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1. Tang Y, Hamburger AW, Wang L, Khan MA, Hussain A: Androgen deprivation and stem cell markers in prostate cancers. Int J Clin Exp Pathol; 2009;3(2):128-38
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  • [Title] Androgen deprivation and stem cell markers in prostate cancers.
  • In our previous studies using human LNCaP xenografts and TRAMP (transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate) mice, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) resulted in a temporary cessation of prostate cancer (PCa) growth, but then tumors grew faster with more malignant behaviour.
  • To understand whether cancer stem cells might play a role in PCa progression in these animal models, we investigated the expressions of stem cell-related markers in tumors at different time points after ADT.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgens / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Stem Cells / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Disease Models, Animal. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Mice. Mice, SCID. Mice, Transgenic. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Transplantation. Orchiectomy. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 20126580.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-2625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical and experimental pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Clin Exp Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2809992
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Prostate cancer / TRAMP mice / androgen deprivation / stem-like cells / xenograft tumor
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2. Walsh PC: Failure definition-dependent differences in outcome following radiation for localized prostate cancer: can one size fit all? J Urol; 2005 Sep;174(3):928-9
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  • [Title] Failure definition-dependent differences in outcome following radiation for localized prostate cancer: can one size fit all?
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Disease-Free Survival. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Multicenter Studies as Topic. Neoplasm Staging. Outcome Assessment (Health Care) / statistics & numerical data. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Radioisotope Teletherapy / mortality. Treatment Failure

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  • (PMID = 16093990.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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3. Rioja Zuazu J, Zudaire Berbera JJ, Rincón Mayans A, Rosell Costa D, Robles Garcia JE, Berian Polo JM: [Gleason score 8-10 prostatic adenocarcinoma: prognostic influence in the biochemical progression free survival]. Actas Urol Esp; 2008 Sep;32(8):792-8
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  • [Title] [Gleason score 8-10 prostatic adenocarcinoma: prognostic influence in the biochemical progression free survival].
  • [Transliterated title] Adenocarcinoma de próstata gleason clínico 8-10: influencia pronóstica en la supervivencia libre de progresión bioquímica.
  • OBJECTIVE: Hereby, we analyze the characteristics of the clinical Gleason 8-10 group of patients with in our series diagnosed of Prostate Cancer and treated by means of radical prostatectomy, and we try to ascertain which are the influence factors within this group upon progression and progression free survival.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: From the global series of 781 patients with T1-T2 prostate cancer treated by means of radical prostatectomy between 1990 and 2004, we study 108 with a Gleason score on the biopsy of 8-10.
  • RESULTS: Actual State: 62.7% (490/781) are alive and free of biochemical progression, 24.8% (194/781) are alive with biochemical progression, 2.9% (23/781) are dead by cancer and 1.9% (15/781) are dead by other cause and 7.6% (59/781) are lost.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Male. Prognosis. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19013977.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-4806
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas urologicas espanolas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Urol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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4. Sina B, Deng A: Umbilical metastasis from prostate carcinoma (Sister Mary Joseph's nodule): a case report and review of literature. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Jul;34(7):581-3
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  • [Title] Umbilical metastasis from prostate carcinoma (Sister Mary Joseph's nodule): a case report and review of literature.
  • We describe here an unusual case of a Sister Mary Joseph's nodule that was metastasized from prostate carcinoma 3 years after radiation therapy.
  • The lesion was the first sign of metastatic disease, and the diagnosis was made on skin biopsy.
  • The patient died of extensive metastases of prostate carcinoma 4 months later.
  • We report this case to extend the list of differential diagnosis for Sister Mary Joseph's nodule in male patients and emphasize the importance of Sister Mary Joseph's nodule as an ominous diagnostic sign.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Umbilicus / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Impetigo / diagnosis. Male. Urachal Cyst / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17576339.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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5. Gil-Bazo I, Ignacio Martínez-Salamanca J, Bianco Jr FJ: [Update of the treatment of advanced prostate cancer and management of its complications]. Med Clin (Barc); 2005 Nov 12;125(17):671-7
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  • [Title] [Update of the treatment of advanced prostate cancer and management of its complications].
  • [Transliterated title] Actualización del tratamiento del cáncer de próstata avanzado y de sus complicaciones.
  • Prostate adenocarcinoma is the leading cause of cancer in Spain, among men older than 65.
  • 1,200 new cases out of every 100,000 males are diagnosed with prostate cancer on an annual basis.
  • In the United States, this illness represents the second leading cause of death due to cancer in males.
  • In those patients whose prostate tumors progress after surgery or radiotherapy, or have metastatic disease when diagnosed, a systemic approach in order to improve their quality of life and overall survival is mandatory.
  • However, most of these tumors becomes androgen-independent over time and behave as a more aggressive cancer type.
  • The accurate knowledge of the symptoms due to disease spreading as well as treatment's side effects is necessary to provide an appropriate palliative management that contributes to an improvement of the quality of life in advanced prostate cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16324498.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-7753
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina clínica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Clin (Barc)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 78
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6. Hess KR, Varadhachary GR, Taylor SH, Wei W, Raber MN, Lenzi R, Abbruzzese JL: Metastatic patterns in adenocarcinoma. Cancer; 2006 Apr 1;106(7):1624-33
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  • [Title] Metastatic patterns in adenocarcinoma.
  • The authors analyzed clinical data from a large number of patients with histologically confirmed, distant-stage adenocarcinoma to evaluate metastatic patterns.
  • RESULTS: Three primary tumors had single, dominant metastatic sites: ovary to abdominal cavity (91%), prostate to bone (90%), and pancreas to liver (85%).
  • In a study of combinations of liver, abdominal cavity, and bone metastases, 86% of prostate primary tumors had only bone metastases, 80% of ovarian primary tumors had only abdominal cavity metastases, and 74% of pancreas primary tumors had only liver metastases.
  • A single organ was the dominant source of metastases in 7 sites: axillary lymph node from the breast (97%), intestinal lymph node from the colon (84%), thoracic lymph node from the lung (66%), brain from the lung (64%), mediastinal lymph node from the lung (62%), supraclavicular lymph node from the breast (51%), and adrenal gland from the lung (51%).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Algorithms. Neoplasm Metastasis. Registries / statistics & numerical data

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 16518827.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Yasui Y, Tanaka T: Protein expression analysis of inflammation-related colon carcinogenesis. J Carcinog; 2009;8:10
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  • BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammation is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC) development.
  • Colonic adenocarcinoma developed after 20 weeks and a proteomics analysis based on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and ultraflex TOF/TOF mass spectrometry was conducted in the cancerous and nontumorous tissue specimens.

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  • (PMID = 19491504.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-3163
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of carcinogenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Carcinog
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2699605
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8. Halvorson CR, Erickson CL, Gaspari AA: A rare manifestation of nail changes with docetaxel therapy. Skinmed; 2010 May-Jun;8(3):179-80
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  • A 60-year-old African American man presented to the dermatology clinic for evaluation of skin and nail changes associated with docetaxel therapy for adenocarcinoma of the prostate.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 21137627.001).
  • [ISSN] 1540-9740
  • [Journal-full-title] Skinmed
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skinmed
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel
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9. Liauw SL, Stadler WM, Correa D, Weichselbaum RR, Jani AB: Dose-escalated radiotherapy for high-risk prostate cancer: outcomes in modern era with short-term androgen deprivation therapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2010 May 1;77(1):125-30
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  • [Title] Dose-escalated radiotherapy for high-risk prostate cancer: outcomes in modern era with short-term androgen deprivation therapy.
  • PURPOSE: Randomized data have supported the use of long-term androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) combined with radiotherapy (RT) for men with high-risk prostate cancer.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 184 men with any single risk factor of prostate-specific antigen >or=10 ng/mL, clinical Stage T2b or greater, or Gleason score >or=7 were treated with primary external beam RT for nonmetastatic adenocarcinoma of the prostate.
  • Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed for risk factors, including T stage, Gleason score, radiation dose, and prostate-specific antigen level.
  • On a subset analysis of high-risk patients (National Comprehensive Cancer Network criteria), those with clinical Stage T3 disease (4-year FFBF rate, 46% vs. 80%; p = .0303) and a radiation dose <74 Gy (4-year FFBF rate, 64% vs. 80%) had a poorer outcome on univariate analysis.
  • CONCLUSION: Short-term ADT and RT might be acceptable for men with intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer, especially for clinically localized disease treated with doses of >or=74 Gy.

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  • (PMID = 19695789.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-355X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA090386-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA090386; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA090386-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS273199; NLM/ PMC3049990
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10. Schmitz M, Grignard G, Margue C, Dippel W, Capesius C, Mossong J, Nathan M, Giacchi S, Scheiden R, Kieffer N: Complete loss of PTEN expression as a possible early prognostic marker for prostate cancer metastasis. Int J Cancer; 2007 Mar 15;120(6):1284-92
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  • [Title] Complete loss of PTEN expression as a possible early prognostic marker for prostate cancer metastasis.
  • The EGF/IGF growth factors are potent mitogens that regulate cell proliferation and cell survival and are involved in prostate cancer development.
  • Using laser microdissection technology and real-time PCR, together with immunohistochemistry, we have explored the growth factor and integrin dependent PI3-kinase/PTEN/Akt signalling pathway in prostate cell lines and tumour samples by analysing EGF-R, IGF1-R, ILK, beta3 integrin, PTEN and p-Akt protein expression.
  • We provide evidence that loss of PTEN expression rather than upregulated EGF/IGF1 receptor expression was responsible for increased p-Akt in neoplastic prostate cells.
  • We therefore compared PTEN expression in patient biopsies at first time diagnosis recruited prospectively (Study I, 112 patients) and patients with confirmed metastasis recruited retrospectively from the Luxembourg cancer registry (Study II, 42 patients).
  • In Study I, loss of PTEN expression at first time diagnosis was found in 26 of 112 patients (23%).
  • In Study II, 25 of the 42 patients (59%) with lymph node metastasis had complete loss of PTEN expression in both the neoplastic glands of the prostate and the invasive prostate cancer cells in the lymph node, and of these 13 (52%) exhibited already loss of PTEN expression at first diagnosis.
  • These findings demonstrate that loss of PTEN expression is an important factor in progression towards metastatic disease and could potentially serve as an early prognostic marker for prostate cancer metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / analysis. Prostate / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology


11. Chen YC, Chiang CI, Lin RS, Pu YS, Lai MK, Sung FC: Diet, vegetarian food and prostate carcinoma among men in Taiwan. Br J Cancer; 2005 Oct 31;93(9):1057-61
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  • [Title] Diet, vegetarian food and prostate carcinoma among men in Taiwan.
  • In a case-control study in a veterans hospital in Taiwan, we compared 237 histology-confirmed prostate carcinoma cases with 481 controls, frequency matched by age, for their consumption of vegetarian food, namely soybean products, rice, wheat protein and other vegetables.
  • The OR of prostate carcinoma for men with BMI < or =25 kg m(-2) was 1.74 (95% CI=1.21, 2.51), compared with men with higher BMI (>25 kg m(-2)).
  • This study suggests that the intake of the low fat local vegetarian food has a protective effect against prostate carcinoma for thin men in this study population.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Diet, Vegetarian. Prostatic Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16205693.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2361673
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12. Gapter L, Wang Z, Glinski J, Ng KY: Induction of apoptosis in prostate cancer cells by pachymic acid from Poria cocos. Biochem Biophys Res Commun; 2005 Jul 15;332(4):1153-61
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  • [Title] Induction of apoptosis in prostate cancer cells by pachymic acid from Poria cocos.
  • PLA(2) is elevated in prostatic adenocarcinoma and conversion of AA to prostaglandins leads to AKT pro-survival activity.
  • In this study, we investigated the effect of PA on the growth of human prostate cancer cells.
  • PA significantly reduced cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, with androgen-insensitive DU145 prostate cancer cells showing greater growth inhibition relative to androgen-responsive LNCaP.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Apoptosis. Polyporales / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Triterpenes / metabolism

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  • [ErratumIn] Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Jan 6;339(1):457
  • (PMID = 15913545.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-291X
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical and biophysical research communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / BAD protein, human; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / Prostaglandins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Terpenes; 0 / Triterpenes; 0 / bcl-Associated Death Protein; 29070-92-6 / pachymic acid; EC 2.7.11.1 / AKT1 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 3.4.22.- / CASP3 protein, human; EC 3.4.22.- / CASP9 protein, human; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 9; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases
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13. Yoon GS, Wang W, Osunkoya AO, Lane Z, Partin AW, Epstein JI: Residual tumor potentially left behind after local ablation therapy in prostate adenocarcinoma. J Urol; 2008 Jun;179(6):2203-6; discussion 2206
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  • [Title] Residual tumor potentially left behind after local ablation therapy in prostate adenocarcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: We examined contralateral prostate cancer potentially left behind by focal therapy.
  • There were 13 cases in which more than 0.5 cm(3) cancer was contralateral to the positive biopsy and 7 with predominantly anterior tumor.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In a highly selected population with limited unilateral biopsy cancer, tumor contralateral to the positive biopsy side at radical prostatectomy is typically small.

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  • (PMID = 18423736.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3792
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA006973; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA058236; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 58236
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS374261; NLM/ PMC3353270
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14. Zhang H, Huang W: Fusion proteins of Hsp70 with tumor-associated antigen acting as a potent tumor vaccine and the C-terminal peptide-binding domain of Hsp70 being essential in inducing antigen-independent anti-tumor response in vivo. Cell Stress Chaperones; 2006;11(3):216-26
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  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / immunology. Cancer Vaccines / immunology. HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins / chemistry. HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins / immunology. Vaccines, DNA / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / immunology. Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Animals. Carcinoma, Lewis Lung / immunology. Carcinoma, Lewis Lung / therapy. Cell Culture Techniques. Cell Line, Transformed. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Transformation, Viral. Colonic Neoplasms / immunology. Colonic Neoplasms / therapy. Escherichia coli / genetics. Lymphoma / immunology. Lymphoma / therapy. Melanoma, Experimental / immunology. Melanoma, Experimental / therapy. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Moloney murine leukemia virus / physiology. Neoplasm Transplantation / pathology. Protein Structure, Tertiary. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / chemistry. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / immunology

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  • (PMID = 17009594.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-8145
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell stress & chaperones
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Stress Chaperones
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Cancer Vaccines; 0 / HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 0 / Vaccines, DNA
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1576472
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15. Martina MS, Fortin JP, Fournier L, Ménager C, Gazeau F, Clément O, Lesieur S: Magnetic targeting of rhodamine-labeled superparamagnetic liposomes to solid tumors: in vivo tracking by fibered confocal fluorescence microscopy. Mol Imaging; 2007 Mar-Apr;6(2):140-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Human prostate adenocarcinoma tumors implanted in mice were used as a system model.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Ferrosoferric Oxide / analysis. Fiber Optic Technology / methods. Fluorescent Dyes / analysis. Metal Nanoparticles / analysis. Microscopy, Confocal / methods. Microscopy, Fluorescence / methods. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Rhodamines / analysis

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  • (PMID = 17445508.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-3508
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fluorescent Dyes; 0 / Liposomes; 0 / Rhodamines; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; XM0M87F357 / Ferrosoferric Oxide
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16. Furusato B, Koff S, McLeod DG, Sesterhenn IA: Sarcoidosis of the prostate. J Clin Pathol; 2007 Mar;60(3):325-6
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  • [Title] Sarcoidosis of the prostate.
  • A 55-year-old African-American man with clinical stage T1c prostate cancer underwent prostatectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Prostatic Diseases / pathology. Sarcoidosis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Prostatic Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 17347286.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 5
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1860563
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17. Kotrikadze N, Alibegashvili M, Zibzibadze M, Abashidze N, Chigogidze T, Managadze L, Artsivadze K: Activity and content of antioxidant enzymes in prostate tumors. Exp Oncol; 2008 Sep;30(3):244-7
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  • [Title] Activity and content of antioxidant enzymes in prostate tumors.
  • AIM: To investigate the antioxidant enzyme system in blood of men with benign hyperplasia of prostate (BHP) and with prostate adenocarcinoma (CaP).
  • Blood plasma and erythrocytes of men with prostate tumors served as the material for the studies; n = 15 for each group.
  • [MeSH-major] Antioxidants / metabolism. Erythrocytes / enzymology. Oxidoreductases / metabolism. Prostatic Hyperplasia / enzymology. Prostatic Neoplasms / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / blood. Adenocarcinoma / enzymology. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Aged. Catalase / metabolism. Ceruloplasmin / metabolism. Glutathione / metabolism. Glutathione Peroxidase / metabolism. Glutathione Reductase / metabolism. Humans. Lipid Peroxidation. Male. Middle Aged. Superoxide Dismutase / metabolism. Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances

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  • (PMID = 18806750.001).
  • [ISSN] 1812-9269
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ukraine
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances; EC 1.- / Oxidoreductases; EC 1.11.1.6 / Catalase; EC 1.11.1.9 / Glutathione Peroxidase; EC 1.15.1.1 / Superoxide Dismutase; EC 1.16.3.1 / Ceruloplasmin; EC 1.8.1.7 / Glutathione Reductase; GAN16C9B8O / Glutathione
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18. Brizuela L, Dayon A, Doumerc N, Ader I, Golzio M, Izard JC, Hara Y, Malavaud B, Cuvillier O: The sphingosine kinase-1 survival pathway is a molecular target for the tumor-suppressive tea and wine polyphenols in prostate cancer. FASEB J; 2010 Oct;24(10):3882-94
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  • [Title] The sphingosine kinase-1 survival pathway is a molecular target for the tumor-suppressive tea and wine polyphenols in prostate cancer.
  • The sphingosine kinase-1/sphingosine 1-phosphate (SphK1/S1P) pathway has been associated with cancer promotion and progression and resistance to treatments in a number of cancers, including prostate adenocarcinoma.
  • Here we provide the first evidence that dietary agents, namely, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg, IC(50)≈75 μM), resveratrol (IC(50)≈40 μM), or a mixture of polyphenols from green tea [polyphenon E (PPE), IC(50)≈70 μM] or grapevine extract (vineatrol, IC(50)≈30 μM), impede prostate cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo by inhibiting the SphK1/S1P pathway.
  • These results provide the first demonstration that the prosurvival, antiapoptotic SphK1/S1P pathway represents a target of dietary green tea and wine polyphenols in cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor) / physiology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Tea / chemistry. Wine / analysis

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  • (PMID = 20522783.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-6860
  • [Journal-full-title] FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] FASEB J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tea; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphotransferases (Alcohol Group Acceptor); EC 2.7.1.- / sphingosine kinase
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19. Hemminki K, Granström C, Chen B: The Swedish family-cancer database: update, application to colorectal cancer and clinical relevance. Hered Cancer Clin Pract; 2005;3(1):7-18
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  • [Title] The Swedish family-cancer database: update, application to colorectal cancer and clinical relevance.
  • The Swedish Family-Cancer Database has been used for almost 10 years in the study of familial risks at all common sites.
  • Cancer cases were retrieved from the Swedish Cancer Registry from 1958-2002, including over 1.2 million first and multiple primary cancers and in situ tumours.
  • Compared to previous versions, only 6.0% of deceased offspring with a cancer diagnosis lack any parental information.
  • We show one application of the Database in the study of familial risks in colorectal adenocarcinoma, with defined age-group and anatomic site specific analyses.
  • Familial standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were determined for offspring when parents or sibling were diagnosed with colon or rectal cancer.
  • The excess risk was limited to colon cancer and particularly to right-sided colon cancer.
  • The SIRs for colon cancer in age matched populations were 2.58 when parents were probands and 3.81 when siblings were probands; for right-sided colon cancer the SIRs were 3.66 and 7.53, respectively.
  • Thus the familial excess (SIR-1.00) was more than two fold higher for right-sided colon cancer.
  • Useful risk estimates have been developed for familial breast and prostate cancers.

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  • (PMID = 20223029.001).
  • [ISSN] 1897-4287
  • [Journal-full-title] Hereditary cancer in clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hered Cancer Clin Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2837068
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20. Seo SI, Song SY, Kang MR, Kim MS, Oh JE, Kim YR, Lee JY, Yoo NJ, Lee SH: Immunohistochemical analysis of NF-kappaB signaling proteins IKKepsilon, p50/p105, p52/p100 and RelA in prostate cancers. APMIS; 2009 Aug;117(8):623-8
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical analysis of NF-kappaB signaling proteins IKKepsilon, p50/p105, p52/p100 and RelA in prostate cancers.
  • Activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) signaling is considered an important mechanism in the development of prostate cancers.
  • Expression of NF-kappaB members has been reported in prostate cancer tissues, but expression of IKKepsilon has not yet been studied in prostate cancers.
  • In this study, we attempted to explore as to whether expressions of IKKepsilon and NF-kappaB members p50/105, p52/p100 and RelA are altered in prostate cancers.
  • We analyzed the expression of IKKepsilon, p50/105, p52/p100 and RelA in 107 prostate adenocarcinoma tissues by immunohistochemistry using a tissue microarray (TMA) method.
  • In the TMA, IKKepsilon is expressed in basal cells, but not in alveolar cells in normal prostate glands.
  • IKKepsilon is expressed in 60.0% of prostate intraepithelial neoplasm (PIN) and 70.1% of the prostate cancers in the cytoplasm.
  • The increased cytoplasmic expression of IKKepsilon as well as the increased nuclear expressions of p50/105, p52/p100 and RelA in the prostate cancers compared to normal alveolar cells suggested that overexpression of these proteins may be related to activation of the NF-kappaB pathway and might play a role in tumorigenesis of prostate cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. I-kappa B Kinase / biosynthesis. NF-kappa B p50 Subunit / biosynthesis. NF-kappa B p52 Subunit / biosynthesis. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Transcription Factor RelA / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19664134.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0463
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / NF-kappa B p50 Subunit; 0 / NF-kappa B p52 Subunit; 0 / Transcription Factor RelA; EC 2.7.11.10 / I-kappa B Kinase
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21. Nakata S, Nakano K, Takahashi H, Shimizu K, Higashi H, Ohki K: [A case of prostate cancer diagnosed pathologically by bone metastatic site biopsy]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2005 May;96(4):507-10
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  • [Title] [A case of prostate cancer diagnosed pathologically by bone metastatic site biopsy].
  • A 61-year-old man consulted our hospital complaining of high prostate specific antigen (PSA) value and difficulty to urinate.
  • Prostate biopsy had been performed at another hospital, but did not reveal cancer.
  • Transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy was performed, but cancer was not detected.
  • A repeat prostate biopsy was performed, but cancer was not detected from the prostate.
  • On right pubic bone biopsy, poorly to moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma was detected.
  • PSA immunohistochemical staining was positive, and the diagnosis was bone metastasis from prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Bone and Bones / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pubic Bone
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Biopsy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood


22. Cossu-Rocca P, Contini M, Brunelli M, Festa A, Pili F, Gobbo S, Eccher A, Mura A, Massarelli G, Martignoni G: S-100A1 is a reliable marker in distinguishing nephrogenic adenoma from prostatic adenocarcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Jul;33(7):1031-6
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  • [Title] S-100A1 is a reliable marker in distinguishing nephrogenic adenoma from prostatic adenocarcinoma.
  • In addition to its uncertain origin, there can be diagnostic difficulty in distinguishing nephrogenic adenoma from prostatic adenocarcinoma, particularly with lesions arising in the prostatic urethra.
  • Alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR), a recently identified prostate cancer marker, has also been found to be expressed in renal tubules and in some renal epithelial neoplasms.
  • In this study, we investigated the expression of S100A1 and AMACR in 18 nephrogenic adenomas and in 100 prostatic adenocarcinomas.
  • A strong and distinct cytoplasmic or nucleocytoplasmic staining of S100A1 was found in 17 out of 18 cases of nephrogenic adenoma (94%), but never in prostatic adenocarcinoma.
  • In contrast, AMACR expression was detected in 14 of 18 nephrogenic adenomas (78%) and in 96 of 100 prostatic adenocarcinomas (96%).
  • We conclude that (1) S100A1 is a specific and sensitive immunohistochemical marker to differentiate nephrogenic adenoma from prostatic adenocarcinoma;.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. S100 Proteins / biosynthesis. Urogenital Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Racemases and Epimerases / biosynthesis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19384190.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / S100A1 protein; EC 5.1.- / Racemases and Epimerases; EC 5.1.99.4 / alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase
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23. Wei H, Desouki MM, Lin S, Xiao D, Franklin RB, Feng P: Differential expression of metallothioneins (MTs) 1, 2, and 3 in response to zinc treatment in human prostate normal and malignant cells and tissues. Mol Cancer; 2008 Jan 21;7:7
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  • [Title] Differential expression of metallothioneins (MTs) 1, 2, and 3 in response to zinc treatment in human prostate normal and malignant cells and tissues.
  • BACKGROUND: The disturbance of zinc homeostasis featured with a significant decrease of cellular zinc level was well documented to associate with the development and progression of human prostate malignancy.
  • We have previously reported that zinc treatment induces prostate malignant cell apoptosis through mitochondrial pathway.
  • However, the studies on the expression of MT in association with the prostate pathological and malignant status are very limited, and the zinc regulation of MT isoform expression in prostate cells remains elusive.
  • The goals of this study were to define the expression of endogenous MTs, the isoforms of MT 1, 2, 3 at both messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) and protein levels; and to investigate the zinc effect on MT expression in normal prostate, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and malignant PC-3 cells, and in relevant human tissues.
  • RESULTS: Our results demonstrated a significant suppression of endogenous levels of MT1/2 in malignant PC-3 cells (95% reduction compared to the normal prostate cells) and in human adenocarcinoma tissues (73% MT1/2 negative).
  • CONCLUSION: This study provided evidence of the association of attenuated MT1/2 with prostate tumor progression, and the zinc induction of MT1/2 expression resulting in cellular zinc restoration.
  • The results suggest the potential of MT1/2 as a candidate biomarker for prostate cancer and the utilization of zinc in prostate cancer prevention and treatment.

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  • (PMID = 18208603.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-4598
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / PHS HHS / / R01-116815
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 9038-94-2 / Metallothionein; J41CSQ7QDS / Zinc
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2265743
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24. Sullivan LM, Smolkin ME, Frierson HF Jr, Galgano MT: Comprehensive evaluation of CDX2 in invasive cervical adenocarcinomas: immunopositivity in the absence of overt colorectal morphology. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Nov;32(11):1608-12
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  • In addition to staining adenocarcinomas of the alimentary system, studies have demonstrated CDX2 positivity in a percentage of ovarian mucinous and endometrioid tumors, carcinoids, and some adenocarcinomas of other sites such as the urinary bladder, prostate, lung, and pancreas.
  • The frequency and pattern of CDX2 staining in the more common histologic subtypes of cervical adenocarcinoma (endocervical usual-type and endometrioid) is parallel to that which is seen for adenocarcinomas of the upper gastrointestinal tract and pancreaticobiliary system.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Intestine, Large / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18753946.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDX2 protein, human; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins
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25. Zhang L, Zhong K, Dai Y, Zhou H: Genome-wide analysis of histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation by ChIP-chip in gastric cancer patients. J Gastroenterol; 2009;44(4):305-12
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  • [Title] Genome-wide analysis of histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation by ChIP-chip in gastric cancer patients.
  • In gastric cancer (GC), global and gene-specific DNA methylation changes have been demonstrated to occur.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. DNA Methylation. Genome. Stomach Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19267258.001).
  • [ISSN] 0944-1174
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Histones
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26. Inahara M, Suzuki H, Kojima S, Komiya A, Fukasawa S, Imamoto T, Naya Y, Ichikawa T: Improved prostate cancer detection using systematic 14-core biopsy for large prostate glands with normal digital rectal examination findings. Urology; 2006 Oct;68(4):815-9
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  • [Title] Improved prostate cancer detection using systematic 14-core biopsy for large prostate glands with normal digital rectal examination findings.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate in a retrospective study the improvements in prostate cancer detection rates for patients with a prostate gland larger than 30 cm3 using a systematic 14-core biopsy strategy compared with a systematic 8-core biopsy.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively assessed 273 patients with screened prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels of 3.0 to 50.0 ng/mL.
  • A total of 204 patients with a prostate volume of 30 cm3 or larger and with normal digital rectal examination findings were enrolled in this study.
  • Of the 204 patients, 110 underwent 8-core biopsy and 94 underwent 14-core biopsy of the prostate.
  • We compared the cancer detection rates of prostate biopsy between the 8 and 14-core groups using total PSA, free/total PSA ratio, PSA density, and PSA density adjusted by transition zone volume.
  • RESULTS: Of the 204 patients, 40 (19.5%) were identified as having prostate adenocarcinoma.
  • The cancer detection rate for the 8 and 14-core groups was 14.5% (16 of 110 patients) and 24.5% (23 of 94 patients), respectively.
  • The 14-core biopsy had a statistically significant greater cancer detection rate than did the 8-core group in patients with a prostate volume of 30 to 40 cm3 (36.7% versus 11.8%, respectively, P<0.05) and a PSA density adjusted by transition zone volume of 0.38 ng/mL/cm3 or greater (47.8% versus 20.0%, respectively, P <0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The 14-core prostate needle biopsy is a recommended method for detecting prostate cancer in a large-volume prostate gland without increasing the risk of complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Prostate / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Biopsy, Needle. Digital Rectal Examination. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Organ Size. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Retrospective Studies


27. Colloca G, Venturino A, Vitucci P: Re: Hara et al.: Decline of the red cell blood count in patients receiving androgen deprivation therapy for localized prostate cancer: impact of ADT on insulin-like growth factor 1 and erythropoesis. (Urology 2010;75:1441-1445). Urology; 2010 Oct;76(4):1020
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  • [Title] Re: Hara et al.: Decline of the red cell blood count in patients receiving androgen deprivation therapy for localized prostate cancer: impact of ADT on insulin-like growth factor 1 and erythropoesis. (Urology 2010;75:1441-1445).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Androgen Antagonists / adverse effects. Anemia / chemically induced. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Erythrocyte Count. Erythropoiesis / drug effects. Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / physiology. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Receptor, IGF Type 1 / physiology

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  • [CommentOn] Urology. 2010 Jun;75(6):1441-5 [20110105.001]
  • (PMID = 20932425.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 11096-26-7 / Erythropoietin; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, IGF Type 1
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28. Li M, Zhang Y, Feurino LW, Wang H, Fisher WE, Brunicardi FC, Chen C, Yao Q: Interleukin-8 increases vascular endothelial growth factor and neuropilin expression and stimulates ERK activation in human pancreatic cancer. Cancer Sci; 2008 Apr;99(4):733-7
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  • [Title] Interleukin-8 increases vascular endothelial growth factor and neuropilin expression and stimulates ERK activation in human pancreatic cancer.
  • Although up-regulation of IL-8 is indicated in many cancers, its function in pancreatic cancer has not been well characterized.
  • In this study we examined the expression of IL-8 on pancreatic cancer cells and clinical tissue specimens, and investigated the effect of exogenous IL-8 on gene expression, and signaling in human pancreatic cancer cells.
  • We found that pancreatic cancer cells expressed higher amount of IL-8 mRNA than normal human pancreatic ductal epithelium cells.
  • IL-8 mRNA was also substantially overexpressed in 11 of 14 (79%) clinical pancreatic-adenocarcinoma samples compared with that in their surrounding normal tissues.
  • Exogenous IL-8 up-regulated the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor(165), and neuropilin (NRP)-2 in BxPC-3 cells, one of human pancreatic cancer cell lines.
  • Our studies suggest that IL-8 might be a malignant factor in human pancreatic cancer by induction of vascular endothelial growth factor and NRP-2 expression and ERK activation.

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  • (PMID = 18307536.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7006
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL083471; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R01 EB002436; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL083471-02; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / EB002436-02; United States / NCCIH NIH HHS / AT / R21 AT003094-01; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL08347; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE015543-02; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE015543; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE015543-02; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R01 EB002436-02; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL083471-02; United States / NCCIH NIH HHS / AT / R21 AT003094; United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / EB002436; United States / NCCIH NIH HHS / AT / AT003094-01; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE15543
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interleukin-8; 0 / Neuropilin-2; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 3G0H8C9362 / Cobalt; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases; EVS87XF13W / cobaltous chloride
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS228014; NLM/ PMC2930017
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29. Weidle UH, Evtimova V, Alberti S, Guerra E, Fersis N, Kaul S: Cell growth stimulation by CRASH, an asparaginase-like protein overexpressed in human tumors and metastatic breast cancers. Anticancer Res; 2009 Apr;29(4):951-63
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  • In non-transformed tissues CRASH was only detected in testis, brain, esophagus, prostate and proliferating endometrium.
  • Twenty-eight out of 42 endometrium tumors expressed CRASH at high levels as did 5/41 prostate carcinomas, as well as ovary and breast cancers, indicating a regulation of CRASH expression by sex hormones.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology. Blotting, Western. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / secondary. Cell Line, Tumor. Cystadenocarcinoma / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma / secondary. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Molecular Sequence Data. Prognosis. RNA, Small Interfering / pharmacology. Sequence Homology, Amino Acid

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  • (PMID = 19414332.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Autoantigens; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; EC 3.5.1.- / ASRGL1 protein, human; EC 3.5.1.1 / Asparaginase
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30. Jungwirth N, Haeberle L, Schrott KM, Wullich B, Krause FS: Serotonin used as prognostic marker of urological tumors. World J Urol; 2008 Oct;26(5):499-504
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  • Our study examines the relevance of serum serotonin levels to urinary bladder, prostate, renal, and testicular carcinoma when it comes to prognosis and occurrence of these oncological conditions.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Serotonin levels were obtained in 109 patients presenting with urothelial carcinoma to the urinary bladder, adenocarcinoma of the prostate and renal cell carcinoma, as well as presenting with seminomatous and non-seminomatous testicular tumors.
  • In prostate carcinoma, serotonin levels showed a tendency with organ exceeding growth, Grading/Gleason Score, PSA values >100 ng/ml, and the presence of distant metastases.
  • CONCLUSION: Serotonin levels are suitable for prognostic evaluation of urothelial carcinoma in the urinary bladder, adenocarcinoma of the prostate, and renal cell carcinoma, especially taking into account the lab cost of 25<euro> per test.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / blood. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Prostatic Neoplasms / blood. Testicular Neoplasms / blood. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / blood. Young Adult


31. Beekman KW, Fleming MT, Scher HI, Slovin SF, Ishill NM, Heller G, Kelly WK: Second-line chemotherapy for prostate cancer: patient characteristics and survival. Clin Prostate Cancer; 2005 Sep;4(2):86-90
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  • [Title] Second-line chemotherapy for prostate cancer: patient characteristics and survival.
  • PURPOSE: First-line chemotherapy with docetaxel in patients with progressive castrate metastatic prostate cancer has been shown to improve overall survival compared with mitoxantrone-based therapies.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with progressive castrate metastatic prostate cancer enrolled on an antimicrotubule-based protocol for treatment were followed to determine their baseline characteristics and outcomes with second- or third-line systemic therapy.
  • Corresponding prostate-specific antigen (PSA) decreases > or = 50% were observed in 72%, 15%, and 22% of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16197608.001).
  • [ISSN] 1540-0352
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical prostate cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Prostate Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K30 CA05826
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / LSM4 protein, S cerevisiae; 0 / Ribonucleoprotein, U4-U6 Small Nuclear; 0 / Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins
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32. Tani Y, Suttie A, Flake GP, Nyska A, Maronpot RR: Epithelial-stromal tumor of the seminal vesicles in the transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate model. Vet Pathol; 2005 May;42(3):306-14
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  • [Title] Epithelial-stromal tumor of the seminal vesicles in the transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate model.
  • The transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate (TRAMP) model, designed for researching human prostatic cancer, was genetically engineered to harbor a transgene composed of the simian virus 40 Large-T/small-t antigen promoted by the rat probasin gene.
  • In addition to prostatic neoplasms, the TRAMP mouse develops tumors in the seminal vesicles.
  • Some of the larger papillary, polypoid lesions exhibited a phyllodes pattern resembling that seen in mixed epithelial-stromal tumors of the breast, prostate, and seminal vesicles of humans.
  • Our recommended diagnosis of this lesion in the seminal vesicles is epithelial-stromal tumor.

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  • (PMID = 15872376.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming; 0 / Desmin; G34N38R2N1 / Bromodeoxyuridine
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33. Yamamoto S, Ito T, Aizawa T, Miki M, Furusato M: The possibility of 'de novo' cancer in the prostate. Int J Urol; 2005 Apr;12(4):361-4
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  • [Title] The possibility of 'de novo' cancer in the prostate.
  • BACKGROUND: To investigate the possibility of 'de novo' prostate cancer by analyzing the relationship between high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) and latent prostate cancer.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Latent prostate cancers found at autopsy were examined and 55 cancer foci with a poorly (Gleason grade 4 and 5) or moderately (Gleason grade 3) differentiated component were selected.
  • High grade intraepithelial neoplasia was defined as positive if it was observed within 2 mm from the edge of the cancer focus and the relationship between HGPIN and the two groups was investigated.
  • RESULTS: The MDG had 39 cancer foci (71.0%) and there were 16 in the SDG (29.0%).
  • In the MDG, 13 small-volume cancer foci were HGPIN positive, but in the SDG, none of the small-volume cancers were HGPIN positive.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Small-volume cancer foci without HGPIN in the SDG may be candidates for de novo prostate cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Autopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Severity of Illness Index

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  • (PMID = 15948722.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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34. Bauduceau O, Vedrine L, Chargari C, Ceccaldi B, Le Moulec S, Houlgatte A: [Testicular metastasis of prostatic adenocarcinoma: a case report]. Prog Urol; 2007 Apr;17(2):251-2
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  • [Title] [Testicular metastasis of prostatic adenocarcinoma: a case report].
  • Metastasis of prostate adenocarcinoma to testis is an extremely rare occurrence.
  • Orchiectomy is necessary to confirm histopathological diagnosis.
  • Metastatic carcinoma of the prostate to the testis is a commonly accepted as a sign of disseminated disease.
  • We report a case of a 62-year-old patient who presented a prostatic carcinoma with a testicular metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17489329.001).
  • [ISSN] 1166-7087
  • [Journal-full-title] Progrès en urologie : journal de l'Association française d'urologie et de la Société française d'urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog. Urol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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35. Eaton CL, Colombel M, van der Pluijm G, Cecchini M, Wetterwald A, Lippitt J, Rehman I, Hamdy F, Thalman G: Evaluation of the frequency of putative prostate cancer stem cells in primary and metastatic prostate cancer. Prostate; 2010 Jun 01;70(8):875-82
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  • [Title] Evaluation of the frequency of putative prostate cancer stem cells in primary and metastatic prostate cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Tumour cells with a stem cell-like phenotype have recently been identified in prostate tumors and it has been suggested that this population may be responsible for the diversity of cell types within tumors and also for the initiation of metastases.
  • In this study we have, for the first time, assessed matched primary and bone marrow biopsies from prostate cancer patients for the distribution of cells carrying these and a number of other putative stem cell markers.
  • METHODS: Eleven matched (primary and bone metastasis) specimens from prostate cancer patients were assessed for the presence of cd133, cd44, alpha2beta1 integrin, CXCR4, c-met, alpha6 integrin, and nestin using immunohistochemistry and stain intensity and distribution scored.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplastic Stem Cells / cytology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Bone and Bones / metabolism. Bone and Bones / pathology. Cell Count. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Integrins / metabolism. Intermediate Filament Proteins / metabolism. Male. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism. Nestin. Prostate / metabolism. Prostate / pathology


36. Minhajat R, Mori D, Yamasaki F, Sugita Y, Satoh T, Tokunaga O: Endoglin (CD105) expression in angiogenesis of colon cancer: analysis using tissue microarrays and comparison with other endothelial markers. Virchows Arch; 2006 Feb;448(2):127-34
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  • [Title] Endoglin (CD105) expression in angiogenesis of colon cancer: analysis using tissue microarrays and comparison with other endothelial markers.
  • Some markers of angiogenic endothelial cells are emerging as targets of cancer therapy.
  • The present study compares the expression of CD105 with that of other endothelial markers in all tissue layers during the development of colon cancer.
  • We examined sections from endoscopic mucosal resection and surgical resection of tubular adenoma (n=31), carcinoma in adenoma (n=11), and adenocarcinoma (n=34).
  • In contrast, cancer-associated blood vessels (up to 80%) and cancer cells themselves expressed high levels of CD105.
  • In normal mucosa, CD105 was weakly expressed in endothelial cells of capillaries (< or =21%), and significant differences in its expression in endothelial cells between the normal mucosa and adenoma, carcinoma in adenoma, and adenocarcinoma were found.
  • Flt-1, Flk-1, transforming growth factor-beta1, transforming growth factor-beta receptor II, and CD44 were strongly expressed in the cancer cells but were not expressed in the blood vessels.
  • The present study shows that de novo blood vessels of colon cancer specifically express CD105.
  • These findings provide the basis for novel antiangiogenic cancer therapies.

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  • (PMID = 16177881.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD31; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / ENG protein, human; 0 / Endoglin; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface
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37. Kim SY, Song SY, Kim MS, Lee JY, Lee HM, Choi HY, Yoo NJ, Lee SH: Immunohistochemical analysis of Fas and FLIP in prostate cancers. APMIS; 2009 Jan;117(1):28-33
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical analysis of Fas and FLIP in prostate cancers.
  • Fas-mediated apoptosis is considered a principal pathway for apoptosis induction in normal and cancer cells.
  • Expression of Fas has been reported in prostate tissues several times, but the data were not consistent.
  • Expression of FLICE-like inhibitory protein (FLIP), an inhibitor of Fas-mediated apoptosis, has not been studied by immunohistochemistry in prostate tissues.
  • The aim of this study is to explore whether alterations of Fas and FLIP expression occur in prostate cancer tissues.
  • We analyzed the expression of Fas and FLIP in 107 prostate adenocarcinoma tissues by immunohistochemistry using a tissue microarray approach.
  • Prostate intraepithelial neoplasm also showed a strong Fas immunoreactivity.
  • The decreased expression of Fas in a large fraction of prostate cancers compared with their normal cells suggested that loss of Fas expression might play a role in tumorigenesis in some prostate cancers possibly by inhibiting apoptosis mediated by Fas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Antigens, CD95 / metabolism. CASP8 and FADD-Like Apoptosis Regulating Protein / metabolism. Prostate / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19161534.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0463
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD95; 0 / CASP8 and FADD-Like Apoptosis Regulating Protein
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38. Morgenbesser SD, McLaren RP, Richards B, Zhang M, Akmaev VR, Winter SF, Mineva ND, Kaplan-Lefko PJ, Foster BA, Cook BP, Dufault MR, Cao X, Wang CJ, Teicher BA, Klinger KW, Greenberg NM, Madden SL: Identification of genes potentially involved in the acquisition of androgen-independent and metastatic tumor growth in an autochthonous genetically engineered mouse prostate cancer model. Prostate; 2007 Jan 1;67(1):83-106
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  • [Title] Identification of genes potentially involved in the acquisition of androgen-independent and metastatic tumor growth in an autochthonous genetically engineered mouse prostate cancer model.
  • BACKGROUND: A major focus of prostate cancer research has been to identify genes that are deregulated during tumor progression, potentially providing diagnostic markers and therapeutic targets.
  • METHODS: We have employed serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) and microarray hybridization to identify alterations that occur during malignant transformation in the Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) model.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our analyses identified well-characterized genes that were previously known to be involved in prostate cancer, validating our study, and also uncovered transcripts that had not previously been implicated in prostate cancer progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Androgens / genetics. Disease Models, Animal. Gene Expression Profiling. Genes, Neoplasm / physiology. Genetic Engineering / methods. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Prostatic Neoplasms / genetics

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17013881.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0045
  • [Journal-full-title] The Prostate
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostate
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA73747; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA84296
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens
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39. Shames DS, Girard L, Gao B, Sato M, Lewis CM, Shivapurkar N, Jiang A, Perou CM, Kim YH, Pollack JR, Fong KM, Lam CL, Wong M, Shyr Y, Nanda R, Olopade OI, Gerald W, Euhus DM, Shay JW, Gazdar AF, Minna JD: A genome-wide screen for promoter methylation in lung cancer identifies novel methylation markers for multiple malignancies. PLoS Med; 2006 Dec;3(12):e486
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  • [Title] A genome-wide screen for promoter methylation in lung cancer identifies novel methylation markers for multiple malignancies.
  • However, DNA methylation markers that are highly specific and sensitive for common tumors would be useful for the early detection of cancer, and those required for the malignant phenotype would identify pathways important as therapeutic targets.
  • METHODS AND FINDINGS: In an effort to identify new cancer-specific methylation markers, we employed a high-throughput global expression profiling approach in lung cancer cells.
  • We identified 132 genes that have 5' CpG islands, are induced from undetectable levels by 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine in multiple non-small cell lung cancer cell lines, and are expressed in immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells.
  • Methylation analysis of a subset (45/132) of these promoter regions in primary lung cancer (n = 20) and adjacent nonmalignant tissue (n = 20) showed that 31 genes had acquired methylation in the tumors, but did not show methylation in normal lung or peripheral blood cells.
  • We studied the eight most frequently and specifically methylated genes from our lung cancer dataset in breast cancer (n = 37), colon cancer (n = 24), and prostate cancer (n = 24) along with counterpart nonmalignant tissues.
  • CONCLUSIONS: By using a systematic biological screen we identified multiple genes that are methylated with high penetrance in primary lung, breast, colon, and prostate cancers.

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  • (PMID = 17194187.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-1676
  • [Journal-full-title] PLoS medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GEO/ GSE5816
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA070907; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA084971; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50CA70907; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA84971
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CCNA1 protein, human; 0 / Cyclin A; 0 / Cyclin A1; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / MSX1 Transcription Factor; 0 / MSX1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors; 148814-46-4 / BNC1 protein, human; 776B62CQ27 / decitabine; EC 2.1.1.- / DNA Modification Methylases; EC 3.4.- / Cathepsins; EC 3.4.22.38 / CTSK protein, human; EC 3.4.22.38 / Cathepsin K; M801H13NRU / Azacitidine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1716188
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40. Krambeck AE, DiMarco DS, Rangel LJ, Bergstralh EJ, Myers RP, Blute ML, Gettman MT: Radical prostatectomy for prostatic adenocarcinoma: a matched comparison of open retropubic and robot-assisted techniques. BJU Int; 2009 Feb;103(4):448-53
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  • [Title] Radical prostatectomy for prostatic adenocarcinoma: a matched comparison of open retropubic and robot-assisted techniques.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From August 2002 to December 2005 we identified 294 patients undergoing RARP for clinically localized prostate cancer.
  • A comparison RRP group of 588 patients from the same period was matched 2:1 for surgical year, age, preoperative prostate-specific antigen level, clinical stage and biopsy Gleason grade.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Intraoperative Complications / etiology. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Prostatectomy / methods. Prostatic Neoplasms / surgery. Robotics

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  • (PMID = 18778350.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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41. Bono AV, Pannellini T, Liberatore M, Montironi R, Cunico SC, Cheng L, Sasso F, Musiani P, Iezzi M: Sorafenib's inhibition of prostate cancer growth in transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate mice and its differential effects on endothelial and pericyte growth during tumor angiogenesis. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2010 Jun;32(3):136-45
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  • [Title] Sorafenib's inhibition of prostate cancer growth in transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate mice and its differential effects on endothelial and pericyte growth during tumor angiogenesis.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate Sorafenib's efficacy (60 mg/kg/d per os) in preventing the transformation of high grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) into adenocarcinoma (ADC) and in inhibiting the onset and progression of poorly differentiated carcinoma (PDC) in transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice.

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  • (PMID = 20701066.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzenesulfonates; 0 / Phenylurea Compounds; 0 / Pyridines; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; 9ZOQ3TZI87 / sorafenib
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42. Hill R, Song Y, Cardiff RD, Van Dyke T: Selective evolution of stromal mesenchyme with p53 loss in response to epithelial tumorigenesis. Cell; 2005 Dec 16;123(6):1001-11
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  • Our understanding of cancer has largely come from the analysis of aberrations within the tumor cell population.
  • We demonstrate that this indeed occurs in a mouse model of prostate cancer where epithelial cell cycle disruption via cell-specific inhibition of pRb function induces a paracrine p53 response that suppresses fibroblast proliferation in associated stroma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Actins / analysis. Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Animals. Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming / genetics. Cell Proliferation. Connective Tissue / pathology. Disease Models, Animal. Gene Deletion. Genotype. Keratin-8. Keratins / analysis. Loss of Heterozygosity / genetics. Male. Mice. Mice, Knockout. Mice, Transgenic. Models, Biological. Paracrine Communication. Prostate / metabolism. Prostate / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / genetics. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Retinoblastoma Protein / metabolism. S100 Proteins / analysis


43. Jin RJ, Lho Y, Wang Y, Ao M, Revelo MP, Hayward SW, Wills ML, Logan SK, Zhang P, Matusik RJ: Down-regulation of p57Kip2 induces prostate cancer in the mouse. Cancer Res; 2008 May 15;68(10):3601-8
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  • [Title] Down-regulation of p57Kip2 induces prostate cancer in the mouse.
  • However, little is known about the role of p57(Kip2) in tumorigenesis and cancer progression.
  • Here, we show that the expression of p57(Kip2) is significantly decreased in human prostate cancer, and the overexpression of p57(Kip2) in prostate cancer cells significantly suppressed cell proliferation and reduced invasive ability.
  • In addition, overexpression of p57(Kip2) in LNCaP cells inhibited tumor formation in nude mice, resulting in well-differentiated squamous tumors rather than adenocarcinoma.
  • Furthermore, the prostates of p57(Kip2) knockout mice developed prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and adenocarcinoma.
  • Remarkably, this mouse prostate cancer is pathologically identical to human prostate adenocarcinoma.
  • Therefore, these results strongly suggest that p57(Kip2) is an important gene in prostate cancer tumorigenesis, and the p57(Kip2) pathway may be a potential target for prostate cancer prevention and therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p57 / biosynthesis. Down-Regulation. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18483241.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA116097; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA76142
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cdkn1c protein, mouse; 0 / Cyclin D; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p57; 0 / Cyclins; 0 / Retinoblastoma Protein; EC 2.7.11.22 / Cdk2 protein, mouse; EC 2.7.11.22 / Cdk4 protein, mouse; EC 2.7.11.22 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 2; EC 2.7.11.22 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4
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44. Iczkowski KA, Qiu J, Qian J, Somerville MC, Rittmaster RS, Andriole GL, Bostwick DG: The dual 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor dutasteride induces atrophic changes and decreases relative cancer volume in human prostate. Urology; 2005 Jan;65(1):76-82
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  • [Title] The dual 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor dutasteride induces atrophic changes and decreases relative cancer volume in human prostate.
  • OBJECTIVES: To perform the first evaluation of the effects of the 5-alpha-reductase inhibitor class of drugs on cancer histopathologic features at radical prostatectomy in a placebo-controlled multicenter trial.
  • The histopathologic features of benign epithelium, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and cancer were recorded, and the treatment effect was scored.
  • Digital imaging analysis was used to measure the stroma/epithelium ratio and epithelial height, as well as the nuclear area in cancer.
  • In cancer tissue, the tumor volume was significantly lower in the dutasteride-treated men than in the placebo-treated men (mean 15% versus 24%, respectively, P = 0.025), the percentage of atrophic epithelium was increased (P = 0.041), and the stroma/gland ratio was doubled (P = 0.046).
  • CONCLUSIONS: After short-term dutasteride treatment, benign epithelium showed involution and epithelial shrinkage, and prostate cancer tissue demonstrated a decrease in epithelium relative to stroma.
  • These findings indicate that dutasteride induces significant phenotypic alterations in both the benign and the neoplastic prostate, supportive of a chemopreventive or chemoactive role.
  • [MeSH-major] 5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors. Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Azasteroids / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors. Prostate / drug effects. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Atrophy. Combined Modality Therapy. Double-Blind Method. Dutasteride. Epithelial Cells / drug effects. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Male. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Pilot Projects. Prostatectomy. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / drug therapy. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / enzymology. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / surgery. Stromal Cells / drug effects. Stromal Cells / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15667867.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 5-alpha Reductase Inhibitors; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Azasteroids; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; O0J6XJN02I / Dutasteride
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45. Kirschner-Hermanns R, Borchers H, Reineke T, Willis S, Jakse G: Fecal incontinence after radical perineal prostatectomy: a prospective study. Urology; 2005 Feb;65(2):337-42
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  • All patients had undergone extrafascial perineal prostatectomy for Stage cT1-cT3N0M0 prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Aged. Anal Canal / innervation. Anal Canal / physiopathology. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Perineum / surgery. Prospective Studies. Prostatic Neoplasms / complications. Prostatic Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / surgery. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Surveys and Questionnaires

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  • (PMID = 15708049.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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46. Tappel A: Lysosomal and prostasomal hydrolytic enzymes and redox processes and initiation of prostate cancer. Med Hypotheses; 2005;64(6):1170-2
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  • [Title] Lysosomal and prostasomal hydrolytic enzymes and redox processes and initiation of prostate cancer.
  • Lysosomes, lysosomal enzymes and oxidant processes are known to be involved in cancer processes.
  • However, integrated biochemical and cell biology studies are necessary to understand how lysosomal enzymes and prostasomal enzymes combined with oxidant processes could initiate cancer.
  • Most prostate cancer is likely to be initiated in the prostate duct system.
  • The lysosomal enzymes acid phosphatase and glucosidase and prostasomal proteins and enzymes are found in human semen and therefore have come through prostate ducts.
  • The hypothesis presented here is that the lysosomal enzymes and prostasomes are exocytosed from prostate cells into the duct system of the prostate where their hydrolytic enzymes and oxidative processes, for example, the iron from the iron-sulfur clusters of the prostasomal dehydrogenases, damage proteins and other components of cells leading to the initiation of cancer.
  • Risk factors for prostate cancer are known to initiate activity of lysosomal enzymes and could initiate activity of prostasomal enzymes.
  • Other dietary components in fruits and vegetables protect against prostate cancer and can be hypothesized as decreasing cellular output of lysosomal or protasomal enzymes or inhibiting lysosomal and prostasomal enzymes in the duct system.
  • Measurements of multiple lysosomal and prostasomal enzyme activities and their biochemical pathways are vital to the understanding of protectors to inhibit lysosomal or prostasomal enzyme activities that might be leading to prostate cancer.
  • Lysosomal enzyme activities may be precursors to the onset of other kinds of cancer with other similar non-invasive screening techniques possible.
  • This overall hypothesis suggests protection against prostate cancer by inhibitors of lipid peroxidation including the dietary antioxidants selenium, vitamin E and lycopene and also cysteine glutathione.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / etiology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism. Lysosomes / enzymology. Models, Biological. Prostatic Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Anticarcinogenic Agents / therapeutic use. Antioxidants / therapeutic use. Cocarcinogenesis. Diet. Enzyme Activation. Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Exocytosis. Humans. Hydrolysis. Lipid Peroxidation. Male. Organelles / enzymology. Oxidation-Reduction. Prostate / ultrastructure. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 15823710.001).
  • [ISSN] 0306-9877
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical hypotheses
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Hypotheses
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticarcinogenic Agents; 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors
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47. Cibull TL, Jones TD, Li L, Eble JN, Ann Baldridge L, Malott SR, Luo Y, Cheng L: Overexpression of Pim-1 during progression of prostatic adenocarcinoma. J Clin Pathol; 2006 Mar;59(3):285-8
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  • [Title] Overexpression of Pim-1 during progression of prostatic adenocarcinoma.
  • Recently, evidence has shown Pim-1 to be important in prostatic carcinogenesis.
  • In order to further our understanding of its role in prostate cancer, we investigated Pim-1 expression in normal, premalignant, and malignant prostate tissue.
  • METHODS: Using immunohistochemistry, Pim-1 expression was analysed in prostate tissue from 120 radical prostatectomy specimens.
  • In each case, Pim-1 staining was evaluated in benign prostatic epithelium, high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), and prostatic adenocarcinoma.
  • RESULTS: Pim-1 immunoreactivity was identified in 120 cases (100%) of adenocarcinoma, 120 cases (100%) of high grade PIN, and 62 cases (52%) of benign glands.
  • The number of cells staining in benign epithelium (mean 34%) was much lower than that in high grade PIN (mean 80%; p<0.0001) or adenocarcinoma (mean, 84%; p<0.0001).
  • There was no significant difference between high grade PIN and adenocarcinoma in the percentage of cells staining positively for Pim-1 (p = 0.34).
  • The staining intensity for Pim-1 was significantly lower in benign prostatic epithelium than in PIN and adenocarcinoma (p<0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Pim-1 expression is elevated in PIN and prostatic adenocarcinoma compared with benign prostatic epithelium.
  • This finding suggests that upregulation of Pim-1 may play a role in prostatic neoplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / chemistry. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Prostatic Neoplasms / chemistry. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-pim-1 / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Analysis of Variance. Disease Progression. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prostatectomy. Prostatic Hyperplasia / metabolism. Prostatic Hyperplasia / surgery. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / chemistry. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / surgery. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16505280.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-pim-1
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1860332
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48. Ghadjar P, Keller T, Rentsch CA, Isaak B, Behrensmeier F, Stroux A, Thalmann GN, Aebersold DM: Toxicity and early treatment outcomes in low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer managed by high-dose-rate brachytherapy as a monotherapy. Brachytherapy; 2009 Jan-Mar;8(1):45-51
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  • [Title] Toxicity and early treatment outcomes in low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer managed by high-dose-rate brachytherapy as a monotherapy.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between October 2003 and June 2006, 36 patients with low (28) and intermediate (8) risk prostate cancer (PCA) were treated by HDR-B monotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Brachytherapy / adverse effects. Iridium Radioisotopes / adverse effects. Prostatic Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Urethra / radiation effects

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  • (PMID = 19038584.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-4721
  • [Journal-full-title] Brachytherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brachytherapy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iridium Radioisotopes
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49. Ogawa K, Nakamura K, Onishi H, Koizumi M, Sasaki T, Araya M, Miyabe Y, Otani Y, Teshima T, Japanese Patterns of Care Study Working Subgroup of Prostate Cancer: Influence of age on the pattern and outcome of external beam radiotherapy for clinically localized prostate cancer. Anticancer Res; 2006 Mar-Apr;26(2B):1319-25
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  • [Title] Influence of age on the pattern and outcome of external beam radiotherapy for clinically localized prostate cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The influence of age on the patterns and outcomes of external beam radiotherapy for clinically localized prostate cancer patients was examined.
  • CONCLUSION: Age did not influence the disease characteristics, patterns of external beam radiotherapy, survival and late toxicities for clinically localized prostate cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Radiotherapy, Conformal / adverse effects. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16619540.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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50. Patel AR, Jones JS, Zhou M, Schoenfield L, Magi-Galluzzi C: Parasagittal biopsies are more important as part of an initial biopsy strategy than as part of a repeat biopsy strategy: observations from a unique population. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis; 2007;10(4):352-5
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  • Comparing the yield of parasagittal biopsies during initial saturation biopsy to the yield during repeat saturation biopsy for detection of prostate cancer.
  • Office-based saturation biopsy (24 cores) with periprostatic lidocaine block was performed in 139 consecutive men who had never previously undergone prostate biopsy.
  • Indication for biopsy was elevated prostate-specific antigen >2.5 ng/dl.
  • Subanalysis of patients from this unique study was performed to compare the location of saturation biopsy cancer detection in these patients to a cohort of 100 patients who had previously undergone biopsy with nonmalignant findings.
  • In the initial biopsy group, cancer was detected in 62/139 patients (44.6%).
  • Breakdown of cancer location demonstrated unique parasagittal cancers in 9/62 patients (14.5%).
  • Laterally base cancer was found exclusively in 22/62 patients (35.5%).
  • For the repeat biopsy population, cancer was found in 25 patients (25%); no patients (0%) had exclusive parasagittal cancer.
  • The exclusive parasagittal cancer detection rate decreases significantly in the repeat biopsy population when using the same biopsy method.
  • Our findings support including traditional template parasagittal sampling of the prostate on first-time biopsy in addition to lateral cores typical of extended field biopsies for a total of 10-12 cores.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Prostate / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Cohort Studies. Early Diagnosis. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17420763.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5608
  • [Journal-full-title] Prostate cancer and prostatic diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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51. Weissfeld JL, Schoen RE, Pinsky PF, Bresalier RS, Church T, Yurgalevitch S, Austin JH, Prorok PC, Gohagan JK, PLCO Project Team: Flexible sigmoidoscopy in the PLCO cancer screening trial: results from the baseline screening examination of a randomized trial. J Natl Cancer Inst; 2005 Jul 6;97(13):989-97
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  • [Title] Flexible sigmoidoscopy in the PLCO cancer screening trial: results from the baseline screening examination of a randomized trial.
  • BACKGROUND: The Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) cancer screening trial is a randomized clinical trial to test the effectiveness of cancer screening, including the effect of flexible sigmoidoscopy screening on colorectal cancer mortality.
  • The yields per 1000 screened, depending on 5-year age group, were as follows: for colorectal cancer, 1.1-2.5 in women and 2.4-5.6 in men; for advanced adenoma, 18.0-30.4 in women and 36.1-49.1 in men; and for colorectal cancer or any adenoma, 50.6-79.6 in women and 101.9-128.6 in men.
  • Approximately 77% (130/169) of the colorectal adenocarcinoma patients were stage I or II at diagnosis.
  • Diagnostic follow-up varied according to polyp size, yet cancer or adenoma detection rates met expectations.
  • [MeSH-major] Colorectal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Colorectal Neoplasms / mortality. Mass Screening / methods. Sigmoidoscopy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / mortality. Age Distribution. Aged. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / mortality. Colonic Polyps / diagnosis. Colonic Polyps / mortality. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Sex Distribution. Surveys and Questionnaires. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 15998952.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2105
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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52. Destombe C, Botton E, Le Gal G, Roudaut A, Jousse-Joulin S, Devauchelle-Pensec V, Saraux A: Investigations for bone metastasis from an unknown primary. Joint Bone Spine; 2007 Jan;74(1):85-9
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  • Using the final diagnosis as the reference standard, we evaluated the diagnostic usefulness of each investigation.
  • The primary was located in the lung in 37 patients, prostate in 26, breast or female genital tract in 24, urinary system in 11, gastrointestinal tract in 11, head and neck in 6, and other organs in 4.
  • The histological biopsy findings indicated adenocarcinoma in 58 cases, epidermoid carcinoma in 28 cases, undifferentiated carcinoma in 2 cases, and other histological patterns in 9 cases.
  • Tumor marker assays were of limited value for determining the site of the primary, with the exception of prostate-specific antigen.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor. Biopsy. Bone and Bones / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Cohort Studies. Diagnostic Imaging. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Urogenital Neoplasms / diagnosis. Urogenital Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Joint Bone Spine. 2008 Jan;75(1):100; author reply 100-1 [18083617.001]
  • (PMID = 17218141.001).
  • [ISSN] 1778-7254
  • [Journal-full-title] Joint, bone, spine : revue du rhumatisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Joint Bone Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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53. Koutrouvelis PG, Theodorescu D, Katz S, Lailas N, Hendricks F: Brachytherapy of prostate cancer after colectomy for colorectal cancer: pilot experience. J Urol; 2005 Jan;173(1):82-5; discussion 85-6
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  • [Title] Brachytherapy of prostate cancer after colectomy for colorectal cancer: pilot experience.
  • PURPOSE: We present a method of brachytherapy for prostate cancer using a 3-dimensional stereotactic system and computerized tomography guidance in patients without a rectum due to previous treatment for colorectal cancer.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: From June 1994 to November 2003 a cohort of 800 patients were treated with brachytherapy for prostate cancer.
  • Four patients had previously been treated for colorectal cancer with 4,500 cGy external beam radiation therapy, abdominoperineal resection and chemotherapy, while 1 underwent abdominoperineal resection alone for ulcerative colitis.
  • Patient followup included clinical examination and serum prostate specific antigen measurement.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Three-dimensional computerized tomography guided brachytherapy for prostate cancer in patients with a history of colorectal cancer who have no rectum is a feasible method of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Brachytherapy / methods. Colectomy. Colorectal Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasms, Second Primary / radiotherapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / radiotherapy


54. Roobol MJ, Roobol DW, Schröder FH: Is additional testing necessary in men with prostate-specific antigen levels of 1.0 ng/mL or less in a population-based screening setting? (ERSPC, section Rotterdam). Urology; 2005 Feb;65(2):343-6
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  • [Title] Is additional testing necessary in men with prostate-specific antigen levels of 1.0 ng/mL or less in a population-based screening setting? (ERSPC, section Rotterdam).
  • OBJECTIVES: Currently, several prostate cancer rescreening intervals are in use in different countries worldwide, varying from 1 to 4 years.
  • Recently, it has been proposed to determine the rescreening interval relative to the initial prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level and possibly to extend the rescreening interval up to 5 years.
  • Of these men, 13 (0.98%) had a PSA level of 3.0 ng/mL or greater, and three cancers were detected (cancer detection rate 0.23%).
  • At the third screening visit, 1017 men (76.8%) attended, 34 men (3.3%) had a PSA level of 3.0 ng/mL or greater, and five cancers were detected (cancer detection rate 0.49%).
  • The 2344 subsequent PSA determinations in an 8-year period after the initial screening resulted in eight cancers detected, for an overall cancer detection rate of 0.47%.
  • Through linkage of all men with the cancer registry, no additional cancers were found.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A strategy of PSA screening every 8 years for men with a PSA level of 1.0 ng/mL or less will lead to a considerable decrease in the number of screening visits (with the associated costs and stress), with a minimal risk of missing aggressive cancer at a curable stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Early Diagnosis. Mass Screening / methods. Prostatic Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Cohort Studies. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / blood. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Time Factors. Unnecessary Procedures

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  • (PMID = 15708050.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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55. Fritzsche FR, Stephan C, Gerhardt J, Lein M, Hofmann I, Jung K, Dietel M, Kristiansen G: Diagnostic and prognostic value of T-cell receptor gamma alternative reading frame protein (TARP) expression in prostate cancer. Histol Histopathol; 2010 06;25(6):733-9
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  • [Title] Diagnostic and prognostic value of T-cell receptor gamma alternative reading frame protein (TARP) expression in prostate cancer.
  • T-cell receptor gamma chain alternative reading frame protein (TARP) has recently been proposed as being up-regulated in prostate cancer (PCA).
  • Additionally, TARP has been proposed as a potential therapeutic target for cancer therapy.
  • We analysed the protein expression of TARP in a large well characterised prostate cancer cohort to assess its diagnostic and prognostic value.
  • Methodologically, we constructed a tissue microarray comprising more than 600 PCA cases including matching benign prostate tissue.
  • Our results show that TARP is significantly over-expressed in the vast majority (approximately 85%) of PCA in comparison to non neoplastic prostate tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Blotting, Western. Cohort Studies. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood

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  • (PMID = 20376779.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-5848
  • [Journal-full-title] Histology and histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histol. Histopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / TARP; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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56. Xie W, Nakabayashi M, Regan MM, Oh WK: Higher prostate-specific antigen levels predict improved survival in patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer who have skeletal metastases and normal serum alkaline phosphatase. Cancer; 2007 Dec 15;110(12):2709-15
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  • [Title] Higher prostate-specific antigen levels predict improved survival in patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer who have skeletal metastases and normal serum alkaline phosphatase.
  • BACKGROUND: Higher prostate-specific antigen (PSA) and alkaline phosphatase (ALK-P) levels predicted worse survival in men with metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / blood. Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Alkaline Phosphatase / blood. Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / blood


57. Mizukami H, Yoshizawa Y, Sasaya S, Nemoto H, Maezawa K, Sanada Y: [A case of advanced colon cancer invading the rectum effectively treated with chemoradiation therapy before surgery]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2007 Jun;34(6):953-6
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  • [Title] [A case of advanced colon cancer invading the rectum effectively treated with chemoradiation therapy before surgery].
  • He was diagnosed as advanced sigmoid colon cancer which invaded the rectal colon (Ra) and prostate (SI, N 0, P 0, H 0, M (-), cStage IIIa).
  • Postoperative histopathological examination of the resected sigmoid colon and rectum revealed no remnant cancer tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Sigmoid Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 17565265.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; Folfox protocol
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58. Singh SV, Powolny AA, Stan SD, Xiao D, Arlotti JA, Warin R, Hahm ER, Marynowski SW, Bommareddy A, Potter DM, Dhir R: Garlic constituent diallyl trisulfide prevents development of poorly differentiated prostate cancer and pulmonary metastasis multiplicity in TRAMP mice. Cancer Res; 2008 Nov 15;68(22):9503-11
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  • [Title] Garlic constituent diallyl trisulfide prevents development of poorly differentiated prostate cancer and pulmonary metastasis multiplicity in TRAMP mice.
  • Identification of agents that are nontoxic but can delay onset and/or progression of prostate cancer, which is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among men in the United States, is highly desirable.
  • We now show that p.o. gavage of garlic constituent diallyl trisulfide (DATS; 1 and 2 mg/day, thrice/week for 13 weeks beginning at age 8 weeks) significantly inhibits progression to poorly differentiated prostate carcinoma and pulmonary metastasis multiplicity in transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice without any side effects.
  • There was a trend of a decrease in average wet weights of the urogenital tract and prostate gland in 1 and 2 mg DATS-treated mice compared with controls ( approximately 25-46% decrease in DATS-treated mice compared with controls).
  • The incidence and the area of the dorsolateral prostate occupied by the poorly differentiated carcinoma were significantly lower in both 1 and 2 mg DATS-treated mice compared with control mice.
  • The dorsolateral prostate from DATS-treated TRAMP mice exhibited decreased cellular proliferation in association with induction of cyclinB1 and securin protein levels, and suppression of the expression of neuroendocrine marker synaptophysin.

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  • (PMID = 19010926.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA113363-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA113363; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA113363; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA113363-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Allyl Compounds; 0 / Antigens, Viral, Tumor; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Sulfides; 0 / Synaptophysin; 0ZO1U5A3XX / diallyl trisulfide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS70762; NLM/ PMC2597366
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59. Tan WW: Novel agents and targets in managing patients with metastatic prostate cancer. Cancer Control; 2006 Jul;13(3):194-8
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  • [Title] Novel agents and targets in managing patients with metastatic prostate cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Docetaxel has recently been found to improve survival in patients with metastatic androgen-independent prostate cancer (AIPC).
  • METHODS: Clinically relevant articles focusing on chemotherapy drugs for metastatic prostate cancer and their mechanism of action and efficacy were reviewed from January 2004 through April 2006.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Bone Neoplasms / therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy


60. Attard G, Reid AH, Yap TA, Raynaud F, Dowsett M, Settatree S, Barrett M, Parker C, Martins V, Folkerd E, Clark J, Cooper CS, Kaye SB, Dearnaley D, Lee G, de Bono JS: Phase I clinical trial of a selective inhibitor of CYP17, abiraterone acetate, confirms that castration-resistant prostate cancer commonly remains hormone driven. J Clin Oncol; 2008 Oct 01;26(28):4563-71
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  • [Title] Phase I clinical trial of a selective inhibitor of CYP17, abiraterone acetate, confirms that castration-resistant prostate cancer commonly remains hormone driven.
  • PURPOSE: Studies indicate that castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) remains driven by ligand-dependent androgen receptor (AR) signaling.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Chemotherapy-naïve men (n = 21) who had prostate cancer that was resistant to multiple hormonal therapies were treated in this phase I study of once-daily, continuous abiraterone acetate, which escalated through five doses (250 to 2,000 mg) in three-patient cohorts.
  • Declines in prostate-specific antigen >or= 30%, 50%, and 90% were observed in 14 (66%), 12 (57%), and 6 (29%) patients, respectively, and lasted between 69 to >or= 578 days.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Androstenols / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy


61. Kanno H, Umemoto S, Izumi K, Hasumi H, Osada Y, Ohta J, Mikata K, Tuchiya F: [Prostate cancer development after transurethral resection of the prostate--histopathological studies of radical prostatectomy specimens]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2006 May;97(4):649-59
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  • [Title] [Prostate cancer development after transurethral resection of the prostate--histopathological studies of radical prostatectomy specimens].
  • PURPOSE: We investigated prostate cancer (ca.) development after transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP).
  • In 13 (3.2%) of 407 Non-Stage A pts. (who had no ca. initially), prostate ca. developed after 1 to 7 yrs.
  • Stage A pts. received regular needle biopsy of prostate (Pbx).
  • Long term (5 or 10 years) MAB therapy changed moderately-differentiated adenocarcinoma (AC) to poorly-differentiated AC in 2 pts. during follow-up.
  • Pbx before TURP was done to reveal that there was no cancer in 11 pts.
  • PSA (8.6 +/- 4.0 ng/ml) decreased after TURP but was kept in high level (4.8 +/- 2.2 ng/ml) after 1 year and increased (8.7 +/- 4.5) when cancer was diagnosed in all 13 pts.
  • Interval between TURP and diagnosis was short in pts. who had cancer of high Gleason Score (GS) or large prostate.
  • CONCLUSIONS: As significant cancer developed in 22% of Stage A pts. (1.2% of TURP) in long term follow-up, regular Pbx (to get TZ tissue) is mandatory regardless of PSA value or DRE.
  • Aggressive cancer developed in 3.2% of Non-Stage A pts. (3.0% of TURP). Pts. with high PSA or abnormal DRE after TURP must receive needle biopsy actively.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Prostate / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Transurethral Resection of Prostate
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Postoperative Period. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostatectomy. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16768146.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5287
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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62. Gong Z, Neuhouser ML, Goodman PJ, Albanes D, Chi C, Hsing AW, Lippman SM, Platz EA, Pollak MN, Thompson IM, Kristal AR: Obesity, diabetes, and risk of prostate cancer: results from the prostate cancer prevention trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2006 Oct;15(10):1977-83
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  • [Title] Obesity, diabetes, and risk of prostate cancer: results from the prostate cancer prevention trial.
  • Studies on the relationship between obesity and prostate cancer incidence are inconsistent.
  • In part, this inconsistency may be due to a differential effect of obesity on low-grade and high-grade cancer or confounding of the association of obesity with prostate cancer risk by diabetes.
  • We investigated the associations of obesity and diabetes with low-grade and high-grade prostate cancer risk.
  • Data were from 10,258 participants (1,936 prostate cancers) in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial who all had cancer presence or absence determined by prostate biopsy.
  • Multiple logistic regression was used to model the risk of total prostate cancer, and polytomous logistic regression was used to model the risk of low-grade and high-grade prostate cancer.
  • Compared with men with body mass index < 25, obese men (body mass index > or =30) had an 18% [odds ratio (OR), 0.82; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.69-0.98] decreased risk of low-grade prostate cancer (Gleason <7) and a 29% (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.01-1.67) increased risk of high-grade prostate cancer (Gleason > or =7) or, alternatively, a 78% (OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.10-2.87) increased risk defining high-grade cancer as Gleason sum 8 to 10.
  • Diabetes was associated with a 47% (OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.34-0.83) reduced risk of low-grade prostate cancer and a 28% (OR, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.55-0.94) reduced risk of high-grade prostate cancer.
  • Associations of obesity or diabetes with cancer risk were not substantially changed by mutually statistical controlling for each other.
  • Obesity increases the risk of high-grade but decreases the risk of low-grade prostate cancer, and this relationship is independent of the lower risk for prostate cancer among men with diabetes.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma / prevention & control. Diabetes Mellitus / epidemiology. Obesity / epidemiology. Prostatic Neoplasms / epidemiology. Prostatic Neoplasms / prevention & control

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  • [CommentIn] Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007 Jan;16(1):182-3 [17220351.001]
  • (PMID = 17035408.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1 P01 CA108964-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5 R01 CA63164; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5 U10 CA37429
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 57GNO57U7G / Finasteride
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63. Yeh IT, Reddick RL, Kumar AP: Malignancy arising in seminal vesicles in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) model. Prostate; 2009 May 15;69(7):755-60
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  • [Title] Malignancy arising in seminal vesicles in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) model.
  • BACKGROUND: Transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate (TRAMP) mice, derived by prostate specific expression of SV40 large T antigen using the rat probasin promoter, all develop prostate tumors akin to human prostate cancers.
  • In some cases, the stromal cells become large mass lesions that overgrow the prostate.
  • (1) A definite adenocarcinoma pattern metastatic from the prostate;.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Seminal Vesicles / pathology

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  • [Copyright] 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19170049.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0045
  • [Journal-full-title] The Prostate
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostate
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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64. Zhao Z, Liu J, Li S, Shen W: Prostate stem cell antigen mRNA expression in preoperatively negative biopsy specimens predicts subsequent cancer after transurethral resection of the prostate for benign prostatic hyperplasia. Prostate; 2009 Sep 1;69(12):1292-302
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  • [Title] Prostate stem cell antigen mRNA expression in preoperatively negative biopsy specimens predicts subsequent cancer after transurethral resection of the prostate for benign prostatic hyperplasia.
  • BACKGROUND: Recent data showed that prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) mRNA expression in transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP)-resected tissues predicted the subsequent prostate cancer after TURP in benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) patients with both PSA < 4.0 ng/ml and normal DRE findings.
  • This study was to determine whether PSCA mRNA positivity in preoperatively negative prostatic biopsy samples from BPH men with PSA > 4.0 ng/ml and/or suspicious DRE findings had predictive performance following TURP.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: PSCA in situ hybridization was performed on negative prostatic biopsies taken before TURP from 166 enrolled symptomatic BPH patients, who were continuously followed for 5 years postoperatively.
  • Predictive performance of PSCA mRNA for subsequent cancer onset was evaluated by univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards models with bootstrapping and concordance indices.
  • A final multivariate Cox proportional hazards model demonstrated that only PSCA mRNA expression in negative prostatic biopsies was predictive of the subsequent cancer development after TURP (hazard ratio = 3.49; 95% CI: 2.02-4.75; P < 0.001), with the concordance index of 0.893.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This prospective study identifies PSCA mRNA in preoperatively negative prostatic biopsies as a significant predictor of subsequent cancer after TURP.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Gene Expression. Membrane Glycoproteins / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Prostatic Hyperplasia / genetics. Prostatic Neoplasms / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Transurethral Resection of Prostate
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antigens, Neoplasm. Biopsy. Cell Count. Disease Progression. Follow-Up Studies. GPI-Linked Proteins. Humans. In Situ Hybridization. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prospective Studies. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood


65. Jantscheff P, Esser N, Graeser R, Ziroli V, Kluth J, Unger C, Massing U: Liposomal gemcitabine (GemLip)-efficient drug against hormone-refractory Du145 and PC-3 prostate cancer xenografts. Prostate; 2009 Aug 1;69(11):1151-63
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  • [Title] Liposomal gemcitabine (GemLip)-efficient drug against hormone-refractory Du145 and PC-3 prostate cancer xenografts.
  • BACKGROUND: Gemcitabine (Gemc) is an efficient chemotherapeutic drug in various cancer types (e.g., pancreas) but has only limited effects on hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPCa).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Transplantation, Heterologous

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  • (PMID = 19399788.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0045
  • [Journal-full-title] The Prostate
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostate
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Liposomes; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; EC 1.13.12.- / Luciferases
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66. Krupka TM, Dremann D, Exner AA: Time and dose dependence of pluronic bioactivity in hyperthermia-induced tumor cell death. Exp Biol Med (Maywood); 2009 Jan;234(1):95-104
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  • Pluronic block copolymers have been shown to sensitize cancer cells resulting in an increased activity of antineoplastic agents.
  • In the current study we examined a new application of Pluronic bioactivity in potentiating hyperthermia-induced cancer cell injury.
  • DHD/K12/TRb rat adenocarcinoma cells were exposed to low-grade hyperthermia at 43 degrees C with or without Pluronic P85 or Pluronic L61.
  • Based on these results, we conclude that Pluronic is effective in improving hyperthermic cancer treatment in vitro by potentiating heat-induced cytotoxicity in a concentration and time dependent manner.

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  • (PMID = 18997100.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-3702
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental biology and medicine (Maywood, N.J.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Biol. Med. (Maywood)
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA136857; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA136857-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA1118399
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / pluronic L61; 106392-12-5 / Poloxamer; 8L70Q75FXE / Adenosine Triphosphate; 9003-11-6 / Poloxalene
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS359379; NLM/ PMC3293626
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67. Schmid DT, John H, Zweifel R, Cservenyak T, Westera G, Goerres GW, von Schulthess GK, Hany TF: Fluorocholine PET/CT in patients with prostate cancer: initial experience. Radiology; 2005 May;235(2):623-8
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  • [Title] Fluorocholine PET/CT in patients with prostate cancer: initial experience.
  • Patients with newly diagnosed prostate cancer and patients suspected of having recurrent prostate cancer were prospectively evaluated with fluorine 18 fluorocholine (FCH) combined in-line positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT).
  • In nine patients evaluated at initial staging, histologic findings of the resected prostate were compared to FCH uptake.
  • Differentiation of benign hyperplasia from cancerous prostate lesions was not possible with FCH PET/CT.
  • However, in patients with recurrent prostate cancer, FCH PET/CT is a promising imaging modality for detecting local recurrence and lymph node metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Fluorine Radioisotopes. Image Enhancement. Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Positron-Emission Tomography. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Quaternary Ammonium Compounds. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pelvic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pelvic Neoplasms / pathology. Pelvic Neoplasms / secondary. Prostate / pathology. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tissue Distribution

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  • [Copyright] (c) RSNA, 2005.
  • (PMID = 15858102.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8419
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fluorine Radioisotopes; 0 / Quaternary Ammonium Compounds; 0 / fluoromethyl dimethyl-2-hydroxyethylammonium
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68. Canene-Adams K, Lindshield BL, Wang S, Jeffery EH, Clinton SK, Erdman JW Jr: Combinations of tomato and broccoli enhance antitumor activity in dunning r3327-h prostate adenocarcinomas. Cancer Res; 2007 Jan 15;67(2):836-43
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  • [Title] Combinations of tomato and broccoli enhance antitumor activity in dunning r3327-h prostate adenocarcinomas.
  • The consumption of diets containing 5 to 10 servings of fruits and vegetables daily is the foundation of public health recommendations for cancer prevention, yet this concept has not been tested in experimental models of prostate cancer.
  • We evaluated combinations of tomato and broccoli in the Dunning R3327-H prostate adenocarcinoma model.
  • Castration reduced prostate weights, tumor areas, and tumor weight (62%, P<0.001), whereas finasteride reduced prostate weights (P<0.0001), but had no effect on tumor area or weight.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / prevention & control. Brassica. Diet. Lycopersicon esculentum. Prostatic Neoplasms / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 17213256.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 36-88-4 / Carotenoids; SB0N2N0WV6 / lycopene
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69. Rozková D, Tiserová H, Fucíková J, Last'ovicka J, Podrazil M, Ulcová H, Budínský V, Prausová J, Linke Z, Minárik I, Sedivá A, Spísek R, Bartůnková J: FOCUS on FOCIS: combined chemo-immunotherapy for the treatment of hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer. Clin Immunol; 2009 Apr;131(1):1-10
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  • [Title] FOCUS on FOCIS: combined chemo-immunotherapy for the treatment of hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer.
  • Immunotherapy has emerged as another treatment modality in cancer.
  • The goal of immunotherapy in advanced cancer patients does not have to be the complete eradication of tumor cells but rather the restoration of a dynamic balance between tumor cells and the immune response.
  • We review experimental basis and key concepts of combined chemo-immunotherapy and document its principles in the case report of patient with hormone refractory metastatic prostate cancer with sinister prognosis.
  • More than four hundred prostate cancer patients have been treated with DC-based immunotherapy and tumor-specific immune responses have been reported in two-thirds of them.
  • Prostate cancer patients have elevated numbers of circulating and tumor infiltrating Tregs and there is evidence that Tregs increase tumor growth in vivo.
  • After obtaining IRB approval, we started regular vaccinations with dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with killed prostate cancer cells.
  • DC-based vaccination induced prostate cancer cell-specific immune response.
  • Combined chemo-immunotherapy consisting of alternate courses of chemotherapy and vaccination with mature DCs pulsed with LNCap prostate cancer cell line led to the marked improvement in the clinical and laboratory presentation and to the decrease of PSA levels by more than 90%.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Immunotherapy / methods. Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy


70. Ozawa MG, Yao VJ, Chanthery YH, Troncoso P, Uemura A, Varner AS, Kasman IM, Pasqualini R, Arap W, McDonald DM: Angiogenesis with pericyte abnormalities in a transgenic model of prostate carcinoma. Cancer; 2005 Nov 15;104(10):2104-15
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  • [Title] Angiogenesis with pericyte abnormalities in a transgenic model of prostate carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Previous studies of the TRansgenic Adenocarcinoma of the Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) model vasculature suggest that, as tumors develop, vessels invade the glandular epithelium.
  • METHODS: Eighty-micron cryostat sections of normal prostate and three histopathologic stages of TRAMP tumor sections, classified by epithelial cell E-cadherin immunoreactivity, were immunostained with vascular endothelial cell and pericyte receptor antibodies and evaluated by confocal microscopy.
  • RESULTS: In the normal mouse prostate, capillaries were most abundant in the fibromuscular tunica between the epithelium and smooth muscle of the ductules.
  • In the prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) stage, vessels accompanied epithelial cell protrusions into the ductule lumen but remained in the connective tissue at the basal side of the epithelium.
  • Angiogenesis and loss of vascular hierarchy were also found in human prostate carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Vascular abnormalities, which begin at the PIN stage and intensify in well differentiated and poorly differentiated tumors, may be useful readouts for early detection and treatment assessment in prostate carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / blood supply. Neovascularization, Pathologic. Pericytes / pathology. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / blood supply. Prostatic Neoplasms / blood supply

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 American Cancer Society
  • (PMID = 16208706.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / P01 HL024136; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL-59157; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL-24136; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA90270
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cadherins
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71. Bittner N, Merrick GS, Galbreath RW, Butler WM, Wallner KE, Allen ZA, Brammer SG, Moyad M: Primary causes of death after permanent prostate brachytherapy. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 Oct 1;72(2):433-40
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  • [Title] Primary causes of death after permanent prostate brachytherapy.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the primary causes of death in low-risk (low-risk), intermediate-risk (intermediate-risk), and high-risk (high-risk) patients undergoing permanent prostate brachytherapy with or without supplemental therapies.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: From April 1995 through November 2004, a total of 1,354 consecutive patients underwent prostate brachytherapy.
  • The death rate from second malignancies (nonprostate cancer) was 7.2% and was not substantially different when stratified by risk group.
  • In multivariate analysis, death from prostate cancer was best predicted by Gleason score and risk group, whereas death from cardiovascular disease, nonprostate cancer, and all other causes were most closely related to patient age and tobacco use.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although cardiovascular mortality was the predominant cause of death, prostate cancer was responsible for approximately 10% of all deaths.
  • Although high-risk patients were most likely to die of prostate cancer, the divergence in overall survival between high-risk and lower-risk patients primarily resulted from an excess of cardiovascular deaths.
  • Changes in lifestyle to improve cardiovascular health may improve overall survival in patients with clinically localized prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Brachytherapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / mortality. Prostatic Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Age Factors. Aged. Analysis of Variance. Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Cardiovascular Diseases / mortality. Cause of Death. Comorbidity. Disease-Free Survival. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Neoplasms, Second Primary / mortality. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Risk. Smoking / mortality

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  • (PMID = 18448268.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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72. Alvarez-Múgica M, Fernández Gómez JM, Escaf Barmadah S, Jalón Monzón A, González Alvarez RC, Regadera Sejas FJ: [Changes in the presentation pattern of the prostate cancer in Oviedo in the last 10 years: diagnostic and treatment (part II)]. Actas Urol Esp; 2006 Nov-Dec;30(10):980-6
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  • [Title] [Changes in the presentation pattern of the prostate cancer in Oviedo in the last 10 years: diagnostic and treatment (part II)].
  • [Transliterated title] Cambio en el patrón de presentación del cáncer de próstata en Oviedo en los últimos 10 aõs: diagnóstico y tratamiento (parte II).
  • OBJECTIVES: To describe and compare the diagnostic and treatment factors of prostate adenocarcinomas diagnosed in our department in the years 1995 and 2004.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The evolution held in treatment therapies for prostate adenocarcinomas, made this disease in terms of treatment a multidisciplinary disease obtaining better results.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17253065.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-4806
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas urologicas españolas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Urol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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73. Hamstra DA, Michalski JM, Roach M, Sandler HM: Do not count out external-beam radiation therapy for high-risk prostate cancer. J Clin Oncol; 2010 Oct 1;28(28):e518-9; author reply e521-e522
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  • [Title] Do not count out external-beam radiation therapy for high-risk prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • [CommentOn] J Clin Oncol. 2010 Mar 20;28(9):1508-13 [20159826.001]
  • (PMID = 20660824.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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74. Delouya G, Carrier JF, Béliveau-Nadeau D, Donath D, Taussky D: Migration of intraprostatic fiducial markers and its influence on the matching quality in external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer. Radiother Oncol; 2010 Jul;96(1):43-7
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  • [Title] Migration of intraprostatic fiducial markers and its influence on the matching quality in external beam radiation therapy for prostate cancer.
  • PURPOSE: To assess the influence of fiducial marker (FM) migration on the matching quality in external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) for prostate cancer.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The position of FMs were identified using on-board kV imaging (OBI) and their 3-D position established using an in-house reconstruction algorithm for 31 patients with prostate adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Foreign-Body Migration / etiology. Gold Radioisotopes / adverse effects. Prostatic Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, High-Energy / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20378191.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0887
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gold Radioisotopes
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75. Wohlmuth H, Deseo MA, Brushett DJ, Thompson DR, Macfarlane G, Stevenson LM, Leach DN: Diarylheptanoid from Pleuranthodium racemigerum with in vitro prostaglandin E(2) inhibitory and cytotoxic activity. J Nat Prod; 2010 Apr 23;73(4):743-6
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  • The compound also demonstrated cytotoxic activity against the P388D1 murine lymphoblast cell line (IC(50) = 117.0 microM) and four human cell lines: Caco-2 colonic adenocarcinoma (IC(50) = 44.8 microM), PC3 prostate adenocarcinoma (IC(50) = 23.6 microM), HepG2 hepatocyte carcinoma (IC(50) = 40.6 microM), and MCF7 mammary adenocarcinoma (IC(50) = 56.9 microM).

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  • (PMID = 20297825.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-6025
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of natural products
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nat. Prod.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diarylheptanoids; K7Q1JQR04M / Dinoprostone
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76. Touijer K, Kuroiwa K, Eastham JA, Vickers A, Reuter VE, Scardino PT, Guillonneau B: Risk-adjusted analysis of positive surgical margins following laparoscopic and retropubic radical prostatectomy. Eur Urol; 2007 Oct;52(4):1090-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: Between 1 January 2003 and 30 June 2005, 1177 consecutive men with clinically localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate underwent radical prostatectomy at the same institution: 485 laparoscopically and 692 through a retropubic approach.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In our institution, laparoscopic and retropubic radical prostatectomy provide comparable PSM rates for patients with clinically localized prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Laparoscopy / methods. Prostatectomy / methods. Prostatic Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17188801.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-2838
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA92629
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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77. Pearson HB, Phesse TJ, Clarke AR: K-ras and Wnt signaling synergize to accelerate prostate tumorigenesis in the mouse. Cancer Res; 2009 Jan 01;69(1):94-101
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  • [Title] K-ras and Wnt signaling synergize to accelerate prostate tumorigenesis in the mouse.
  • Aberrant Ras and Wnt signaling are emerging as key events in the multistep nature of prostate tumorigenesis and progression.
  • Here, we report the generation of a compound model of prostate cancer to define the synergism of activated K-ras (K-ras(+/V12)) and dominant stabilized beta-catenin (Catnb(+/lox(ex3))) in the murine prostate.
  • Concomitant with elevated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, PBCre(+)K-ras(+/V12) mice developed AH at 100 days (100% incidence) and low-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia and adenocarcinoma (60% and 7% incidence) by 500 days.
  • PBCre(+)Catnb(+/lox(ex3)) mice showed reduced longevity (average 428 days) and were predisposed to PIN-like keratinized squamous metaplasia at 100 days (100% incidence) and adenocarcinoma (100% incidence) at end-point.
  • Notably, expression of the basal cell marker p63 negatively correlated with tumor grade, resembling human prostate adenocarcinoma.
  • Taken together, our data show that combinatorial oncogenic mutations of K-ras and beta-catenin drive rapid progression of prostate tumorigenesis to invasive carcinoma, characterized by the synergistic elevation of androgen receptor, cyclooxygenase-2, and c-Myc.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Wnt Proteins / metabolism. ras Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Animals. Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism. Female. Genes, ras. Inbreeding. MAP Kinase Signaling System. Male. Metaplasia. Mice. Mice, Transgenic. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc / metabolism. Receptors, Androgen / metabolism. Signal Transduction. Urogenital System / pathology. beta Catenin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19117991.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0301154
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CTNNB1 protein, mouse; 0 / Myc protein, mouse; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
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78. Weizer AZ, Shah RB, Lee CT, Gilbert SM, Daignault S, Montie JE, Wood DP Jr: Evaluation of the prostate peripheral zone/capsule in patients undergoing radical cystoprostatectomy: defining risk with prostate capsule sparing cystectomy. Urol Oncol; 2007 Nov-Dec;25(6):460-4
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  • [Title] Evaluation of the prostate peripheral zone/capsule in patients undergoing radical cystoprostatectomy: defining risk with prostate capsule sparing cystectomy.
  • OBJECTIVES: Prostate capsule sparing cystectomy has been performed in conjunction with orthotopic diversion to preserve sexual function and improve urinary control.
  • Because concerns remain regarding incomplete surgical resection, we evaluated the risk of urothelial and prostate cancer in a series of patients undergoing radical cystoprostatectomy.
  • METHODS: A total of 35 men undergoing radical cystoprostatectomy (August 2003-August 2005) had separate submission of the prostate peripheral zone/capsule from the prostate adenoma and bladder after surgery.
  • These specimens were evaluated for bladder and prostate cancer grade, stage, and largest diameter of prostate cancer.
  • Clinical variables were compared between patients with and without carcinoma involving the prostate using standard statistical software.
  • RESULTS: Of patients, 57% had cancer involving the prostate at radical cystoprostatectomy.
  • There were 9 patients (26%) who had urothelial carcinoma involving the prostate; only prostatic urethral biopsy identified these patients before radical cystoprostatectomy.
  • Prostate adenocarcinoma was evident in 16 of 35 (47%) patients, with a majority involving the prostate peripheral zone/capsule (43%).
  • There were 4 patients (11%) who had clinically significant prostate cancer (Gleason sum >6 or tumor volume >0.5 cm(3)).
  • Patients with prostate cancer were significantly older than patients without prostate cancer (P = 0.01).
  • CONCLUSIONS: No clinical variable can confidently predict patients with prostate cancer involving the prostate.
  • Because a majority of patients undergoing radical cystoprostatectomy have cancer involving their prostate, preoperative evaluation with prostatic urethral and prostate biopsy may be useful to guide patient selection for prostate capsule sparing cystectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystectomy / methods. Prostate / pathology. Prostatectomy / methods. Prostatic Neoplasms / surgery. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18047952.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-1439
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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79. Stathopoulos GP, Koutantos J, Vaslamatzis MM, Athanasiadis A, Papadopoulos G, Labrodimou G, Stathopoulos J, Rigatos S: Survival after cytotoxic chemotherapy in patients with advanced hormone-resistant prostate cancer: a phase II study. Oncol Rep; 2009 Aug;22(2):345-8
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  • [Title] Survival after cytotoxic chemotherapy in patients with advanced hormone-resistant prostate cancer: a phase II study.
  • In the past, it was believed that when advanced-stage prostate cancer became resistant to hormonal management, no chemotherapy should be administered, as survival was not prolonged.
  • Sixty-five patients with advanced prostate cancer were included.
  • The inclusion criteria involved histological confirmation of adenocarcinoma and resistance to hormonal therapy.
  • The hormone treatment preceded the cytotoxic administration and no amelioration in the patients nor prostate serum antigen (PSA) reduction was observed.
  • Patients with hormone-resistant advanced prostate cancer do have good prospects for receiving substantial benefit with the addition of chemotherapy, as observed in the present trial.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy


80. Hakkarainen T, Rajecki M, Sarparanta M, Tenhunen M, Airaksinen AJ, Desmond RA, Kairemo K, Hemminki A: Targeted radiotherapy for prostate cancer with an oncolytic adenovirus coding for human sodium iodide symporter. Clin Cancer Res; 2009 Sep 1;15(17):5396-403
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  • [Title] Targeted radiotherapy for prostate cancer with an oncolytic adenovirus coding for human sodium iodide symporter.
  • PURPOSE: Oncolytic adenoviruses are promising tools for cancer therapy.
  • RESULTS: Ad5/3-Delta24-hNIS replication effectively killed prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.
  • Also, the virus-mediated radioiodide uptake into prostate cancer cells in vitro and into tumors in vivo.
  • Furthermore, Ad5/3-Delta24-hNIS with radioiodide was significantly more effective than virus alone in mice with prostate cancer xenografts.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Lung Neoplasms / therapy. Oncolytic Virotherapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy. Symporters / genetics


81. Alberts SR, Novotny PJ, Sloan JA, Danella J, Bostwick DG, Sebo TJ, Blute ML, Fitch TR, Levitt R, Lieberman R, Loprinzi CL: Flutamide in men with prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia: a randomized, placebo-controlled chemoprevention trial. Am J Ther; 2006 Jul-Aug;13(4):291-7
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  • [Title] Flutamide in men with prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia: a randomized, placebo-controlled chemoprevention trial.
  • High-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) has been identified as a premalignant change in the prostate that indicates increased risk of the subsequent development of prostate adenocarcinoma.
  • We therefore conducted a chemoprevention trial assessing the efficacy of flutamide in reducing the rate of prostate adenocarcinoma development in men with HGPIN.
  • Men with biopsyproven HGPIN but no evidence of prostate adenocarcinoma were randomized in a double-blind manner to either flutamide 250 mg/d or a placebo.
  • At 1 year, 14% of men receiving flutamide and 10% of men receiving placebo had developed prostate adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Flutamide / therapeutic use. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 16858161.001).
  • [ISSN] 1075-2765
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-25224; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-35269; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-37404; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-37417; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-60276
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 76W6J0943E / Flutamide
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82. Huncharek M, Haddock KS, Reid R, Kupelnick B: Smoking as a risk factor for prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of 24 prospective cohort studies. Am J Public Health; 2010 Apr;100(4):693-701
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  • [Title] Smoking as a risk factor for prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of 24 prospective cohort studies.
  • OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the relationship between smoking and adenocarcinoma of the prostate.
  • METHODS: We pooled data from 24 cohort studies enrolling 21 579 prostate cancer case participants for a general variance-based meta-analysis.
  • RESULTS: In the pooled data, current smokers had no increased risk of incident prostate cancer (RR = 1.04; 95% CI = 0.87, 1.24), but in data stratified by amount smoked they had statistically significant elevated risk (cigarettes per day or years: RR = 1.22; 95% CI = 1.01, 1.46; pack years of smoking: RR = 1.11; 95% CI = 1.01, 1.22).
  • Current smokers had an increased risk of fatal prostate cancer (RR = 1.14; 95% CI = 1.06, 1.19).
  • The heaviest smokers had a 24% to 30% greater risk of death from prostate cancer than did nonsmokers.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Observational cohort studies show an association of smoking with prostate cancer incidence and mortality.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / etiology. Prostatic Neoplasms / etiology. Smoking / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 19608952.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-0048
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of public health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Public Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2836346
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83. Rosenberg JE, Weinberg VK, Kelly WK, Michaelson D, Hussain MH, Wilding G, Gross M, Hutcheon D, Small EJ: Activity of second-line chemotherapy in docetaxel-refractory hormone-refractory prostate cancer patients : randomized phase 2 study of ixabepilone or mitoxantrone and prednisone. Cancer; 2007 Aug 1;110(3):556-63
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  • [Title] Activity of second-line chemotherapy in docetaxel-refractory hormone-refractory prostate cancer patients : randomized phase 2 study of ixabepilone or mitoxantrone and prednisone.
  • BACKGROUND: This randomized, noncomparative, multicenter, clinical trial evaluated ixabepilone or mitoxantrone/prednisone (MP) as second-line chemotherapy for taxane-refractory, hormone-refractory, prostate cancer (HRPC).
  • Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) declines of >or=50% were observed in 17% of ixabepilone (95% CI, 7-32) and 20% of second-line MP patients (95% CI, 9-35).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Neoplasms, Hormone-Dependent / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cross-Over Studies. Epothilones / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mitoxantrone / administration & dosage. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Salvage Therapy. Survival Rate. Taxoids / therapeutic use. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 17577218.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Epothilones; 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen; K27005NP0A / ixabepilone; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone
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84. Vollmer RT: Predictive probability of serum prostate-specific antigen for prostate cancer: an approach using Bayes rule. Am J Clin Pathol; 2006 Mar;125(3):336-42
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  • [Title] Predictive probability of serum prostate-specific antigen for prostate cancer: an approach using Bayes rule.
  • This article introduces the use of Bayes probability rule to calculate age and serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-specific positive predictive values (PPVs) for prostate cancer.
  • The PPV is the conditional probability of having prostate cancer, given a value of PSA and a particular age group.
  • The formulation uses values of sensitivity obtained from previously reported studies of more than 2,700 men with prostate cancer, and it uses values of specificity obtained from previously reported studies of more than 99,000 men without prostate cancer.
  • The formulation also introduces the use of a population-based and age-specific probability of prostate cancer, and for this it relies on the National Cancer Institute-sponsored Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results data.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Bayes Theorem. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis


85. Song Y, Washington MK, Crawford HC: Loss of FOXA1/2 is essential for the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in pancreatic cancer. Cancer Res; 2010 Mar 1;70(5):2115-25
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  • [Title] Loss of FOXA1/2 is essential for the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in pancreatic cancer.
  • Here, we identified FOXA1 and FOXA2 as important antagonists of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) through their positive regulation of E-cadherin and maintenance of the epithelial phenotype.
  • In human PDA samples, FOXA1/2 are expressed in all epithelia from normal to well-differentiated cancer cells, but are lost in undifferentiated cancer cells.

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  • (PMID = 20160041.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA100126-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50CA095103; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA095103; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA100126; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100126; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100126-05
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cadherins; 0 / FOXA1 protein, human; 0 / FOXA2 protein, human; 0 / Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 3-alpha; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 135845-92-0 / Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 3-beta
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS170218; NLM/ PMC2831111
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86. Sciarra A, Cardi A, Dattilo C, Mariotti G, Di Monaco F, Di Silverio F: New perspective in the management of neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate adenocarcinoma. Int J Clin Pract; 2006 Apr;60(4):462-70
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  • [Title] New perspective in the management of neuroendocrine differentiation in prostate adenocarcinoma.
  • In this review, we will present some of the information that is known about neuroendocrine (NE) cells and differentiation in the prostate.
  • We will then speculate on the potential role that NE differentiation in prostate carcinoma may play and how this differentiation may be clinically analysed and treated.
  • The androgen-independent growth of prostate cancer can be caused by different mechanisms; one of these is receptor-specific paracrine or autocrine growth modulation of human prostatic cancer cells by neuropeptides secreted by NE cells.
  • Our results affirm that different methods of androgen deprivation can influence the serum chromogranin A (CgA) levels to different extents in prostate cancer.
  • In the light of other evidence that supports a significant relationship between serum CgA levels, tissue CgA expression and NE activity, we hypothesise that bicalutamide may reduce the risk of NE cell hyperactivation in prostate cancer.
  • It is important to determine whether increases in CgA levels and NE cell activation are associated with progression towards hormone-independent prostate cancer.
  • We recently proposed as therapy of NE activation in hormone-independent prostate cancer, a combination of oestrogens and somatostatin analogues.
  • This combination therapy also sustains the novel concept in cancer treatment in which therapies may target not only cancer cells but also its microenvironment in combination, which can confer protection from apoptosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16620361.001).
  • [ISSN] 1368-5031
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Anilides; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Tosyl Compounds; A0Z3NAU9DP / bicalutamide
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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87. Maingon P, Bolla M, Truc G, Bosset M, Peignaux K, Ammor A: [Conformal radiation therapy with or without intensity modulation in the treatment of localized prostate cancer]. Cancer Radiother; 2005 Nov;9(6-7):382-7
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  • [Title] [Conformal radiation therapy with or without intensity modulation in the treatment of localized prostate cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] La radiothérapie de conformation avec et sans modulation d'intensité dans le traitement du cancer localisé de la prostate.
  • Conformal radiation therapy has now to be considered as a standard treatment of localized prostatic adenocarcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Conformal / methods

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  • (PMID = 16095944.001).
  • [ISSN] 1278-3218
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer radiothérapie : journal de la Société française de radiothérapie oncologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Radiother
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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88. Veltri RW, Miller MC, Isharwal S, Marlow C, Makarov DV, Partin AW: Prediction of prostate-specific antigen recurrence in men with long-term follow-up postprostatectomy using quantitative nuclear morphometry. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2008 Jan;17(1):102-10
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  • [Title] Prediction of prostate-specific antigen recurrence in men with long-term follow-up postprostatectomy using quantitative nuclear morphometry.
  • We evaluated the use of a patient-specific quantitative nuclear grade (QNG) alone and in combination with routine pathologic features to predict biochemical [prostate-specific antigen (PSA)] recurrence-free survival in patients with prostate cancer.
  • METHODS: The National Cancer Institute Cooperative Prostate Cancer Tissue Resource (NCI-CPCTR) tissue microarray was prepared from radical prostatectomy cases treated in 1991 to 1992.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostatectomy. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18199716.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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89. Takamatsu H, Zawlodzka S: Contribution of extracellular ice formation and the solution effects to the freezing injury of PC-3 cells suspended in NaCl solutions. Cryobiology; 2006 Aug;53(1):1-11
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  • The mechanism of cell injury during slow freezing was examined using PC-3 human prostate adenocarcinoma cells suspended in NaCl solutions.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma. Cell Survival / drug effects. Cold Temperature. Humans. Male. Osmotic Pressure. Propidium / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms. Sodium Chloride / pharmacology. Solutions

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  • (PMID = 16626679.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-2240
  • [Journal-full-title] Cryobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cryobiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Solutions; 36015-30-2 / Propidium; 451W47IQ8X / Sodium Chloride
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90. Weinmann S, Richert-Boe KE, Van Den Eeden SK, Enger SM, Rybicki BA, Shapiro JA, Weiss NS: Screening by prostate-specific antigen and digital rectal examination in relation to prostate cancer mortality: a case-control study. Epidemiology; 2005 May;16(3):367-76
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  • [Title] Screening by prostate-specific antigen and digital rectal examination in relation to prostate cancer mortality: a case-control study.
  • BACKGROUND: The potential role of prostate cancer screening in reducing mortality is uncertain.
  • To examine whether screening with the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test or digital rectal examination is associated with reduced prostate cancer mortality, we conducted a population-based case-control study in 4 health maintenance organizations.
  • METHODS: Cases were 769 health plan members who died because of prostate adenocarcinoma during the years 1997-2001.
  • Medical records were used to document all screening tests in the 10 years before and including the date on which prostate cancer was first suspected.
  • Most screening tests were digital rectal examinations; therefore, in the subgroup with no history of PSA screening, the association between digital rectal screening and prostate cancer mortality was similar to the overall association (0.65 [0.48-0.88] among whites; 0.86 [0.53-1.4] among blacks).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Digital rectal screening was associated with a reduced risk of death due to prostate cancer in our population.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Mass Screening / methods. Palpation / methods. Prostate-Specific Antigen. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis


91. Song JJ, An JY, Kwon YT, Lee YJ: Evidence for two modes of development of acquired tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand resistance. Involvement of Bcl-xL. J Biol Chem; 2007 Jan 5;282(1):319-28
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  • Using human prostate adenocarcinoma DU-145 and human pancreatic carcinoma MiaPaCa-2 cells as a model, we now demonstrate for the first time that two states of acquired TRAIL resistance can be developed after TRAIL treatment.
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival. Gossypol / pharmacology. Humans. Male. Pancreatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Protein Binding. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 17110373.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9258
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of biological chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biol. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA121395; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA95191; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA96989
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BAD protein, human; 0 / TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand; 0 / bcl-Associated Death Protein; 0 / bcl-X Protein; KAV15B369O / Gossypol
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92. Koutsilieris M, Bogdanos J, Milathianakis C, Dimopoulos P, Dimopoulos T, Karamanolakis D, Halapas A, Tenta R, Katopodis H, Papageorgiou E, Pitulis N, Pissimissis N, Lembessis P, Sourla A: Combination therapy using LHRH and somatostatin analogues plus dexamethasone in androgen ablation refractory prostate cancer patients with bone involvement: a bench to bedside approach. Expert Opin Investig Drugs; 2006 Jul;15(7):795-804
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  • [Title] Combination therapy using LHRH and somatostatin analogues plus dexamethasone in androgen ablation refractory prostate cancer patients with bone involvement: a bench to bedside approach.
  • The development of resistance to anticancer therapies is a major hurdle in preventing long-lasting clinical responses to conventional therapies in hormone-refractory prostate cancer.
  • Herein, the molecular evidence documenting that bone metastasis microenvironment survival factors (mainly the paracrine growth hormone-independent, urokinase-type plasminogen activator-mediated increase of IGF-1 and the endocrine production of growth hormone-dependent IGF-1, mainly liver-derived IGF-1 production) produce an epigenetic form of prostate cancer cells that are resistant to proapoptotic therapies is reviewed.
  • Consequently, the authors present the conceptual framework of a novel antibone microenvironment survival factor, mainly an anti-IGF-1 hormonal manipulation for androgen ablation refractory prostate cancer (a combination of conventional androgen ablation therapy [luteinising hormone-releasing hormone agonist-A or orchiectomy]) with dexamethasone plus somatostatin analogue, which yielded durable objective responses and major improvement of bone pain and performance status in stage D3 prostate cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16787142.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-7658
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on investigational drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Investig Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists; 0 / Androgens; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Growth Substances; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 118992-92-0 / lanreotide; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 35LT29625A / Estramustine; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 57773-63-4 / Triptorelin Pamoate; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; EFY6W0M8TG / Leuprolide
  • [Number-of-references] 79
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93. Uetsuki H, Tsunemori H, Taoka R, Haba R, Ishikawa M, Kakehi Y: Expression of a novel biomarker, EPCA, in adenocarcinomas and precancerous lesions in the prostate. J Urol; 2005 Aug;174(2):514-8
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  • [Title] Expression of a novel biomarker, EPCA, in adenocarcinomas and precancerous lesions in the prostate.
  • PURPOSE: EPCA, a nuclear matrix protein, has been identified as a novel prostate cancer marker through protein profiling analyses comparing prostate cancer and its normal counterpart.
  • A recent study of prostate biopsy specimens revealed that EPCA stained positive in the cancer negative biopsy cores of individuals with cancer at later biopsy.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prostate tissue specimens were obtained from 50 patients with localized prostate cancer and 10 with invasive bladder cancer.
  • Anti-P504S/anti-p63/anti-34betaE12 monoclonal antibodies were used for adjunct diagnosis for prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • RESULTS: EPCA staining was positive in the prostate samples of 94% of patients with prostate cancer but it was completely negative in samples from patients with bladder cancer.
  • In noncancerous tissues adjacent to major cancer foci EPCA was positive in 86% of prostate cancers.
  • Most EPCA positive glands adjacent to cancer consisted of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and proliferative inflammatory atrophy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: EPCA seems to reflect nuclear matrix alterations that occur in the earlier stage of prostate carcinogenesis.
  • Individuals in whom the prostate is influenced by this field effect may be detected with this new biomarker.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Nuclear Matrix-Associated Proteins / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Prostate / metabolism. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16006883.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Nuclear Matrix-Associated Proteins
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94. Tardy I, Pochon S, Theraulaz M, Emmel P, Passantino L, Tranquart F, Schneider M: Ultrasound molecular imaging of VEGFR2 in a rat prostate tumor model using BR55. Invest Radiol; 2010 Oct;45(10):573-8
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  • [Title] Ultrasound molecular imaging of VEGFR2 in a rat prostate tumor model using BR55.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate BR55, a new VEGFR2-specific ultrasound contrast agent, for imaging prostate tumors in an orthotopic model in the rat.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rat prostate adenocarcinoma were established by injection of G Dunning R-3327 tumor cells in one lobe of the prostate of Copenhagen rats.
  • Contrast enhancement in the tumor and healthy prostate was followed over time by intermittent imaging at low acoustic power.
  • Immunohistochemistry was performed on the prostate and tumor specimen to determine the expression of VEGFR2.
  • Then, once unbound microbubbles had cleared from the circulation, a strong enhancement of the tumor was obtained with BR55, whereas no significant microbubble accumulation was detected in the healthy prostate tissue.
  • The tumor to prostate ratio calculated after signal quantification was about 20 for the 3 doses of BR55 tested.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that BR55 binding to prostate tumors resulted in a strong enhancement of the lesions as early as a few minutes after contrast injection, whereas minimal nonspecific accumulation occurred in the healthy part of the gland.
  • The late phase enhancement of the tumor should be particularly valuable for prostate cancer detection and for biopsy guidance.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / radionuclide imaging. Molecular Imaging / methods. Prostate / radionuclide imaging. Prostatic Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 20808233.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0210
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Phospholipids; 0 / contrast agent BR1; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2; WS7LR3I1D6 / Sulfur Hexafluoride
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95. Pommier P, Chabaud S, Lagrange JL, Richaud P, Lesaunier F, Le Prise E, Wagner JP, Hay MH, Beckendorf V, Suchaud JP, Pabot du Chatelard PM, Bernier V, Voirin N, Perol D, Carrie C: Is there a role for pelvic irradiation in localized prostate adenocarcinoma? Preliminary results of GETUG-01. J Clin Oncol; 2007 Dec 1;25(34):5366-73
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  • [Title] Is there a role for pelvic irradiation in localized prostate adenocarcinoma? Preliminary results of GETUG-01.
  • PURPOSE: To assess the benefit and toxicity and quality-of-life (QOL) outcomes of pelvic nodes irradiation in nonmetastatic prostate carcinoma patients.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between December 1998 and June 2004, 444 patients with T1b-T3, N0 pNx, M0 prostate carcinoma were randomly assigned to either pelvic and prostate radiotherapy or prostate radiotherapy only.
  • The total dose recommended to the prostate was changed during the course of the study from 66 Gy to 70 Gy.
  • Criteria for progression-free survival (PFS) included biologic prostate-specific antigen recurrences or a local or metastatic evolution.
  • The QOL outcome was recorded with the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire C30, the International Prostatic Symptom Score, and the Sexual Function Index scales.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2008 Apr 20;26(12):2055-6; author reply 2056-7 [18421061.001]
  • (PMID = 18048817.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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96. Zhang GY, Ahmed N, Riley C, Oliva K, Barker G, Quinn MA, Rice GE: Enhanced expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Br J Cancer; 2005 Jan 17;92(1):113-9
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  • Previous studies have demonstrated the expression of PPARgamma in several tumours including colon, breast, bladder, prostate, lung and stomach.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / metabolism. Blotting, Western. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ovary / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15583697.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / PPAR gamma
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2361744
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97. Biade S, Marinucci M, Schick J, Roberts D, Workman G, Sage EH, O'Dwyer PJ, Livolsi VA, Johnson SW: Gene expression profiling of human ovarian tumours. Br J Cancer; 2006 Oct 23;95(8):1092-100
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  • There is currently a lack of reliable diagnostic and prognostic markers for ovarian cancer.

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  • (PMID = 16969345.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM040711; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM40711; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01-CA85059
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD24; 0 / Calcium-Binding Proteins; 0 / Extracellular Matrix Proteins; 0 / SPARCL1 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2360705
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98. Henderson A, Andreyev HJ, Stephens R, Dearnaley D: Patient and physician reporting of symptoms and health-related quality of life in trials of treatment for early prostate cancer: considerations for future studies. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2006 Dec;18(10):735-43
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  • [Title] Patient and physician reporting of symptoms and health-related quality of life in trials of treatment for early prostate cancer: considerations for future studies.
  • AIMS: Clinical trials in early prostate cancer (EPC) have used a variety of outcome measures, including patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and physician-reported data.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search combining the terms 'quality of life' or 'symptoms' and 'prostate cancer' or 'prostate adenocarcinoma' was carried out.
  • [MeSH-major] Clinical Trials as Topic / methods. Prostatic Neoplasms / psychology. Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy. Quality of Life. Research Design. Surveys and Questionnaires

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  • (PMID = 17168208.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-6555
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0501019
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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99. Culhaci N, Sagol O, Karademir S, Astarcioglu H, Astarcioglu I, Soyturk M, Oztop I, Obuz F: Expression of transforming growth factor-beta-1 and p27Kip1 in pancreatic adenocarcinomas: relation with cell-cycle-associated proteins and clinicopathologic characteristics. BMC Cancer; 2005;5:98
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: We examined TGF-beta1 and p27 expression immunohistochemically in 63 cases of invasive ductal adenocarcinoma of the pancreas.
  • But it is not associated with cell cycle proteins. p27 expression is reduced in pancreatic adenocarcinomas and decreased protein levels of p27 may play a role in the differentiation of pancreatic cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / biosynthesis. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Pancreatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Transforming Growth Factor beta / biosynthesis