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1. LaSpina M, Haas GP: Update on the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer. Can J Urol; 2008 Aug;15 Suppl 1:3-13; discussion 13
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  • [Title] Update on the diagnosis and management of prostate cancer.
  • Early detection of prostate adenocarcinoma (prostate cancer) through screening tests such as a serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test and a digital rectal examination (DRE) enables primary care physicians and urologists to offer patients a broader choice of treatments that are also more likely to provide a cure.
  • This review aims to provide general practitioners with a better understanding of different prostate cancer tests that can be performed and to help them decide which patients should be referred to a urologist for an ultrasound-guided biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Prostatic Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Canada / epidemiology. Combined Modality Therapy / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Digital Rectal Examination / methods. Endosonography / methods. Humans. Male. Morbidity / trends. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Risk Factors. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 18700060.001).
  • [ISSN] 1195-9479
  • [Journal-full-title] The Canadian journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
  • [Number-of-references] 59
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2. Kim YH, Lee YJ: TRAIL apoptosis is enhanced by quercetin through Akt dephosphorylation. J Cell Biochem; 2007 Mar 1;100(4):998-1009
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  • TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a promising cancer therapy that preferentially induces apoptosis in cancer cells.
  • Here we demonstrated that human prostate cancer cells, but not normal prostate cells, are dramatically sensitized to TRAIL-induced apoptosis and caspase activation by quercetin.
  • Quercetin, a ubiquitous bioactive plant flavonoid, has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of cancer cells.
  • Human prostate adenocarcinoma DU-145 and LNCaP cells were treated with various concentrations of TRAIL (10-200 ng/ml) and/or quercetin (10-200 microM) for 4 h.

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  • (PMID = 17031854.001).
  • [ISSN] 0730-2312
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cellular biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cell. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA121395; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA95191; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA96989; United States / NCI NIH HHS / PC / PC020530; United States / NCI NIH HHS / PC / PC040833
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CASP8 and FADD-Like Apoptosis Regulating Protein; 0 / Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand; 9IKM0I5T1E / Quercetin; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases
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3. Levesque MH, El-Alfy M, Berger L, Labrie F, Labrie C: Evaluation of AIbZIP and Cdc47 as markers for human prostatic diseases. Urology; 2007 Jan;69(1):196-201
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  • [Title] Evaluation of AIbZIP and Cdc47 as markers for human prostatic diseases.
  • OBJECTIVES: Benign prostatic hyperplasia and prostate cancer are important public health issues.
  • AIbZIP is a protein recently found to be more abundant in prostate cancer than in benign prostatic tissue, and Cdc47 is a cell proliferation-associated protein.
  • These four proteins were evaluated as potential markers of prostatic diseases in 210 needle core biopsies, including normal prostate, benign prostatic hyperplasia, low-grade and high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and different Gleason grades of prostatic adenocarcinoma.
  • Cdc47, in contrast, discriminated not only between malignant and benign prostatic tissue, but also between benign prostatic hyperplasia and normal prostatic tissue.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Cdc47 appears to be a sensitive marker of prostatic diseases since its expression gradually increased in parallel with the severity of the lesion.
  • AIbZIP discriminated between benign tissue and cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors / analysis. Cell Cycle Proteins / analysis. DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Nuclear Proteins / analysis. Prostate / chemistry. Prostatic Hyperplasia. Prostatic Neoplasms / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 17270658.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / CREB3L4 protein, human; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM7 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 7
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4. Neto AS, Tobias-Machado M, Wroclawski ML, Fonseca FL, Pompeo AC, Del Giglio A: Molecular oncogenesis of prostate adenocarcinoma: role of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2/neu). Tumori; 2010 Sep-Oct;96(5):645-9
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  • [Title] Molecular oncogenesis of prostate adenocarcinoma: role of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2/neu).
  • The potential mechanisms involving the genesis and growth of androgen-independent prostate cancer include super-expression of the androgen receptor (AR), in an attempt to compensate for the low androgenic plasma levels and mutations of this specific receptor, which could determine resistance to anti-androgenic therapy.
  • However, most advanced prostate tumors have no mutations or amplifications of the AR, suggesting a potential role of non-androgenic growth factors, including epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor alpha, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and fibroblast growth factor.
  • More specifically, these factors, and their receptors like EGFR (HER-1) and HER-2/neu, through paracrine and autocrine mechanisms, may contribute to the proliferation and growth of prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism


5. Mishra MV, Shirazi R, Barrett WL: Incidence and clinical course of hemorrhagic radiation proctitis after iodine-125 prostate brachytherapy. Clin Genitourin Cancer; 2007 Sep;5(6):397-400
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  • [Title] Incidence and clinical course of hemorrhagic radiation proctitis after iodine-125 prostate brachytherapy.
  • PURPOSE: Hemorrhagic radiation proctitis (HRP) is a potential complication of prostate brachytherapy.
  • We sought to determine the incidence and clinical course of hemorrhagic radiation proctitis after iodine-125 (125I) prostate brachytherapy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1995 and 2003, 221 consecutive patients were treated at the Barrett Cancer Center with permanent 125I seed implantation for presumed localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate.
  • CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates tolerable rectal morbidity after transperineal prostate brachytherapy of the prostate.
  • Hemorrhagic radiation proctitis occurring after brachytherapy for prostate cancer is usually self-limiting and frequently resolves without treatment or with minor medical treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Brachytherapy / adverse effects. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / etiology. Iodine Radioisotopes / adverse effects. Proctitis / etiology. Prostatic Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiation Injuries / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17956713.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-7673
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical genitourinary cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Genitourin Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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6. Perez N, Castillo M, Santos Y, Truan D, Gutierrez R, Franco A, Palacin A, Bombi JA, Campo E, Fernandez PL: Carcinosarcoma of the prostate: two cases with distinctive morphologic and immunohistochemical findings. Virchows Arch; 2005 May;446(5):511-6
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  • [Title] Carcinosarcoma of the prostate: two cases with distinctive morphologic and immunohistochemical findings.
  • Carcinosarcomas (CS) of the prostate are very uncommon neoplasms defined by the admixture of malignant epithelial and mesenchymal components.
  • We describe here two new examples of CS in two patients aged 66 and 77 years, the first without previous history of prostate adenocarcinoma and the second with a 5-year history of acinar type prostate adenocarcinoma.
  • The diagnosis of CS was made on the cystoprostatectomy specimen in the first case and transurethral resection in the second case.
  • Both biphasic tumours exhibited papillary areas of ductal differentiation and conventional adenocarcinoma in the epithelial component, as well as malignant fibrous histiocytoma and angiosarcomatous areas in the first case and solid, poorly differentiated epithelial areas with neuroendocrine features in the second case.
  • The clinical course of the cases was divergent; the first patient is free of disease after radical surgery and adjuvant therapy and the other died 5 months after the diagnosis of CS, having already developed liver metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinosarcoma / diagnosis. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antigens, CD31 / analysis. Biomarkers. Biopsy, Needle. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / analysis. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Neprilysin / analysis. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostatectomy. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / analysis. Receptor, ErbB-2 / analysis. Transurethral Resection of Prostate. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 15821929.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD31; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / CAM 5.2 antigen; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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7. Kruslin B: [Apoptosis in pathologic prostatic processes]. Acta Med Croatica; 2009 Oct;63 Suppl 2:49-52
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  • [Title] [Apoptosis in pathologic prostatic processes].
  • [Transliterated title] Apoptoza u patoloskim procesima prostate.
  • Numerous studies have demonstrated the apoptotic index to be significantly higher in benign prostatic lesions than in PIN and adenocarcinoma.
  • Furthermore, a lower apoptotic index in epithelial cell populations has been shown to correlate with decreased immunoreactivity for prostate specific antigen that may be seen in higher Gleason grade tumors.
  • It is suggested that the loss of function of some apoptotic regulators contributes to the development of PIN and prostatic adenocarcinoma.
  • Changes in the expression of these markers may serve as a reliable criterion on making the diagnosis in biopsy material and may help choose an appropriate therapeutic approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / physiology. Prostatic Neoplasms / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / physiopathology. Humans. Male. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / physiopathology. Signal Transduction

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  • (PMID = 19999547.001).
  • [ISSN] 1330-0164
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta medica Croatica : c̆asopis Hravatske akademije medicinskih znanosti
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Med Croatica
  • [Language] hrv
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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8. Bono AV, Montironi R, Pannellini T, Sasso F, Mirone V, Musiani P, Iezzi M: Effects of castration on the development of prostate adenocarcinoma from its precursor HGPIN and on the occurrence of androgen-independent, poorly differentiated carcinoma in TRAMP mice. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis; 2008;11(4):377-83
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  • [Title] Effects of castration on the development of prostate adenocarcinoma from its precursor HGPIN and on the occurrence of androgen-independent, poorly differentiated carcinoma in TRAMP mice.
  • Androgen ablation is thought to exert selective pressure for the development of androgen-independent forms of prostate cancer.
  • This study was set up to investigate the effects of surgical castration on the development of prostate adenocarcinoma (ADC) from its precursor (high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN)) and on the occurrence of androgen-independent, poorly differentiated carcinoma (PDC) in (C57Bl/6 transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate) TRAMP mice.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Orchiectomy. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18379588.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5608
  • [Journal-full-title] Prostate cancer and prostatic diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Receptors, Androgen
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9. Amato RJ, Hernandez-McClain J, Henary H: Bone-targeted therapy: phase II study of strontium-89 in combination with alternating weekly chemohormonal therapies for patients with advanced androgen-independent prostate cancer. Am J Clin Oncol; 2008 Dec;31(6):532-8
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  • [Title] Bone-targeted therapy: phase II study of strontium-89 in combination with alternating weekly chemohormonal therapies for patients with advanced androgen-independent prostate cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: Bone-targeted therapy that combines strontium-89 (Sr-89) with alternating weekly chemohormonal therapy may improve clinical outcomes in patients with metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer.
  • This phase II study investigated the addition of Sr-89 to an alternating weekly regimen of doxorubicin and ketoconazole with paclitaxel and estramustine in patients with progressive prostate cancer and bone involvement.
  • METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with progressive adenocarcinoma of the prostate and osteoblastic bone metastases who failed conventional hormonal therapy were registered for the study.
  • RESULTS: A > or =50% reduction in prostate-specific antigen level was maintained for at least 8 weeks in 77.7% of the patients (21 patients) at 16 weeks and in 66.6% (18 patients) at 32 weeks.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Antifungal Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / therapy. Ketoconazole / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy. Strontium Radioisotopes / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Estramustine / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19060583.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-453X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antifungal Agents; 0 / Strontium Radioisotopes; 35LT29625A / Estramustine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; R9400W927I / Ketoconazole
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10. Adolf K, Wagner L, Bergh A, Stattin P, Ottosen P, Borre M, Birkenkamp-Demtröder K, Orntoft TF, Tørring N: Secretagogin is a new neuroendocrine marker in the human prostate. Prostate; 2007 Apr 1;67(5):472-84
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  • [Title] Secretagogin is a new neuroendocrine marker in the human prostate.
  • BACKGROUND: Neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation in prostate cancer (PCa), promoted by NE cell secreted products, appears to be associated with tumor progression, poor prognosis, and hormone-refractory disease.
  • The present study analyzes the expression of secretagogin in normal and malign prostate tissue.
  • METHODS: We analyzed immunoreactivity for secretagogin, chromogranin A (CgA), neuron specific enolase (NSE), and synaptophysin (SYN) in consecutive sections from 87 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) benign hyperplastic (n = 10) and prostate adenocarcinoma (n = 77) specimens.
  • RESULTS: Secretagogin is cytoplasmic and nuclear expressed in NE and NE differentiated cells, and to a lesser extent in epithelial cells, in the benign prostate and prostate adenocarcinoma cells.
  • Secretagogin stained 82% (46/56) of benign and 71% (48/68) of prostate adenocarcinomas and co-localized with the NE markers CgA and NSE.
  • The expression of secretagogin is significantly correlated to CgA (P < 0.001) and NSE (P < 0.048) in prostate adenocarcinoma and to CgA in normal epithelium (P < 0.028).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Secretagogin is a novel NE marker in the prostate with more extended immunoreactivity compared to the NE markers CgA, SYN, and NSE.
  • Secretagogin is widely expressed in prostatic adenocarcinoma as opposed to adenocarcinomas in other organs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Calcium-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17285592.001).
  • [ISSN] 0270-4137
  • [Journal-full-title] The Prostate
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostate
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Calcium-Binding Proteins; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / SCGN protein, human; 0 / Secretagogins; 0 / Synaptophysin; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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11. Breiting LB, Christensen L, Dahlstrøm K, Winther JF, Breiting VB, Kalialis LV: [Primary mucinous carcinoma of the skin--a literature review]. Ugeskr Laeger; 2008 Oct 20;170(43):3399-402
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  • It is often misdiagnosed as it has an uncharacteristic gross appearance - and may microscopically resemble a cutaneous metastasis from a mucinous carcinoma of the breast, gastrointestinal tract, lungs, ovaries or prostate.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous. Skin Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prognosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18976593.001).
  • [ISSN] 1603-6824
  • [Journal-full-title] Ugeskrift for laeger
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ugeskr. Laeg.
  • [Language] dan
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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12. Ly D, Reddy CA, Klein EA, Ciezki JP: Association of body mass index with prostate cancer biochemical failure. J Urol; 2010 Jun;183(6):2193-9
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  • [Title] Association of body mass index with prostate cancer biochemical failure.
  • PURPOSE: The association between obesity and biochemical failure measured by prostate specific antigen after prostate cancer treatment is controversial.
  • We determined whether there is an association between body mass index and biochemical failure in men treated for low and intermediate risk prostate cancer with various treatment modalities.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a cohort study in 2,687 patients who underwent treatment for low and intermediate risk prostate adenocarcinoma as described by National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines at Cleveland Clinic between January 1996 and December 2005.
  • Multivariate analysis revealed certain variables significantly associated with biochemical failure, including black race, greater initial prostate specific antigen, Gleason score 7, treatment type and more frequent prostate specific antigen screening.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / blood. Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Body Mass Index. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20399465.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3792
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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13. Burri RJ, Stock RG, Cesaretti JA, Atencio DP, Peters S, Peters CA, Fan G, Stone NN, Ostrer H, Rosenstein BS: Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in SOD2, XRCC1 and XRCC3 with susceptibility for the development of adverse effects resulting from radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Radiat Res; 2008 Jul;170(1):49-59
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in SOD2, XRCC1 and XRCC3 with susceptibility for the development of adverse effects resulting from radiotherapy for prostate cancer.
  • The objective of this study was to determine whether an association exists between certain single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), which have previously been linked with adverse normal tissue effects resulting from radiotherapy, and the development of radiation injury resulting from radiotherapy for prostate cancer.
  • A total of 135 consecutive patients with clinically localized prostate cancer and a minimum of 1 year of follow-up who had been treated with radiation therapy, either brachytherapy alone or in combination with external-beam radiotherapy, with or without hormone therapy, were genotyped for SNPs in SOD2, XRCC1 and XRCC3.
  • These results suggest that SNPs in the SOD2, XRCC1 and XRCC3 genes are associated with the development of late radiation injury in patients treated with radiation therapy for prostate adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease / genetics. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide / genetics. Prostatic Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Superoxide Dismutase / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18582155.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-7587
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiation research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / X-ray repair cross complementing protein 1; 0 / X-ray repair cross complementing protein 3; EC 1.15.1.1 / Superoxide Dismutase; EC 1.15.1.1 / superoxide dismutase 2
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14. Mumenthaler SM, Yu H, Tze S, Cederbaum SD, Pegg AE, Seligson DB, Grody WW: Expression of arginase II in prostate cancer. Int J Oncol; 2008 Feb;32(2):357-65
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  • [Title] Expression of arginase II in prostate cancer.
  • Previous reports have shown elevated arginase activity in prostate cancer patients.
  • This study was designed to compare expression levels of arginase II (AII) in various human prostate cancer cell lines and tissues.
  • Expression levels of AII and other enzymes involved in arginine metabolism were examined in androgen-dependent (LNCaP, LAPC-4) and androgen-independent (PC3, DU145, CL-1, CL-2) prostate cancer cell lines by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot analysis.
  • In addition, polyamine levels were measured within the prostate cancer cell lines by HPLC.
  • The tissue microarray data revealed that the highest AII expression was seen in BPH, followed by PIN and normal samples, with the lowest expression levels observed in prostate cancer tissues.
  • Based on these results, arginase II expression may play a role in prostate cancer progression.
  • More specifically, the elevated AII expression seen in androgen-dependent and in more differentiated prostate cancers suggests that AII could be a potentially useful marker of early stage prostate adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Arginase / biosynthesis. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Prostatic Neoplasms / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 18202758.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 16042; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 92131
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Polyamines; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 94ZLA3W45F / Arginine; EC 2.6.1.13 / Ornithine-Oxo-Acid Transaminase; EC 3.5.3.1 / Arginase; EC 3.5.3.1 / arginase II, human
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15. Bauman DR, Steckelbroeck S, Peehl DM, Penning TM: Transcript profiling of the androgen signal in normal prostate, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and prostate cancer. Endocrinology; 2006 Dec;147(12):5806-16
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  • [Title] Transcript profiling of the androgen signal in normal prostate, benign prostatic hyperplasia, and prostate cancer.
  • Human prostate adenocarcinoma (CaP) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) have epithelial and stromal cell origins, respectively.
  • Transcripts for type 2 5alpha-reductase, ketosteroid reductases [aldo-keto reductase (AKR)1C1-AKR1C4], the major oxidative 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) retinol dehydrogenase (RODH)-like 3alpha-HSD (RL-HSD) and nuclear receptors [AR, estrogen receptor (ER)alpha, and ERbeta] were determined in whole human prostate and in cultures of primary epithelial cells (PEC) and primary stromal cells (PSC) from normal prostate, CaP and BPH by real-time RT-PCR.
  • Differences in the AR:ERbeta transcript ratios (eight in normal PEC vs. 280 in normal PSC) were maintained in PEC and PSC in diseased prostate.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgens / metabolism. Carcinoma / metabolism. Gene Expression Profiling / methods. Prostate / metabolism. Prostatic Hyperplasia / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism


16. McGee SM, Boorjian SA, Karnes RJ: Carcinosarcoma of the prostate replacing the entire lower genitourinary tract. Urology; 2009 Sep;74(3):540-1
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  • [Title] Carcinosarcoma of the prostate replacing the entire lower genitourinary tract.
  • Less than 100 cases of prostate carcinosarcoma have been described in published studies.
  • Most of these cases describe symptoms due to bladder outlet obstruction that typically results in transurethral resection of the prostate.
  • Our patient presented with tenesmus and stranguria due to prostate carcinosarcoma that developed years after being treated with external radiation and androgen deprivation for prostate adenocarcinoma.
  • Despite the dismal survival associated with prostate carcinosarcoma, palliative surgical extirpation can be successful in patients with debilitating pain.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinosarcoma / surgery. Pelvic Exenteration. Prostatic Neoplasms / surgery. Urogenital Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19589566.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Khalbuss WE, Ambaye A, Goodison S, Loya A, Masood S: Papillary carcinoma of the breast in a male patient with a treated prostatic carcinoma diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy: a case report and review of the literature. Diagn Cytopathol; 2006 Mar;34(3):214-7
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  • [Title] Papillary carcinoma of the breast in a male patient with a treated prostatic carcinoma diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy: a case report and review of the literature.
  • A 67-yr-old man, who had a previous history of prostatic adenocarcinoma, presented with a retroareolar painless mass.
  • There was no known history of breast cancer in his family.
  • A diagnosis of papillary lesion favoring papillary carcinoma was rendered.
  • Immunohistochemical staining of the cell-block of the FNAB revealed the presence of mammaglobin, and the absence of prostatic specific antigen.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Breast Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Mammaglobin A. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Prostate-Specific Antigen / analysis. Uteroglobin / analysis

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  • [Copyright] 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • (PMID = 16548002.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA108597
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mammaglobin A; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / SCGB2A2 protein, human; 9060-09-7 / Uteroglobin; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
  • [Number-of-references] 18
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS399894; NLM/ PMC3428056
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18. Billis A, Meirelles L, Freitas LL: Mergence of partial and complete atrophy in prostate needle biopsies: a morphologic and immunohistochemical study. Virchows Arch; 2010 Jun;456(6):689-94
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  • [Title] Mergence of partial and complete atrophy in prostate needle biopsies: a morphologic and immunohistochemical study.
  • Partial atrophy is the most common benign lesion that causes difficulty in the differential diagnosis with adenocarcinoma of the prostate.
  • Very few studies described, illustrated, and discussed the concomitance of partial atrophy with complete atrophy in prostatic needle biopsies.
  • The study group comprised 75 needle prostatic biopsies corresponding to 67 patients.
  • Focal prostatic atrophy was present in all biopsies.
  • We illustrate morphologic transitions between these lesions in the same gland.
  • Using immunohistochemistry, the aberrant phenotypic expression in the secretory compartment in all subtypes of complete atrophy highlighted the morphologic transitions between partial and complete atrophies in the same gland.
  • Partial atrophy seems to be part of a morphologic spectrum of focal prostatic atrophy and probably precedes complete atrophy.
  • The question of whether the inflammation produces tissue damage and prostatic atrophy or whether some other insults like ischemia induces the tissue damage and atrophy directly, with inflammation occurring secondarily, is still unsettled.
  • [MeSH-major] Prostate / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20361207.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2307
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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19. O'Connor JK, Nedzi LA, Zakris EL: Prostate adenocarcinoma and human immunodeficiency virus: report of three cases and review of the literature. Clin Genitourin Cancer; 2006 Jun;5(1):85-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prostate adenocarcinoma and human immunodeficiency virus: report of three cases and review of the literature.
  • EBRT) in patients with prostate adenocarcinoma and HIV and to review the published literature for this population.
  • Three patients with prostate adenocarcinoma and HIV were treated with definitive RT.
  • Medical records were reviewed for prostate cancer and HIV characteristics, RT details, and acute toxicity.
  • All 3 patients had excellent acute tolerance to definitive EBRT and, with short follow-up, all had decreasing prostate-specific antigen levels.
  • The published literature regarding patients with prostate adenocarcinoma and HIV is scarce but suggests that men with HIV might be at higher risk of developing prostate cancer.
  • All 3 patients with prostate adenocarcinoma and HIV had an excellent acute tolerance to EBRT.
  • Prostate cancer is expected to become an increasingly important health problem for men infected with HIV as their life expectancy lengthens.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. HIV Infections / complications. Prostatic Neoplasms / complications. Prostatic Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 16859585.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-7673
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical genitourinary cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Genitourin Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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20. Bernoulli J, Yatkin E, Laakso A, Anttinen M, Bosland M, Vega K, Kallajoki M, Santti R, Pylkkänen L: Histopathological evidence for an association of inflammation with ductal pin-like lesions but not with ductal adenocarcinoma in the prostate of the noble rat. Prostate; 2008 May 15;68(7):728-39
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Histopathological evidence for an association of inflammation with ductal pin-like lesions but not with ductal adenocarcinoma in the prostate of the noble rat.
  • BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation may contribute to the development of prostate cancer.
  • The goal of this study was to determine the possible association of prostatic inflammation, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN)-like lesion, and prostate cancer, and to assess the androgen and estrogen dependency of the early steps of carcinogenesis.
  • RESULTS: After treatment for 13 weeks, acute and chronic inflammation was found in the dorsolateral prostate lobes and both inflammation and PIN-like lesions were present in the periurethal area of the prostate in all animals (n = 8).
  • Following hormone exposure for 18 and 26 weeks, inflammation in the prostate remained, and adenocarcinomas in the periurethal prostate area with no adjacent inflammation were observed in all 18 animals studied.
  • When both hormone implants were removed after 15 weeks, PIN-like lesions progressed further to adenocarcinoma only in two of seven animals.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Even though adenocarcinomas were not morphologically associated with inflammation, PIN-like lesions preceding adenocarcinoma were found in close association with inflammation, pointing towards a possible initiator role of inflammation in the early steps of prostatic carcinogenesis.
  • Further, these results indicate that both androgens and estrogens together play a significant role in the induction of inflammation and prostatic cancer in this model.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Ductal / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Prostate / pathology. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Prostatitis / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18302197.001).
  • [ISSN] 0270-4137
  • [Journal-full-title] The Prostate
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostate
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Drug Implants; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
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21. Dellavedova T, Ponzano R, Racca L, Minuzzi F, Domínguez M: Prostate cancer as incidental finding in transurethral resection. Arch Esp Urol; 2010 Dec;63(10):855-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prostate cancer as incidental finding in transurethral resection.
  • Prostate adenocarcinoma is found in surgical samples without prior diagnosis in 4 to 15% of the patients.
  • We present 7 cases of prostate cancer detected in 100 patients who underwent bipolar transurethral resection (TUR) of the prostate due to regular indications.
  • The aim of this paper is to describe patient's characteristics, postoperative outcome, analyze TURP as a diagnostic tool and evaluate therapeutic options for prostate cancer (PCa).
  • METHODS: One hundred patients with bladder outlet obstruction due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) underwent TURP in FUCDIM between June 2007 and August 2009.
  • In 7 of them, prostate adenocarcinomas were detected.
  • None of the patients underwent TURP only because of increased prostate-specific antigen (PSA).
  • Prostate cancer detection global rate was 7%, 3 cases were incidental findings (low PSA and low-risk tumors), 3 patients had increased PSA and several previous biopsies with negative results and 1 had low PSA and aggressive tumor (Gleason 4+3).
  • CONCLUSIONS: TURP patients with prostate cancer are a heterogeneous group.
  • TURP can be both diagnostic and therapeutic when facing patients with obstructive symptoms, high PSA and negative prostate biopsies.
  • There are several therapeutic alternatives for TURP patients with cancer, taking into consideration tumor grade and stage, age, life expectancy and will of the patient.
  • Bipolar TUR, in selected patients, allows to offer optional active surveillance (in these patients PSADT is very useful) and if cancer is not found, it eases the follow up of these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Prostatic Diseases / surgery. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Transurethral Resection of Prostate


22. Tardy I, Pochon S, Theraulaz M, Emmel P, Passantino L, Tranquart F, Schneider M: Ultrasound molecular imaging of VEGFR2 in a rat prostate tumor model using BR55. Invest Radiol; 2010 Oct;45(10):573-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ultrasound molecular imaging of VEGFR2 in a rat prostate tumor model using BR55.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate BR55, a new VEGFR2-specific ultrasound contrast agent, for imaging prostate tumors in an orthotopic model in the rat.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rat prostate adenocarcinoma were established by injection of G Dunning R-3327 tumor cells in one lobe of the prostate of Copenhagen rats.
  • Contrast enhancement in the tumor and healthy prostate was followed over time by intermittent imaging at low acoustic power.
  • Immunohistochemistry was performed on the prostate and tumor specimen to determine the expression of VEGFR2.
  • Then, once unbound microbubbles had cleared from the circulation, a strong enhancement of the tumor was obtained with BR55, whereas no significant microbubble accumulation was detected in the healthy prostate tissue.
  • The tumor to prostate ratio calculated after signal quantification was about 20 for the 3 doses of BR55 tested.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that BR55 binding to prostate tumors resulted in a strong enhancement of the lesions as early as a few minutes after contrast injection, whereas minimal nonspecific accumulation occurred in the healthy part of the gland.
  • The late phase enhancement of the tumor should be particularly valuable for prostate cancer detection and for biopsy guidance.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / radionuclide imaging. Molecular Imaging / methods. Prostate / radionuclide imaging. Prostatic Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 20808233.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0210
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Phospholipids; 0 / contrast agent BR1; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2; WS7LR3I1D6 / Sulfur Hexafluoride
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23. Mavroidis P, al-Abany M, Helgason AR, Agren Cronqvist AK, Wersäll P, Lind H, Qvanta E, Theodorou K, Kappas C, Lind BK, Steineck G, Brahme A: Dose-response relations for anal sphincter regarding fecal leakage and blood or phlegm in stools after radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Radiobiological study of 65 consecutive patients. Strahlenther Onkol; 2005 May;181(5):293-306
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Dose-response relations for anal sphincter regarding fecal leakage and blood or phlegm in stools after radiotherapy for prostate cancer. Radiobiological study of 65 consecutive patients.
  • BACKGROUND: The estimation of the parameters that describe the dose-response relations of anal sphincter regarding the clinical endpoints of fecal leakage and blood or phlegm in stools is important in the optimization of prostate cancer radiotherapy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this study, 65 patients who received radiation therapy for clinically localized prostate adenocarcinoma are analyzed.
  • Diminishing the biologically effective uniform dose to anal sphincter < 40-45 Gy may significantly reduce the risk of fecal leakage or blood or phlegm in stools for patients irradiated for prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anal Canal / radiation effects. Fecal Incontinence / radionuclide imaging. Prostatic Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy / adverse effects


24. Lefterov SI, Gorelov SI, Krivolapov IuA: [Prognostic significance of cell proliferation, microvascular density and androgen receptor level in prostatic adenocarcinoma]. Vopr Onkol; 2009;55(6):740-5
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  • [Title] [Prognostic significance of cell proliferation, microvascular density and androgen receptor level in prostatic adenocarcinoma].
  • Our study was concerned with prognostic significance of immunophenotypical features of prostate adenocarcinoma such as Ki-67 proliferation, androgen receptors (AR), microvascular density (MVD) in the stroma and tumor glands.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Neovascularization, Pathologic / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Receptors, Androgen / metabolism


25. Aranzubía OM, Rodríguez JG, Allende BV, Gómez JM, González RS, Múgica MA, Sejas FJ: Subcutaneous metastasis of prostate cancer. Arch Esp Urol; 2009 Sep;62(7):583-5
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  • [Title] Subcutaneous metastasis of prostate cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: Prostate cancer tends to spread to regional lymph nodes and bone, and, to a lesser degree, to lung, liver, and brain.
  • To review the frequency and clinical characteristics of metastasis to subcutaneous cellular tissue in adenocarcinoma of the prostate.
  • METHODS: The case of a 71-year-old man diagnosed of adenocarcinoma of the prostate is reported.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Prostate cancer is highly prevalent in our part of the world.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Subcutaneous Tissue


26. Trojan J, Ly A, Wei MX, Bierwagen M, Kopinski P, Pan Y, Ardourel MY, Dufour T, Shevelev A, Trojan LA, François JC, Andres C, Popiela T, Chatel M, Kasprzak H, Anthony DD, Duc HT: Antisense anti IGF-I cellular therapy of malignant tumours: immune response in cancer patients. Biomed Pharmacother; 2010 Oct;64(8):576-8
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  • [Title] Antisense anti IGF-I cellular therapy of malignant tumours: immune response in cancer patients.
  • The treatment of cancer by antisense anti-IGF-I cellular therapy inducing immune response has evoked interest among many promising strategies.
  • Here, we reported some results obtained from patients with cancer, mainly glioblastoma treated by this strategy, which was also extended to patients with colon carcinoma, ovary cystadenocarcinoma and prostate adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cancer Vaccines / therapeutic use. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / genetics. Neoplasms / therapy. RNA, Antisense / genetics. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20630696.001).
  • [ISSN] 1950-6007
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomédecine & pharmacothérapie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomed. Pharmacother.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD11b; 0 / Antigens, CD28; 0 / Antigens, CD8; 0 / Cancer Vaccines; 0 / ITGAM protein, human; 0 / RNA, Antisense; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
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27. Matousková M: [Prostate cancer]. Klin Onkol; 2008;21(5):280-7
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  • [Title] [Prostate cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Karcinom prostaty.
  • Malignant prostate tumors rank with its incidence among the most frequent tumors in man in Czech Republic.
  • Adenocarcinoma of the prostate due to its unusual behavior occupy especial position among solid tumors.
  • After the introduction of PSA in the diagnostic methods we can gradually see shift of the new cases of prostate cancer to the localised stage.
  • Movement to less localized stage diminishes the chance of recovery, but even the metastatic adenocarcinoma can be stabilised at least for some time.
  • The aim of therapy of hormonal refractory cancer is to maintain good quality of life and in some prolongation of survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Prostatic Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 19202959.001).
  • [ISSN] 0862-495X
  • [Journal-full-title] Klinická onkologie : casopis Ceské a Slovenské onkologické spolecnosti
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Klin Onkol
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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28. Tsao CC, Corn PG: MDM-2 antagonists induce p53-dependent cell cycle arrest but not cell death in renal cancer cell lines. Cancer Biol Ther; 2010 Dec 15;10(12):1315-25
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  • [Title] MDM-2 antagonists induce p53-dependent cell cycle arrest but not cell death in renal cancer cell lines.
  • In contrast, MDM-2 antagonists caused significant cell death in LNCaP prostate adenocarcinoma cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis. Cell Death. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Doxorubicin / pharmacology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genes, p53. Humans. Imidazoles / pharmacology. Kidney Tubules, Proximal / growth & development. Kidney Tubules, Proximal / metabolism. Male. Mutation. Phosphorylation. Piperazines / pharmacology. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. RNA, Small Interfering. Signal Transduction / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 20953142.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-8576
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biology & therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Imidazoles; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / nutlin 3; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; EC 6.3.2.19 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2
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29. Pham H, Vang K, Ziboh VA: Dietary gamma-linolenate attenuates tumor growth in a rodent model of prostatic adenocarcinoma via suppression of elevated generation of PGE(2) and 5S-HETE. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids; 2006 Apr;74(4):271-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Dietary gamma-linolenate attenuates tumor growth in a rodent model of prostatic adenocarcinoma via suppression of elevated generation of PGE(2) and 5S-HETE.
  • Prostate cancer poses considerable threat to the aging male population as it has become a leading cause of cancer death to this group.
  • Due to the complexity of this age-related disease, the mechanism(s) and factors resulting in prostate cancer remain unclear.
  • Reports showing an increase risk in prostatic cancer with increasing dietary fat are contrasted by other studies suggesting the beneficial effects of certain polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) in the modulation of tumor development.
  • Therefore, using the Lobund-Wistar (L-W) rat model of prostate cancer, we tested the hypothesis whether dietary supplementation of GLA could suppress tumor growth and development in vivo.
  • Prostatic adenocarcinomas were induced in two groups of L-W rats, the experimental group (N-nitroso-N-methylurea, NMU/testosterone propionate, TP) and the GLA group (NMU/TP/GLA fed) undergoing similar treatment but fed a purified diet supplemented with GLA.
  • Our findings revealed a decrease in prostate growth in the NMU/TP/GLA-fed group as determined by weight, tissue size, DNA content and prostate-specific antigen (tumor marker of prostate cancer).
  • Taken together, the findings showed that intake of GLA-enriched diet does reduce prostatic cancer development in L-W rats and could serve as a non-toxic adjunct in management of human prostatic cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Dietary Fats, Unsaturated / pharmacology. Dinoprostone / metabolism. Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acids / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism. gamma-Linolenic Acid / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism. Lipoxygenase / metabolism. Male. Models, Biological. Neoplasms, Experimental. Plant Oils / administration & dosage. Plant Oils / metabolism. Plant Oils / pharmacology. Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases / metabolism. Prostate-Specific Antigen / metabolism. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16567086.001).
  • [ISSN] 0952-3278
  • [Journal-full-title] Prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and essential fatty acids
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostaglandins Leukot. Essent. Fatty Acids
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dietary Fats, Unsaturated; 0 / Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic Acids; 0 / Plant Oils; 0 / borage oil; 78YC2MAX4O / gamma-Linolenic Acid; EC 1.13.11.12 / Lipoxygenase; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases; EC 1.14.99.1 / Ptgs2 protein, rat; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen; K7Q1JQR04M / Dinoprostone
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30. Andreoiu M, Cheng L: Multifocal prostate cancer: biologic, prognostic, and therapeutic implications. Hum Pathol; 2010 Jun;41(6):781-93
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  • [Title] Multifocal prostate cancer: biologic, prognostic, and therapeutic implications.
  • Prostatic adenocarcinoma is the most common cancer diagnosed in men and is often multifocal.
  • This review examines recent progress in the pathogenesis of multifocal prostatic adenocarcinoma and its biologic, pathologic, prognostic, and therapeutic implications.
  • Prostatic cancer multifocality makes accurate clinical staging difficult, and repeated revisions have been undertaken in an effort to optimize prognostic accuracy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Prostatic Neoplasms

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20466122.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 125
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31. Scalcione LR, Katz DS, Santoro MS, Mahboob S, Badler RL, Yung EY: Primary testicular lymphoma involving the spermatic cord and gonadal vein. Clin Nucl Med; 2009 Apr;34(4):222-3
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  • We report a case of a 70-year-old man with a history of prostatic adenocarcinoma and a 3-month history of right hemiscrotal swelling.
  • The patient underwent a CT scan, scrotal ultrasound, and F-18 FDG-PET scan to evaluate for metastatic prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma / diagnosis. Lymphoma / radionuclide imaging. Spermatic Cord / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Testis / blood supply. Veins / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19300051.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0229
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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32. Theodoropoulos VE, Tsigka A, Mihalopoulou A, Tsoukala V, Lazaris AC, Patsouris E, Ghikonti I: Evaluation of neuroendocrine staining and androgen receptor expression in incidental prostatic adenocarcinoma: prognostic implications. Urology; 2005 Oct;66(4):897-902
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evaluation of neuroendocrine staining and androgen receptor expression in incidental prostatic adenocarcinoma: prognostic implications.
  • OBJECTIVES: To identify neuroendocrine cells and androgen receptors (ARs), possible predictors of cancer progression, in a series of untreated patients with incidental Stage T1a prostate cancer (PCa).
  • The AR is thought to have a central role in the propagation of prostate carcinogenesis.
  • The patients were followed up for a mean of 63.9 months, and a subsequent rise in prostate-specific antigen or positive digital rectal examination findings confirmed by biopsy was considered disease progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / chemistry. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / chemistry. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Receptors, Androgen / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16230178.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Receptors, Androgen
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33. Zhang JS, Gong A, Cheville JC, Smith DI, Young CY: AGR2, an androgen-inducible secretory protein overexpressed in prostate cancer. Genes Chromosomes Cancer; 2005 Jul;43(3):249-59
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] AGR2, an androgen-inducible secretory protein overexpressed in prostate cancer.
  • Expression of AGR2 mRNA was specifically detected in limited human tissue rich in epithelial cells, including the prostate gland.
  • Analysis of 46 microdissected primary prostate adenocarcinoma samples showed that AGR2 mRNA expression was markedly elevated in the majority of tumors as compared to matched adjacent benign tissues.
  • Immunohistochemistry analysis indicated that AGR2 protein expression was highly restricted to the secretory epithelial cells in the prostate gland.
  • In tissue sections from radical prostatectomy specimens, immunohistochemical staining of AGR2 showed markedly increased expression in high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and Gleason pattern 3-4 prostatic adenocarcinoma.
  • Therefore, the androgen-induced secretory protein AGR2 may serve as a potential therapeutic target and/or molecular marker for prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Prostatic Neoplasms / genetics. Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Base Sequence. Cloning, Molecular. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Metribolone / pharmacology. Molecular Sequence Data. Prostate / physiology. Protein Biosynthesis. Protein Disulfide-Isomerases. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Sequence Alignment. Sequence Homology, Amino Acid. Testosterone Congeners / pharmacology. Transcription, Genetic. Xenopus. Xenopus Proteins / genetics

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15834940.001).
  • [ISSN] 1045-2257
  • [Journal-full-title] Genes, chromosomes & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genes Chromosomes Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA70892; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA91956.2
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Testosterone Congeners; 0 / Xenopus Proteins; 2C323EGI97 / Metribolone; EC 5.3.4.1 / AGR2 protein, human; EC 5.3.4.1 / Protein Disulfide-Isomerases; EC 5.3.4.1 / XAG-2 protein, Xenopus
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34. Gerogianni I, Gravas S, Papadopoulos D, Terzis A, Nakou M, Tzortzis V, Gourgoulianis K, Melekos MD: Endobronchial metastasis from prostate cancer. Int Urol Nephrol; 2008;40(4):961-4
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  • [Title] Endobronchial metastasis from prostate cancer.
  • We report a case of endobronchial metastasis from prostate adenocarcinoma.
  • A patient with a history of prostate cancer under complete androgen blockade presented to the respiratory department complaining of dyspnea and dry coughing.
  • Flexible bronchoscopy showed multiple polypoid lesions in the tracheobronchial tree and the immunohistochemical studies on the biopsy specimen determined the diagnosis.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first case of endobronchial metastasis of a patient with androgen refractory prostate cancer without any evidence of extrathoracic metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Bronchial Neoplasms / secondary. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18368505.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-1623
  • [Journal-full-title] International urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Urol Nephrol
  • [Language] eng
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35. Fitzgerald TJ, Wang T, Goel HL, Huang J, Stein G, Lian J, Davis RJ, Doxsey S, Balaji KC, Aronowitz J, Languino LR: Prostate carcinoma and radiation therapy: therapeutic treatment resistance and strategies for targeted therapeutic intervention. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2008 Jun;8(6):967-74
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prostate carcinoma and radiation therapy: therapeutic treatment resistance and strategies for targeted therapeutic intervention.
  • Adenocarcinoma of the prostate remains a significant public health problem and a prevalent cancer in men.
  • Prostate-specific antigen used as a biomarker has established a clear migration of patients towards earlier-stage disease at presentation.

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  • (PMID = 18533806.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA089720; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA-89720; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109874; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109874-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA089720-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA089720-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA089720-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R56 CA089720; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA089720-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA-109874; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109874-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
  • [Number-of-references] 40
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS128881; NLM/ PMC2764989
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36. Zorn KC, Gofrit ON, Steinberg GD, Shalhav AL: Evolution of robotic surgery in the treatment of localized prostate cancer. Curr Treat Options Oncol; 2007 Jun;8(3):197-210
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  • [Title] Evolution of robotic surgery in the treatment of localized prostate cancer.
  • Adenocarcinoma of the prostate is the second most common cancer in men in the United States (following only skin cancer) and accounts for 33% of all newly diagnosed male cancers.
  • It is estimated that in 2007, 218,890 men will be diagnosed with prostate cancer and 27,050 will die from this disease.
  • While most currently diagnosed prostate cancers are localized, radical prostatectomy remains a gold standard treatment.
  • With its development in the late 1990s, minimally invasive surgery has significantly and irrevocably changed the surgical treatment of prostate cancer.
  • Robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy allows patients the benefits of minimally invasive surgery with functional and oncological results comparable to those from open and standard laparoscopic procedures, we believe that this surgical approach will shortly evolve into the standard surgical approach for localized prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Prostatectomy / methods. Prostatic Neoplasms / surgery


37. Jin RJ, Lho Y, Wang Y, Ao M, Revelo MP, Hayward SW, Wills ML, Logan SK, Zhang P, Matusik RJ: Down-regulation of p57Kip2 induces prostate cancer in the mouse. Cancer Res; 2008 May 15;68(10):3601-8
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  • [Title] Down-regulation of p57Kip2 induces prostate cancer in the mouse.
  • However, little is known about the role of p57(Kip2) in tumorigenesis and cancer progression.
  • Here, we show that the expression of p57(Kip2) is significantly decreased in human prostate cancer, and the overexpression of p57(Kip2) in prostate cancer cells significantly suppressed cell proliferation and reduced invasive ability.
  • In addition, overexpression of p57(Kip2) in LNCaP cells inhibited tumor formation in nude mice, resulting in well-differentiated squamous tumors rather than adenocarcinoma.
  • Furthermore, the prostates of p57(Kip2) knockout mice developed prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and adenocarcinoma.
  • Remarkably, this mouse prostate cancer is pathologically identical to human prostate adenocarcinoma.
  • Therefore, these results strongly suggest that p57(Kip2) is an important gene in prostate cancer tumorigenesis, and the p57(Kip2) pathway may be a potential target for prostate cancer prevention and therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p57 / biosynthesis. Down-Regulation. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18483241.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA116097; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA76142
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cdkn1c protein, mouse; 0 / Cyclin D; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p57; 0 / Cyclins; 0 / Retinoblastoma Protein; EC 2.7.11.22 / Cdk2 protein, mouse; EC 2.7.11.22 / Cdk4 protein, mouse; EC 2.7.11.22 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2; EC 2.7.11.22 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4
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38. Wohlmuth H, Deseo MA, Brushett DJ, Thompson DR, Macfarlane G, Stevenson LM, Leach DN: Diarylheptanoid from Pleuranthodium racemigerum with in vitro prostaglandin E(2) inhibitory and cytotoxic activity. J Nat Prod; 2010 Apr 23;73(4):743-6
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  • The compound also demonstrated cytotoxic activity against the P388D1 murine lymphoblast cell line (IC(50) = 117.0 microM) and four human cell lines: Caco-2 colonic adenocarcinoma (IC(50) = 44.8 microM), PC3 prostate adenocarcinoma (IC(50) = 23.6 microM), HepG2 hepatocyte carcinoma (IC(50) = 40.6 microM), and MCF7 mammary adenocarcinoma (IC(50) = 56.9 microM).

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  • (PMID = 20297825.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-6025
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of natural products
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nat. Prod.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diarylheptanoids; K7Q1JQR04M / Dinoprostone
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39. Liauw SL, Weichselbaum RR, Rash C, Correa D, Al-Hallaq HA, Pelizzari CA, Jani AB: Biochemical control and toxicity after intensity-modulated radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Technol Cancer Res Treat; 2009 Jun;8(3):201-6
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  • [Title] Biochemical control and toxicity after intensity-modulated radiation therapy for prostate cancer.
  • Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has achieved widespread use for prostate cancer; however, in relation to this use, outcomes studies are still relatively sparse.
  • We report a single-institutional experience in outcomes analysis with the use of IMRT for the primary management of prostate cancer.
  • One hundred thirty consecutive patients with adenocarcinoma of the prostate were treated at a single institution using IMRT with curative intent.
  • In conclusion, patients treated with IMRT for prostate cancer have excellent rates of biochemical control and low rates of severe toxicity of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Prostatic Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated / adverse effects


40. Yin M, Bastacky S, Chandran U, Becich MJ, Dhir R: Prevalence of incidental prostate cancer in the general population: a study of healthy organ donors. J Urol; 2008 Mar;179(3):892-5; discussion 895
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  • [Title] Prevalence of incidental prostate cancer in the general population: a study of healthy organ donors.
  • PURPOSE: The incidence of prostate cancer has surged dramatically in recent years due to improved cancer screening and detection mechanisms.
  • There has also been significant interest specifically pertaining to the increased incidence of prostate cancer in younger males, which might be due to increased screening.
  • We analyzed our data set of incidental prostate cancer, derived from a project accruing prostate tissues for research from normal organ donors, who are a predominantly white population.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Information about any prior prostate cancer screening in this cohort was not available.
  • In addition, this population had no history of intervention related to benign or malignant prostate disease.
  • RESULTS: Evaluation of serially sectioned prostate tissues revealed adenocarcinoma with or without high grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia in 12% of cases.
  • High grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia alone occurred in 10.6% of donors.
  • There was an age dependent increase in high grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia starting from the 4th decade of life.
  • Prostate adenocarcinoma escalated from the 5th decade and thereafter with a 1 in 3 chance of carrying incidental cancer in the 60 to 69-year-old age group and with 46% of 70 to 81-year-old men harboring prostate cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study provides insight into the prevalence of prostate adenocarcinoma and high grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia in the general healthy population.
  • Associated issues, such as the age at which to start screening for prostate cancer and donor transmitted malignancy, were also discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / epidemiology. Prostatic Neoplasms / epidemiology


41. Stillie AL, Kron T, Fox C, Herschtal A, Haworth A, Thompson A, Owen R, Tai KH, Duchesne G, Foroudi F: Rectal filling at planning does not predict stability of the prostate gland during a course of radical radiotherapy if patients with large rectal filling are re-imaged. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2009 Dec;21(10):760-7
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  • [Title] Rectal filling at planning does not predict stability of the prostate gland during a course of radical radiotherapy if patients with large rectal filling are re-imaged.
  • AIMS: It has been suggested that large rectal filling is associated with an increased risk of prostate motion in radiotherapy.
  • The aim of the present study was to determine if there is a correlation between rectal distension on planning computed tomography and the intrafraction and interfraction stability of the prostate gland during a course of radical radiotherapy for prostate cancer if a protocol was used to rescan patients with excessive rectal diameter during planning.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The computed tomography planning scans of 89 patients with adenocarcinoma of the prostate treated with conformal radiotherapy were reviewed.
  • All patients had three gold seed fiducial markers implanted into the prostate before planning computed tomography.
  • Rectal distension was assessed on planning computed tomography using outlines following European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer guidelines by measuring the rectal volume, the average cross-sectional area and the mean anterior-posterior diameter of the rectum.
  • Unifactor linear regression models showed no statistically significant relationship between intra- and interfraction prostate stability and rectal volume on planning computed tomography.
  • CONCLUSIONS: No statistically significant relationship between rectal distension on planning computed tomography and the intra- and interfraction stability of the prostate gland was identified if patients with a large rectal volume were rescanned for planning.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Conformal / methods

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  • (PMID = 19804961.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-2981
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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42. Suthiphongchai T, Phimsen S, Sakulkhu U, Tohtong R: PD98059-inhibited invasion of Dunning rat prostate cancer cells involves suppression of motility but not MMP-2 or uPA secretion. Oncol Rep; 2006 Jun;15(6):1605-10
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  • [Title] PD98059-inhibited invasion of Dunning rat prostate cancer cells involves suppression of motility but not MMP-2 or uPA secretion.
  • Up-regulation of extracellular-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) has been implicated in tumor progression and metastasis in many types of cancer.
  • We have previously shown that ERK1/2 is necessary for invasiveness of Dunning rat prostatic adenocarcinoma cell lines in which levels of activated ERK1/2 correlate with the metastatic potential.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Cell Movement / drug effects. Flavonoids / pharmacology. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / secretion. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator / secretion

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  • (PMID = 16685402.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 2-(2-amino-3-methoxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one; 0 / Flavonoids; 0 / Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors; 0 / Myosin Light Chains; EC 2.7.11.18 / Myosin-Light-Chain Kinase; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases; EC 3.4.21.73 / Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
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43. Wetherill YB, Fisher NL, Staubach A, Danielsen M, de Vere White RW, Knudsen KE: Xenoestrogen action in prostate cancer: pleiotropic effects dependent on androgen receptor status. Cancer Res; 2005 Jan 1;65(1):54-65
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  • [Title] Xenoestrogen action in prostate cancer: pleiotropic effects dependent on androgen receptor status.
  • Androgen is critical for prostate development, growth, and survival.
  • Therapies for advanced prostate cancer aim to block androgen receptor (AR) action.
  • We have shown previously that a known xenoestrogen, bisphenol A (BPA), activates a tumor-derived AR mutant (T877A), leading to androgen-independent prostate cancer cell proliferation.
  • Here, we show that BPA cooperates with androgen to activate AR-T877A as shown by both reporter assays and increased levels of prostate-specific antigen expression.
  • Further investigations using both yeast and mammalian model systems revealed that multiple AR alleles are responsive to BPA, thus expanding the potential influence of xenoestrogens on prostate cancer.
  • We also show that higher concentrations of BPA block proliferation of AR-positive, androgen-dependent prostate adenocarcinoma cells (LNCaP and LAPC-4), with a more modest inhibitory effect on androgen-independent cells (22Rv-1).
  • By contrast, AR-negative prostate cancer cells failed to show growth inhibition after exposure to high BPA dose.
  • Together, these data show that BPA can serve as a potential "hormone sensitizer" of the mutant ARs present in advanced prostate adenocarcinomas, thereby possibly contributing toward therapeutic relapse in advanced prostate cancer patients and supporting the notion that nonsteroidal environmental compounds can alter the function of nuclear receptor complexes.
  • [MeSH-major] Estrogens, Non-Steroidal / pharmacology. Phenols / pharmacology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Receptors, Androgen / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15665279.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / E30-ES--06096; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES-07250-16; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA 093404-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzhydryl Compounds; 0 / Estrogens, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Phenols; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 08J2K08A3Y / Dihydrotestosterone; EC 1.13.12.- / Luciferases; MLT3645I99 / bisphenol A
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44. Benedict SP, Ahuja M, Mammen KJ: Hormone refractory carcinoma prostate with peritoneal metastases and malignant ascites without skeletal involvement: A case report and review of literature. Indian J Urol; 2010 Apr;26(2):287-8
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  • [Title] Hormone refractory carcinoma prostate with peritoneal metastases and malignant ascites without skeletal involvement: A case report and review of literature.
  • Peritoneal carcinomatosis is rare in prostate cancer especially in the absence of skeletal or other visceral metastases.
  • We report a case of hormone refractory adenocarcinoma prostate presenting with only peritoneal metastases and massive malignant ascites.

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  • (PMID = 20877611.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-3824
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of urology : IJU : journal of the Urological Society of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2938557
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Metastasis / peritoneum / prostate cancer
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45. Ahmadi SA, Moinfar M, Gohari Moghaddam K, Bahadori M: Practical application of angiogenesis and vasculogenic mimicry in prostatic adenocarcinoma. Arch Iran Med; 2010 Nov;13(6):498-503
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  • [Title] Practical application of angiogenesis and vasculogenic mimicry in prostatic adenocarcinoma.
  • Although the association between vasculogenic mimicry and poor prognosis has been established in some tumors, there are only a few studies concerning prostatic carcinoma.
  • METHODS: Using a histochemical and immunohistochemical dual staining method for PAS-CD34 and special immunohistochemical staining for laminin, we studied the presence and pattern of non-endothelialized channels known as vasculogenic mimicry as well as the quantity of endothelialized vessels designated as microvessel density in usual paraffin sections of 20 low-grade and 20 high-grade prostatic adenocarcinomas by routine light microscopy.
  • CONCLUSION: Unlike other cancers and despite the results of in vitro studies on prostatic adenocarcinoma, we were not able to demonstrate a significant relationship between vasculogenic mimicry channels and histologic grading as one of the most important prognostic factors; however, this may be due to an inherent limitation of prostatic tissue imposed by abundant smooth muscle fibers stained by this method.
  • On the other hand, microvessel density scoring appears to be an important, simple, and applicable histologic tool for prostatic cancer evaluation in daily practice.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / blood supply. Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / blood supply

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  • (PMID = 21039005.001).
  • [ISSN] 1735-3947
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of Iranian medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Iran Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Iran
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD31; 0 / Antigens, CD34
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46. Marchand V, Bourdin S, Charbonnel C, Rio E, Munos C, Campion L, Bonnaud-Antignac A, Lisbona A, Mahé MA, Supiot S: No impairment of quality of life 18 months after high-dose intensity-modulated radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer: a prospective study. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2010 Jul 15;77(4):1053-9
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  • [Title] No impairment of quality of life 18 months after high-dose intensity-modulated radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer: a prospective study.
  • PURPOSE: To determine prospectively intermediate-term toxicity and quality of life (QoL) of prostate cancer patients after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-five patients with localized prostate adenocarcinoma were treated by IMRT (76 Gy).
  • Patients assessed general and prostate-specific QoL before IMRT (baseline) and at 2, 6, and 18 months using European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer questionnaires QLQ-C30(+3) and QLQ-PR25.
  • [MeSH-major] Prostatic Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Quality of Life. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated / adverse effects

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19880259.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists
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47. True L, Coleman I, Hawley S, Huang CY, Gifford D, Coleman R, Beer TM, Gelmann E, Datta M, Mostaghel E, Knudsen B, Lange P, Vessella R, Lin D, Hood L, Nelson PS: A molecular correlate to the Gleason grading system for prostate adenocarcinoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2006 Jul 18;103(29):10991-6
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  • [Title] A molecular correlate to the Gleason grading system for prostate adenocarcinoma.
  • Adenocarcinomas of the prostate can be categorized into tumor grades based on the extent to which the cancers histologically resemble normal prostate glands.
  • To identify molecular alterations underlying prostate cancer grades, we used microdissection to obtain specific cohorts of cancer cells corresponding to the most common Gleason patterns (patterns 3, 4, and 5) from 29 radical prostatectomy samples.
  • We paired each cancer sample with matched benign lumenal prostate epithelial cells and profiled transcript abundance levels by microarray analysis.
  • This model performed with 76% accuracy when applied to an independent set of 30 primary prostate carcinomas.
  • Using tissue microarrays comprising >800 prostate samples, we confirmed a significant association between high levels of monoamine oxidase A expression and poorly differentiated cancers by immunohistochemistry.
  • Furthermore, in identifying a profile of 86 genes that distinguish high- from low-grade carcinomas, we have generated a set of potential targets for modulating the development and progression of the lethal prostate cancer phenotype.

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  • (PMID = 16829574.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-8424
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GEO/ GSE5132
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK065204; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA097186; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA085859; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50CA97186; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01CA85859; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK65204
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1544162
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48. Mukhopadhaya A, Mendecki J, Dong X, Liu L, Kalnicki S, Garg M, Alfieri A, Guha C: Localized hyperthermia combined with intratumoral dendritic cells induces systemic antitumor immunity. Cancer Res; 2007 Aug 15;67(16):7798-806
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  • Prostate adenocarcinoma, treated with localized tumor hyperthermia (LTH), can potentially serve as a source of tumor antigen, where dying apoptotic/necrotic cells release tumor peptides slowly over time.
  • We attempted to discern whether sequential LTH and intratumoral dendritic cell and/or systemic granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) would activate antitumor immune response in a syngeneic murine model of prostate cancer (RM-1).
  • These results support an in situ autovaccination strategy where systemic administration of GM-CSF and/or intratumoral injection of autologous dendritic cells, when combined with LTH, could be an effective treatment for local and systemic recurrence of prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Dendritic Cells / immunology. Hyperthermia, Induced / methods. Immunotherapy, Adoptive / methods. Prostatic Neoplasms / immunology. Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17699785.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 83869-56-1 / Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
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49. Akyol F, Ozyigit G, Selek U, Karabulut E: PSA bouncing after short term androgen deprivation and 3D-conformal radiotherapy for localized prostate adenocarcinoma and the relationship with the kinetics of testosterone. Eur Urol; 2005 Jul;48(1):40-5
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  • [Title] PSA bouncing after short term androgen deprivation and 3D-conformal radiotherapy for localized prostate adenocarcinoma and the relationship with the kinetics of testosterone.
  • OBJECTIVES: To assess the factors effecting PSA bounce and to identify any possible relationship with biochemical control after 3-D conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT) and total androgen deprivation (TAD) for prostate cancer by evaluating four previously described PSA bounce definitions.
  • METHODS: Between January 1998 and January 2001, 83 consecutive patients with clinically localized prostate cancer were treated by 3D-CRT with neoadjuvant 3 months and/or 6 months adjuvant TAD.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Androgens / therapeutic use. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Conformal / methods. Testosterone / blood


50. Marks RA, Zhang S, Montironi R, McCarthy RP, MacLennan GT, Lopez-Beltran A, Jiang Z, Zhou H, Zheng S, Davidson DD, Baldridge LA, Cheng L: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression in prostatic adenocarcinoma after hormonal therapy: a fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analysis. Prostate; 2008 Jun 15;68(9):919-23
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  • [Title] Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression in prostatic adenocarcinoma after hormonal therapy: a fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analysis.
  • BACKGROUND: The progression of normal prostatic epithelium to androgen-dependent cancer and, eventually, hormone-refractory prostate cancer is a complex process involving many different growth regulatory signals.
  • Activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been implicated in prostate cancer cell growth.
  • METHODS: This study was undertaken to investigate both amplification of EGFR gene by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and over-expression of EGFR by immunohistochemical staining in prostate tissue from 71 patients treated by hormonal therapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We found that EGFR gene expression was detectable in 35% of this large series of hormone-treated prostate cancer, and that EGFR protein is frequently expressed in tissue from these patients.
  • EGFR over-expression may serve as a reasonable target for therapeutic intervention in this otherwise difficult to treat subset of prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / enzymology. Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / enzymology. Prostatic Neoplasms / enzymology. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 18409189.001).
  • [ISSN] 0270-4137
  • [Journal-full-title] The Prostate
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostate
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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51. Saleem M, Adhami VM, Zhong W, Longley BJ, Lin CY, Dickson RB, Reagan-Shaw S, Jarrard DF, Mukhtar H: A novel biomarker for staging human prostate adenocarcinoma: overexpression of matriptase with concomitant loss of its inhibitor, hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor-1. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2006 Feb;15(2):217-27
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  • [Title] A novel biomarker for staging human prostate adenocarcinoma: overexpression of matriptase with concomitant loss of its inhibitor, hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor-1.
  • Here, we establish the clinical significance of matriptase and its inhibitor, hepatocyte growth factor activator inhibitor-1 (HAI-1), during the progression of human prostate cancer (CaP).
  • METHODS: The expression patterns of matriptase and HAI-1 were determined in primary cultures of normal human prostate epithelial (NHPE) cells, human CaP cells LNCaP, DU-145, CWR22Rnu1, and PC-3, and in tissue samples of 172 patients with normal prostate, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), and adenocarcinoma of different tumor grades.
  • Tissue samples of normal prostate exhibited a high constitutive protein level of HAI-1 compared with BPH and low-grade cancer with a progressive loss with increasing tumor grade.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Serine Endopeptidases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16492908.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Proteinase Inhibitory Proteins, Secretory; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / SPINT1 protein, human; EC 3.4.21.- / Serine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.21.- / matriptase
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52. Tohfe M, Baki SA, Saliba W, Ghandour F, Ashou R, Ghazal G, Bahous J, Chamseddine N: Metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma presenting with pulmonary symptoms: a case report and review of the literature. Cases J; 2008;1(1):316
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  • [Title] Metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma presenting with pulmonary symptoms: a case report and review of the literature.
  • INTRODUCTION: Prostate cancer has a high tendency to spread to bone.
  • Few patients with prostate cancer present initially with symptomatic metastatic lung lesions and lymphadenopathy without any other concomitant distant dissemination.
  • Despite the absence of any detectable osseous lesions and with the presence of multiple hilar, mediastinal, para-aortic, and pelvic lymphadenopathy, the patient had a complete work-up in search for the primary adenocarcinoma.
  • His prostate specific antigen was 146 ng/ml and a prostatic biopsy done, revealing an acinar prostatic adenocarcinoma.
  • A tru-cut biopsy of a lung lesion under computed tomography guidance showed a metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma positive for prostate specific antigen stain.
  • CONCLUSION: This case sheds light on an unusual metastatic pattern of prostatic adenocarcinoma.
  • It also emphasizes the importance of including prostate cancer in the differential diagnosis of men with adenocarcinoma of unknown origin.

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  • [Cites] CA Cancer J Clin. 2008 Mar-Apr;58(2):71-96 [18287387.001]
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  • (PMID = 19014682.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2590613
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53. Yagihashi Y, Okinami T, Fukuzawa S, Kuriki K: [Pericardial effusion due to metastatic prostate cancer: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2008 May;54(5):369-72
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  • [Title] [Pericardial effusion due to metastatic prostate cancer: a case report].
  • We describe a patient whose complaints were related to pericardial effusion due to prostatic carcinoma.
  • Cytologic study suggested metastatic adenocarcinoma or malignant mesothelioma.
  • At autopsy, the major finding was poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the prostate with metastases to the mediastinum.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / secondary. Pericardial Effusion / etiology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology


54. Montironi R, Mazzucchelli R, Lopez-Beltran A, Cheng L, Scarpelli M: Mechanisms of disease: high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and other proposed preneoplastic lesions in the prostate. Nat Clin Pract Urol; 2007 Jun;4(6):321-32
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  • [Title] Mechanisms of disease: high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and other proposed preneoplastic lesions in the prostate.
  • High-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) is the most likely precursor of prostatic adenocarcinoma according to virtually all available evidence.
  • This lesion is characterized by cellular proliferations within pre-existing ducts and acini, with nuclear and nucleolar enlargements similar to those seen in prostate cancer, although unlike cancer HGPIN retains a basal-cell layer.
  • The recognition of HGPIN is clinically important because of the strong association between this disease and prostatic carcinoma.
  • The predictive value for cancer of an initial diagnosis of HGPIN on needle biopsy has substantially declined, with values falling from 36% to 21%.
  • Other possible findings in the prostate might indicate premalignant disease (low-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, atrophy, malignancy-associated changes, and atypical adenomatous hyperplasia or adenosis), but the data for these premalignant diseases are much less convincing than those for HGPIN.
  • [MeSH-major] Precancerous Conditions. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biopsy, Needle. Humans. Male. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 17551536.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-4289
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 78
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55. Larson GP, Ding Y, Cheng LS, Lundberg C, Gagalang V, Rivas G, Geller L, Weitzel J, MacDonald D, Archambeau J, Slater J, Neuberg D, Daly MB, Angel I, Benson AB 3rd, Smith K, Kirkwood JM, O'Dwyer PJ, Raskay B, Sutphen R, Drew R, Stewart JA, Werndli J, Johnson D, Ruckdeschel JC, Elston RC, Krontiris TG: Genetic linkage of prostate cancer risk to the chromosome 3 region bearing FHIT. Cancer Res; 2005 Feb 1;65(3):805-14
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  • [Title] Genetic linkage of prostate cancer risk to the chromosome 3 region bearing FHIT.
  • We conducted linkage analysis of 80 candidate genes in 201 brother pairs affected with prostatic adenocarcinoma.
  • Our results strongly suggest involvement of germline variations of FHIT in prostate cancer risk.
  • [MeSH-major] Acid Anhydride Hydrolases / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3 / genetics. Genetic Linkage / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Prostatic Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15705877.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG 15720; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM 28356; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR 03655
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / fragile histidine triad protein; EC 3.6.- / Acid Anhydride Hydrolases
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56. Petre-Draviam CE, Williams EB, Burd CJ, Gladden A, Moghadam H, Meller J, Diehl JA, Knudsen KE: A central domain of cyclin D1 mediates nuclear receptor corepressor activity. Oncogene; 2005 Jan 13;24(3):431-44
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  • Regulation of nuclear receptor activity is the focus of numerous ongoing studies to develop novel therapies for the treatment of hormone-related cancer.
  • Strikingly, overexpression of this repressor region attenuates cell cycle progression in prostatic adenocarcinoma cells.
  • In addition, our data suggest that properties of the cyclin D1 central domain could be exploited to develop novel prostate cancer therapeutics.
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. COS Cells. Cercopithecus aethiops. Flow Cytometry. Genes, Reporter. Humans. Male. Models, Molecular. Molecular Sequence Data. Plasmids. Prostatic Neoplasms. Protein Conformation. Sequence Deletion. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 15558026.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-9232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA93237; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HDO7200-15; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P30-ES06096; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA099996
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
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57. Masue N, Hasegawa Y: [Giant prostate carcinoma treated effectively with endocrine therapy: case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2007 Feb;53(2):133-5
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  • [Title] [Giant prostate carcinoma treated effectively with endocrine therapy: case report].
  • Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a giant prostate tumor.
  • The histologic diagnosis was moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of prostate.
  • Four months later, CT showed that the tumor had decreased markedly in size, and the serum prostate specific antigen level was within normal range.
  • Hormone refractory prostate cancer was not found 1 year after the start of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Chlormadinone Acetate / therapeutic use. Goserelin / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists / administration & dosage. Aged, 80 and over. Anilides / therapeutic use. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Naphthalenes / administration & dosage. Nitriles. Piperazines / administration & dosage. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Tosyl Compounds / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17352166.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists; 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Anilides; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Naphthalenes; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Tosyl Compounds; 0F65R8P09N / Goserelin; 0SY050L61N / Chlormadinone Acetate; A0Z3NAU9DP / bicalutamide; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen; R9PHW59SFN / naftopidil
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58. Gómez E, Contreras-Ordoñez G, Ramírez-Apan T: Synthesis, characterization and in vitro cytotoxicity of pentacoordinated Tin(IV) complexes derived from aminoalcohols. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo); 2006 Jan;54(1):54-7
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  • All compounds were evaluated for in vitro cytotoxic activities against five human tumor cell lines, U251 (human glioblastoma), PC-3 (human prostatic adenocarcinoma), K-562 (human chronic myelogenous leukemia), HCT-15 (human colorectal adenocarcinoma), MCF-7 (human mammary adenocarcinoma).

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  • (PMID = 16394549.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-2363
  • [Journal-full-title] Chemical & pharmaceutical bulletin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chem. Pharm. Bull.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amino Alcohols; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Indicators and Reagents; 0 / Ligands; 0 / Organotin Compounds
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59. Kim SY, Song SY, Kim MS, Lee JY, Lee HM, Choi HY, Yoo NJ, Lee SH: Immunohistochemical analysis of Fas and FLIP in prostate cancers. APMIS; 2009 Jan;117(1):28-33
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical analysis of Fas and FLIP in prostate cancers.
  • Fas-mediated apoptosis is considered a principal pathway for apoptosis induction in normal and cancer cells.
  • Expression of Fas has been reported in prostate tissues several times, but the data were not consistent.
  • Expression of FLICE-like inhibitory protein (FLIP), an inhibitor of Fas-mediated apoptosis, has not been studied by immunohistochemistry in prostate tissues.
  • The aim of this study is to explore whether alterations of Fas and FLIP expression occur in prostate cancer tissues.
  • We analyzed the expression of Fas and FLIP in 107 prostate adenocarcinoma tissues by immunohistochemistry using a tissue microarray approach.
  • Prostate intraepithelial neoplasm also showed a strong Fas immunoreactivity.
  • The decreased expression of Fas in a large fraction of prostate cancers compared with their normal cells suggested that loss of Fas expression might play a role in tumorigenesis in some prostate cancers possibly by inhibiting apoptosis mediated by Fas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Antigens, CD95 / metabolism. CASP8 and FADD-Like Apoptosis Regulating Protein / metabolism. Prostate / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19161534.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0463
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD95; 0 / CASP8 and FADD-Like Apoptosis Regulating Protein
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60. Agarwal MM, Mandal AK, Khandelwal N, Singh SK: Need for measurement of bone mineral density in patients of prostate cancer before and after orchidectomy: role of quantitative computer tomography. J Assoc Physicians India; 2007 Jul;55:486-90
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  • [Title] Need for measurement of bone mineral density in patients of prostate cancer before and after orchidectomy: role of quantitative computer tomography.
  • BACKGROUND: Androgen deprivation therapy is the first-line systemic treatment of prostate cancer, orchidectomy remaining the most common mode in view of cost-effectiveness and better compliance.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifty five patients of adenocarcinoma prostate opting for orchidectomy were prospectively studied.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Osteoporosis is common in hormone-naive population affected by prostate cancer and orchidectomy leads to accelerated exacerbation of this bone loss.
  • [MeSH-major] Absorptiometry, Photon. Orchiectomy / adverse effects. Osteoporosis / radiography. Prostatic Neoplasms / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


61. Sharma A, Comstock CE, Knudsen ES, Cao KH, Hess-Wilson JK, Morey LM, Barrera J, Knudsen KE: Retinoblastoma tumor suppressor status is a critical determinant of therapeutic response in prostate cancer cells. Cancer Res; 2007 Jul 1;67(13):6192-203
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  • [Title] Retinoblastoma tumor suppressor status is a critical determinant of therapeutic response in prostate cancer cells.
  • The retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (RB), a critical mediator of cell cycle progression, is functionally inactivated in the majority of human cancers, including prostatic adenocarcinoma.
  • The importance of RB tumor suppressor function in this disease is evident because 25% to 50% of prostatic adenocarcinomas harbor aberrations in RB pathway.
  • These data indicate that RB deficiency can facilitate bypass of first-line hormonal therapies used to treat prostate cancer.
  • In this context, RB-deficient prostate cancer cells showed enhanced susceptibility to cell death induced by only a selected subset of cytotoxic agents (antimicrotubule agents and a topoisomerase inhibitor).
  • Combined, these data indicate that RB depletion dramatically alters the cellular response to therapeutic intervention in prostate cancer cells and suggest that RB status could potentially be developed as a marker for effectively directing therapy.

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  • (PMID = 17616676.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA121402-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA121402; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA099996; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA116777; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA117846; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA106471; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA121402-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA099996; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA116777
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / Retinoblastoma Protein; G34N38R2N1 / Bromodeoxyuridine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS206977; NLM/ PMC4133940
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62. Scaggiante B, Bonin S, Cristiano L, Siracusano S, Stanta G, Dapas B, Giansante C, Fiotti N, Grassi G: Prostate-tumor-inducing gene-1 analysis in human prostate cancer cells and tissue in relation to Mycoplasma infection. Cancer Invest; 2008 Oct;26(8):800-8
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  • [Title] Prostate-tumor-inducing gene-1 analysis in human prostate cancer cells and tissue in relation to Mycoplasma infection.
  • The potential role of PTI-1, in the natural story of prostate adenocarcinoma remains to be fully determined.
  • PTI-1 expression was evaluated in human prostate cancer cell lines and in paraffin-embedded archive tissues.
  • The lack of PTI-1 expression was also confirmed in fixed and paraffin-embedded human cancer prostate biopsies.
  • The overall data indicate that, in prostate tumor cell lines, PTI-1 presence parallels Mycoplasma infection suggesting that PTI-1 might not necessarily play a major role in the onset of prostate tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Mycoplasma hyorhinis / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Peptide Elongation Factor 1 / analysis. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18853312.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-4192
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / EEF1A1 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Peptide Elongation Factor 1; 0 / RNA, Bacterial; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / RNA, Ribosomal, 16S
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63. Stewart J, Fleshner N, Cole H, Sweet J: Comparison of annexin II, p63 and alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase immunoreactivity in prostatic tissue: a tissue microarray study. J Clin Pathol; 2007 Jul;60(7):773-80
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  • [Title] Comparison of annexin II, p63 and alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase immunoreactivity in prostatic tissue: a tissue microarray study.
  • BACKGROUND: Current ancillary markers for diagnosis in prostate biopsies include p63 and alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR).
  • Annexin II (ANXII), a calcium and phospholipid binding protein, is lost in prostate cancer.
  • Staining was evaluated in benign and atrophic glands, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), and prostatic adenocarcinoma.
  • ANXII loss in prostate cancer was found in 282/320 cores (88%) and correlated with positive AMACR expression (272/320 cores, 85%), which was not statistically significant.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Immunohistochemical staining for ANXII is a consistent and reliable marker of prostatic neoplasia.
  • The findings of this study suggest the potential utility of ANXII as a diagnostic aid in prostate cancer histopathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Annexin A2 / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Organ Size. Prostate / pathology. Prostatectomy. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / metabolism. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / surgery. Racemases and Epimerases / metabolism. Trans-Activators / metabolism. Transcription Factors. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16916997.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Annexin A2; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 5.1.- / Racemases and Epimerases; EC 5.1.99.4 / alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1995785
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64. Martino P, Martino D, Palazzo S, Altomare DF, Garofalo L, Battaglia M, Selvaggi FP: Incidental discovery of ano-rectal disease during transrectal ultrasound performed for prostatic disease. Arch Ital Urol Androl; 2005 Mar;77(1):37-9
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  • [Title] Incidental discovery of ano-rectal disease during transrectal ultrasound performed for prostatic disease.
  • Transrectal ultrasound (US) has long been a routine investigation for the study of various diseases of the prostate.
  • In 34 patients (7%) a malignant tumor was found (infiltration of the anterior rectal wall by a prostatic adenocarcinoma in 13, and a primitive adenocarcinoma of rectal origin in the remaining 21).
  • It can be concluded that transrectal US does not permit a certain diagnosis of the nature of rectal disease, but does raise a diagnostic suspicion that can orient the surgeon to schedule more invasive diagnostic investigations.

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  • (PMID = 15906788.001).
  • [ISSN] 1124-3562
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivio italiano di urologia, andrologia : organo ufficiale [di] Societa italiana di ecografia urologica e nefrologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Ital Urol Androl
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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66. Metzdorf MM, Schmidt JD: Isolated prostate cancer recurrence presenting as pelvic mass nine years after radical retropubic prostatectomy. Urology; 2007 Nov;70(5):1007.e17-8
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  • [Title] Isolated prostate cancer recurrence presenting as pelvic mass nine years after radical retropubic prostatectomy.
  • Pelvic seeding from radical retropubic prostatectomy for adenocarcinoma of the prostate is uncommon.
  • We describe a patient who presented with a prostate-specific antigen recurrence and was found to have a solitary metastasis adjacent to his pubic bone 9 years after radical prostatectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Neoplasm Seeding. Pelvic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Prostatectomy. Prostatic Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18068468.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Guzman Martinez-Valls PL, Rodríguez Tardido A, Honrubia Vilchez B, Izquierdo Morejon E, Pietricica BN, Montoya Chinchilla R, Rosino Sanchez A, Hita Villaplana G, Romero Hoyuela A, Miñana Lopez B: [Frontal mass simulating lipoma as a clinical presentation of prostatic adenocarcinoma]. Arch Esp Urol; 2009 Jan-Feb;62(1):66-9
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  • [Title] [Frontal mass simulating lipoma as a clinical presentation of prostatic adenocarcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Bultoma frontal simulando lipoma como manifestación de adenocarcinoma de próstata.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report one case of metastatic prostatic carcinoma with a gaudy presentation as a lump which resulted to be a cutaneous metastasis.
  • METHODS: We describe the debut in a patient, who thanks to the pathologic analysis of a lesion mimicking a lipoma, which was reported as adenocarcinoma, was worked up for prostatic adenocarcinoma and diagnosis was reached.
  • We performed a bibliographic review using an electronic bibliographic search in PubMed (MEDLINE) using the terms "Prostatic Neoplasm" (MesH) AND "Neoplasm Metastasis" (MesH) AND "cutaneous" (free text).
  • Cutaneous metastasis of prostatic origin appear in less than 0.3% of the cases, because bone, lymph node, and visceral disease are more frequent.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Cutaneous metastases of prostatic adenocarcinoma are very rare, but even rarer is it being the debut of the disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Head and Neck Neoplasms / diagnosis. Head and Neck Neoplasms / secondary. Lipoma / diagnosis. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male


68. Matsuoka Y, Arai G, Okada Y, Aida J: Prostate cancer-producing granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. Urol Int; 2009;82(1):113-5
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  • [Title] Prostate cancer-producing granulocyte colony-stimulating factor.
  • An 86-year-old man with a serum prostate-specific antigen level of 93.33 ng/ml was diagnosed as having cT3aN0M0 prostatic adenocarcinoma of Gleason score 9.
  • Although the serum prostate-specific antigen responded well to combined androgen blockade, the cancer spread and lead to death 6 months after diagnosis.
  • The patient had leukocytosis during the clinical course with no sign of localized infection, especially after manipulation of the prostate.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first case of prostate cancer with G-CSF production, which was confirmed immunohistochemically.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Androgen Antagonists / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / blood. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Treatment Failure

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19172109.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0399
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia internationalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor; 81627-83-0 / Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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69. Bruyère F, Faivre d'Arcier B, Haringanji DC, Boutin JM, Haillot O, Lanson Y: Effect of patient position on pain experienced during prostate biopsy. Urol Int; 2007;78(4):351-5
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  • [Title] Effect of patient position on pain experienced during prostate biopsy.
  • OBJECTIVES: To compare pain during prostate biopsy performed in two different positions.
  • The men with prostate adenocarcinoma tolerated biopsies better than the others.
  • CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the lithotomy position induced less pain and less post-biopsy hematuria than did the lateral position during prostate biopsy.
  • Men with prostate adenocarcinoma tolerated the procedures better.
  • [MeSH-major] Pain. Posture. Prostate / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17495495.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-1138
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia internationalis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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70. de Melo-Júnior MR, Araújo-Filho JL, Lins CA, de Pontes-Filho NT, de Carvalho LB Jr: Immobilization of anti-galectin-3 onto polysiloxane-polyvinyl alcohol disks for tumor prostatic diseases diagnosis. Appl Biochem Biotechnol; 2010 Apr;160(8):2198-207
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  • [Title] Immobilization of anti-galectin-3 onto polysiloxane-polyvinyl alcohol disks for tumor prostatic diseases diagnosis.
  • This work aimed to immobilize the antibody anti-galectin-3 onto polysiloxane-polyvinyl alcohol (POS-PVA) support, to evaluate its capacity to capture the serum antigen galectin-3 and to quantify by ELISA the antigen levels in sera from patients with prostatic adenocarcinoma (PA) and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and healthy individuals.
  • Also, for comparative effect, the galectin-3 expression in the prostate tissue through immunohistochemistry was evaluated.
  • Galectin-3 immunohistochemically showed a significant increase and reduction of the cytoplasmatic protein expression in BPH and PA, respectively, compared with the normal prostate.
  • [MeSH-major] Galectin 3. Polyvinyl Alcohol / chemistry. Prostatic Hyperplasia. Prostatic Neoplasms. Siloxanes / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay / methods. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prostate / cytology. Prostate / metabolism. Prostate / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19728168.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0291
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied biochemistry and biotechnology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / Siloxanes; 9002-89-5 / Polyvinyl Alcohol
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71. Uluocak N, Parlaktas BS, Deniz FE, Erdemir F, Koseoglu RD, Gedar MO: Orbital metastasis of prostate cancer: a case report. Kaohsiung J Med Sci; 2007 Apr;23(4):199-202
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  • [Title] Orbital metastasis of prostate cancer: a case report.
  • We report a case with metastatic orbital cancer secondary to prostatic adenocarcinoma.
  • However, the disease subsequently progressed and the patient died 12 months after diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Orbital Neoplasms / secondary. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Male. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood

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  • (PMID = 17395569.001).
  • [ISSN] 1607-551X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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72. Kiuchi H, Ujike T, Miyake O, Namba Y: [A case of further significant anastomotic rupture after gentle traction of urethral catheter for minimal anastomotic leakage after radical retropubic prostatectomy]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2006 Feb;52(2):151-3
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  • A 76-year-old man with clinical stage T1c adenocarcinoma of the prostate underwent radical retropubic prostatectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Extravasation of Diagnostic and Therapeutic Materials / diagnosis. Prostatectomy / adverse effects. Urethra / surgery. Urinary Bladder / surgery. Urinary Catheterization
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Aged. Anastomosis, Surgical / adverse effects. Anastomosis, Surgical / methods. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Postoperative Complications. Prostatic Neoplasms / surgery. Rupture. Traction / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 16541772.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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73. Neuzillet Y, Méjean A, Lebret T: [Oncogeriatric evaluation for elderly patients suffering from metastatic urologic malignancies]. Prog Urol; 2008 Nov;18 Suppl 7:S415-25
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  • [Transliterated title] Evaluation oncogériatrique du sujet âgé ayant un cancer urologique métastatique.
  • The elderly are often the population affected by urologic cancer, especially prostate adenocarcinoma and urothelial tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis. Surveys and Questionnaires

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  • (PMID = 19070825.001).
  • [ISSN] 1166-7087
  • [Journal-full-title] Progrès en urologie : journal de l'Association française d'urologie et de la Société française d'urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog. Urol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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74. Sun Y, Eichelbaum EJ, Skelton WP 4th, Lenz A, Wang H, Vesely DL: Vessel dilator and kaliuretic peptide inhibit Ras in human prostate cancer cells. Anticancer Res; 2009 Apr;29(4):971-5
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  • [Title] Vessel dilator and kaliuretic peptide inhibit Ras in human prostate cancer cells.
  • BACKGROUND: Vessel dilator and kaliuretic peptide have anticancer effects in human prostate adenocarcinomas.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of vessel dilator, kaliuretic peptide and cyclic GMP on Ras were examined in human prostate adenocarcinoma cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Atrial Natriuretic Factor / pharmacology. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Protein Precursors / pharmacology. ras Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 19414334.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Protein Precursors; 0 / atrial natriuretic factor precursor (79-98); 0 / atrial natriuretic factor prohormone (31-67); 146-91-8 / Guanosine Diphosphate; 37589-80-3 / Guanosine 5'-O-(3-Thiotriphosphate); 85637-73-6 / Atrial Natriuretic Factor; EC 3.6.3.9 / Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins; H2D2X058MU / Cyclic GMP
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75. Sun Y, Eichelbaum EJ, Wang H, Vesely DL: Vessel dilator and kaliuretic peptide inhibit ERK 1/2 activation in human prostate cancer cells. Anticancer Res; 2006 Sep-Oct;26(5A):3217-22
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  • [Title] Vessel dilator and kaliuretic peptide inhibit ERK 1/2 activation in human prostate cancer cells.
  • BACKGROUND: Vessel dilator and kaliuretic peptide have anticancer effects in human prostate adenocarcinomas.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Vessel dilator, kaliuretic peptide and cyclic GMP's effects on ERK 1/2 kinase were examined in human prostate adenocarcinoma cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Atrial Natriuretic Factor / pharmacology. Enzyme Activation / drug effects. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1 / metabolism. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3 / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Protein Precursors / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / enzymology. Cyclic GMP / pharmacology. Humans. Immunoblotting. Male. Natriuresis. Peptide Fragments / pharmacology. Phosphorylation / drug effects. Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase / antagonists & inhibitors. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 17094432.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Protein Precursors; 0 / atrial natriuretic factor precursor (79-98); 0 / atrial natriuretic factor prohormone (31-67); 85637-73-6 / Atrial Natriuretic Factor; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3; EC 3.6.3.9 / Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase; H2D2X058MU / Cyclic GMP
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76. Sánchez C, Clementi M, Benitez D, Contreras H, Huidobro C, Castellón E: Effect of GnRH analogs on the expression of TrkA and p75 neurotrophin receptors in primary cell cultures from human prostate adenocarcinoma. Prostate; 2005 Nov 1;65(3):195-202
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  • [Title] Effect of GnRH analogs on the expression of TrkA and p75 neurotrophin receptors in primary cell cultures from human prostate adenocarcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: GnRH analogs have antiproliferative and/or apoptotic effects on prostate cancer cells.
  • Also, neurotrophin receptors TrkA and p75 have been reported in normal prostate suggesting a role in the gland growth control.
  • In prostate cancer, TrkA receptors seem to be overexpressed and p75 receptors show a decreased expression.
  • In the present study we investigate the effects of GnRH analogs (leuprolide and cetrorelix) on the expression of TrkA and p75 neurotrophin receptors in primary cultures of human prostate cancer cells.
  • METHODS: Tissue was obtained from radical prostatectomies due to prostate adenocarcinoma.
  • Considering that TrkA receptor is related with proliferation and p75 with apoptosis, we suggest that our findings may explain, in part, the effect of GnRH analogs on prostate cancer growth.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / pharmacology. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Leuprolide / pharmacology. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Receptor, trkA / biosynthesis. Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor / biosynthesis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc
  • (PMID = 15948150.001).
  • [ISSN] 0270-4137
  • [Journal-full-title] The Prostate
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostate
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Formazans; 0 / Receptor, Nerve Growth Factor; 0 / Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor; 0 / Tetrazolium Salts; 23305-68-2 / MTT formazan; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, trkA; EFY6W0M8TG / Leuprolide; OON1HFZ4BA / cetrorelix
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77. Berger JR, Bensalem M, Dalmau J: A brainstem paraneoplastic syndrome associated with prostate cancer. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry; 2009 Aug;80(8):934-5
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  • [Title] A brainstem paraneoplastic syndrome associated with prostate cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Paraneoplastic syndromes are seldom observed with prostate cancer.
  • A rare paraneoplastic brainstem syndrome associated with prostate cancer is described, and the presence of antineuronal antibodies with this syndrome is demonstrated for the first time.
  • PATIENT: This 59-year-old man developed ophthalmoplegia, dysarthria, dysphagia, pruritus, ataxia, corticobulbar and corticospinal signs in association with prostate cancer.
  • The disorder was unaffected by treatment of the underlying malignancy, but responded initially to high-dose corticosteroid administration and intravenous immunoglobulins.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This unique paraneoplastic syndrome chiefly affecting the brainstem may be a diagnostic clue to the presence of unsuspected prostate adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / complications. Paraneoplastic Syndromes, Nervous System / complications. Prostatic Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 19608787.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-330X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatry
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Immunoglobulins, Intravenous
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78. Noel EE, Ragavan N, Walsh MJ, James SY, Matanhelia SS, Nicholson CM, Lu YJ, Martin FL: Differential gene expression in the peripheral zone compared to the transition zone of the human prostate gland. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis; 2008;11(2):173-80
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  • [Title] Differential gene expression in the peripheral zone compared to the transition zone of the human prostate gland.
  • Gene expression profiles may lend insight into whether prostate adenocarcinoma (CaP) predominantly occurs in the peripheral zone (PZ) compared to the transition zone (TZ).
  • From human prostates, tissue sets consisting of PZ and TZ were isolated to investigate whether there is a differential level of gene expression between these two regions of this gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Prostate / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17646851.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5608
  • [Journal-full-title] Prostate cancer and prostatic diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm
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79. Sagnak L, Topaloglu H, Gucuk O, Han U, Ersoy H: Skip metastase on the left neck lymph nodes of the prostatic adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation and accompanying thyroid micropapillary carcinoma. Pathol Oncol Res; 2008 Dec;14(4):493-5
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  • [Title] Skip metastase on the left neck lymph nodes of the prostatic adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine differentiation and accompanying thyroid micropapillary carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Anilides / therapeutic use. Cell Differentiation. Humans. Incidental Findings. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neck / pathology. Nitriles / therapeutic use. Orchiectomy. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostatectomy. Thyroidectomy. Tosyl Compounds / therapeutic use. Whole Body Imaging

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  • [Cites] Hum Pathol. 1992 Mar;23(3):287-96 [1313390.001]
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  • (PMID = 18386164.001).
  • [ISSN] 1219-4956
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Anilides; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Tosyl Compounds; A0Z3NAU9DP / bicalutamide; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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80. Kunju LP, Mehra R, Snyder M, Shah RB: Prostate-specific antigen, high-molecular-weight cytokeratin (clone 34betaE12), and/or p63: an optimal immunohistochemical panel to distinguish poorly differentiated prostate adenocarcinoma from urothelial carcinoma. Am J Clin Pathol; 2006 May;125(5):675-81
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  • [Title] Prostate-specific antigen, high-molecular-weight cytokeratin (clone 34betaE12), and/or p63: an optimal immunohistochemical panel to distinguish poorly differentiated prostate adenocarcinoma from urothelial carcinoma.
  • An optimal immunohistochemical panel to distinguish poorly differentiated prostate (PCa) from urothelial (UCa) carcinoma was selected from a panel consisting of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), high-molecular-weight cytokeratin (HMWCK), clone 34betaE12, cytokeratin (CK) 7, CK20, p63, and alpha-methylacyl-coenzyme A racemase.
  • Negative PSA with positive HMWCK and/or p63 establishes a diagnosis of UCa.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Keratins / analysis. Membrane Proteins / analysis. Prostate-Specific Antigen / analysis. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Molecular Weight. Pilot Projects. Urothelium / chemistry. Urothelium / pathology


81. Hokaiwado N, Takeshita F, Naiki-Ito A, Asamoto M, Ochiya T, Shirai T: Glutathione S-transferase Pi mediates proliferation of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells. Carcinogenesis; 2008 Jun;29(6):1134-8
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  • [Title] Glutathione S-transferase Pi mediates proliferation of androgen-independent prostate cancer cells.
  • Prostate cancers generally acquire an androgen-independent growth capacity with progression, resulting in resistance to antiandrogen therapy.
  • Therefore, identification of the genes regulated through this process may be important for understanding the mechanisms of prostate carcinogenesis.
  • We here utilized androgen-dependent/independent transplantable tumors, newly established with the 'transgenic rat adenocarcinoma in prostate' (TRAP) model, to analyze their gene expression using microarrays.
  • Among the overexpressed genes in androgen-independent prostate cancers compared with the androgen-dependent tumors, glutathione S-transferase pi (GST-pi) was included.
  • In line with this, human prostate cancer cell lines PC3 and DU145 (androgen independent) had higher expression of GST-pi compared with LNCaP (androgen dependent) as determined by semiquantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis.
  • To investigate the roles of GST-pi expression in androgen-independent human prostate cancers, GST-pi was knocked down by a small interfering RNA (siRNA), resulting in significant decrease of the proliferation rate in the androgen-independent PC3 cell line.
  • These findings suggest that GST-pi might play important roles in proliferation of androgen-independent human prostate cancer cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Proliferation. Glutathione S-Transferase pi / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism


82. Tsujino K, Sasada S, Kawahara K, Terada H, Komori C, Suzuki H, Okamoto N, Kobayashi M, Hirashima T, Matsui K, Kawase I: [A case of prostatic adenocarcinoma clinically presenting as supraclavicular and mediastinal lymphadenopathy]. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi; 2007 Aug;45(8):648-53
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  • [Title] [A case of prostatic adenocarcinoma clinically presenting as supraclavicular and mediastinal lymphadenopathy].
  • We report a 70-year-old man with prostatic carcinoma presenting as supraclaviculer and mediastinal lymphadenopathy.
  • He had no urinary tract symptoms, and computed tomography and FDG-PET showed no abnormality in the prostate or pelvic lymph nodes.
  • Metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma was finally diagnosed from the results of immunohistochemical staining for PSA of a biopsy specimen of the mediastinal lymph node, and he was treated by hormonal therapy.
  • There are fears that some other similar cases might be treated with chemotherapy as lung cancer without immunohistochemical staining.
  • Prostatic carcinoma should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of elderly men with supraclaviculer or mediastinal lymph node metastases, since appropriate treatment will lead to a prolonged survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Diseases / diagnosis. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Mediastinum. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood

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  • (PMID = 17763696.001).
  • [ISSN] 1343-3490
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Kokyūki Gakkai zasshi = the journal of the Japanese Respiratory Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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83. Stockdale AD, Vakkalanka BK, Fahmy A, Desai K, Blacklock AR: Management of biochemical failure following radical prostatectomy: salvage radiotherapy - a case series. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis; 2007;10(2):205-9
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  • A retrospective analysis of the outcome of radical prostatectomy (RP) for prostate cancer in a single centre and assessment of the role of salvage radiotherapy (RT) for patients with biochemical relapse.
  • Hundred and thirty-seven patients underwent RP for adenocarcinoma of the prostate in our centre between December 1994 and June 2003.
  • Fifty-four of these patients developed a biochemical relapse prostate-specific antigen (PSA > or = 0.2 ng/ml).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Prostatic Neoplasms / surgery. Salvage Therapy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prostate-Specific Antigen / analysis. Prostatectomy. Recurrence. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17310262.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-7852
  • [Journal-full-title] Prostate cancer and prostatic diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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84. Venkitaraman R, Thomas K, Grace P, Dearnaley D, Horwich A, Huddart R, Parker CC: Baseline urinary phytoestrogen levels and the natural history of untreated, localised prostate cancer in a British population. Int J Biol Markers; 2008 Jul-Sep;23(3):192-7
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  • [Title] Baseline urinary phytoestrogen levels and the natural history of untreated, localised prostate cancer in a British population.
  • AIM: To determine whether urinary concentrations of phytoestrogens are associated with the rate of disease progression in men with untreated, localised prostate cancer.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with untreated, localised prostatic adenocarcinoma on a prospective clinical study of active surveillance had urine samples collected at baseline.
  • Patients underwent monitoring with serial PSA levels and repeat octant prostate biopsies.
  • CONCLUSION: These data do not support the hypothesis that phytoestrogens prevent disease progression in men with localised prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Phytoestrogens / metabolism. Phytoestrogens / urine. Prostatic Neoplasms / urine
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Dietary Supplements. Disease Progression. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Prostate / pathology. Prostate-Specific Antigen / biosynthesis. Treatment Outcome. United Kingdom

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  • (PMID = 18949747.001).
  • [ISSN] 0393-6155
  • [Journal-full-title] The International journal of biological markers
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Biol. Markers
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / 10588; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0501019; United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / C46/A2131
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Phytoestrogens; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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85. Vijan SS, Wall JC, Greenlee SM, Farley DR: Consequences of endoscopic inguinal hernioplasty with mesh on subsequent open radical prostatectomy. Hernia; 2008 Aug;12(4):415-9
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  • Case controls (n = 26) were matched for age, type of operation, year of surgery and pathologic stage of prostatic adenocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Prior TEP/TAPP did not increase the morbidity or mortality of subsequent prostate surgery.
  • While endoscopic hernia repair remains an excellent option to fix unilateral, bilateral, and recurrent herniae, consideration of future prostate surgery is important.
  • Inserting less "inflammatory" mesh or using an open, anterior approach may be prudent in some men at high risk for needing subsequent prostate surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Endoscopy / methods. Hernia, Inguinal / surgery. Prostatectomy / adverse effects. Prostatic Neoplasms / surgery. Prosthesis Implantation / instrumentation. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods. Surgical Mesh
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Aged. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome


86. Lau SK, Chu PG: Prostatic tissue ectopia within the seminal vesicle: a potential source of confusion with seminal vesicle involvement by prostatic adenocarcinoma. Virchows Arch; 2006 Nov;449(5):600-2
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  • [Title] Prostatic tissue ectopia within the seminal vesicle: a potential source of confusion with seminal vesicle involvement by prostatic adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Choristoma / pathology. Genital Diseases, Male / pathology. Prostate / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Seminal Vesicles / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17016717.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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87. Grenader T, Shavit L: Synchronous male breast cancer and carcinoma of prostate in 90-year-old male, presented with spinal cord compression and multiple spine lytic lesions. Breast J; 2007 Jul-Aug;13(4):410-2
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  • [Title] Synchronous male breast cancer and carcinoma of prostate in 90-year-old male, presented with spinal cord compression and multiple spine lytic lesions.
  • Male breast cancer and prostate cancer are similar in many ways, including the potential role of steroid hormones in their pathogenesis.
  • We describe a 90-year-old male patient, who came with synchronous male breast cancer and carcinoma of the prostate.
  • A histological examination of a specimen from a lytic lesion of the spine was consistent with metastatic breast cancer and a needle biopsy of the prostate showed adenocarcinoma, Gleason score 3 + 4.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Breast Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / complications. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / secondary. Spinal Cord Compression / etiology. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Palliative Care. Paraparesis / etiology. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Spinal Canal / pathology


88. Voeghtly LM, Thøgersen IB, Valnickova Z, Sanggaard KW, Chu CT, Oury TD, Enghild JJ: Potential clinical importance of the activation peptide of prostate-specific antigen. Int J Clin Exp Pathol; 2009;2(6):588-98
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  • [Title] Potential clinical importance of the activation peptide of prostate-specific antigen.
  • Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in men.
  • Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is currently the best marker available for screening and monitoring disease recurrence, but its use has limitations.
  • This study investigates the biosynthesis, secretion and activation of PSA in a prostate adenocarcinoma cell line.
  • This rapid clearance likely interferes with detection of PSA in the early stages of prostate cancer.
  • We found that APLILSR is filtered from the bloodstream by the kidney, and is detectable in the urine of patients with prostate cancer, but not controls.

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  • (PMID = 19636406.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-2625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical and experimental pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Clin Exp Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2713450
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; PSA / activation peptide / prostate cancer
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89. Hameed O, Humphrey PA: Stratified epithelium in prostatic adenocarcinoma: a mimic of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Mod Pathol; 2006 Jul;19(7):899-906
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  • [Title] Stratified epithelium in prostatic adenocarcinoma: a mimic of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • Typically glands of prostatic adenocarcinoma have a single cell lining, although stratification can be seen in invasive carcinomas with a cribriform architecture, including ductal carcinoma.
  • The presence and diagnostic significance of stratified cells within non-cribriform carcinomatous prostatic glands has not been well addressed.
  • The histomorphological features and immunohistochemical profile of cases of non-cribriform prostatic adenocarcinoma with stratified malignant glandular epithelium were analyzed.
  • These cases were identified from needle biopsy cases from the consultation files of one of the authors and from a review of 150 consecutive in-house needle biopsy cases of prostatic adenocarcinoma.
  • The main attribute in all these foci was the presence of glandular profiles lined by several layers of epithelial cells with cytological and architectural features resembling flat or tufted high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, but lacking basal cells as confirmed by negative 34betaE12 and/or p63 immunostains in all cases.
  • The AMACR staining profile of the stratified foci was variable, with 4 foci showing positivity, and 3 foci being negative, including two cases that displayed AMACR positivity in adjacent non-stratified prostatic adenocarcinoma.
  • Prostatic adenocarcinoma with stratified malignant glandular epithelium can be identified in prostate needle biopsy samples harboring non-cribriform prostatic adenocarcinoma and resembles glands with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • Recognition of this pattern of prostatic adenocarcinoma is necessary to correctly diagnose such cases as invasive carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Epithelium / pathology. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / metabolism. Male. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Racemases and Epimerases / metabolism. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16607376.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen; EC 5.1.- / Racemases and Epimerases; EC 5.1.99.4 / alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase
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90. Gilbert AM, Nowak P, Brooijmans N, Bursavich MG, Dehnhardt C, Santos ED, Feldberg LR, Hollander I, Kim S, Lombardi S, Park K, Venkatesan AM, Mallon R: Novel purine and pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine inhibitors of PI3 kinase-alpha: Hit to lead studies. Bioorg Med Chem Lett; 2010 Jan 15;20(2):636-9
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  • Representative compounds showed activity in a cellular proliferation assay against Caco-2 colorectal, LoVo colorectal and PC3MM2 prostate adenocarcinoma cancer cells.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19969455.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-3405
  • [Journal-full-title] Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Purines; 0 / Pyrazoles; 0 / Pyridines; 0 / pyrazolopyridine; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.1.1 / MTOR protein, human; EC 2.7.1.1 / TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
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91. Engstrom C: Hot flashes. Clin J Oncol Nurs; 2006 Aug;10(4):533-5
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  • J is a 68-year-old African American man with a history of advanced prostate cancer.
  • He was diagnosed nine months prior with adenocarcinoma of the prostate, with a Gleason score of 9 and tumor, node, metastasis staging of T3 NO M1.
  • His prostate-specific antigen (PSA) was 483 ng/ml at the time of diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Androgen Antagonists / adverse effects. Anilides / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Hot Flashes / chemically induced. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16927907.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-1095
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical journal of oncology nursing
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin J Oncol Nurs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Anilides; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Tosyl Compounds; A0Z3NAU9DP / bicalutamide
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92. Rabah DM, Arafa MA: Prostate cancer screening in a Saudi population: an explanatory trial study. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis; 2010 Jun;13(2):191-4
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  • [Title] Prostate cancer screening in a Saudi population: an explanatory trial study.
  • The aim of this study is to explore the actual situation of prostate cancer in a cohort of healthy population in Saudi Arabia and to show the feasibility of screening for this disease using the internationally agreed criteria.
  • When either test was abnormal, transrectal ultrasound and multiple prostatic biopsies were performed for confirmation of the results.
  • Fifty two subjects had a positive diagnosis of prostatic adenocarcinoma, which compromised 2.5% of the cohort studied.
  • The cancer in 27 (52%) persons was organ confined, whereas in 14 (26.9%), it was metastatic.
  • The prevalence rate of prostate cancer detected by screening was higher than expected and the disease was advanced.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Early Detection of Cancer / methods. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Cohort Studies. Digital Rectal Examination. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prostate / pathology. Saudi Arabia / epidemiology


93. Schmid HP, Engeler DS, Pummer K, Schmitz-Dräger BJ: Prevention of prostate cancer: more questions than data. Recent Results Cancer Res; 2007;174:101-7
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  • [Title] Prevention of prostate cancer: more questions than data.
  • Established risk factors for prostatic adenocarcinoma include increasing age, ethnical origin (race), and familial/hereditary factors.
  • Pathological studies support the fact that geographic differences in incidence and prevalence do not stem from genetic variations as men with the same genetic background raised in different environments present the risk of prostate cancer associated with their country of residency.
  • Prostate cancer is basically an ideal candidate for exogenous preventive measures, such as dietary and pharmacological prevention, due to some specific features: high prevalence, long latency, endocrine dependency, availability of serum markers (prostate-specific antigen) and histological precursor lesions (prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia).
  • However, several large randomized trials are ongoing to clarify the potential for successful prostate cancer prevention.
  • Until we have the results, lifestyle changes could be recommended to men at risk for developing clinical prostate cancer and 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors need to be discussed with men who are concerned about prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Prostatic Neoplasms / epidemiology. Prostatic Neoplasms / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 17302190.001).
  • [ISSN] 0080-0015
  • [Journal-full-title] Recent results in cancer research. Fortschritte der Krebsforschung. Progrès dans les recherches sur le cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Recent Results Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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94. Radosavljevic R, Hadzi-Djokic J, Acimovic M, Tulic C, Dzamic Z, Djokic M, Micic S: Histopathological evaluation of radical prostatectomy in the treatment of localized prostate cancer. Acta Chir Iugosl; 2005;52(4):109-12
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  • [Title] Histopathological evaluation of radical prostatectomy in the treatment of localized prostate cancer.
  • Incidence of prostate cancer has risen dramatically in the past decade.
  • Radical prostatectomy is indicated in patients who have disease localized to the prostate.
  • The aim of the study is to make histopathological evaluation of radical prostatectomy in the treatment local prostate cancer.
  • Authors analyzed 49 cases of radical prostatectomy due to cancer localized to the prostate in period 1996-2000 in Clinic of Urology in Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade.
  • Radical prostatectomy is most adequate method in surgical treatment cancer localized in the prostate.
  • Pelvic lymphadenectomy is necessary for staging purposes in adenocarcinoma of the prostate.
  • Early detection adenocarcinoma of the prostate is important factor in decreasing rate of death.
  • [MeSH-major] Prostatectomy. Prostatic Neoplasms / surgery


95. Gomes AC, Neto PJ, de Oliveira e Silva ED, Sávio E, Neto IC: Metastatic adenocarcinoma involving several bones of the body and the cranio-maxillofacial region: a case report. J Can Dent Assoc; 2009 Apr;75(3):211-4
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  • [Title] Metastatic adenocarcinoma involving several bones of the body and the cranio-maxillofacial region: a case report.
  • The most common primary sources of metastatic tumours found in the oral region are the lung, kidney and prostate gland for the males, and the breast, genital organs and kidneys for females.
  • We present the case of a 51-year-old woman with metastatic adenocarcinoma involving the condyle and mandible, and other bones of the body.
  • The oral presentation of the metastasis was the source of the definitive diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Mandibular Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary

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  • (PMID = 19356321.001).
  • [ISSN] 1488-2159
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal (Canadian Dental Association)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Can Dent Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
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96. Wang T, Chen YH, Hong H, Zeng Y, Zhang J, Lu JP, Jeansonne B, Lu Q: Increased nucleotide polymorphic changes in the 5'-untranslated region of delta-catenin (CTNND2) gene in prostate cancer. Oncogene; 2009 Jan 29;28(4):555-64
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  • [Title] Increased nucleotide polymorphic changes in the 5'-untranslated region of delta-catenin (CTNND2) gene in prostate cancer.
  • Cancer pathogenesis involves multiple genetic and epigenetic alterations, which result in oncogenic changes in gene expression. delta-Catenin (CTNND2) is overexpressed in cancer, although the mechanisms of its upregulation are highly variable.
  • Here we report that in prostate cancer, the methylation of CpG islands in the delta-catenin promoter was not a primary regulatory event.
  • However, using the single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis, we observed the increased nucleotide changes in the 5'-untranslated region of delta-catenin gene in human prostate cancer.
  • At least one such change (-9 G>A) is a true somatic point mutation associated with a high Gleason's score, poorly differentiated prostatic adenocarcinoma.
  • Laser capture microdissection coupled with PCR analyses detected the mutation only in cancerous but not in the adjacent benign prostatic tissues.
  • This is the first report of delta-catenin gene mutation in cancer and supports the notion that multiple mechanisms contribute to its increased expression in carcinogenesis.

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  • (PMID = 18978817.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5594
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA111891; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA111891-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA111891-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA111891
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 5' Untranslated Regions; 0 / Armadillo Domain Proteins; 0 / Catenins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / delta catenin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS70249; NLM/ PMC2678952
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97. Lane Z, Hansel DE, Epstein JI: Immunohistochemical expression of prostatic antigens in adenocarcinoma and villous adenoma of the urinary bladder. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Sep;32(9):1322-6
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical expression of prostatic antigens in adenocarcinoma and villous adenoma of the urinary bladder.
  • Adenocarcinomas of the bladder are rare, with the diagnosis dependent on exclusion of secondary involvement by direct extension or metastatic spread from other sites.
  • The recent description of an unusual form of urothelial-type mucinous prostatic adenocarcinoma raises a novel differential diagnosis between adenocarcinomas of the prostate and bladder, and investigation into the utility of classic prostatic immunohistochemical antigens in bladder adenocarcinoma is warranted.
  • We identified 37 primary infiltrating adenocarcinomas of the bladder, which included signet ring cell carcinomas (n=11), urachal adenocarcinomas (n=5), and enteric adenocarcinoma (n=21).
  • Also included for comparison were 3 cases, each of bladder villous adenomas and bladder adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • Immunohistochemistry for prostate-specific antigen (PSA), prostate specific acid phosphatase (PSAP), P501S (prostein), and prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) was performed, and moderate to strong immunoreactivity was considered a positive result.
  • In contrast, a minority of bladder adenocarcinomas was labeled with the prostate antigens P501S and PSMA.
  • P501S showed moderate diffuse cytoplasmic staining in 4/37 cases (11%), including 3 enteric-type adenocarcinomas and 1 mucinous adenocarcinoma.
  • Additionally, 1 case of adenocarcinoma in situ demonstrated diffuse cytoplasmic staining for P501S.
  • The granular perinuclear staining pattern of P501S typically seen in prostatic adenocarcinoma was absent in all cases of bladder adenocarcinoma.
  • PSMA showed diffuse cytoplasmic staining in 4/37 (11%) infiltrating adenocarcinomas (including 1 signet ring carcinoma and 3 enteric-type adenocarcinomas), and in 1 case of adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • Membranous PSMA staining was evident in an additional 3 tumors, 1 urachal mucinous adenocarcinoma, 1 nonurachal mucinous and signet ring cell adenocarcinoma, and 1 nonurachal villous adenoma.
  • In conclusion, although all cases of bladder adenocarcinoma examined were negative for PSA and PSAP, the surprising finding that a subset of invasive and in situ adenocarcinomas of the bladder demonstrated immunoreactivity for P501S and PSMA should warrant caution when using these markers in differentiating prostatic from bladder adenocarcinomas.
  • The lack of granular perinuclear staining for P501S and the absence of membranous PSMA staining both favor a bladder adenocarcinoma, although rare cases of villous adenoma and adenocarcinoma did show PSMA membranous staining indistinguishable from that seen in prostate cancer.
  • Although the novel antigens P501S and PSMA are fairly specific and more sensitive in the differential diagnosis of prostate and urothelial carcinoma, care must be taken when adenocarcinomas of the bladder are considered within this differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenoma, Villous / metabolism. Antigens, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Acid Phosphatase. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Membrane Proteins / biosynthesis. Prostate-Specific Antigen / biosynthesis. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases / biosynthesis. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18670358.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / prostein; EC 3.1.3.2 / Acid Phosphatase; EC 3.1.3.2 / prostatic acid phosphatase; EC 3.1.3.48 / Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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98. Rai RS, Deb P, Rai R, Gupta E, Panayach JS: Synchronous primary triple neoplasia (renal cell carcinoma and prostate cancer in combination with thyroid neoplasm). Report of an unusual case. Minerva Urol Nefrol; 2007 Dec;59(4):451-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Synchronous primary triple neoplasia (renal cell carcinoma and prostate cancer in combination with thyroid neoplasm). Report of an unusual case.
  • We report a very rare case of triple primary neoplasia synchronously originating in the prostate, kidney and thyroid, in a 79-year-old male who presented with hematuria and continuous pain at the right hip.
  • Examination revealed an enlarged nodular thyroid, while digital rectal examination showed prostatic enlargement with elevated PSA (16.7 ng/mL).
  • Biopsies from prostate showed adenocarcinoma, along with deposits in ischial biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology


99. Gabril MY, Duan W, Wu G, Moussa M, Izawa JI, Panchal CJ, Sakai H, Xuan JW: A novel knock-in prostate cancer model demonstrates biology similar to that of human prostate cancer and suitable for preclinical studies. Mol Ther; 2005 Mar;11(3):348-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A novel knock-in prostate cancer model demonstrates biology similar to that of human prostate cancer and suitable for preclinical studies.
  • Preclinical studies of prostate cancer (CaP) have employed a genetically engineered mouse model, since there is no naturally occurring CaP in rodents.
  • We have previously reported a new knock-in mouse adenocarcinoma prostate (KIMAP) model.
  • KIMAP mice showed a balanced distribution of tumor extent, which penetrated the prostate gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Disease Models, Animal. Prostatic Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Mice. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Prostate / pathology. Prostatic Secretory Proteins / genetics. Prostatic Secretory Proteins / metabolism


100. Pérez-Guillermo M, Acosta-Ortega J, García-Solano J: Pitfalls and infrequent findings in fine-needle aspiration of the prostate gland. Diagn Cytopathol; 2005 Aug;33(2):126-37
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  • [Title] Pitfalls and infrequent findings in fine-needle aspiration of the prostate gland.
  • Based on the experience accumulated over two decades and in more than 7,000 transrectal fine-needle aspirations (FNAs) of the prostate gland, several benign and malignant unusual cytologic findings are described.
  • Infrequent benign cytologic findings and possible pitfalls are atrophic prostatic epithelium, squamous metaplasia, transitional cells, granulomatous prostatitis, seminal vesicle epithelium, ganglion cells, lubricant artifacts, and treatment effects.
  • Infrequent variants of carcinoma are foamy-cell carcinoma, prostatic duct adenocarcinoma, mucinous adenocarcinoma, transitional-cell carcinoma, small-cell carcinoma, squamous-cell carcinoma of the prostate, metastatic solid tumor within the prostate, and mesenchymal tumors.
  • Cytopathologists must be able to diagnose these variants of prostate adenocarcinoma because on most occasions the variants imply a worse clinical prognosis.
  • FNA of the prostate provides in a matter of minutes useful information concerning clinical management, prognosis, and treatment of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Prostatitis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Humans. Male. Prognosis. Prostate. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16007671.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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