre-operatively as glioblastoma multiforme.
  • We emphasize the importance of including metastasis in the differential diagnosis of single intracranial tumor for proper planning of patient management.

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  • (PMID = 22473267.001).
  • [ISSN] 1319-6138
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosciences (Riyadh, Saudi Arabia)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosciences (Riyadh)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
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56. Gold DG, Miller RC, Haddock MG, Gunderson LL, Quevedo F, Donohue JH, Bhatia S, Nagorney DM: Adjuvant therapy for gallbladder carcinoma: the Mayo Clinic Experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2009 Sep 1;75(1):150-5
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  • [Title] Adjuvant therapy for gallbladder carcinoma: the Mayo Clinic Experience.
  • PURPOSE: To analyze the effect of adjuvant chemoradiotherapy on gallbladder carcinoma.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: We retrospectively reviewed the records from consecutive patients who underwent R0 resection of gallbladder carcinoma between January 1, 1985, and December 31, 2004.
  • On univariate analysis, no adverse prognostic factors for OS reached statistical significance, but trends were noted for Stage N1 vs. N0 (p = .06), Nx vs. N0 (p = .09), Stage T3 vs. T1-T2 (p = .06), and histologic findings other than adenocarcinoma (p = .13).
  • In the multivariate Cox model, increasing T and N category and histologic findings other than adenocarcinoma were significant predictors of decreased OS.
  • CONCLUSION: After adjusting for the stage parameters and histologic findings, our data suggest that adjuvant chemoradiotherapy might improve OS for patients with gallbladder cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / mortality. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Analysis of Variance. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / mortality. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19297105.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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57. Tomita R: Gastric emptying function in patients 5 years after pylorus-preserving distal gastrectomy with or without preserving pyloric and hepatic branches of the vagal nerve for early gastric cancer. World J Surg; 2009 Oct;33(10):2119-26
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  • [Title] Gastric emptying function in patients 5 years after pylorus-preserving distal gastrectomy with or without preserving pyloric and hepatic branches of the vagal nerve for early gastric cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: To clarify the significance of preserving pyloric and hepatic branches of the vagal nerve (PHV) after pylorus preserving distal gastrectomy (PPG) for early gastric cancer, the author investigated the postgastrectomy syndrome and gastric emptying function at 5 years in PPG patients with or without preserving the PHV.
  • However, more cholecystolithiasis (gallbladder stones) was found in group A than in group B, with the difference being significant (P < 0.0391).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Gastric Emptying / physiology. Postgastrectomy Syndromes / physiopathology. Stomach Neoplasms / surgery. Vagus Nerve / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19649759.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2323
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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58. Hamila F, Letaief R, Khnissi M, Derbel F, Mazhoud J, Ben Ali A, Dahmene Y, Ben Hadj Hamida R: [Port site recurrence after laparoscopic cholecystectomy]. Tunis Med; 2006 Nov;84(11):697-700
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  • BACKGROUND: Gallbladder cancer diagnosis is usually at a later stage.
  • Only 1% of gallbladder cancers are discovered fortuitously at infra-clinic stage when histological exam of cholecystectomy specimen.
  • Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was realised for gallbladder lithiasis or polyps.
  • The aim of our study is to report our series of port site metastasis complicating gallbladder cancer discovered fortuitously after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
  • Ten gallbladder cancers were diagnosed than the incidence was 0.39%.
  • RESULTS: Gallbladder cancer diagnosis was carried out by histology in 8 cases, and when port site metastasis in two cases whereas histological exam of cholecystectomy specimen was negative.
  • Recurrence of gallbladder cancer was in port site in 4 cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic / adverse effects. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Seeding. Skin Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17294893.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
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59. Takasawa O, Kobayashi G, Noda Y, Ito K, Horaguchi J, Fujita N, Kobari M: [A case of superficial bile duct carcinoma showing extensive intraductal spread without bile duct stenosis, diagnosed by intraductal ultrasonography]. Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi; 2007 Feb;104(2):226-32
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  • We report a case of superficial bile duct carcinoma showing extensive intraductal spread without dilatation of the bile duct in which diagnosis was established preoperatively by transpapillary forceps biopsy and intraductal ultrasonography.
  • A 78-year-old man was given a diagnosis of acute cholecystitis, and percutaneous transhepatic gallbladder drainage (PTGBD) was performed.
  • Histological examination verified a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma confined to the epithelium and the fibromuscular layer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / ultrasonography. Bile Duct Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Bile Ducts / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Aged. Biopsy. Cholecystitis / diagnosis. Drainage. Gallbladder / surgery. Hepatectomy. Humans. Jejunostomy. Male

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  • (PMID = 17283418.001).
  • [ISSN] 0446-6586
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai zasshi = The Japanese journal of gastro-enterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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60. Yamamoto A, Ozeki Y, Ito Y, Horita R, Saji S, Sugiyama H, Matsunaga K: [A case of well differentiated mucinous carcinoma of the gallbladder]. Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi; 2010 Nov;107(11):1821-7
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  • [Title] [A case of well differentiated mucinous carcinoma of the gallbladder].
  • We report a case of well differentiated mucinous carcinoma of the gallbladder.
  • An 80-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of fever and CT showed a mass in the fundus of the gallbladder and choledocholithiasis.
  • Abdominal ultrasonography and CT showed a 4 cm mass in the fundus of the gallbladder.
  • Based on a diagnosis of adenomyomatosis or mucinous carcinoma of the gallbladder, a laparotomy revealed a white mass in the fundus of gallbladder.
  • Intra-operative pathological diagnosis of lymph node of cystic duct was mucinous carcinoma.
  • Pathological diagnosis confirmed well differentiated mucinous carcinoma of the gallbladder.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous. Gallbladder Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 21071900.001).
  • [ISSN] 0446-6586
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai zasshi = The Japanese journal of gastro-enterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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61. Darmas B, Mahmud S, Abbas A, Baker AL: Is there any justification for the routine histological examination of straightforward cholecystectomy specimens? Ann R Coll Surg Engl; 2007 Apr;89(3):238-41
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  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Cholecystectomy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Gallstones / surgery. Lymphoma, B-Cell / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17394706.001).
  • [ISSN] 1478-7083
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann R Coll Surg Engl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1964718
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62. Itoh T, Fuji N, Taniguchi H, Yasukawa S, Yasuda H, Wakabayashi N, Watanabe T, Kosuga T, Kashimoto K, Yanagisawa A, Naito K: Double cancer of the cystic duct and gallbladder associated with low junction of the cystic duct. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg; 2008;15(3):338-43
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  • [Title] Double cancer of the cystic duct and gallbladder associated with low junction of the cystic duct.
  • We report a case of double cancer of the cystic duct and gallbladder associated with low junction of the cystic duct.
  • Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography showed a stenotic lesion in the lower common bile duct and no visualization of the cystic duct or gallbladder.
  • A diagnosis of cancer arising from the cystic duct that entered the lower part of the common hepatic duct was made by intraductal ultrasonography, which showed an intraluminal protruding lesion in the cystic duct.
  • Isolated gallbladder cancer was also diagnosed, by abdominal computed tomography.
  • Histological examination revealed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of the cystic duct and well-differentiated adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder.
  • Double cancer of the cystic duct and gallbladder is extremely rare, and this case also suggests a relationship between a low junction of the cystic duct and neoplasm in the biliary tract.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Cystic Duct. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18535776.001).
  • [ISSN] 0944-1166
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hepato-biliary-pancreatic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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63. Kasuya K, Nagakawa Y, Matsudo T, Ozawa T, Tsuchida A, Aoki T, Itoi T, Itokawa F: p53 gene mutation and p53 protein overexpression in a patient with simultaneous double cancer of the gallbladder and bile duct associated with pancreaticobiliary maljunction. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg; 2009;16(3):376-81
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  • [Title] p53 gene mutation and p53 protein overexpression in a patient with simultaneous double cancer of the gallbladder and bile duct associated with pancreaticobiliary maljunction.
  • Pancreaticobiliary maljunction (PBM) is associated with the occurrence of biliary cancer due to pancreatobiliary reflux.
  • We present a case of simultaneous double cancer of the gallbladder and bile duct.
  • A 77-year-old woman who had jaundice, intra- and extra-hepatic biliary ductal dilatation and a space-occupying lesion in the gallbladder and lower bile duct underwent pancreatoduodenectomy.
  • The gallbladder cancer showed papillary carcinoma without mutation of the K-ras gene and with p53 non-sense mutation of CCA (Pro) to CA (Stop) on codon 301 in exon 8.
  • The bile duct cancer revealed a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma without mutation of the K-ras gene and with p53 miss-sense mutation of GTG (Val) to GAG (Glu) on codon 272 in exon 8.
  • Therefore, the genetic pathway might be the same in both the gallbladder and bile duct cancer, and a high potential for carcinogenesis might be present in the epithelium of the common channel in patients with PBM.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Duct Neoplasms / genetics. Bile Ducts / abnormalities. Gallbladder Neoplasms / genetics. Genes, p53 / genetics. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genes, ras / genetics. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mutation, Missense. Pancreatic Ducts / abnormalities. Pancreaticoduodenectomy / methods. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19183832.001).
  • [ISSN] 1436-0691
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hepato-biliary-pancreatic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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64. Riechelmann RP, Townsley CA, Chin SN, Pond GR, Knox JJ: Expanded phase II trial of gemcitabine and capecitabine for advanced biliary cancer. Cancer; 2007 Sep 15;110(6):1307-12
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  • [Title] Expanded phase II trial of gemcitabine and capecitabine for advanced biliary cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: A phase 2 trial of gemcitabine and capecitabine (GemCap) in patients with advanced biliary cancer led to an objective response in approximately 30% of patients and a median survival of 14 months.
  • METHODS: Patients aged >18 years and who had a diagnosis of locally advanced biliary cancer received first-line treatment with capecitabine at a dose of 650 mg/m(2) twice daily for 14 days and gemcitabine at a dose of 1,000 mg/m(2) on Day 1 and Day 8, every 3 weeks until disease progression.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The GemCap regimen is active in patients with biliary cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Bile Duct Neoplasms / drug therapy. Capecitabine. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives. Follow-Up Studies. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 17628484.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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65. Larghi A, Lecca PG, Ardito F, Rossi ED, Fadda G, Nuzzo G, Costamagna G: Evaluation of hilar biliary strictures by using a newly developed forward-viewing therapeutic echoendoscope: preliminary results of an ongoing experience. Gastrointest Endosc; 2009 Feb;69(2):356-60
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  • BACKGROUND: Obtaining a definitive tissue diagnosis in patients with hilar biliary strictures (HBS) is often difficult.
  • RESULTS: Visualization and puncture of the primary lesion with a definitive tissue diagnosis was obtained in all of the 4 cases performed.
  • In the other 2 patients, a diagnosis of resectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of unclear origin without evidence of vascular involvement was made, and plastic stents were placed before surgery; the first patient was found to have peritoneal metastases, and resection was aborted, and in the second patient, a gallbladder tumor was diagnosed in the surgical specimen.
  • [MeSH-major] Cholestasis, Intrahepatic / diagnosis. Endosonography / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Aged. Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cholangiocarcinoma / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Stents

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  • (PMID = 19185697.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6779
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastrointestinal endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastrointest. Endosc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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66. Lee JS, Lee KT, Jung JH, Ok SW, Choi SC, Lee KH, Lee JK, Heo JS, Choi SH, Rhee JC: [Factors associated with malignancy in gallbladder polyps without gallbladder stone]. Korean J Gastroenterol; 2008 Aug;52(2):97-105
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  • [Title] [Factors associated with malignancy in gallbladder polyps without gallbladder stone].
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: The purpose of this study was to find the factors predicting the neoplastic polyp of gallbladder and analyze the size criteria associated with malignancy.
  • METHODS: A total of 354 subjects with gallbladder polyps confirmed by tissue pathology were included for the analysis.
  • The clinical and radiological features of the polyps were compared between the two groups (neoplastic vs. non-neoplastic) and in the three groups (non-neoplastic vs. adenoma vs. adenocarcinoma).
  • RESULTS: Of 354 patients, non-neoplastic polyps were observed in 229 (64.7%) patents, adenoma in 85 (24.0%) and adenocarcinoma in 40 (11.3%).
  • The mean diameter of non-neoplastic polyp, adenoma, and adenocarcinoma were 11.3+/-2.8 mm, 16.0+/-7.2 mm, and 27.0+/-8.9 mm, respectively.
  • The mean age of patients with non-neoplastic polyp, adenoma, and adenocarcinoma were 44.8+/-11.3, 49.9+/-12.5, and 60.8+/-9.6, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Polyps / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Data Interpretation, Statistical. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Odds Ratio. Predictive Value of Tests. ROC Curve

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  • (PMID = 19077501.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-9992
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] kor
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
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67. Kamoshida S, Shiogama K, Shimomura R, Inada K, Sakurai Y, Ochiai M, Matuoka H, Maeda K, Tsutsumi Y: Immunohistochemical demonstration of fluoropyrimidine-metabolizing enzymes in various types of cancer. Oncol Rep; 2005 Nov;14(5):1223-30
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical demonstration of fluoropyrimidine-metabolizing enzymes in various types of cancer.
  • In order to know the tumor types susceptible to respective fluoropyrimidines, we investigated the expression of DPD, OPRT, TP and TS in various types of cancer with the immunoperoxidase method.
  • These four enzymes existed in all of the cancer types studied, such as pulmonary, gastric, colorectal, hepatic, cholecystic, pancreatic, renal, urocystic, and mammary cancers.
  • Respective types of cancers presented characteristic immunohistochemical features as follows: pulmonary adenocarcinoma, DPD- and TP-high; pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma, TS- and TP-high; intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma, TP-high; diffuse-type gastric adenocarcinoma, DPD-low and TS-high; colorectal adenocarcinoma, DPD- and TP-low, hepatocellular carcinoma, DPD-high, and TS- and OPRT-low; cholecystic adenocarcinoma, DPD- and TS-high; renal cell carcinoma, DPD-low, and OPRT- and TP-high; urocystic transitional cell carcinoma, DPD-high and OPRT-low; and mammary ductal carcinoma, OPRT-low, and TS- and TP-high.
  • The enzyme expression pattern in cancer tissue was generally similar to that of their normal counterparts.
  • However, TP immunoreactivity in adenocarcinomas of the lung, stomach and gallbladder, and urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder was stronger, and DPD immunoreactivity in adenocarcinoma of the breast was weaker, when compared with normal epithelial cells.
  • These results indicated that the key enzymes influencing the effects of fluoropyrimidines differ from cancer to cancer.

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  • (PMID = 16211289.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; EC 1.3.1.2 / Dihydrouracil Dehydrogenase (NADP); EC 2.1.1.45 / Thymidylate Synthase; EC 2.4.2.10 / Orotate Phosphoribosyltransferase; EC 2.4.2.4 / Thymidine Phosphorylase; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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68. Samanic C, Chow WH, Gridley G, Jarvholm B, Fraumeni JF Jr: Relation of body mass index to cancer risk in 362,552 Swedish men. Cancer Causes Control; 2006 Sep;17(7):901-9
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  • [Title] Relation of body mass index to cancer risk in 362,552 Swedish men.
  • BACKGROUND: Obesity has been linked with increased risk for cancers of the colon, kidney, breast, endometrium and gallbladder.
  • For other cancer sites, the relationship with obesity is less well quantified, and the effect of weight change on cancer risk is unclear.
  • Incident cancer cases were identified by linkage to the Swedish cancer registry.
  • Poisson regression models were used to estimate relative risks of cancer for both body-mass index (BMI) at baseline exam and, in a subgroup of 107,815 men, change in BMI after six years of follow-up, adjusting for age and smoking status.
  • The risks were most pronounced for esophageal adenocarcinoma (RR = 2.7; 95% CI = 1.3-5.6), renal cell carcinoma (RR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.4-2.4), malignant melanoma (RR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.1-1.7), and cancers of the colon (RR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.5-2.0), rectum (RR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.1-1.7), and liver (RR = 3.6; 95% CI = 2.6-5.0).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Obesity and weight gain increase the risk for several forms of cancer in men, and underscore the need for further study into carcinogenic mechanisms and preventive interventions.

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  • (PMID = 16841257.001).
  • [ISSN] 0957-5243
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer causes & control : CCC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Causes Control
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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69. Nakadaira K, Kurosaki I, Ueki H: [Recurrent gallbladder carcinoma treated with combination chemotherapy with gemcitabine, CPT-11 and S-1--a successful case with metastatic tumors replaced by marked calcification]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2008 May;35(5):837-9
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  • [Title] [Recurrent gallbladder carcinoma treated with combination chemotherapy with gemcitabine, CPT-11 and S-1--a successful case with metastatic tumors replaced by marked calcification].
  • We described a case with recurrent gallbladder carcinoma, successfully treated by combination chemotherapy using gemcitabine, CPT-11, and S-1 that was administered as second-line chemotherapy after failure of gemcitabine monotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18487925.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Drug Combinations; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid; 7673326042 / irinotecan; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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70. Goudard Y, Mingoutaud L, De La Villeon B, de Saint-Blancard P, Hervouet M, Pons F: [Cystic metastases of gallbladder adenocarcinoma]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2010 Apr-May;34(4-5):e9-e11
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  • [Title] [Cystic metastases of gallbladder adenocarcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Métastases kystiques d'un adénocarcinome de la vésicule biliaire.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Bile Duct Neoplasms / secondary. Cystic Duct / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20171033.001).
  • [ISSN] 0399-8320
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroentérologie clinique et biologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] France
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71. Zaydfudim V, Feurer ID, Wright JK, Pinson CW: The impact of tumor extent (T stage) and lymph node involvement (N stage) on survival after surgical resection for gallbladder adenocarcinoma. HPB (Oxford); 2008;10(6):420-7
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  • [Title] The impact of tumor extent (T stage) and lymph node involvement (N stage) on survival after surgical resection for gallbladder adenocarcinoma.
  • INTRODUCTION: Tumor extent (T stage) and lymph node involvement (N stage) have a known combined negative effect on survival in patients with gallbladder adenocarcinoma, but the independent effects of these factors have been less well described.
  • We investigated whether T stage and N stage independently predict survival after surgery for gallbladder adenocarcinoma.
  • METHODS: We queried the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database for patients treated with surgical resection for gallbladder adenocarcinoma between 1988 and 2004.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Tumor extent and lymph node metastases are independent predictors of survival after surgical resection for gallbladder adenocarcinoma.
  • Tumor penetration of the gallbladder wall and pathologically confirmed lymph node involvement each carry poor prognosis.

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  • [Cites] Eur J Surg Oncol. 2008 Mar;34(3):306-12 [17964753.001]
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  • (PMID = 19088928.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-182X
  • [Journal-full-title] HPB : the official journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HPB (Oxford)
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / AHRQ HHS / HS / T32 HS013833
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2597319
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; SEER registry / gallbladder cancer / lymph node metastases / survival / tumor extent
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72. Lin LL, Picus J, Drebin JA, Linehan DC, Solis J, Strasberg SM, Tan B, Thorstad WL, Myerson R: A phase II study of alternating cycles of split course radiation therapy and gemcitabine chemotherapy for inoperable pancreatic or biliary tract carcinoma. Am J Clin Oncol; 2005 Jun;28(3):234-41
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  • The purpose of the present study was to determine the toxicity and response to treatment with full-dose gemcitabine given between cycles of split-course radiation therapy (nonconcurrent treatment) for inoperable periampullary adenocarcinoma.
  • A total of 42 patients (40 pancreatic, 1 gallbladder, 1 biliary tract) were enrolled between March 1999 and July 2002.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Bile Duct Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma / therapy. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Dose Fractionation. Gallbladder Neoplasms / therapy. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / therapy. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 15923794.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-453X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine
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73. Zhu AX, Clark JW, Ryan DP, Meyerhardt JA, Enzinger PC, Earle CC, Fuchs CS, Regan E, Anbe H, Houghton M, Zhang J, Urrea P, Kulke MH: Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of S-1 administered for 14 days in a 21-day cycle in patients with advanced upper gastrointestinal cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2007 Feb;59(3):285-93
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  • [Title] Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of S-1 administered for 14 days in a 21-day cycle in patients with advanced upper gastrointestinal cancer.
  • One partial response was seen in a patient with gemcitabine-refractory pancreatic adenocarcinoma and ten patients with pancreatic, gastric, or gallbladder carcinomas achieved stable disease as their best response to therapy.

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  • (PMID = 16786333.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5704
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K23 CA 093401; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / K30 HL04095
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Drug Combinations; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid
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74. Kim H, Song JY, Cho JY, Yoon YS, Han HS, Lee HS, Ryu HS, Choe G: Strong cytoplasmic expression of COX2 at the invasive fronts of gallbladder cancer is associated with a poor prognosis. J Clin Pathol; 2010 Dec;63(12):1048-53
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  • [Title] Strong cytoplasmic expression of COX2 at the invasive fronts of gallbladder cancer is associated with a poor prognosis.
  • AIM: The significance of cell cycle proteins, p21 and p53, and cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX2) is still controversial in gallbladder adenocarcinoma.
  • Conflicting results exist with regard to the prognostic significance of p21 and p53 expression, and the strong association of gallbladder cancer with chronic inflammation makes it only natural that COX2 negativity is rarely encountered, even in non-neoplastic biliary epithelia.
  • METHODS: The authors explored whether the p21 and p53-labelling indices (LI) and strong cytoplasmic COX2 expression differ in the central parts (TC) and invasive fronts (IF) of gallbladder cancer.
  • Paraffin-embedded whole tissue sections of 67 gallbladder cancers were immunohistochemically analysed for p21, p53 and COX2-LI at the IF and TC, and results were correlated with the clinicopathological features.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The IF of gallbladder cancer is characterised by significantly increased expression of p21, p53 and strong COX2 expression, and strong cytoplasmic COX2 expression at IF is associated with a poorer prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism. Gallbladder Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20924037.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS2 protein, human
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75. Park SY, Roh SJ, Kim YN, Kim SZ, Park HS, Jang KY, Chung MJ, Kang MJ, Lee DG, Moon WS: Expression of MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC and MUC6 in cholangiocarcinoma: prognostic impact. Oncol Rep; 2009 Sep;22(3):649-57
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  • However, in cancer cells and during cancer progression, the expression profile of mucins is altered and expression of some mucins is correlated with prognosis for certain malignancies.
  • In addition, this study was performed to identify whether immunohistochemical staining for mucins is useful to differentiate cholangiocarcinoma from adenocarcinoma of the pancreas and gallbladder.
  • Immunohistochemical staining for MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC and MUC6 was performed for 85 cases of cholangiocarcinoma, including 34 cases of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), 51 cases of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ECC), 11 cases of gallbladder adenocarcinoma and 14 cases of pancreas adenocarcinoma.
  • There was no significant difference for the mucin staining patterns of cholangiocarcinomas, pancreatic adenocarcinomas and gallbladder adenocarcinomas.

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  • (PMID = 19639217.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MUC1 protein, human; 0 / MUC2 protein, human; 0 / MUC5AC protein, human; 0 / MUC6 protein, human; 0 / Mucin 5AC; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Mucin-2; 0 / Mucin-6
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76. Arévalo F, Arias Stella C, Monge E: [Immunoexpression of p53 and cyclin D1 in adenomas of the gallbladder]. Rev Esp Enferm Dig; 2007 Dec;99(12):694-7
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  • [Title] [Immunoexpression of p53 and cyclin D1 in adenomas of the gallbladder].
  • [Transliterated title] Inmunoexpresión de p53 y ciclina D1 en adenomas de vesícula biliar.
  • INTRODUCTION: Gallbladder adenomas are infrequent neoplasms whose relation to adenocarcinoma is not well understood.
  • It has been suggested that adenomas and adenocarcinomas follow different molecular pathways.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a comparative, cross-sectional study in which we compared p53 and D1 cyclin expression in adenomas and adenocarcinomas of the gallbladder.
  • Expression of p53 occurred in 83.3% of adenocarcinomas and in 16.6% of adenomas (p = 0.003).
  • D1 cyclin was expressed in a similar number of adenomas and adenocarcinomas.
  • CONCLUSION: Our results support the hypothesis that p53 is an important step in the pathogenesis of adenocarcinomas but not of adenomas of the gallbladder.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Cyclin D1 / biosynthesis. Gallbladder Neoplasms / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 18290692.001).
  • [ISSN] 1130-0108
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista española de enfermedades digestivas : organo oficial de la Sociedad Española de Patología Digestiva
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Esp Enferm Dig
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
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77. Kameyama H, Shirai Y, Date K, Kuwabara A, Kurosaki R, Hatakeyama K: Gallbladder carcinoma presenting as exfoliative dermatitis (erythroderma). Int J Gastrointest Cancer; 2005;35(2):153-5
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  • [Title] Gallbladder carcinoma presenting as exfoliative dermatitis (erythroderma).
  • The authors recently encountered a patient with gallbladder carcinoma presenting as erythroderma.
  • After confirming the diagnosis of erythroderma, asymptomatic gallbladder carcinoma was found.
  • Histologic examination of resected specimens revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with negative resection margins.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / complications. Dermatitis, Exfoliative / etiology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 15879631.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-3649
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gastrointestinal cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Gastrointest Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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78. Ciulla A, Romeo G, Genova G, Tomasello G, Agnello G, Cstronovo G: Gallbladder carcinoma late metastases and incisional hernia at umbilical port site after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. G Chir; 2006 May;27(5):214-6
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  • [Title] Gallbladder carcinoma late metastases and incisional hernia at umbilical port site after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
  • A potentially serious complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the inadvertent dissemination of unsuspected gallbladder carcinoma.
  • There are increasing reports of seeding of tumor at the trocar sites following laparoscopic cholecystectomy in patients with unexpected or inapparent gallbladder carcinoma.
  • Although the mechanism of the abdominal wall recurrence is still unclear, laparoscopic handling of the tumor, perforation of the gallbladder, and extraction of the specimen without an endobag may be risk factors for the spreading of malignant cells.
  • The Authors report the case of late development of umbilical metastasis after laparoscopic cholecystectomy; the presence of an incisional hernia and the finding of a stone in subcutaneous tissue demonstrate the diffusion of tumor cells into subcutaneous tissue during the extraction of gallbladder.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / secondary. Abdominal Wall. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic / adverse effects. Gallbladder Neoplasms. Hernia, Abdominal / etiology. Neoplasm Seeding

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  • (PMID = 16857110.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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79. Akatsu T, Aiura K, Shimazu M, Ueda M, Wakabayashi G, Tanabe M, Kawachi S, Kitajima M: Can endoscopic ultrasonography differentiate nonneoplastic from neoplastic gallbladder polyps? Dig Dis Sci; 2006 Feb;51(2):416-21
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  • [Title] Can endoscopic ultrasonography differentiate nonneoplastic from neoplastic gallbladder polyps?
  • The present study aimed to clarify the endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) features of nonneoplastic (cholesterol polyps and adenomyomatosis) and neoplastic (adenoma and adenocarcinoma) gallbladder polyps and to evaluate the effectiveness and limitation of EUS in the differential diagnosis of these lesions.
  • We retrospectively compared EUS images with histologic findings in 29 surgical cases with gallbladder polyps with a diameter of 10 to 20 mm.
  • However, three of nine neoplastic lesions (three adenomas and six adenocarcinomas) showed one of these signs due to concomitant cholesterosis (n = 2) or proliferated Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses (n = 1).
  • In conclusion, 69% (20/29) of gallbladder polyps larger than 10 mm that were preoperatively suspected of malignancy were nonneoplastic.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnostic imaging. Adenoma / diagnostic imaging. Endosonography. Gallbladder Diseases / diagnostic imaging. Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Polyps / diagnostic imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16534690.001).
  • [ISSN] 0163-2116
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive diseases and sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig. Dis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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80. Tomita H, Osada S, Matsuo M, Shimokawa K: Pancreatic cancer presenting with hematemesis from directly invading the duodenum: report of an unusual manifestation and review. Am Surg; 2006 Apr;72(4):363-6
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  • [Title] Pancreatic cancer presenting with hematemesis from directly invading the duodenum: report of an unusual manifestation and review.
  • Pancreatic cancer is a rare cause of gastrointestinal bleeding, and it is extremely rare for hematemesis to be the initial manifestation of invasive pancreatic cancer.
  • We report the case of a 67-year-old man with hematemesis who was found to have invasive pancreatic cancer with a bleeding duodenal ulcer.
  • Microscopic examination revealed that an adenocarcinoma originating from the pancreatic head extended to the muscularis propria of the duodenum.
  • The diagnosis, pathological findings, preoperative events, and postoperative outcome in this unusual case are reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Duodenum / pathology. Hematemesis / etiology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cholecystectomy. Gallbladder / pathology. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Pancreaticoduodenectomy

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  • (PMID = 16676866.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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81. Kimura A, Tsuchiya Y, Lang I, Zoltan S, Nakadaira H, Ajioka Y, Kiyohara C, Oyama M, Nakamura K: Effect of genetic predisposition on the risk of gallbladder cancer in Hungary. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev; 2008 Jul-Sep;9(3):391-6
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  • [Title] Effect of genetic predisposition on the risk of gallbladder cancer in Hungary.
  • A CYP1A1 polymorphism has been associated with an increased risk for gallbladder cancer (GBC) in Japanese women.
  • Of 37 female cases, 21 (56.8%) were diagnosed as adenocarcinoma, and the remaining 16 (43.2%) were classified as non-adenocarcinoma.
  • The Ile/Val genotype was significantly associated with an increased risk of adenocarcinoma (OR 9.2; 95% CI: 2.6-32.6) and non-adenocarcinoma (OR 8.4; 95% CI: 2.2-32.4).
  • Additionally, the Arg/Pro genotype increased risk of non-adenocarcinoma (OR 3.8; 95% CI: 1.2-12.8).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Gallbladder Neoplasms / epidemiology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 18990008.001).
  • [ISSN] 2476-762X
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 1.14.14.1 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1; EC 2.5.1.18 / Glutathione Transferase
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82. Ziadi T, Alahyane A, El Fahssi M, Makhmari R, Elhjouji A, Baba H, Ould Jiddou C, Nafae I, Mejdane A, Bounaim A, Ait Ali A, Zentar A, Hommadi A, Sair K: [Adenocarcinoma of gallbladder revealed by acanthosis nigricans]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2009 Oct-Nov;33(10-11):986-8
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  • [Title] [Adenocarcinoma of gallbladder revealed by acanthosis nigricans].
  • [Transliterated title] Acanthosis nigricans révélateur d'un adénocarcinome de la vésicule biliaire.
  • [MeSH-major] Acanthosis Nigricans / etiology. Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19765931.001).
  • [ISSN] 0399-8320
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroentérologie clinique et biologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] France
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83. Lewis JT, Talwalkar JA, Rosen CB, Smyrk TC, Abraham SC: Prevalence and risk factors for gallbladder neoplasia in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis: evidence for a metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Jun;31(6):907-13
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  • [Title] Prevalence and risk factors for gallbladder neoplasia in patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis: evidence for a metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence.
  • Dysplasia, adenomas, and carcinomas of the gallbladder have been described in PSC but are less common than bile duct carcinomas.
  • However, the prevalence and risk factors for gallbladder neoplasia among patients with PSC undergoing orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) have not been well studied.
  • We evaluated the following histologic features: presence of diffuse lymphoplasmacytic chronic cholecystitis, pyloric metaplasia, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia (low-grade or high-grade), and adenocarcinoma.
  • Gallbladder dysplasia and adenocarcinoma were correlated with several clinicopathologic parameters using Fisher exact test and t test, including:.
  • Lymphoplasmacytic chronic cholecystitis was present in 35 (49%), pyloric metaplasia in 69 (96%), intestinal metaplasia in 36 (50%), dysplasia in 27 (37%; low-grade in 12 and high-grade in 15), and adenocarcinoma in 10 (14%; 2 with lamina propria invasion and 8 with invasion into muscularis or adventitia).
  • Gallbladder carcinoma was associated with intrahepatic bile duct dysplasia (P=0.001), CC (P=0.023), and IBD (P=0.03).
  • Gallbladder dysplasia was associated with hilar/intrahepatic bile duct dysplasia (P=0.0006), CC (P=0.028), IBD (P=0.0014), and older age at OLT (P=0.007).
  • Neither gallbladder carcinoma nor dysplasia had a significant association with sex or PSC duration.
  • The strong correlation between gallbladder dysplasia/adenocarcinoma and bile duct dysplasia/CC supports the concept of a neoplastic "field effect" along the intrahepatic and extrahepatic biliary tract in PSC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma / etiology. Cholangitis, Sclerosing / complications. Gallbladder Neoplasms / epidemiology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17527079.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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84. Gerasimou GP, Aggelopoulou T, Papanastasiou E, Konidari-Dedousi E, Prousalidis I, Psarrakos K, Siountas A, Molybda E, Gotzamani-Psarrakou A: [Indium-111-DTPA-phenyl-pentetreotide somatostatin receptors' scintigraphy in the evaluation of patients with suspected gastro-entero-pancreatic tumors. Comparison with computerized tomography]. Hell J Nucl Med; 2007 Sep-Dec;10(3):209-14
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  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the utility of (111)In-DTPA-O somatostatin receptors' scintigraphy (SRS) in the diagnosis of suspected GEP.
  • Thirty-five consecutive patients (17 males and 18 females-mean age 57.9+/-7.6) with GEP as a possible diagnosis were enrolled in the study.
  • The primary diagnosis was diarrheic syndrome susceptive of intestinal carcinoid tumor (24 patients), carcinoid of the rectum (2 patients), adenocarcinoma of the pancreas (2 patients), insulinoma (2 patients), gastrinoma (3 patients) and hepatocellular carcinoma (2 patients).
  • Results showed: Four of the patients were false positive diagnosed as having inflammatory intestinal disease and gallbladder dilatation.

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  • (PMID = 18084669.001).
  • [ISSN] 1790-5427
  • [Journal-full-title] Hellenic journal of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hell J Nucl Med
  • [Language] gre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chelating Agents; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 7A314HQM0I / Pentetic Acid; G083B71P98 / pentetreotide
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85. Zippi M, Traversa G, Masini A, De Felici I, Febbraro I, Mattei E, Pica R, Bertoldi I, Occhigrossi G: Placement of two overlapping uncovered metallic stents for malignant gastric outlet and duodenal obstruction due to colon cancer. Dig Liver Dis; 2006 Aug;38(8):612-4
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  • [Title] Placement of two overlapping uncovered metallic stents for malignant gastric outlet and duodenal obstruction due to colon cancer.
  • Malignant obstruction of the gastric outlet and duodenum is frequently due to extrinsic involvement by tumors from contiguous organs, in particular from pancreas and gallbladder.
  • We report a case in which self-expanding metallic stents were placed for stenoses of the gastric outlet and duodenum due to a colon cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Colonic Neoplasms / complications. Duodenal Obstruction / etiology. Duodenal Obstruction / surgery. Gastric Outlet Obstruction / etiology. Gastric Outlet Obstruction / surgery. Stents

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  • (PMID = 16828352.001).
  • [ISSN] 1590-8658
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive and liver disease : official journal of the Italian Society of Gastroenterology and the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig Liver Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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86. Handa U, Nanda A, Mohan H, Kochhar S, Sachdev A: Cytologic diagnosis of gallbladder lesions - A study of 150 cases. Indian J Surg; 2010 Jun;72(3):181-4
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  • [Title] Cytologic diagnosis of gallbladder lesions - A study of 150 cases.
  • AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Gallbladder (GB) carcinoma is among the five most common forms of gastrointestinal cancers and the diagnosis is usually made when the carcinoma is already in an advanced stage.
  • Adenocarcinoma was the most common morphologic type.
  • CONCLUSION: US guided FNA provides a rapid and reliable diagnosis in cases of GB carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 23133243.001).
  • [ISSN] 0972-2068
  • [Journal-full-title] The Indian journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3452654
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Aspiration cytology / Gallbladder / Ultrasonography
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87. Shimizu T, Tajiri T, Akimaru K, Arima Y, Yoshida H, Yokomuro S, Mamada Y, Taniai N, Mizuguchi Y, Kawahigashi Y, Naito Z: Combined neuroendocrine cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder: report of a case. J Nippon Med Sch; 2006 Apr;73(2):101-5
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  • [Title] Combined neuroendocrine cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder: report of a case.
  • Abdominal computed tomography confirmed thickening of the gallbladder wall and a 15 x 8 cm mass occupying almost all of the right lobe and medial segment of the liver.
  • With a preoperative diagnosis of malignant gallbladder tumor infiltrating the liver, right hepatic trisegmentectomy was performed.
  • Near this small cell proliferation was a focus of tubular adenocarcinoma that showed a zone of transition from the small cell neuroendocrine pattern.
  • The patient was diagnosed with neuroendocrine cell carcinoma combined with adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16641536.001).
  • [ISSN] 1345-4676
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Nippon Medical School = Nippon Ika Daigaku zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Nippon Med Sch
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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88. Inagaki M, Goto J, Suzuki S, Ishizaki A, Tanno S, Kohgo Y, Tokusashi Y, Miyokawa N, Kasai S: Gallbladder carcinoma associated with occult pancreatobiliary reflux in the absence of pancreaticobiliary maljunction. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg; 2007;14(5):529-33
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  • [Title] Gallbladder carcinoma associated with occult pancreatobiliary reflux in the absence of pancreaticobiliary maljunction.
  • We herein report a case of gallbladder carcinoma associated with occult pancreatobiliary reflux (PR) in the absence of pancreatobiliary maljunction.
  • A 67-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for the evaluation and treatment of a gallbladder tumor.
  • Ultrasonography and computed tomography showed a nodular lesion in the fundus of the gallbladder, indicating the possibility of a gallbladder carcinoma.
  • An open cholecystectomy and partial resection of the liver bed of the gallbladder with regional lymphadenectomy was performed.
  • Biliary amylase and lipase levels sampled in the gallbladder were 2604 IU/l and 775 IU/l, respectively.
  • The histopathological findings of the resected specimen showed a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder with invasion to the muscle layer and no metastasis of the resected lymph nodes.
  • A high index of nuclear staining for MIB-I in the cancer cells (about 10%) was exhibited, and a few cells in the normal epithelium also stained positive.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Reflux / complications. Carcinoma / complications. Gallbladder Neoplasms / complications. Pancreas / abnormalities. Pancreatic Diseases / complications

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  • (PMID = 17909727.001).
  • [ISSN] 0944-1166
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hepato-biliary-pancreatic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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89. Puia IC, Vlad L, Iancu C, Al-Hajjar N, Pop F, Bălă O, Munteanu D: [Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for porcelain gallbladder]. Chirurgia (Bucur); 2005 Mar-Apr;100(2):187-9
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  • [Title] [Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for porcelain gallbladder].
  • [Transliterated title] Colecistectomie laparoscopică pentru veziculă de porţelan.
  • The porcelain gallbladder is uncommon type of chronically inflamed gallbladder wall considered to be associated with a high frequency of adenocarcinoma and subsequently not suitable for a laparoscopic approach.
  • One conversion was due to an unconfirmed suspicion of gallbladder cancer and the other one to a fistula between the gallbladder and the common bile duct.
  • Patients with a preoperative diagnosis of porcelain gallbladder must not be excluded from the laparoscopic approach yet a low threshold for conversion must be maintained in those with a cancer suspicion.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcinosis / surgery. Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic. Gallbladder Diseases / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / etiology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Aged. Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gallbladder Neoplasms / etiology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15957463.001).
  • [ISSN] 1221-9118
  • [Journal-full-title] Chirurgia (Bucharest, Romania : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurgia (Bucur)
  • [Language] rum
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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90. Reddy SK, Marroquin CE, Kuo PC, Pappas TN, Clary BM: Extended hepatic resection for gallbladder cancer. Am J Surg; 2007 Sep;194(3):355-61
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  • [Title] Extended hepatic resection for gallbladder cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Although radical cholecystectomy is the standard of care for gallbladder cancers that invade perimuscular connective tissue or perforate visceral peritoneum, the role of extended right hepatectomy in achieving negative resection margins is not clear.
  • METHODS: Clinicopathologic, perioperative, and long-term outcome data were reviewed from patients who underwent hepatic resection for gallbladder cancer.
  • RESULTS: From 1995 to 2005, 22 consecutive patients underwent hepatic resection for gallbladder cancer, and 11 underwent extended hepatectomy.
  • COMMENTS: Extended hepatectomy achieves negative resection margins for patients with gallbladder cancer and is associated with acceptable morbidity and long-term survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery. Hepatectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17693282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1883
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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91. Li SH, Li CF, Sung MT, Eng HL, Hsiung CY, Huang WW, Lin CN, Yu SC, Huang HY: Skp2 is an independent prognosticator of gallbladder carcinoma among p27(Kip1)-interacting cell cycle regulators: an immunohistochemical study of 62 cases by tissue microarray. Mod Pathol; 2007 Apr;20(4):497-507
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  • [Title] Skp2 is an independent prognosticator of gallbladder carcinoma among p27(Kip1)-interacting cell cycle regulators: an immunohistochemical study of 62 cases by tissue microarray.
  • Despite improvement in surgical techniques, prognosis of gallbladder carcinoma remains poor.
  • However, the prognostic utility of p27(Kip1)-interacting cell cycle regulators has not been systematically assessed in gallbladder carcinoma.
  • Immunohistochemistry was performed for p27(Kip1), Skp2, Cks1, cyclin E, cyclin A, and Ki-67 in tissue microarrays of 62 gallbladder carcinomas with follow-up.
  • Aberrant labeling indices (LIs) of p27(Kip1) (<20%), cyclin E (>or=5%), cyclin A (>or=5%), Cks1 (>or=40%), and Skp2 (>or=10%) were identified in 29, 58, 66, 21, and 57% of gallbladder carcinomas, respectively.
  • In multivariate comparison, Skp2 overexpression represented the strongest independent adverse prognosticator (P=0.004, risk ratio (RR): 5.538), followed by Ki-67 LI >or=50% (P=0.016, RR: 3.254) and American Joint Committee on Cancer stages II-IV (P=0.013, RR: 3.163).
  • In conclusion, aberrations of p27(Kip1)-interacting cell cycle regulators are common in gallbladder carcinomas.
  • The combined assessment of Skp2 and Ki-67 LIs effectively risk-stratifies gallbladder carcinomas with different prognosis, which is worth being prospectively validated in future study.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / metabolism. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17384652.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDKN1B protein, human; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / S-Phase Kinase-Associated Proteins; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
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92. Oh SJ, Lee SJ, Lee HY, Paik YH, Lee DK, Lee KS, Chung JB, Yu JS, Yoon DS: [Extrapancreatic tumors in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas]. Korean J Gastroenterol; 2009 Sep;54(3):162-6
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  • Five, six, and two extrapancreatic malignancies had been diagnosed before, during, and after the diagnosis of IPMN.
  • Gastric adenocarcinoma (3 patients, 23%) and colorectal carcinoma (3 patients, 23%) were the most common neoplasms.
  • Other extrapancreatic tumors included lung cancer (n=2), prostatic cancer (n=1), renal cell carcinoma (n=1), cholangiocellular carcinoma (n=1), urinary bladder cancer (n=1), and gallbladder cancer (n=1), respectively.
  • As benign tumor, there were two gallbladder adenoma, one gastric adenoma, one colonic adenoma and one benign ovarian cystic neoplasm, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / epidemiology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [CommentIn] Korean J Gastroenterol. 2009 Sep;54(3):196-8 [19844158.001]
  • (PMID = 19844152.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-9992
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] kor
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
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93. Sato S, Ishii M, Fujihira T, Ito E, Ohtani Y: Gallbladder adenocarcinoma with human chorionic gonadotropin: a case report and review of literature. Diagn Pathol; 2010;5:46
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  • [Title] Gallbladder adenocarcinoma with human chorionic gonadotropin: a case report and review of literature.
  • BACKGROUND: The case of adenocarcinoma with human chorionic gonadtropin (HCG), primary in the male gallbladder, is extremely rare.
  • METHODS: We herein describe a case of primary gallbladder adenocarcinoma associated by ectopic HCG positive tumor cells in a 79-year-old male.
  • RESULTS: Pathological examination showed a mixture of moderately and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with ectopic HCG and placental alkaline phosphatase (PlAP) in tumor cells, though the increase of serum or urinary HCG secretion was not confirmed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A case of gallbladder cancer with ectopic HCG production is quite rare in the literature, though many similar cases in other site, especially in GI tract, are reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / chemistry. Chorionic Gonadotropin / analysis. Gallbladder Neoplasms / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 20594358.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0 / GPI-Linked Proteins; 0 / Isoenzymes; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase; EC 3.1.3.1 / alkaline phosphatase, placental
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2910002
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94. Albores-Saavedra J, Grider DJ, Wu J, Henson DE, Goodman ZD: Giant cell tumor of the extrahepatic biliary tree: a clinicopathologic study of 4 cases and comparison with anaplastic spindle and giant cell carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Apr;30(4):495-500
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  • We report four previously undescribed primary giant cell tumors of the extrahepatic biliary tree and morphologically compare them with 10 anaplastic spindle and giant cell carcinomas with osteoclast-like giant cells of the gallbladder.
  • Two giant cell tumors were located in the distal common bile duct; one in the cystic duct and one in the gallbladder.
  • The 3 patients with bile duct tumors were male, and the only patient with a gallbladder tumor was a female.
  • The patients with bile duct tumors presented with biliary obstruction, and the patient with a gallbladder tumor presented with symptoms of cholelithiasis and a gallbladder mass.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Cholestasis, Extrahepatic / etiology. Cholestasis, Extrahepatic / pathology. Cholestasis, Extrahepatic / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Osteoclasts / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2008 Feb;32(2):335-7; author response 337 [18223338.001]
  • (PMID = 16625096.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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95. Alvarez AA, Santomil PT, Casasnovas AB, Martínez EE, Gallart RM, Cives RV: [Cholecystectomy in children: our experience with 37 cases]. Cir Pediatr; 2009 Jul;22(3):150-2
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  • The indications were: cholelithiasis 33, acute cholecystitis 2, gallbladder tumor 1 and septate gallbladder 1.68% were laparoscopic cholecystectomies (operative time: 84 minutes and hospital stay: 8 days) and 32% open cholecystectomies (operative time: 103 minutes and hospital stay: 14 days).
  • The pathologic anatomy showed: chronic lithiasic cholecystitis 30, normal gallbladder 3, chronic cholecystitis 1, gallbladder adenocarcinoma 1, chronic inflammatory changes 2.

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  • (PMID = 19957864.001).
  • [ISSN] 0214-1221
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía pediátrica : organo oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Pediatr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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96. Kimura Y, Kashima K, Daa T, Kondo Y, Yada K, Sasaki A, Matsumoto T, Kitano S, Kubo N, Yokoyama S: Biotin-rich intranuclear inclusions in morule-lacking adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder: a new category of "neoplastic/non-morular" lesions. Virchows Arch; 2005 Feb;446(2):194-9
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  • [Title] Biotin-rich intranuclear inclusions in morule-lacking adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder: a new category of "neoplastic/non-morular" lesions.
  • In the present report, we describe two cases of well-differentiated adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder in which biotin-rich intranuclear inclusions were found without morular structures.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / chemistry. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biotin / analysis. Cell Nucleus / chemistry. Gallbladder Neoplasms / chemistry. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. BIOTIN .
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  • (PMID = 15647941.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / MUC5AC protein, human; 0 / MUC6 protein, human; 0 / Mucin 5AC; 0 / Mucin-6; 0 / Mucins; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / beta Catenin; 6SO6U10H04 / Biotin; EC 4.1.1.41 / Methylmalonyl-CoA Decarboxylase; EC 6.4.1.1 / Pyruvate Carboxylase
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97. Liu DC, Yang ZL, Yang LP: [Expression of enhancer of zesle homolog 2 and phosphatase and tension homolog and its clinicopathological significance in benign and malignant lesion of gallbladder]. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban; 2008 Jul;33(7):618-22
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  • [Title] [Expression of enhancer of zesle homolog 2 and phosphatase and tension homolog and its clinicopathological significance in benign and malignant lesion of gallbladder].
  • OBJECTIVE: To examine the expressive level of enhancer of zesle homolog 2 (EZH2) and phosphatase and tension homolog (PTEN), and to explore its clinicopathological significance in benign and malignant lesion of gallbladder.
  • METHODS: EnVision immunohistochemical method was used to detect the expressive levels of EZH2 and PTEN in routinely paraffin-embedded sections in the resected specimens of gallbladder adenocarcinoma (n = 108), peritumoral tissues (n = 46), adenomatous polyp(n = 15), and chronic cholecystitis (n = 35).
  • RESULTS: The positive rate of EZH2 was significantly higher in gallbladder adenocarcinoma than that in peritumoral tissues (chi(2) = 24.49, P < 0.01), adenomatous polyp(chi(2) = 11.68, P < 0.01), and chronic cholecystitis (chi(2) = 31.62, P < 0.01).
  • The benign lesions in the positive cases of EZH2 and (or) the negative ones of PTEN showed the moderately- or severely- atypical hyperplasia of gallbladder epithelium.
  • The positive rate of PTEN was significantly lower in gallbladder adenocarcinoma than that in peritumoral tissues(n = 20.20, P < 0.01), adenomatous polyp(chi(2)=10.81, P<0.01), and chronic cholecystitis (n = 29.83, P < 0.01).The positive rates of EZH2 were significantly lower in the highly-differentiated adenocarcinoma, the maximal diameter of mass < 2 cm, non-metastasis of lymphnodes, and non-infiltration of regional tissues than those in the moderately or low-differentiated adenocarcinoma, the maximal diameter > or = 2 cm, metastasis of lymphnode, and infiltration of regional tissues (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01).
  • High inconsistency was found between the expression of EZH2 and PTEN in gallbladder adenocarcinoma (P < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: Expression of EZH2 and/or PTEN might be important biological markers in the carcinogenesis, progression, biological behaviors and prognosis of gallbladder adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Gallbladder Neoplasms / genetics. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / biosynthesis. Transcription Factors / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Polycomb Repressive Complex 2. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18667776.001).
  • [ISSN] 1672-7347
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhong nan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Central South University. Medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; EC 2.1.1.43 / EZH2 protein, human; EC 2.1.1.43 / Polycomb Repressive Complex 2; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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98. Gaujoux S, Allen PJ: Role of staging laparoscopy in peri-pancreatic and hepatobiliary malignancy. World J Gastrointest Surg; 2010 Sep 27;2(9):283-90
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  • (1) In the staging of pancreatic adenocarcinoma, laparoscopic staging allows for the identification of sub-radiographic metastatic disease in locally advanced cancer in approximately 30% of patients and, in radiographically resectable cancer, may identify metastatic disease in 10%-15% of cases;.
  • (3) In hepatocellular carcinoma, laparoscopic staging could be selectively used in high-risk patients such as those with clinically apparent liver cirrhosis and in patients with major vascular invasion or bilobar tumors; and (4) In biliary tract malignancy, staging laparoscopy may be used in all patients with potentially resectable primary gallbladder cancer and in selected patients with T2/T3 hilar cholangiocarcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 21160897.001).
  • [ISSN] 1948-9366
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastrointestinal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Gastrointest Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2999692
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Cholangiocarcinoma / Gallbladder cancer / Hepatocellular carcinoma / Liver metastasis / Pancreatic cancer / Staging laparoscopy
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99. Nuernberg D, Ignee A, Dietrich CF: [Ultrasound in gastroenterology. Biliopancreatic system]. Med Klin (Munich); 2007 Feb 15;102(2):112-26
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  • [Transliterated title] Aktueller Stand der Sonographie in der Gastroenterologie. Biliopankreatisches System.
  • GALLBLADDER: Ultrasound has become widely accepted for the diagnosis of gallbladder disease.
  • Gallbladder polyps are well detectable.
  • Gallbladder carcinomas as a disease of the older age with few early symptoms are usually detected at a late stage when the liver is already infiltrated.
  • Ductal adenocarcinoma seems to be less vascularized in comparison to the surrounding tissue, while endocrine tumors and macro- and microcystic adenoma are rather hypervascularized.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / ultrasonography. Bile Duct Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / ultrasonography. Carcinoma / ultrasonography. Cholangiocarcinoma / ultrasonography. Cholangitis, Sclerosing / ultrasonography. Cholecystitis / ultrasonography. Choledocholithiasis / ultrasonography. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Endosonography. Gallbladder Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Humans. Middle Aged. Pancreatic Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Pancreatitis / ultrasonography. Polyps / ultrasonography. Sensitivity and Specificity. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color / methods

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  • (PMID = 17323018.001).
  • [ISSN] 0723-5003
  • [Journal-full-title] Medizinische Klinik (Munich, Germany : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Klin. (Munich)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
  • [Number-of-references] 228
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100. Taranto AJ, Lourie R, Lau WF: Ovarian vascular pedicle sign in ovarian metastasis arising from gall bladder carcinoma. Australas Radiol; 2006 Oct;50(5):504-6
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  • A case of a large mass in the pelvis confirmed to be a rare ovarian metastasis arising from a primary adenocarcinoma of the gall bladder is presented.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Ovary / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Contrast Media / administration & dosage. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Middle Aged. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Radiographic Image Enhancement / methods. Rare Diseases

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  • (PMID = 16981953.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-8461
  • [Journal-full-title] Australasian radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Australas Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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