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1. Lee PK, Jarosek SL, Virnig BA, Evasovich M, Tuttle TM: Trends in the incidence and treatment of parathyroid cancer in the United States. Cancer; 2007 May 1;109(9):1736-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Trends in the incidence and treatment of parathyroid cancer in the United States.
  • BACKGROUND: Parathyroid cancer is a rare cause of hyperparathyroidism.
  • The objectives of this study were to determine the patterns of disease, treatment trends, and outcomes among patients with parathyroid cancer by using a population-based data source.
  • METHODS: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) cancer registry data were used to identify patients who were diagnosed with parathyroid cancer from 1988 through 2003.
  • To assess whether the incidence rate, treatment, tumor size, and cancer stage changed over time, the Cochrane-Armitage trend test was used, and Cox proportional-hazards modeling was used to identify the factors associated with an improved overall survival rate.
  • RESULTS: From 1988 through 2003, 224 patients with parathyroid cancer were reported in the SEER data.
  • Over that 16-year study period, the incidence of parathyroid cancer increased by 60% (1988-1991, 3.58 per 10,000,000 population; 2000-2003, 5.73 per 10,000,000 population).
  • The 10-year all-cause mortality rate was 33.2%, and the 10-year cancer-related mortality rate was 12.4%.
  • Patient age (P<.0001), sex (P=.0106), the presence of distant metastases at diagnosis (P=.0004), and the year of diagnosis (P=.0287) were associated significantly with the overall survival rate.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although parathyroid cancer is rare, the incidence increased significantly in the United States from 1988 through 2003.
  • Young age, female gender, recent year of diagnosis, and absence of distant metastases were associated significantly with an improved survival rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / therapy. Parathyroidectomy / trends

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2007 American Cancer Society
  • (PMID = 17372919.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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2. Sharretts JM, Kebebew E, Simonds WF: Parathyroid cancer. Semin Oncol; 2010 Dec;37(6):580-90

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Parathyroid cancer.
  • Parathyroid cancer is an uncommon malignancy and rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) with a high morbidity and patient death in advanced cases usually resulting from intractable hypercalcemia.
  • Inactivation of the HRPT2/CDC73 gene, encoding the putative tumor-suppressor protein parafibromin and discovered in the context of the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT) syndrome, is a common, somatic event in most parathyroid cancers.
  • Approximately 25% of patients with apparently sporadic parathyroid cancer carry germline HRPT2/CDC73 mutation.
  • Germline DNA analysis for HRPT2/CDC73 mutation is recommended in all patients with parathyroid cancer because of the potential benefit for first-degree relatives, who should nevertheless undergo serum calcium screening.
  • The histopathologic diagnosis of parathyroid cancer is nonspecific unless vascular, lymphatic, capsular, or soft tissue invasion is seen, or metastases are clinically evident.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of parathyroid tumors for loss of parafibromin expression offers promise as a diagnostic tool.
  • En bloc tumor resection offers the highest chance of cure in patients with suspected parathyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • [Copyright] Published by Elsevier Inc.
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  • (PMID = 21167377.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8708
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 DK043012-06; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 DK043320-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS245489; NLM/ PMC3059245
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3. Falchetti A, Franchi A, Bordi C, Mavilia C, Masi L, Cioppi F, Recenti R, Picariello L, Marini F, Del Monte F, Ghinoi V, Martineti V, Tanini A, Brandi ML: Azidothymidine induces apoptosis and inhibits cell growth and telomerase activity of human parathyroid cancer cells in culture. J Bone Miner Res; 2005 Mar;20(3):410-8
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. ZIDOVUDINE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Azidothymidine induces apoptosis and inhibits cell growth and telomerase activity of human parathyroid cancer cells in culture.
  • Telomerase activity has been correlated to parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Because its role in acquisition of a malignant phenotype by parathyroid cells is unclear, we treated telomerase-positive cultured human parathyroid cancer cells with the telomerase inhibitor AZT, evaluating cell telomerase activity, cytotoxic effects, growth, and morphological changes.
  • INTRODUCTION: Parathyroid carcinoma represents an uncommon cause of primary hyperparathyroidism, whose spectrum of clinical presentation, degree of malignancy, and prognosis are difficult to be properly identified.
  • It has been previously shown that telomerase activity is specifically present in parathyroid carcinoma cells, being absent in hyperplastic and adenomatous tissues.
  • Thus, determination of telomerase activity could represent either a useful diagnostic molecular marker for human parathyroid carcinoma or a potential target for pharmacological intervention in a malignant neoplasia usually resistant to chemo- and radiotherapeutic interventions.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: To further investigate the role of telomerase activity in acquisition of a malignant phenotype by parathyroid cells, we treated telomeric repeat amplification protocol-positive cultured human parathyroid cells with the telomerase inhibitor zidovudine, 3'-azido-3'deoxythymidine (AZT), evaluating cell telomerase activity, growth characteristics, potential cytotoxic effects, and morphological changes.
  • RESULTS: Our findings indicate that in vitro exposure of human parathyroid cancer cells to AZT resulted in intracellular accumulation of AZT-monophosphate (AZT-MP) and inhibition of telomerase, which correlate with inhibition of human parathyroid cancer cell proliferation.
  • None of these effects were observed in human adenomatous parathyroid cells in culture.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Altogether these results indicate that AZT may be a highly effective agent against cancer parathyroid cells proliferation, which is an extremely important observation for a neoplasia which shows lack of response to classical pharmacological and physical antiblastic treatments.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Parathyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Telomerase / metabolism. Zidovudine / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 15746985.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-0431
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Bone Miner. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites; 4B9XT59T7S / Zidovudine; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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4. Martín Navarro J, Mendoza E, Mateos P, Cereceda A, Coca S: [Parathyroid cancer in a patient with previous history of hypernephroma: a clinical case]. Nefrologia; 2007;27(1):74-6
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Kidney Cancer.

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  • [Title] [Parathyroid cancer in a patient with previous history of hypernephroma: a clinical case].
  • [Transliterated title] Cáncer de paratiroides en paciente con antecedentes de hipernefroma, a propósito de un caso.
  • We report the clinical case of a 55 year-old male patient, with a previous history of nephrectomy by hypernephroma sixteen years ago, first presenting hypercalcemia and rising of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) levels.
  • After undergoing a hemi-thyroidectomy, the patient is diagnosed with parathyroid carcinoma.
  • A broader differential diagnosis--including the screening of parathyroidal pathologies should be considered in patients with hypercalcemia and hypernephroma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17402883.001).
  • [ISSN] 0211-6995
  • [Journal-full-title] Nefrología : publicación oficial de la Sociedad Española Nefrologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nefrologia
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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5. Troilo VL, D'Eredità G, Fischetti F, Berardi T: Parathyroid cancer as rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism. Case report and review of the literature. G Chir; 2009 Oct;30(10):432-6
Genetic Alliance. consumer health - Hyperparathyroidism, primary.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Parathyroid cancer as rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism. Case report and review of the literature.
  • Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) due to parathyroid carcinoma is rare, and affects more frequently women in their 4th-5th decades of life.
  • Parathyroid cancer (PC) accounts for 0.5% up to 5% of the patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT).
  • Diagnosis of PC is not easy, and a lot of patients with PHPT receive no pre-operative or intra-operative diagnosis of malignancy.
  • We report the case of a 52 years old woman that underwent a single parathyroidectomy for hyperfunctioning gland.
  • Histological examination revealed carcinoma.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma is rare and surgery represent the only curative approach, although there can be a local recurrence of the disease.
  • A pre-operative diagnosis is not easy, and many features that suggest the diagnosis of malignancy are controversial.
  • According to the literature, we think that the cure of the parathyroid cancer is difficult to achieve.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / complications. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 19954585.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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6. Chiofalo MG, Scognamiglio F, Losito S, Lastoria S, Marone U, Pezzullo L: Huge parathyroid carcinoma: clinical considerations and literature review. World J Surg Oncol; 2005 Jun 23;3:39

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Huge parathyroid carcinoma: clinical considerations and literature review.
  • BACKGROUND: Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare malignancy, with an incidence of 0.5 to 4% of all cases of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Histopathology revealed a giant parathyroid cancer of 450 grams.
  • CONCLUSION: Parathyroid cancer is usually not recognized either preoperatively or intra-operatively.
  • The management of parathyroid carcinoma is a challenge even for experienced surgeons.

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  • [Cites] J Endocrinol Invest. 1992 Jan;15(1):39-42 [1560189.001]
  • (PMID = 15975144.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1187928
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7. Rubin MR, Silverberg SJ, D'Amour P, Brossard JH, Rousseau L, Sliney J Jr, Cantor T, Bilezikian JP: An N-terminal molecular form of parathyroid hormone (PTH) distinct from hPTH(1 84) is overproduced in parathyroid carcinoma. Clin Chem; 2007 Aug;53(8):1470-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An N-terminal molecular form of parathyroid hormone (PTH) distinct from hPTH(1 84) is overproduced in parathyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: A new parathyroid hormone (PTH) species, the N-terminal PTH form (N-PTH), is distinct from intact human PTH of 84 amino acid residues [hPTH(1-84)] and is recognized in a 3rd-generation assay of "whole" PTH (wPTH; the 1-2 epitope) but not in a 2nd-generation assay of "total" PTH (tPTH; the 12-18 epitope).
  • We investigated whether N-PTH is also overproduced in parathyroid cancer and whether N-PTH concentration is influenced by calcimimetic therapy.
  • METHODS: We studied 8 patients with parathyroid carcinoma before and at week 16 of cinacalcet therapy, 6 patients with PHPT, and 6 control individuals.
  • RESULTS: Half of parathyroid carcinoma patients had an increased wPTH:tPTH ratio [mean (SD), 1.35 (0.29)]; the others had a typical ratio [0.72 (0.12)].
  • Calcimimetic therapy appreciably reduced calcium concentrations in parathyroid carcinoma patients but had little influence on PTH concentration, the wPTH:tPTH ratio, or the PTH HPLC profile.
  • CONCLUSION: N-PTH is overproduced in some parathyroid cancer patients, but calcimimetic therapy does not influence its production.
  • The clinical implications of this finding in parathyroid carcinoma await additional studies with an emphasis on N-PTH's biological activity and with larger numbers of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Parathyroid Hormone / biosynthesis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Peptide Fragments / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17599957.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-9147
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K24 DK074457; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K24 DK074457; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK032333
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Naphthalenes; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / amino-terminal parathyroid hormone; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride
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8. Tan GC, Shiran MS, Swaminathan M, Phang KS, Rohaizak M: Large retrosternal parathyroid carcinoma with primary hyperparathyroidism. Asian J Surg; 2007 Oct;30(4):286-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Large retrosternal parathyroid carcinoma with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma is an uncommon cause of parathyroid hormone (PTH)-dependent hypercalcaemia, accounting for less than 1% of all cases of hyperparathyroidism.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma is an indolent tumour with rather low malignant potential.
  • Consideration of parathyroid carcinoma in the differential diagnosis of hypercalcaemic disorders is important because the morbidity and mortality are substantial and the best prognosis is associated with early recognition and surgical resection.
  • Clinical indicators favouring parathyroid carcinoma over benign disease include markedly raised serum calcium levels, PTH and alkaline phosphatase.
  • A palpable neck mass with both kidney and skeletal manifestations also give a high index of suspicion of parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Histopathology alone is not sufficient to diagnose parathyroid cancer; it has to be correlated with the clinical findings.
  • The initial and most effective treatment for parathyroid carcinoma is complete resection of the primary lesion, and repeated operations for recurrence are useful.
  • The prognosis of parathyroid carcinomas is quite variable; 5-year survival rates vary from 40% to 86%, while the 10-year survival rate is approximately 49%.
  • We report a case of parathyroid carcinoma occurring in a 55-year-old woman who presented with bone pain and hypercalcaemia.

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  • (PMID = 17962134.001).
  • [ISSN] 1015-9584
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian J Surg
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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9. Mezhir JJ, Melis M, Headley RC, Pai RK, Posner MC, Kaplan EL: Successful palliation of hypercalcemia secondary to metastatic parathyroid cancer: an unusual indication for hepatic resection. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg; 2007;14(4):410-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Successful palliation of hypercalcemia secondary to metastatic parathyroid cancer: an unusual indication for hepatic resection.
  • Primary carcinoma of the parathyroid gland is a rare disease.
  • Patients with parathyroid cancer are frequently plagued by severe hypercalcemia, which is often refractory to medical therapy.
  • Herein we describe the case of a patient with metastatic parathyroid cancer localized to the liver.
  • Intraoperative parathyroid hormone levels were utilized as an adjunct to determine successful metastatectomy.
  • Our case highlights the importance of an aggressive approach to patients with metastatic parathyroid cancer, as well as the utility of intraoperative parathyroid hormone levels to confirm successful extirpation of disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Hypercalcemia / therapy. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Calcium / blood. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Palliative Care. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroidectomy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17653642.001).
  • [ISSN] 0944-1166
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hepato-biliary-pancreatic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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10. Solórzano CC, Carneiro-Pla DM, Lew JI, Rodgers SE, Montano R, Irvin GL 3rd: Intra-operative parathyroid hormone monitoring in patients with parathyroid cancer. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Nov;14(11):3216-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intra-operative parathyroid hormone monitoring in patients with parathyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Intra-operative parathyroid hormone (PTH) monitoring (IPM) is 97% accurate in predicting postoperative eucalcemia in sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism (SPHPT).
  • However, its usefulness in parathyroid cancer has not been demonstrated.
  • This study reports IPM accuracy during surgical resections for parathyroid cancer.
  • METHODS: Eight of 556 consecutive patients with SPHPT underwent parathyroidectomy using IPM and had parathyroid cancer.
  • Operative success was defined as eucalcemia > six months and operative failure/persistent cancer as hypercalcemia within six months of parathyroidectomy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: IPM with the criterion of >50% PTH drop from the highest level is less accurate in predicting operative success in parathyroid cancer when compared to SPHPT.
  • A >50% intra-operative PTH level decrease in patients with parathyroid cancer, particularly in reoperative cases, is less predictive of complete resection.
  • The initial recognition of this disease followed by proper resection remains essential in the treatment of parathyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroid Neoplasms / blood

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  • (PMID = 17805932.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / PTH protein, human; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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11. Enomoto K, Sakurai K, Amano S: [Experience of parathyroid cancer which required a differentiation from adenoma]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Nov;37(12):2325-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Experience of parathyroid cancer which required a differentiation from adenoma].
  • We noted a thyroid gland mass by examination and referred for a further checkup.
  • The cervical echography evidence showed a mass image of the border regular in the back of inferior pole of left thyroid gland.
  • It also revealed a mass image with the calcification in the inferior pole of left lobe of thyroid gland at the same time.
  • We performed aspiration biopsy cytology for a thyroid gland mass, and it was class IIIa.
  • We also performed parathyroidectomy and left lobe of thyroid gland ablative surgery because of a diagnosis of the hyperparathyroidism confirmed a primary parathyroid adenoma.
  • Preoperative pathological diagnosis was adenoma.
  • However, histopathology laboratory findings showed it to be of adenocarcinoma of the parathyroid, which metastasized into the thyroid.
  • Many times parathyroid cancer preoperative diagnosis is inconclusive.
  • So we are reporting our experience with parathyroid cancer metastases to the thyroid for reference.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / etiology. Hyperparathyroidism / surgery. Male. Parathyroidectomy. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 21224561.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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12. Ikeda K, Tate G, Suzuki T, Mitsuya T: Cytologic comparison of a primary parathyroid cancer and its metastatic lesions: a case report. Diagn Cytopathol; 2006 Jan;34(1):50-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cytologic comparison of a primary parathyroid cancer and its metastatic lesions: a case report.
  • We describe the fine-needle aspiration cytology features of a primary parathyroid cancer and of the local recurrent and distant metastatic lesions.
  • The presence of prognostic factors Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was compared immunohistochemically between primary parathyroid carcinoma and related metastatic and recurrent foci.
  • Flow cytometric DNA analysis was also performed to investigate any chromosomal abnormality of the parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis showed that Ki-67 and PCNA labeling indices were higher in the recurrent and metastasized carcinomas than in the primary cancer, suggesting that neoplastic cells become more malignant in the recurrent and metastasized foci.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report describing not only cytopathologic but also immunocytologic differences between primary parathyroid cancer and the metastatic lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / immunology. Carcinoma / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16355395.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Ippolito G, Palazzo FF, Sebag F, De Micco C, Henry JF: Intraoperative diagnosis and treatment of parathyroid cancer and atypical parathyroid adenoma. Br J Surg; 2007 May;94(5):566-70

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intraoperative diagnosis and treatment of parathyroid cancer and atypical parathyroid adenoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Distinction of parathyroid cancer from atypical parathyroid adenoma (APA) at operation is difficult.
  • The aim of this study was to determine whether parathyroid cancer and APA have different operative findings and long-term outcomes.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review was undertaken of patients with suspicious or malignant parathyroid tumours treated between 1974 and 2005.
  • Parathyroid cancer was defined as a lesion with vascular or tissue invasion, and APA as a neoplasm with broad fibrous bands, trabecular growth, mitosis and nuclear atypia.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients with suspicious or malignant parathyroid tumours were identified.
  • After histological review, parathyroid cancer was confirmed in 11 patients (group 1) and 16 tumours were classified as APA (group 2).
  • CONCLUSION: Operative findings cannot distinguish APA from parathyroid cancer reliably.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroidectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Intraoperative Period. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / etiology. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Br J Surg. 2007 Aug;94(8):1043; author reply 1043-4 [17636522.001]
  • [CommentIn] Br J Surg. 2007 Aug;94(8):1042-3; author reply 1043-4 [17636521.001]
  • (PMID = 17380564.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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14. Enomoto K, Uchino S, Ito A, Watanabe S, Shibuya H, Enomoto Y, Noguchi S: The surgical strategy and the molecular analysis of patients with parathyroid cancer. World J Surg; 2010 Nov;34(11):2604-10
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  • [Title] The surgical strategy and the molecular analysis of patients with parathyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Parathyroid cancer is a rare endocrine tumor, and the prognostic factors for this cancer remain unclear.
  • However, the clinical significance of prophylactic neck dissection (PND) in the management of parathyroid cancer has not yet been established.
  • In this study, we investigated its clinical significance in patients with parathyroid cancer and the association of gene mutations with tumor progression.
  • METHODS: A total of 12 patients with parathyroid cancer were treated and have been followed at Noguchi Thyroid Clinic and Hospital Foundation since 1977.
  • In all, 11 patients were treated with the initial surgery for the cancer, and 1 patient underwent surgery for a metastatic lung lesion.
  • RESULTS: En bloc resections of thyroid tissue were performed in 10 patients, and 1 patient underwent only parathyroidectomy with limited resection of the thyroid gland.
  • Among the 12 patients with parathyroid cancer, 1 had a germ-line mutation of the HRPT2 at exon 7, codon 234, CGA (Arg) to TGA (Stop), and 1 patient had a tumor-specific mutation at exon 1, nucleotide 34-37 delAACA.
  • CONCLUSIONS: PND for patients with parathyroid cancer resulted in no evidence of lymph node metastasis and does not improve the prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20480190.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2323
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / MEN1 protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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15. Schulte KM, Talat N, Miell J, Moniz C, Sinha P, Diaz-Cano S: Lymph node involvement and surgical approach in parathyroid cancer. World J Surg; 2010 Nov;34(11):2611-20

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Lymph node involvement and surgical approach in parathyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The best surgical approach to parathyroid cancer is disputed.
  • METHODS: This retrospective study includes 11 patients with parathyroid cancer who underwent surgery with central and/or lateral neck dissection by a single surgeon between 2005 and 2010.
  • The diagnosis was based on histopathological criteria in all patients.
  • Patterns of lymph node and soft tissue involvement of these and formerly reported patients were analysed based on full-text review of all published cases of parathyroid cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: Oncological en bloc clearance of the central compartment with meticulous removal of all possibly involved soft tissues, including a systematic central lymph node resection, may improve outcomes and should be included in the routine approach to the suspicious parathyroid lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Nodes / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20640422.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2323
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Vestergaard P, Nielsen LR, Mosekilde L: [Cinacalcet--a new drug for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with uraemia, parathyroid cancer or primary hyperparathyroidism]. Ugeskr Laeger; 2006 Jan 3;168(1):29-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Cinacalcet--a new drug for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with uraemia, parathyroid cancer or primary hyperparathyroidism].
  • It increases the sensitivity of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) to calcium, thus inducing a decrease in plasma parathyroid (PTH) levels.
  • Cinacalcet decreases plasma calcium and plasma PTH levels in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism or parathyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / drug therapy. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / drug therapy. Naphthalenes / therapeutic use. Parathyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uremia / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Calcium / blood. Cinacalcet Hydrochloride. Humans. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Receptors, Calcium-Sensing / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 16393559.001).
  • [ISSN] 1603-6824
  • [Journal-full-title] Ugeskrift for laeger
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ugeskr. Laeg.
  • [Language] dan
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Naphthalenes; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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17. Kirkby-Bott J, Lewis P, Harmer CL, Smellie WJ: One stage treatment of parathyroid cancer. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2005 Feb;31(1):78-83

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] One stage treatment of parathyroid cancer.
  • AIM: To review the methods of treating parathyroid cancer in our series and report successful use of intraoperative frozen section to enable one stage surgical management.
  • METHOD: Seven cases of parathyroid cancer presented from 1991-2002.
  • The presenting features, diagnosis and treatment are presented.
  • Parathyroid hormone levels were raised in seven of eight cases, range 14.5-495 pmol/l.
  • CONCLUSION: A high pre-operative index of suspicion for parathyroid carcinoma with use of frozen section at time of operation permits an optimal one step surgical procedure by en bloc resection followed by central lymph node excision.
  • In cases where diagnosis has been made post-operatively radiotherapy may be beneficial.
  • [MeSH-major] Frozen Sections. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hypercalcemia / diagnosis. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15642430.001).
  • [ISSN] 0748-7983
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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18. Lang B, Lo CY: Parathyroid cancer. Surg Oncol Clin N Am; 2006 Jul;15(3):573-84

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Parathyroid cancer.
  • Parathyroid cancer is a rare endocrine tumor and an uncommon cause of HPT.
  • The use of accurate preoperative imaging modalities would undoubtedly facilitate its management by making an accurate preoperative diagnosis by assessing its invasiveness, and by searching for nodal or distant metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Cinacalcet Hydrochloride. Humans. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Intraoperative Period. Naphthalenes / therapeutic use. Parathyroid Glands / ultrasonography. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroidectomy. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi

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  • (PMID = 16882498.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-3207
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical oncology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Oncol. Clin. N. Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Naphthalenes; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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19. Vestergaard P, Sanden AK: [Management of serum calcium with cinacelet in parathyroid cancer]. Ugeskr Laeger; 2009 Oct 5;171(41):3004-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Management of serum calcium with cinacelet in parathyroid cancer].
  • Treatment with cinacalcet and intravenous bisphosphonate has improved the previously often fatal prognosis of parathyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcium / blood. Naphthalenes / therapeutic use. Parathyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19814929.001).
  • [ISSN] 1603-6824
  • [Journal-full-title] Ugeskrift for laeger
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ugeskr. Laeg.
  • [Language] dan
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Imidazoles; 0 / Naphthalenes; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride; 6XC1PAD3KF / zoledronic acid; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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20. Quesada Charneco M: [Primary hyperparathyroidism in special situations: multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes and parathyroid cancer]. Endocrinol Nutr; 2009 Apr;56 Suppl 1:35-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Primary hyperparathyroidism in special situations: multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes and parathyroid cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Hiperparatiroidismo primario en situaciones especiales: síndromes de neoplasia endocrina múltiple y cáncer de paratiroides.
  • Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP) is a known endocrine disorder.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is a rare neoplasm and an uncommon cause of parathyroid hormone (PTH)-dependent hypercalcemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / complications. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 19627759.001).
  • [ISSN] 1579-2021
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinología y nutrición : órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol Nutr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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21. Talat N, Schulte KM: Clinical presentation, staging and long-term evolution of parathyroid cancer. Ann Surg Oncol; 2010 Aug;17(8):2156-74

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical presentation, staging and long-term evolution of parathyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Parathyroid cancer is rare and often fatal.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: All case reports or series with sufficient case details of parathyroid cancer were identified from PubMed, and data were analyzed using SPSS.
  • To improve outcome, en bloc resection including central lymph node dissection should be the minimal surgical approach in any patient with suspected parathyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Staging / methods. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20221704.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Rodgers SE, Perrier ND: Parathyroid carcinoma. Curr Opin Oncol; 2006 Jan;18(1):16-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Parathyroid carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews current knowledge on the etiology, diagnosis and treatment of parathyroid carcinoma.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Due to its rarity, research on the molecular etiology and treatment of parathyroid carcinoma has been slow.
  • Mutations of the tumor suppressor gene, HRPT2, and resultant loss of expression of its gene product have been found in the majority of parathyroid cancers studied.
  • Recent advances in the field have identified regions on several chromosomes that demonstrate loss of heterozygosity more commonly in parathyroid carcinoma than in benign parathyroid lesions.
  • This has provided clues to the location and identity of additional tumor suppressor genes associated with the development of this cancer.
  • SUMMARY: Parathyroid carcinoma is an extremely rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism, accounting for fewer than 1% of cases.
  • The etiology of parathyroid cancer is largely unknown.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 16357559.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8746
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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23. Placzkowski K, Christian R, Chen H: Radioguided parathyroidectomy for recurrent parathyroid cancer. Clin Nucl Med; 2007 May;32(5):358-60

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Radioguided parathyroidectomy for recurrent parathyroid cancer.
  • We report a case of radioguided parathyroidectomy in a patient with parathyroid carcinoma.
  • A 61-year-old woman presented to our center with persistent hypercalcemia (17.2 mg/dL) and hyperparathyroidism (PTH=324 pg/mL) following her second neck resection for recurrent parathyroid carcinoma at an outside facility.
  • With the intraoperative guidance of a hand-held gamma probe, a 2 cm recurrent parathyroid carcinoma was located and successfully excised.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroidectomy / methods. Radiosurgery / methods

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  • (PMID = 17452861.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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24. Shih RY, Fackler S, Maturo S, True MW, Brennan J, Wells D: Parathyroid carcinoma in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 with a classic germline mutation. Endocr Pract; 2009 Sep-Oct;15(6):567-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Parathyroid carcinoma in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 with a classic germline mutation.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report the case of a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1) syndrome with con-comitant parathyroid carcinoma and a classic MEN1 germline mutation.
  • METHODS: We present the clinical findings, laboratory results, imaging studies, and surgical histopathologic features in a woman with MEN 1 syndrome and concomitant parathyroid carcinoma.
  • We also review the literature regarding patients with similar clinical entities and the use of adjuvant radiotherapy for parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Computed tomography revealed parathyroid masses, shown later to be bilateral parathyroid carcinomas and adenomas.
  • CONCLUSION: This report describes a patient with parathyroid carcinoma occurring in conjunction with MEN 1, further characterizing this rare condition.
  • In contrast to previously described patients, our patient is the first with a classic MEN1 germline mutation, confirming that parathyroid cancer can occur in association with classic MEN 1 genetics.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma. Gastrinoma. Germ-Line Mutation. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1. Parathyroid Neoplasms


25. Woodard GE, Lin L, Zhang JH, Agarwal SK, Marx SJ, Simonds WF: Parafibromin, product of the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome gene HRPT2, regulates cyclin D1/PRAD1 expression. Oncogene; 2005 Feb 10;24(7):1272-6
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  • Parafibromin is the 531-amino-acid protein product encoded by HRPT2, a putative tumor suppressor gene recently implicated in the autosomal dominant hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor familial cancer syndrome, sporadic parathyroid cancer, and a minority of families with isolated hyperparathyroidism.
  • A survey of human and mouse tissues analysed with polyclonal antibodies to parafibromin showed specific immunoreactivity in adrenal and parathyroid glands, kidney, heart, and skeletal muscle.
  • Subcellular fractionation and laser confocal microscopy of normal human parathyroid gland demonstrated expression of parafibromin in both the cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments.
  • Parafibromin was expressed in four parathyroid adenomas but was absent from two parathyroid carcinomas.
  • Transient overexpression of wild-type parafibromin, but not its Leu64Pro missense mutant implicated in parathyroid cancer and familial isolated hyperparathyroidism, inhibited cell proliferation, and blocked expression of cyclin D1, a key cell cycle regulator previously implicated in parathyroid neoplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / metabolism. Cyclin D1 / biosynthesis. Down-Regulation. Parathyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Proteins / physiology. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. COS Cells. Cell Nucleus / immunology. Cell Proliferation. Cercopithecus aethiops. Cytoplasm / immunology. Humans. Mice. Mutation, Missense / genetics. Parathyroid Glands / immunology. Parathyroid Glands / metabolism. Transfection


26. Carling T, Udelsman R: Parathyroid surgery in familial hyperparathyroid disorders. J Intern Med; 2005 Jan;257(1):27-37
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  • [Title] Parathyroid surgery in familial hyperparathyroid disorders.
  • Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is treated with either subtotal parathyroidectomy or total parathyroidectomy with immediate heterotopic autotransplantation of parathyroid tissue.
  • The increased risk of parathyroid cancer in HPT-JT requires special attention.
  • Parathyroid surgery in familial HPT syndromes in the setting of underlying mutations in the calcium receptor (CASR) gene involves radical subtotal parathyroidectomy.
  • Intraoperative parathyroid hormone (PTH) measurements may help guide the extent of parathyroid resection, particularly in the case of multigland HPT.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism / genetics. Hyperparathyroidism / surgery. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / surgery. Parathyroid Glands / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Calcium / blood. Humans. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / blood. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / surgery. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / blood. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / surgery. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroidectomy / methods. Preoperative Care / methods. Recurrence. Reoperation

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  • (PMID = 15606374.001).
  • [ISSN] 0954-6820
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 59
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27. Bilezikian JP, Rubin M, Silverberg SJ: Asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2006 Aug;50(4):647-56
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Primary hyperparathyroidism is a common disorder of mineral metabolism characterized by incompletely regulated, excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone from one or more of the parathyroid glands.
  • In adults with the disease, a single, benign adenoma is seen approximately 80 percent of the time, with multiple gland involvement comprising most of the remaining patients.
  • Very rarely, a parathyroid cancer is responsible but it is seen in less than 0.5 percent of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.

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  • (PMID = 17117290.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK032333; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK 32333
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 1406-16-2 / Vitamin D
  • [Number-of-references] 52
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28. Lumachi F, Basso SM, Basso U: Parathyroid cancer: etiology, clinical presentation and treatment. Anticancer Res; 2006 Nov-Dec;26(6C):4803-7
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  • [Title] Parathyroid cancer: etiology, clinical presentation and treatment.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is an uncommon finding, accounting for only 1-2% of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT), but a relatively higher incidence has been reported in Italy and Japan.
  • The pre-operative diagnosis of malignancy is very difficult to obtain, and, thus, intra-operative recognition of PC is mandatory.
  • Probably, only vascular invasion, that correlates with tumour recurrence and metastases, should be considered useful in confirming malignancy, although both Ki-67 and Cyclin D1 have been recently used to aid in the definitive diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 17214344.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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29. Fendrich V, Waldmann J, Feldmann G, Schlosser K, König A, Ramaswamy A, Bartsch DK, Karakas E: Unique expression pattern of the EMT markers Snail, Twist and E-cadherin in benign and malignant parathyroid neoplasia. Eur J Endocrinol; 2009 Apr;160(4):695-703
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Unique expression pattern of the EMT markers Snail, Twist and E-cadherin in benign and malignant parathyroid neoplasia.
  • BACKGROUND: Epithelial and mesenchymal transitions (EMT) are essential for embryonic development and progression of non-invasive tumor cells into malignant, metastatic carcinomas.
  • During embryogenesis, the parathyroid glands develop from pharyngeal pouches and migrate to their final destinations, densely enclosed by mesenchymal neural crest cells.
  • In this study, we examined the expression of the EMT markers Snail, Twist and E-cadherin in normal parathyroid glands and benign and malignant parathyroid diseases.
  • METHODS: Using immunohistochemistry, we compared expression of E-cadherin, Snail and Twist in 25 patients with parathyroid adenoma, 25 patients with parathyroid hyperplasia, and nine patients with parathyroid cancer with normal parathyroid glands.
  • RESULTS: Normal parathyroid glands, parathyroid adenomas, and parathyroid hyperplasias showed a typical membranous E-cadherin staining pattern.
  • Expression of Snail was found in 22/25 parathyroid adenomas and in all parathyroid hyperplasias.
  • Twist was expressed in 22/25 of parathyroid adenomas and in 20/25 parathyroid hyperplasias.
  • Snail and Twist positive cells were homogeneously distributed throughout the gland.
  • However, in all nine parathyroid carcinomas, membranous E-cadherin staining was lost.
  • In addition, the expression pattern of Snail and Twist was changed and mostly limited to the invasive front of cancer tissue samples.
  • CONCLUSION: Expression of Snail and Twist at the invasive front and consecutive loss of E-cadherin in parathyroid carcinomas suggests a key role of EMT in the tumorigenesis of this cancer.
  • The unique expression pattern could help to distinguish between an adenoma and a non-metastatic carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 19176646.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Twist Transcription Factor; 0 / snail family transcription factors; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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30. Cinacalcet: new drug. Secondary hyperparathyroidism: where are the clinical data? Prescrire Int; 2006 Jun;15(83):90-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Standard treatment consists of a phosphate chelator and vitamin D, along with the use of an appropriate calcium concentration in the dialysis bath, but is difficult to manage. (2) Parathyroid cancer is a rare malignancy frequently associated with hypercalcaemia. (3) Cinacalcet is a calcimimetic agent that reduces the parathormone level.
  • No impact on bone complications is mentioned in available reports. (5) The assessment of treatment of parathyroid cancer is limited to one ongoing non comparative trial involving 21 patients. (6) During clinical trials, 11% of dialysis patients had low parathormone levels, creating a risk of adynamic bone disease and fractures, but available data are sparse. (7) Two-thirds of patients receiving cinacalcet have episodes of hypocalcaemia, which may in part account for reports of seizures (1.4% of patients), nausea (31%) and vomiting (27%).
  • Available assessment reports leave many questions unanswered, and this is a further reason not to use this product outside of clinical trials, either after failure of phosphate chelator and vitamin D therapy (especially as an alternative to surgery) or in parathyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Calcium / metabolism. Clinical Trials as Topic. Humans. Parathyroid Hormone / metabolism. Parathyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Phosphorus / metabolism. Renal Dialysis / adverse effects. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16764095.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-7422
  • [Journal-full-title] Prescrire international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prescrire Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Naphthalenes; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 27YLU75U4W / Phosphorus; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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31. Cheah WK, Rauff A, Lee KO, Tan W: Parathyroid carcinoma: a case series. Ann Acad Med Singapore; 2005 Aug;34(7):443-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Parathyroid carcinoma: a case series.
  • INTRODUCTION: We present 3 patients with parathyroid carcinoma and describe their presentations, clinical profiles, and management.
  • RESULTS: Two women and 1 man (age range, 32 to 57 years) had parathyroid cancer and primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT).
  • One patient presented with osteitis fibrosa, 1 with renal stone and a neck mass, and 1 with recurrence of PHPT after excision of supposedly benign parathyroid adenoma 4 years ago.
  • All had severe hypercalcaemia and elevated parathyroid hormone levels that ranged from 4 to 43 times above the normal range.
  • Exploration of the neck clearly identified 1 parathyroid tumour with local invasion; 2 other specimens showed capsular and vascular invasion on frozen section and final histology.
  • Parathyroid size ranged from 1.3 to 4 cm and no lymph node metastasis was identified.
  • CONCLUSION: Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare endocrine malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypercalcemia / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Parathyroidectomy / methods. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16123819.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-4602
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Acad. Med. Singap.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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32. Rubin MR, Bilezikian JP, Birken S, Silverberg SJ: Human chorionic gonadotropin measurements in parathyroid carcinoma. Eur J Endocrinol; 2008 Oct;159(4):469-74
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Human chorionic gonadotropin measurements in parathyroid carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: Preoperatively, it is difficult to differentiate between parathyroid cancer (PtCa) and severe primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) due to a benign tumor.
  • Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a tumor marker in trophoblastic and nontrophoblastic cancers and hyperglycosylated hCG is increased in hCG-secreting malignancies.
  • We investigated whether hCG can distinguish PtCa cancer from benign disease and add prognostic information.
  • Serum malignant hyperglycosylated hCG values in all of the cancer patients exceeded the maximal serum malignant hCG level of the PHPT subjects with benign disease (3.77 pmol/l).

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  • (PMID = 18625691.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK074457-03; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K24 DK074457; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK32333; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA 98350; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK074457; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K24 DK074457-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA098350; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK032333
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0 / Naphthalenes; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS247354; NLM/ PMC2970867
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33. Agarwal SK, Simonds WF, Marx SJ: The parafibromin tumor suppressor protein interacts with actin-binding proteins actinin-2 and actinin-3. Mol Cancer; 2008 Aug 07;7:65
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  • BACKGROUND: Germline and somatic inactivating mutations in the HRPT2 gene occur in the inherited hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome, in some cases of parathyroid cancer and in some cases of familial hyperparathyroidism.

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  • (PMID = 18687124.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-4598
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] OMIM/ 145001
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ACTN2 protein, human; 0 / ACTN3 protein, human; 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 11003-00-2 / Actinin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2519076
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34. Zhang JH, Panicker LM, Seigneur EM, Lin L, House CD, Morgan W, Chen WC, Mehta H, Haj-Ali M, Yu ZX, Simonds WF: Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein is a conserved target of tumor suppressor HRPT2/CDC73. Cell Death Differ; 2010 Oct;17(10):1551-65
NCI CPTAC Assay Portal. NCI CPTAC Assay Portal .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Parafibromin, a tumor suppressor protein encoded by HRPT2/CDC73 and implicated in parathyroid cancer and the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT) familial cancer syndrome, is part of the PAF1 transcriptional regulatory complex.

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  • (PMID = 20339377.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5403
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell death and differentiation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Death Differ.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / CPEB1 protein, Drosophila; 0 / CPEB1 protein, human; 0 / Drosophila Proteins; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / mRNA Cleavage and Polyadenylation Factors; EC 4.1.1.- / Carboxy-Lyases; EC 4.1.1.- / parafibromin protein, Drosophila
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS294982; NLM/ PMC3109426
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35. Lin L, Zhang JH, Panicker LM, Simonds WF: The parafibromin tumor suppressor protein inhibits cell proliferation by repression of the c-myc proto-oncogene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2008 Nov 11;105(45):17420-5
Gene Ontology. gene/protein/disease-specific - Gene Ontology annotations from this paper .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The parafibromin tumor suppressor protein inhibits cell proliferation by repression of the c-myc proto-oncogene.
  • Parafibromin is a tumor suppressor protein encoded by HRPT2, a gene recently implicated in the hereditary hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome, parathyroid cancer, and a subset of kindreds with familial isolated hyperparathyroidism.
  • We show here that RNA interference with the expression of parafibromin or Paf1 stimulates cell proliferation and increases levels of the c-myc proto-oncogene product, a DNA-binding protein and established regulator of cell growth.
  • This effect results from both c-myc protein stabilization and activation of the c-myc promoter, without alleviation of the c-myc transcriptional pause.
  • Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrates the occupancy of the c-myc promoter by parafibromin and other PAF1 complex subunits in native cells.
  • These experiments provide a previously uncharacterized mechanism for the anti-proliferative action of the parafibromin tumor suppressor protein resulting from PAF1 complex-mediated inhibition of the c-myc proto-oncogene.

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  • (PMID = 18987311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-6490
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 1.13.12.- / Luciferases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2582266
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36. Stålberg P, Carling T: Familial parathyroid tumors: diagnosis and management. World J Surg; 2009 Nov;33(11):2234-43
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Familial parathyroid tumors: diagnosis and management.
  • Issue 3: surgery in familial isolated HPT and HPT-jaw tumor (HPT-JT) syndrome may be treated with parathyroidectomy that is subtotal or less, although the risk of parathyroid cancer in HPT-JT requires attention (no grade of recommendation).
  • Issue 4: parathyroid surgery in familial HPT syndromes in the setting of underlying mutations in the calcium receptor (CASR) gene involves subtotal parathyroidectomy (no grade of recommendation).
  • Issue 5: the use of intraoperative PTH measurements in familial HPT may guide the extent of parathyroid resection (no grade of recommendation).
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / diagnosis. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19184636.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2323
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. Liu FZ, Dong MM, Zhu Y, Zhang Y, Fan QH: [Clinical features of parathyroid space-occupying lesions]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Apr;44(4):282-6
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CALCIUM, ELEMENTAL .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Clinical features of parathyroid space-occupying lesions].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical manifestation, diagnosis, treatment of parathyroid occupying lesions.
  • METHODS: The clinical data of 42 patients with parathyroid occupying lesions were retrospectively analyzed, including the clinical symptoms and signs, laboratory results, pathologic and imaging results and treatment.
  • There were 2 cases of parathyroid cancer, 29 cases of parathyroid adenoma, 11 cases of parathyroid cysts in this study.
  • Serum calcium ion level and serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) level were examined qualitatively before operation.
  • Ultrasonography, ECT-99mTc-MIBI, CT, MRI were used in diagnosing and locating parathyroid occupying lesions before operation.
  • Twenty nine cases of parathyroid adenoma were treated with operation, 28 patients achieved complete remission, 1 suffered relapse after 23 months postoperative follow up.
  • Eleven cases of parathyroid cysts were treated with operation and the outcome was no recurrence.
  • Two cases of parathyroid cancer survived with out recurrence during follow up for 28 months and 50 months after operation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Examination of serum calcium and PTH level together with ultrasonography, ECT-99mTc-MIBI, CT, MRI is helpful to diagnose parathyroid occupying lesions.
  • Tumor resection can be performed for parathyroid cysts, intraoperative exploration of bilateral neck is indicated for parathyroid adenoma, and a radical resection should be performed primarily for the parathyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Calcium / blood. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroidectomy. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19558832.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-0860
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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38. Domínguez JM, Velasco S, Goñi I, León A, González H, Claure R, Arteaga E, Campusano C, Fardella C, López JM, Mosso L, Rodríguez JA, González G: [Usefulness of intraoperative parathormone measurement to predict surgical cure in primary hyperparathyroidism]. Rev Med Chil; 2009 Dec;137(12):1591-6
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CALCIUM, ELEMENTAL .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Utilidad de la PTH intraoperatoria como predictor de curación quirúrgica en hiperparatiroidismo primario.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Serum PTH was measured to all patients operated for PHPT between 2003 and 2008, before and five and ten minutes after the excision of the parathyroid gland causing the disease.
  • The criteria for complete cure were normal serum calcium at 24 hours and 6 months after surgery and the pathological confirmation of parathyroid gland excision.
  • The pathological study disclosed an adenoma in 69 (78%), and multiglandular disease in 16 (18%), a parathyroid cancer in one and a normal gland in one patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Calcium / blood. Hyperparathyroidism / surgery. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20361135.001).
  • [ISSN] 0034-9887
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista médica de Chile
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Chil
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Chile
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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39. Lin L, Czapiga M, Nini L, Zhang JH, Simonds WF: Nuclear localization of the parafibromin tumor suppressor protein implicated in the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome enhances its proapoptotic function. Mol Cancer Res; 2007 Feb;5(2):183-93
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Parafibromin is a tumor suppressor protein encoded by HRPT2, a gene recently implicated in the hereditary hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome, parathyroid cancer, and a subset of kindreds with familial isolated hyperparathyroidism.

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  • (PMID = 17314275.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-7786
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer research : MCR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Localization Signals; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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40. Chen H, Mack E, Starling JR: A comprehensive evaluation of perioperative adjuncts during minimally invasive parathyroidectomy: which is most reliable? Ann Surg; 2005 Sep;242(3):375-80; discussion 380-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the utility of several perioperative adjuncts for parathyroid localization during parathyroid surgery, we prospectively compared the accuracy of sestamibi-single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scanning, radioguided surgery, and intraoperative parathyroid hormone (ioPTH) testing.
  • Several perioperative adjuncts can be used to localize parathyroid adenomas, including sestamibi-SPECT scanning, radioguided surgery, and ioPTH testing.
  • The mean calcium and parathyroid hormone levels were 11.4 +/- 0.1 mg/dL and 136 +/- 6 pg/mL, respectively.
  • Of the 254 patients, 206 (81%) had a single parathyroid adenoma, 28 (11%) had double adenomas, 19 (8%) had hyperplasia, and one had parathyroid cancer.
  • All resected parathyroid glands were hypercellular (mean weight = 895 +/- 86 mg).
  • Of all the perioperative adjuncts used during parathyroid surgery, ioPTH testing has the highest sensitivity, positive predictive value, and accuracy.
  • Thus, the inherent variability of sestamibi scanning and radioguided techniques emphasizes the critical role of ioPTH testing during parathyroid surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroidectomy / methods. Radiosurgery / methods. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods

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  • (PMID = 16135923.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4932
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1357745
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41. Selvarajan S, Sii LH, Lee A, Yip G, Bay BH, Tan MH, Teh BT, Tan PH: Parafibromin expression in breast cancer: a novel marker for prognostication? J Clin Pathol; 2008 Jan;61(1):64-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Parafibromin expression in breast cancer: a novel marker for prognostication?
  • Mutations of the HRPT2 gene are common in parathyroid carcinomas, and these exhibit reduced protein expression.
  • Parafibromin expression in breast cancer has not been previously studied.
  • AIMS: To determine the distribution of parafibromin in breast cancer tissues, and correlate its expression with conventional pathological parameters.
  • METHODS: Tissue microarrays were constructed from archival paraffin embedded breast cancer samples.
  • RESULTS: 163 breast cancers were assessed.
  • CONCLUSION: Parafibromin in breast cancer, as in parathyroid tumours, appears to have tumour suppressor functions, with loss of protein expression associated with adverse pathological parameters.
  • These findings may indicate a potential role of parafibromin as a prognostic marker in breast cancer.

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  • (PMID = 17468290.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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42. Akinci B, Comlekci A, Tankurt E: Hypercalcemia of primary hyperparathyroidism was treated by cinacalcet in a patient with liver cirrhosis. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2009 Mar;117(3):142-5
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  • Cinacalcet is a type II calcimimetic agent which is an allosteric modulator of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) located on the surface of the parathyroid cells.
  • Increasing sensitivity of CaR causes reduced secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and suppression of serum calcium levels.
  • Cinacalcet has recently been approved by Federal Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism on maintenance dialysis and hypercalcemia in patients with parathyroid cancer.
  • As she refused having parathyroid surgery for her parathyroid adenoma at first, her hypercalcemia was treated successfully with 30 mg/day cinacalcet for 6 months.
  • As she accepted surgery this time, her parathyroid adenoma was removed by minimally invasive parathyroidectomy.
  • Parathyroid adenoma was confirmed pathologically.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cinacalcet Hydrochloride. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 18561096.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3646
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Naphthalenes; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride
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43. Arakawa T, D'Amour P, Rousseau L, Brossard JH, Sakai M, Kasumoto H, Igaki N, Goto T, Cantor T, Fukagawa M: Overproduction and secretion of a novel amino-terminal form of parathyroid hormone from a severe type of parathyroid hyperplasia in uremia. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol; 2006 May;1(3):525-31
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Overproduction and secretion of a novel amino-terminal form of parathyroid hormone from a severe type of parathyroid hyperplasia in uremia.
  • Measurement of bioactive parathyroid hormone (PTH) is essential for optimal management of bone abnormalities in dialysis patients.
  • Rare exceptions to this rule have been reported for patients with severe primary hyperparathyroidism or parathyroid cancer.
  • Sera and gland extracts were analyzed from a dialysis patient with high bone turnover disease and with surprising higher PTH levels by a third-generation assay than by a second-generation assay.
  • This finding normalized after the surgical removal of an enlarged gland with a single nodule, an advanced type of nodular hyperplasia.
  • HPLC fractionation of sera and gland extracts revealed the overproduction and secretion of a PTH molecule with an intact amino-terminus structure distinct from (1-84) PTH.
  • Therefore, parathyroid glands with advanced uremic nodular hyperplasia may overproduce and secrete a novel, biologically active form of PTH with an intact 1-6 region but a presumably modified 12-18 region required for the detection in second-generation PTH assays.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / secretion. Parathyroid Hormone / biosynthesis. Parathyroid Hormone / secretion. Uremia / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17699255.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-905X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical journal of the American Society of Nephrology : CJASN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin J Am Soc Nephrol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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44. Brown EM: The calcium-sensing receptor: physiology, pathophysiology and CaR-based therapeutics. Subcell Biochem; 2007;45:139-67
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The extracellular calcium (Ca(o)2+)-sensing receptor (CaR) enables the parathyroid glands and other CaR-expressing cells to sense alterations in the level of Ca(o)2+ and to respond with changes in function that are directed at normalizing the blood calcium concentration.
  • In addition to the parathyroid gland, the kidney is a key site for Ca(o)2(+)-sensing that enables it to make physiologically relevant alterations in divalent cation and water metabolism.
  • Inactivating mutations produce a benign form of hypercalcemia when present in the heterozygous state, termed Familial Hypocalciuric Hypercalcemia (FHH), while homozygous mutations produce a much more severe hypercalcemic disorder resulting from marked hyperparathyroidism, called Neonatal Severe Hyperparathyroidism (NSHPT).
  • The calcimimetics are currently in use for controlling severe hyperparathyroidism in patients receiving dialysis treatment for end stage renal disease or with parathyroid cancer.
  • Calcilytics are being evaluated as a means of inducing a "pulse" in the circulating parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentration, which would mimic that resulting from injection of PTH, an established anabolic form of treatment for osteoporosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Autoimmune Diseases / physiopathology. Calcium / agonists. Calcium / antagonists & inhibitors. Humans. Hypercalcemia / physiopathology. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / physiopathology. Hypoparathyroidism / genetics. Hypoparathyroidism / physiopathology. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Molecular Sequence Data. Parathyroid Glands / physiology

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  • (PMID = 18193637.001).
  • [ISSN] 0306-0225
  • [Journal-full-title] Sub-cellular biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Subcell. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 121
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45. Terzioğlu T, Senyurek YG, Tunca F, Türkmen C, Mudun A, Salmaslıoglu A, Sanlı S, Bircan H, Demirkol O, Tezelman S: Excision efficiency of radioguided occult lesion localization in reoperative thyroid and parathyroid surgery. Thyroid; 2010 Nov;20(11):1271-8
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  • [Title] Excision efficiency of radioguided occult lesion localization in reoperative thyroid and parathyroid surgery.
  • BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficiency of a radioguided occult lesion localization technique in reoperative thyroid and parathyroid procedures in patients who had undergone previous neck exploration for thyroid or parathyroid disease.
  • METHODS: Twenty-one consecutive patients who were scheduled for reoperative thyroid or parathyroid surgery were studied.
  • The indication for reoperation was recurrent papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) in eight patients, completion thyroidectomy for PTC in eight patients who had previously undergone a bilateral subtotal thyroidectomy, recurrent goiter in two patients, primary hyperparathyroidism in two patients, and recurrent parathyroid cancer in one patient.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The radioguided occult lesion localization technique was efficient in the perioperative identification of thyroid and parathyroid tumors in patients who were undergoing reoperation for PTC and hyperparathyroidism.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Goiter / surgery. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Aggregated Albumin. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20950253.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Technetium Tc 99m Aggregated Albumin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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46. Haven CJ, van Puijenbroek M, Tan MH, Teh BT, Fleuren GJ, van Wezel T, Morreau H: Identification of MEN1 and HRPT2 somatic mutations in paraffin-embedded (sporadic) parathyroid carcinomas. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2007 Sep;67(3):370-6
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  • [Title] Identification of MEN1 and HRPT2 somatic mutations in paraffin-embedded (sporadic) parathyroid carcinomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: Parathyroid carcinoma remains difficult to diagnose.
  • Recently, it has been shown that mutations in the HRPT2 gene (encoding parafibromin) are associated with the development of parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Although MEN1 is not typically thought to be involved in carcinoma formation, parathyroid carcinoma may be an extremely rare feature of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome.
  • We recently concluded that loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of the MEN1 gene is present in a relatively large number of parathyroid carcinomas, often in combination with LOH at the HRPT2 locus.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of MEN1 and HRPT2 mutations in sporadic parathyroid tumours fulfilling histological criteria for malignancy.
  • PATIENTS AND DESIGN: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) parathyroid carcinoma tissue from 28 cases identified in the period 1985-2000 in the Netherlands was studied.
  • RESULTS: Somatic MEN1 mutations were found in three of 23 (13%) sporadic parathyroid carcinoma cases; these consisted of one missense and two frameshift mutations.
  • Consistent with previously published reports, we found double mutations (2x) and germline mutations (2x) in apparently sporadic parathyroid carcinomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that not only HRPT2 but also MEN1 mutations may play a role in sporadic parathyroid cancer formation.
  • [MeSH-major] Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / genetics. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17555500.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / MEN1 protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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47. Okamoto T, Iihara M, Obara T, Tsukada T: Parathyroid carcinoma: etiology, diagnosis, and treatment. World J Surg; 2009 Nov;33(11):2343-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Parathyroid carcinoma: etiology, diagnosis, and treatment.
  • BACKGROUND: The goal of the present study was to make our medical practice evidence-based for patients with parathyroid carcinoma.
  • METHODS: We posed six clinical questions relevant to the management of parathyroid cancer.
  • RESULTS: Most of the literature retrieved was retrospective in design and differed in the definition of carcinoma.
  • The distinction between unequivocal and equivocal carcinoma (or atypical adenoma) was not always made for the study populations.
  • None of the patients with "atypical adenoma" developed recurrence, whereas 25% of those with "equivocal carcinoma" did.
  • Mutations in HRPT2, the gene responsible for hereditary hyperparathyroidism with jaw-tumor syndrome, were strongly associated with sporadic parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Severe hypercalcemia and its related clinical symptoms, extremely high levels of parathyroid hormone, osteitis fibrosa cystica, a palpable neck mass, and a relatively large depth-width ratio on ultrasonography, are the important features of parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Disease-specific survival rates reported in the literature were varied, reflecting the differences in the definitions of carcinoma, study populations, and interventions.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / therapy. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19350316.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2323
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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48. Ell PJ: PET/CT in oncology: a major technology for cancer care. Chang Gung Med J; 2005 May;28(5):274-83
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  • [Title] PET/CT in oncology: a major technology for cancer care.
  • PET-CT can image tumor metabolism, proliferation, hypoxia, and apoptosis with precise anatomic image fusion and will become an essential tool in the management of patients with cancer by its ability to assess the extent and severity of disease and treatment response.
  • It has changed dramatically the management of numerous cancers such brain tumors, head and neck cancers, thyroid cancer, parathyroid cancer, lung cancer, esophageal cancer, lymphoma, pancreatic cancer, colorectal cancer, and many others.

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  • (PMID = 16086542.001).
  • [ISSN] 2072-0939
  • [Journal-full-title] Chang Gung medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chang Gung Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Number-of-references] 4
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49. Katoh M, Katoh M: Comparative integromics on Eph family. Int J Oncol; 2006 May;28(5):1243-7
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  • Human EPHA7 mRNA was expressed in embryonic stem (ES) cells, neural tissues, duodenal cancer and parathyroid tumors, while mouse Epha7 mRNA was expressed in fertilized egg, Rathke's pouche, visual cortex, pituitary gland, other neural tissues, pancreas, lung tumors and mammary tumors.
  • D6S1056 microsatellite marker within EPHA7 gene is deleted in prostate cancer.

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  • (PMID = 16596241.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ligands; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Eph Family
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50. Cetani F, Pardi E, Banti C, Collecchi P, Viacava P, Borsari S, Fanelli G, Naccarato AG, Saponaro F, Berti P, Miccoli P, Pinchera A, Marcocci C: Beta-catenin activation is not involved in sporadic parathyroid carcinomas and adenomas. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2010 Mar;17(1):1-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Beta-catenin activation is not involved in sporadic parathyroid carcinomas and adenomas.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate whether Wnt/beta-catenin signaling is activated in parathyroid carcinomas and adenomas.
  • We studied 154 parathyroid tumors (18 carcinomas (13 with distant metastases), six atypical adenomas, and 130 adenomas).
  • Three normal parathyroid tissues were used as control.
  • Immunostaining of beta-catenin was performed in all carcinomas and in 66 adenomas (including three atypical).
  • Normal parathyroid showed a homogeneous distinct outer cell membrane staining in the majority of cells and no nuclear staining.
  • With the exception of one carcinoma, which had a negative membrane staining, all other samples showed a membrane staining which was similar to that of the normal parathyroid. beta-Catenin expression was heterogeneous with a range of positive cells between 5 and 80%, independently of tumor type.
  • Our results suggest that the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway is not involved in the development of parathyroid carcinomas and adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / physiopathology. Carcinoma / physiopathology. Neoplasm Proteins / physiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / physiopathology. Signal Transduction / physiology. Wnt Proteins / physiology. beta Catenin / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19755524.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin
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51. Gill AJ, Clarkson A, Gimm O, Keil J, Dralle H, Howell VM, Marsh DJ: Loss of nuclear expression of parafibromin distinguishes parathyroid carcinomas and hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT) syndrome-related adenomas from sporadic parathyroid adenomas and hyperplasias. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Sep;30(9):1140-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Loss of nuclear expression of parafibromin distinguishes parathyroid carcinomas and hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT) syndrome-related adenomas from sporadic parathyroid adenomas and hyperplasias.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma is notoriously difficult to diagnose with confidence in borderline cases.
  • Commonly there is a long lag time between diagnosis and clinical evidence of malignant behavior even in histopathologically straightforward lesions.
  • There is therefore a need for a novel adjunctive marker to assist in the diagnosis of carcinoma.
  • Subsequently, somatic mutations have been identified in the majority of sporadic carcinomas.
  • We performed immunohistochemistry for parafibromin on 115 parathyroid tissues comprising 4 HPT-JT-related tumors (3 adenomas and 1 carcinoma), 11 sporadic parathyroid carcinomas, 79 sporadic adenomas, 3 multiple endocrine neoplasia 2A-related adenomas, 2 sporadic primary hyperplasias, 2 multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN)-1-related hyperplasias, 6 secondary hyperplasias, 4 tertiary hyperplasias, and 4 normal parathyroid glands.
  • There was complete absence of nuclear staining in 3 of 4 (75%) HPT-JT-related tumors and 8 of 11 (73%) sporadic parathyroid carcinomas and focal weak staining in 1 of 4 HPT-JT tumors and 2 of 11 sporadic parathyroid carcinomas.
  • Only 1 parathyroid carcinoma exhibited diffuse strong nuclear expression of parafibromin.
  • We conclude that, in the correct clinical and pathologic context, complete absence of nuclear staining for parafibromin is diagnostic of parathyroid carcinoma or an HPT-JT-related tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism / complications. Jaw Neoplasms / complications. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16931959.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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52. DeLellis RA: Parathyroid carcinoma: an overview. Adv Anat Pathol; 2005 Mar;12(2):53-61
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  • [Title] Parathyroid carcinoma: an overview.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare tumor that is responsible for <1% of cases of hyperparathyroidism in most parts of the world.
  • Parathyroid carcinomas tend to occur a decade earlier than adenomas, and the sex ratio approaches unity in contrast to the female preponderance of adenomas.
  • Most patients with carcinomas present with marked hypercalcemia and are more likely to have associated bone and renal disease than those with adenomas.
  • Although fibrosis and mitotic activity are common in carcinomas, these features are not specific for malignancy.
  • The diagnosis of carcinoma should be restricted to those tumors that show invasion of blood vessels, perineural spaces, soft tissues, thyroid gland, or other adjacent structures or to tumors with documented metastases.
  • Mutations of the HRPT2 gene (1q21-q32), which are responsible for the HPT-JT syndrome, have been implicated in the development of a high proportion of parathyroid carcinomas.
  • A subset of patients with mutation-positive carcinomas have germline mutations of the HRPT2 gene.
  • This finding suggests that some patients with apparent sporadic parathyroid carcinomas may have the HPT-JT syndrome or a variant of this syndrome.
  • Because of the high frequency of local recurrence following incomplete excision, an en bloc resection is the preferred surgical approach for treatment of parathyroid carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15731573.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-4109
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / MEN1 protein, human; 0 / Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 82
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53. Shimane T, Mori T, Ono T, Egawa S, Furuta A, Ikeda K, Kamakazu K, Kobayashi S, Sanbe T, Suzaki H: [Three cases of adenocarcinoma of the head and neck maintaining QOL by administration of docetaxel]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Dec;37(13):2897-900
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  • [Title] [Three cases of adenocarcinoma of the head and neck maintaining QOL by administration of docetaxel].
  • A primary head and neck adenocarcinoma is a comparatively rare disease, and surgical resection has been the first choice for its treatment.
  • In the present study, we performed chemotherapy with weekly administration of docetaxel in 3 cases with unresectable or recurrent adenocarcinoma of the head and neck on an outpatient basis, resulting in long-term maintenance of the patients' QOL.
  • Each case had submandibular gland carcinoma, parotid gland carcinoma, or parathyroid gland carcinoma.
  • The present results might suggest that it is possible to treat patients with adenocarcinoma in the head and neck without decreasing patients' QOL.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Taxoids / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 21160265.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel
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54. Kameyama K, Takami H: Proposal for the histological classification of parathyroid carcinoma. Endocr Pathol; 2005;16(1):49-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Proposal for the histological classification of parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Although the criteria of Schantz and Castleman are widely used in the diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma, many tumors diagnosed as carcinoma subsequently do not recur.
  • In addition, although Bondeson's criteria are used to grade parathyroid carcinoma, instances of patient mortality have been documented even in cases where the histological features did not conform to the criteria for high grade.
  • Considering our experience, we believe that the subclassification of parathyroid carcinomas defining tumors limited local infiltration as low-grade and those with widespread infiltration as high-grade may be useful.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / classification. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / classification. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16000846.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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55. Cetani F, Pardi E, Ambrogini E, Banti C, Viacava P, Borsari S, Bilezikian JP, Pinchera A, Marcocci C: Hyperparathyroidism 2 gene (HRPT2, CDC73) and parafibromin studies in two patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and uncertain pathological assessment. J Endocrinol Invest; 2008 Oct;31(10):900-4
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  • HRPT2 and parafibromin studies improved the diagnostic accuracy in two patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) referred to us after surgery, in whom the clinical data were at variance with the pathological diagnosis of adenoma and carcinoma, respectively.
  • Patient #1 had had a 1.5-cm tumor easily removed with a histological diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma and normocalcemia for 2 years.
  • Re-examination of the histology showed no cardinal signs of parathyroid cancer.
  • Ten years later PHPT recurred and persisted despite removal of two mildly enlarged parathyroid glands that were histologically normal.
  • Because of the suspicion that case #1 could be an atypical adenoma and case #2 a carcinoma further molecular studies were performed.
  • These data, together with the clinical features, supported the suspicion of a parathyroid carcinoma that was confirmed by histological examination of further slides of the tumor, showing capsular and vascular invasion.
  • Histology showed a metastasis of parathyroid carcinoma.
  • HRPT2 gene studies improved the diagnostic accuracy in 2 parathyroid tumors that are of uncertain type.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / genetics. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19092296.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK032333
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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56. Hewitt KM, Sharma PK, Samowitz W, Hobbs M: Aberrant methylation of the HRPT2 gene in parathyroid carcinoma. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol; 2007 Dec;116(12):928-33
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  • [Title] Aberrant methylation of the HRPT2 gene in parathyroid carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVES: The incidence of parathyroid carcinoma in hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome (HPT-JT) is reported to be as high as 15%.
  • We used a methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MS-PCR) technique to investigate whether hypermethylation is one mechanism of HRPT2 gene inactivation in parathyroid tumors.
  • METHODS: DNA was extracted from samples of parathyroid tumors embedded in paraffin.
  • MS-PCR was performed on 11 parathyroid carcinomas, 37 sporadic parathyroid adenomas from control subjects, and 6 parathyroid adenomas from 3 patients with HPT-JT.
  • Methylated and unmethylated PCR products from 2 tumors (Nos.
  • RESULTS: Two of 11 (18%) parathyroid carcinomas showed amplification patterns consistent with methylation, compared to 0 of 37 sporadic parathyroid adenomas, and 1 of 6 (17%) parathyroid tumor samples from 3 HPT-JT patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: There is increasing evidence that loss of HRPT2 gene expression is strongly associated with parathyroid carcinomas.
  • Our data indicate that methylation of the HRPT2 promoter may be another mechanism by which HRPT2 gene inactivation gives rise to parathyroid carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / genetics. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18217513.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4894
  • [Journal-full-title] The Annals of otology, rhinology, and laryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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57. Cavana P, Vittone V, Capucchio MT, Farca AM: Parathyroid adenocarcinoma in a nephropathic Persian cat. J Feline Med Surg; 2006 Oct;8(5):340-4
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  • [Title] Parathyroid adenocarcinoma in a nephropathic Persian cat.
  • This report describes an uncommon clinical case of cystic parathyroid adenocarcinoma.
  • Diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma was based on histopathological findings.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / veterinary. Cat Diseases / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 16651017.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-612X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of feline medicine and surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Feline Med. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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58. Tkaczyk M, Czupryniak A, Nowicki M: Ectopic mediastinal parathyroid carcinoma as a cause of dialysis-dependent renal failure. Hemodial Int; 2007 Oct;11(4):398-402
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  • [Title] Ectopic mediastinal parathyroid carcinoma as a cause of dialysis-dependent renal failure.
  • Carcinoma of the parathyroid gland is infrequent in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • We describe a case of a 55-year-old man in whom primary parathyroid carcinoma led most likely to the development of end-stage dialysis-dependent renal failure, and the diagnosis of the cancer was delayed due to ectopic localization of the tumor, and dramatic complications in the clinical course of the disease, including acute pancreatitis and peritionitis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / complications. Kidney Failure, Chronic / etiology. Kidney Failure, Chronic / therapy. Mediastinal Neoplasms / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Renal Dialysis / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 17922734.001).
  • [ISSN] 1492-7535
  • [Journal-full-title] Hemodialysis international. International Symposium on Home Hemodialysis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hemodial Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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59. Osmólski A, Osmólski R, Frenkiel Z, Adamiak G: [Primary hyperparathyroidism--case report and review of the literature]. Otolaryngol Pol; 2006;60(1):93-6
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  • Primary hyperparathyroidism which states 85% percent of all kinds of hyperparathyroidism is usually parathyroid adenoma, in 11-15% glandular hyperplasia and in 1-4% parathyroid cancer.
  • Highest sensitivity in localization of ectopic parathyroid adenoma has sestamibi scintigraphy with technetium-99.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16821551.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6657
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngologia polska = The Polish otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 27YLU75U4W / Phosphorus; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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60. Juhlin CC, Haglund F, Villablanca A, Forsberg L, Sandelin K, Bränström R, Larsson C, Höög A: Loss of expression for the Wnt pathway components adenomatous polyposis coli and glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta in parathyroid carcinomas. Int J Oncol; 2009 Feb;34(2):481-92
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  • [Title] Loss of expression for the Wnt pathway components adenomatous polyposis coli and glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta in parathyroid carcinomas.
  • The development of parathyroid carcinoma has been associated with inactivating mutations of the Hyperparathyroidism type 2 (HRPT2) gene encoding parafibromin, a member of the human RNA Polymerase II-Associated Factor Complex (hPAF) and functionally linked to the Wingless type (Wnt) pathway.
  • In this study, we characterized the expression of Wnt pathway molecules in parathyroid benign and malignant tumors.
  • The study comprised 13 tumors from 12 cases of unequivocal parathyroid carcinoma, 18 cases of parathyroid adenoma, as well as non-tumorous parathyroid tissue.
  • Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) was uniformly expressed in non-tumorous parathyroid tissue and adenomas, but absent in carcinomas from 9 of 12 patients (75%).
  • Expression of glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta (GSK3-beta) was lost in 4/12 carcinomas and in 1/18 adenomas.
  • Loss of APC immunoreactivity was significantly associated with parathyroid carcinoma as compared to adenomas (p<0.001), giving a high specificity (100%) and sensitivity (75%) for the detection of parathyroid malignancy.
  • The results suggest the involvement of Wnt-pathway members APC and GSK3-beta in parathyroid carcinoma development.
  • In addition, APC immunohistochemistry could become a useful tool for improved recognition of parathyroid carcinoma together with immunohistochemistry for parafibromin and proliferation index.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / genetics. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 / genetics. Parathyroid Neoplasms / enzymology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Wnt Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / enzymology. Adenoma / genetics. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma / enzymology. Carcinoma / genetics. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / genetics. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 19148484.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Wnt Proteins; EC 2.7.11.1 / glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta; EC 2.7.11.26 / Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3
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61. Yart A, Gstaiger M, Wirbelauer C, Pecnik M, Anastasiou D, Hess D, Krek W: The HRPT2 tumor suppressor gene product parafibromin associates with human PAF1 and RNA polymerase II. Mol Cell Biol; 2005 Jun;25(12):5052-60
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  • Inactivation of the HRPT2 tumor suppressor gene is associated with the pathogenesis of the hereditary hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome and malignancy in sporadic parathyroid tumors.
  • Dysfunction of this pathway may be a general phenomenon in the majority of cases of hereditary parathyroid cancer.


62. Falvo L, Catania A, Palermo S, Sorrenti S, Bonifazi AP, De Stefano M, Berni A: Bilateral synchronous parathyroid carcinoma in a patient on long-term hemodialysis: presentation of a rare clinical case and review literature. Int Surg; 2005 Jan-Mar;90(1):18-22
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  • [Title] Bilateral synchronous parathyroid carcinoma in a patient on long-term hemodialysis: presentation of a rare clinical case and review literature.
  • Synchronous bilateral carcinoma of the parathyroid in subjects undergoing prolonged hemodialysis is an extremely rare pathology.
  • After observing a clinical case, we reviewed the literature on parathyroid carcinoma.
  • We describe the clinical case of a 61-year-old man with synchronous bilateral carcinoma of the parathyroid.
  • He had a long history of terminal renal insufficiency and had been undergoing hemodialysis for about 18 years before being referred to us with a diagnosis of secondary hyperparathyroidism.
  • The interoperative parathormone assay displayed a 68% decrease in parathyroid hormone (PTH) compared with baseline value, and the histologic examination of the two inferior parathyroid glands revealed the presence of invasive parathyroid carcinoma.
  • After reviewing the case, we hypothesized that in the presence of chronic parathyroid stimulation, the hyperplasia of the gland may subsequently be transformed into carcinoma.
  • In patients undergoing hemodialysis, the predominance of females in cases of carcinoma of the parathyroid might be accounted for by a hormonal mechanism or by statistical artifacts attributable to the small number of case histories available.
  • Further analysis was made of the apparently favorable prognosis of this type of patient compared with sporadic parathyroid carcinomas; the mean follow-up period reported in the literature was 42.2 months, with a relapse rate of 15.8%.
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney Failure, Chronic / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / epidemiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Renal Dialysis

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  • [ErratumIn] Int Surg. 2005 Apr-Jun;90(2):table of contents. Salvatore, Salvatore [corrected to Sorrenti, Salvatore]
  • (PMID = 15912894.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-8868
  • [Journal-full-title] International surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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63. Melton GB, Somervell H, Friedman KP, Zeiger MA, Cahid Civelek A: Interpretation of 99mTc sestamibi parathyroid SPECT scan is improved when read by the surgeon and nuclear medicine physician together. Nucl Med Commun; 2005 Jul;26(7):633-8
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  • [Title] Interpretation of 99mTc sestamibi parathyroid SPECT scan is improved when read by the surgeon and nuclear medicine physician together.
  • OBJECTIVE: Parathyroid gland localization and lateralization are important before surgery, particularly for minimally invasive parathyroidectomy (MIP) and recurrent hyperparathyroidism.
  • Of 127 patients, 83 had single adenomas; 27, double adenomas; 15, hyperplasia; one, MENIIA; and one, parathyroid cancer.
  • The most common finding interpreted incorrectly by NMP alone and correctly by NMP+S was an ectopic superior parathyroid adenoma in the inferior position.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Parathyroid sestamibi SPECT scan interpretation by an endocrine surgeon reading with a nuclear medicine attending resulted in improved accuracy of gland localization and lateralization compared to a nuclear medicine attending reading alone.

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  • (PMID = 15942484.001).
  • [ISSN] 0143-3636
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuclear medicine communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucl Med Commun
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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64. Komori T, Narabayashi I, Matsumura K, Matsuki M, Akagi H, Ogura Y, Aga F, Adachi I: 2-[Fluorine-18]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography versus whole-body diffusion-weighted MRI for detection of malignant lesions: initial experience. Ann Nucl Med; 2007 Jun;21(4):209-15
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  • METHODS: DWIBS and (18)F-FDG PET/computed tomography (CT) were performed on 16 cancer patients on the same day.
  • The diagnoses were the following: lung cancer (n = 12), colon cancer (n = 2), breast cancer (n = 1), and pulmonary metastasis (n = 1).
  • A total of 27 malignant tumors (15 lung cancer, 5 pulmonary metastases of parathyroid cancer, 3 pulmonary metastases of lung cancer, 3 colon cancer, 1 breast cancer) and seven reference organs around malignant lesions (two liver regions, four normal lymph nodes, one muscle region) were evaluated visually and quantitatively using the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) (x10(-3) mm(2)/s) and standardized uptake value (SUV).
  • [MeSH-major] Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 / pharmacology. Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals / pharmacology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 17581719.001).
  • [ISSN] 0914-7187
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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65. Miyakoshi M, Kamoi K, Takano T, Nishihara M, Kawashima T, Sudo N, Togashi K, Emura I, Williams D: Multiple brown tumors in primary hyperparathyroidism caused by an adenoma mimicking metastatic bone disease with false positive results on computed tomography and Tc-99m sestamibi imaging: MR findings. Endocr J; 2007 Apr;54(2):205-10
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  • We encountered an unusual case of hyperparathyroidism with both hemosiderin deposits on the ribs and low intensity on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) caused by a parathyroid adenoma with multiple brown tumors that mimicked metastatic bone tumor due to false positive results on computed tomography (CT) and Tc-99m sestamibi (MIBI) imaging.
  • These findings suggested that the patient had hyperparathyroidism with multiple bone metastases due to carcinoma of the parathyroid gland.
  • However, on pathology, the resected tumor of lower portion of the left lobe of thyroid was diagnosed as a parathyroid adenoma, and the tumors of the left 3rd and 7th ribs, as well as the right 2nd rib, were shown to be brown tumors.
  • It is necessary to determine whether MRI can be used to distinguish between brown tumors and metastases caused by carcinoma of the parathyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Radiopharmaceuticals. Ribs. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Diagnosis, Differential. False Positive Reactions. Female. Hemosiderin / metabolism. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Radionuclide Imaging

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  • (PMID = 17237612.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-8959
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 9011-92-1 / Hemosiderin; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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66. Corbetta S, Vaira V, Guarnieri V, Scillitani A, Eller-Vainicher C, Ferrero S, Vicentini L, Chiodini I, Bisceglia M, Beck-Peccoz P, Bosari S, Spada A: Differential expression of microRNAs in human parathyroid carcinomas compared with normal parathyroid tissue. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2010 Mar;17(1):135-46
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  • [Title] Differential expression of microRNAs in human parathyroid carcinomas compared with normal parathyroid tissue.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma (PaC) is a rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Though the loss of the oncosuppressor CDC73/HRPT2 gene product, parafibromin, has been involved in the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome and in a consistent set of sporadic PaCs, parathyroid carcinogenesis remains obscure.
  • MicroRNAs are a new class of small, non-coding RNAs implicated in development of cancer, since their deregulation can induce aberrant expression of several target genes.
  • The aim of the present study was to identify differentially expressed microRNAs in parathyroid cancers compared with normal tissues.
  • We performed a TaqMan low-density array profiling of four parathyroid cancers harboring CDC73 inactivating mutations and negative for parafibromin immunostaining.
  • Their microRNA profiling was compared with that of two normal parathyroid biopsies.
  • Fourteen and three microRNAs were significantly down- and over-expressed in parathyroid cancers respectively.
  • Carcinomas could be discriminated from parathyroid adenomas by a computed score based on the expression levels of miR-296, miR-222, and miR-503 as miR-139 was similarly down-regulated in both cancers and adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics. MicroRNAs / genetics. Parathyroid Glands / metabolism. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19926710.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MIRN296 microRNA, human; 0 / MicroRNAs
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67. Delellis RA: Challenging lesions in the differential diagnosis of endocrine tumors: parathyroid carcinoma. Endocr Pathol; 2008;19(4):221-5
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  • [Title] Challenging lesions in the differential diagnosis of endocrine tumors: parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Parathyroid neoplasms encompass a spectrum of proliferative lesions that include adenomas, atypical adenomas, and carcinomas.
  • While the diagnosis of adenomas is usually straightforward, parathyroid carcinomas (PTCAs) often present considerable diagnostic challenges.
  • An unequivocal diagnosis of PTCA should be restricted to those tumors that invade adjacent soft tissues, thyroid gland, blood vessels, or perineural spaces or to those cases with documented metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Nucleus / chemistry. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mutation. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19058032.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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68. Howell VM, Gill A, Clarkson A, Nelson AE, Dunne R, Delbridge LW, Robinson BG, Teh BT, Gimm O, Marsh DJ: Accuracy of combined protein gene product 9.5 and parafibromin markers for immunohistochemical diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Feb;94(2):434-41
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  • [Title] Accuracy of combined protein gene product 9.5 and parafibromin markers for immunohistochemical diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma.
  • CONTEXT: Parafibromin, encoded by HRPT2, is the first marker with significant benefit in the diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma.
  • However, because parafibromin is only involved in up to 70% of parathyroid carcinomas and loss of parafibromin immunoreactivity may not be observed in all cases of HRPT2 mutation, a complementary marker is needed.
  • OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the efficacy of increased expression of protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5), encoded by ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal esterase L1 (UCHL1) as an additional marker to loss of parafibromin immunoreactivity for the diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma.
  • DESIGN: In total, 146 parathyroid tumors and nine normal tissues were analyzed for the expression of parafibromin and PGP9.5 by immunohistochemistry and for UCHL1 by quantitative RT-PCR.
  • These samples included six hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome-related tumors and 24 sporadic carcinomas.
  • RESULTS: In tumors with evidence of malignancy, strong staining for PGP9.5 had a sensitivity of 78% for the detection of parathyroid carcinoma and/or HRPT2 mutation and a specificity of 100%.
  • Furthermore, UCHL1 was highly expressed in the carcinoma/hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome group compared to normal (P < 0.05) and benign specimens (P < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSION: These results suggest that positive staining for PGP9.5 has utility as a marker for parathyroid malignancy, with a slightly superior sensitivity (P = 0.03) and similar high specificity to that of parafibromin.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism. Ubiquitin Thiolesterase / metabolism


69. Cetani F, Ambrogini E, Viacava P, Pardi E, Fanelli G, Naccarato AG, Borsari S, Lemmi M, Berti P, Miccoli P, Pinchera A, Marcocci C: Should parafibromin staining replace HRTP2 gene analysis as an additional tool for histologic diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma? Eur J Endocrinol; 2007 May;156(5):547-54
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  • [Title] Should parafibromin staining replace HRTP2 gene analysis as an additional tool for histologic diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma?
  • OBJECTIVE: HRPT2 gene mutations are associated with parathyroid carcinomas, and absence of parafibromin immunoreactivity has been suggested as a diagnostic marker of malignancy.
  • The aim of our study was to extend parafibromin studies in a series of benign and malignant parathyroid tumors and cross-validate the results of immunohistochemistry with those of HRPT2 analysis.
  • DESIGN AND PATIENTS: We performed parafibromin and cyclin D1 immunostaining and HRPT2 gene analysis using loss of heterozygosity studies and sequencing analysis in parathyroid specimens from 11 patients with carcinoma (eleven primary tumors, one skin, and four lung metastases), 22 with sporadic adenomas, and 4 with atypical adenomas.
  • RESULTS: Ten out of eleven parathyroid cancers were negative for parafibromin staining and showed HRPT2 gene abnormalities.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We have shown that negative parafibromin staining is almost invariably associated with HRPT2 mutations and confirm that loss of parafibromin staining strongly predicts parathyroid malignancy.
  • In clinical practice, these tests could be particularly useful in the subset of parathyroid tumors with equivocal histological examination.

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  • (PMID = 17468190.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
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70. Ashkenazi D, Elmalah I, Rakover Y, Luboshitzky R: Concurrent nonfunctioning parathyroid carcinoma and parathyroid adenoma. Am J Otolaryngol; 2006 May-Jun;27(3):204-6
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  • [Title] Concurrent nonfunctioning parathyroid carcinoma and parathyroid adenoma.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare etiology of primary hyperparathyroidism characterized by severe clinical symptoms of hypercalcemia and markedly elevated serum parathormone levels.
  • Nonfunctioning parathyroid carcinoma is an inactive form of the disease.
  • There are less than 30 reports of nonfunctioning parathyroid carcinoma in the English literature and the association with parathyroid adenoma has not been described.
  • This report describes a patient with concurrent nonfunctioning parathyroid carcinoma and a functioning parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Carcinoma / surgery. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Middle Aged. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi

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  • (PMID = 16647986.001).
  • [ISSN] 0196-0709
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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71. Wilkins BJ, Lewis JS Jr: Non-functional parathyroid carcinoma: a review of the literature and report of a case requiring extensive surgery. Head Neck Pathol; 2009 Jun;3(2):140-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Non-functional parathyroid carcinoma: a review of the literature and report of a case requiring extensive surgery.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare malignancy, and only accounts for 0.5-2% of cases of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Less than 10% of parathyroid carcinomas are non-functional, and as such, they have been rarely reported in the literature.
  • Importantly, margin status at resection is related to prognosis, and only a handful of case reports of non-functional carcinoma note this important parameter.
  • Here we report the first case of non-functional parathyroid carcinoma with negative margins, and review the literature on this rare entity.
  • Whether functional or non-functional, parathyroid carcinoma can often be difficult to differentiate from benign parathyroid adenoma.
  • While diagnosis has been based on clinical and histological criteria, recent data concerning the molecular underpinnings of parathyroid carcinoma may allow for improved accuracy in distinguishing benign and malignant parathyroid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19644546.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-0568
  • [Journal-full-title] Head and neck pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antihypertensive Agents; 0 / Hypoglycemic Agents; 1J444QC288 / Amlodipine; 9100L32L2N / Metformin
  • [Number-of-references] 41
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Carcinoma / Non-functional / Parafibromin / Parathyroid
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72. Eichler S, Kolvenbach M, Koischwitz D: [Sonographic diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma]. Ultraschall Med; 2006 Oct;27(5):478-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Sonographic diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma].
  • Prognosis and survival of patients suffering from parathyroid carcinoma are completely dependent on correct surgical therapy in form of an en-bloc resection of the tumour.
  • A correct preoperative diagnosis of this rare carcinoma is therefore absolutely mandatory in order to perform a curative operation.
  • We demonstrate a case of parathyroid carcinoma in which scintigraphy and CT diagnostics did not produce the right diagnosis.
  • Preoperative high-resolution ultrasound (8 MHz) in combination with power-Doppler-sonography, however, led to the right diagnosis by demonstrating the correct topography, signs of malignancy and the feeding vessels of the tumour.
  • As it could be demonstrated that the inferior thyroid artery was displaced by the tumour and was not a tumour feeding artery, the inferior thyroid artery was an important additional landmark for making the decision between thyroid or parathyroid carcinoma.
  • The use of power-Doppler-sonography for identification of feeding arteries associated with parathyroid carcinoma in addition to high-resolution small parts sonography is of great value for the distinction between thyroid or parathyroid tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma / radiography. Carcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma / ultrasonography. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Reproducibility of Results. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex / methods

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  • (PMID = 16596507.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-4614
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultraschall in der Medizin (Stuttgart, Germany : 1980)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultraschall Med
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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73. Damadi A, Harkema J, Kareti R, Saxe A: Use of pre-operative Tc99m-Sestamibi scintigraphy and intraoperative parathyroid hormone monitoring to eliminate neck exploration in mediastinal parathyroid adenocarcinoma. J Surg Educ; 2007 Mar-Apr;64(2):108-12

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Use of pre-operative Tc99m-Sestamibi scintigraphy and intraoperative parathyroid hormone monitoring to eliminate neck exploration in mediastinal parathyroid adenocarcinoma.
  • A 66-year-old white woman was found to have an elevated serum calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH) on routine health evaluation.
  • A sestamibi parathyroid scan revealed abnormal uptake in the anterior mediastinum.
  • Computed tomography of the chest demonstrated an anterior mediastinal mass compatible with a parathyroid adenoma but no neck masses.
  • The mass was completely resected with surrounding thymus gland.
  • Frozen section confirmed that excised tissue was parathyroid gland in origin.
  • Traditional recommendations have been to "clear the neck" of abnormal parathyroid tissue before undertaking a more morbid sternotomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Monitoring, Intraoperative. Neck / surgery. Parathyroid Hormone / analysis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Preoperative Care. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi

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  • (PMID = 17462212.001).
  • [ISSN] 1931-7204
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical education
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Educ
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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74. Montenegro FL, Tavares MR, Durazzo MD, Cernea CR, Cordeiro AC, Ferraz AR: Clinical suspicion and parathyroid carcinoma management. Sao Paulo Med J; 2006 Jan 5;124(1):42-4
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  • [Title] Clinical suspicion and parathyroid carcinoma management.
  • CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Adequate management of parathyroid carcinoma apparently relates to the surgeons ability to identify it at the first operation.
  • The objective of this paper was to evaluate the role of clinical suspicion in the management of parathyroid carcinoma.
  • DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective analysis of parathyroid carcinoma patients treated in Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo.
  • These cases were reviewed to ascertain whether preoperative and intraoperative suspicion of parathyroid carcinoma were helpful during the operation, and which factors demonstrated the suspicion of cancer best.
  • RESULTS: Among 66 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism there were four cases of parathyroid carcinoma (6.1%), and one case was found in secondary hyperparathyroidism (1.3%).
  • Palpable nodules were found in five patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, four of them with parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Preoperative levels of calcium in primary hyperparathyroidism with cancer patients varied from 12.0 mg/dl to 18.2 mg/dl.
  • In secondary hyperparathyroidism, parathyroid carcinoma was found in a fifth mediastinal gland.
  • CONCLUSIONS: High levels of calcium, palpable tumors and adherence to close structures are more common in parathyroid carcinoma.
  • These clinical signs may be helpful for decision-making during parathyroid surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Hyperparathyroidism / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16612462.001).
  • [ISSN] 1516-3180
  • [Journal-full-title] São Paulo medical journal = Revista paulista de medicina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sao Paulo Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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75. Messerer CL, Bugis SP, Baliski C, Wiseman SM: Normocalcemic parathyroid carcinoma: an unusual clinical presentation. World J Surg Oncol; 2006;4:10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Normocalcemic parathyroid carcinoma: an unusual clinical presentation.
  • BACKGROUND: Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism and may be associated with significant disease related morbidity and mortality.
  • Preoperative diagnosis remains a challenge, which may jeopardize appropriate and successful patient treatment.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of parathyroid carcinoma diagnosed in a 60-year-old woman that presented with a tender nodule located at the left lower thyroid pole and had been present for several years.
  • Histopathological evaluation was diagnostic for a parathyroid carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare endocrine tumor which must be considered in the differential diagnosis of a nodular thyroid mass.

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  • (PMID = 16504029.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1397832
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76. Iihara M, Okamoto T, Suzuki R, Kawamata A, Nishikawa T, Kobayashi M, Obara T: Functional parathyroid carcinoma: Long-term treatment outcome and risk factor analysis. Surgery; 2007 Dec;142(6):936-43; discussion 943.e1
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Functional parathyroid carcinoma: Long-term treatment outcome and risk factor analysis.
  • BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to evaluate the long-term outcome of surgical treatment in patients with functional parathyroid carcinoma and to clarify factors determining prognosis.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review of 38 patients with parathyroid carcinoma was performed.
  • RESULTS: Fifteen patients developed persistent or recurrent parathyroid carcinoma, and 9 patients died of the disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Parathyroid carcinomas with locoregional extension at initial surgery have potential for recurrence.
  • Our data suggest that aggressive surgical resection of recurrent parathyroid carcinoma is beneficial for palliation of hypercalcemia in selected patients.
  • Ki-67 staining may be a valuable prognostic factor for patients with parathyroid carcinoma, especially as tumors with indices greater than 10% are more likely to recur in the early postoperative period.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / mortality. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [ErratumIn] Surgery. 2008 Feb;143(2):302
  • (PMID = 18063079.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-7361
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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77. Pianou N, Housianakou I, Papathanasiou N, Karampina P, Giannopoulou C: [Brown tumors in the technetium-99m methyldiphosphonate bone scan mimicking metastases of parathyroid carcinoma]. Hell J Nucl Med; 2006 May-Aug;9(2):146-8
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  • [Title] [Brown tumors in the technetium-99m methyldiphosphonate bone scan mimicking metastases of parathyroid carcinoma].
  • This is a case of a 78 year old male with parathyroid carcinoma and multiple bone lesions in the technetium-99m methyldiphosphonate ((99m)Tc-MDP) bone scan, initially interpreted as metastatic bone disease, but finally proved to be brown tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Bone Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / radionuclide imaging. Osteitis Fibrosa Cystica / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Technetium Tc 99m Medronate
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Radiopharmaceuticals

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  • (PMID = 16894425.001).
  • [ISSN] 1790-5427
  • [Journal-full-title] Hellenic journal of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hell J Nucl Med
  • [Language] gre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; X89XV46R07 / Technetium Tc 99m Medronate
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78. Horie I, Ando T, Inokuchi N, Mihara Y, Miura S, Imaizumi M, Usa T, Kinoshita N, Sekine I, Kamihara S, Eguchi K: First Japanese patient treated with parathyroid hormone peptide immunization for refractory hypercalcemia caused by metastatic parathyroid carcinoma. Endocr J; 2010;57(4):287-92
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  • [Title] First Japanese patient treated with parathyroid hormone peptide immunization for refractory hypercalcemia caused by metastatic parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Patients with unresectable parathyroid carcinoma develop severe hypercalcemia, bone fractures and renal failure, and become unresponsive to conventional treatments.
  • It has been shown that successful induction of anti-parathyroid hormone (PTH) antibodies, using PTH peptide fragments for immunisation, normalized serum levels of calcium as well as improved clinical symptoms.
  • Here, we report our experience of PTH immunization in a Japanese female suffering from refractory hypercalcemia and renal failure caused by unresectable metastatic parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Therefore, we concluded that PTH immunization was an effective treatment against hypercalcemia caused by metastatic parathyroid carcinomas that are unresponsive to conventional treatments.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / complications. Hypercalcemia / therapy. Immunization. Parathyroid Hormone / immunology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 20051648.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Peptide Fragments
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79. Sorrentino F, Atzeni J, Romano G, Buscemi G, Romano M: [Differentiated microcarcinoma of the thyroid gland]. G Chir; 2010 Jun-Jul;31(6-7):277-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Differentiated microcarcinoma of the thyroid gland].
  • [Transliterated title] Il microcarcinoma differenziato della tiroide.
  • The papillary microcarcinoma is the most common form of thyroid cancer, followed by follicular microcarcinoma.
  • RESULTS: 42 carcinomas were detected, of which 24 PTMC and 1 follicular microcarcinoma.
  • The PTMC was associated with cancer in only 2 cases (papillary carcinoma and parathyroid carcinoma) in the remaining thyroid tissue was suffering from benign disease (20 goiters, 3 Hashimoto thyroiditis, a trabecular adenoma).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid in our series, represents 57% of all thyroid cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Lymph Node Excision. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 20646369.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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80. Lee YS, Hong SW, Jeong JJ, Nam KH, Chung WY, Chang HS, Park CS: Parathyroid carcinoma: a 16-year experience in a single institution. Endocr J; 2010;57(6):493-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Parathyroid carcinoma: a 16-year experience in a single institution.
  • INTRODUCTION: This study aims to describe our experiences of parathyroid carcinoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The data of clinicopathological features, surgical treatment and outcomes of seven cases of parathyroid carcinoma among 171 patients who underwent surgery for primary hyperparathyroidism over a 16-year period were analyzed.
  • RESULTS: The major symptoms at the diagnosis included a neck mass in three cases and multiple bone pain in five.
  • No remarkable increases of serum calcium levels were noted in the patients, but serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations were high in most of the patients (4 of 5 in available).
  • A variety of imaging studies including ultrasonography, sestamibi scan, and computed tomography scan were helpful in identifying the abnormal parathyroid glands, but not specific for the diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma.
  • In most patients, the parathyroid carcinomas were suspected at the time of neck exploration, and confirmed by final histopathologic examinations.
  • CONCLUSION: Preoperative diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma is difficult, but operative findings are helpful in the diagnosis.
  • The optimal surgical treatment is en block radical resection including adjacent structures when parathyroid carcinoma is suspected.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Calcium / blood. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroidectomy. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20208397.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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81. Fernandez-Ranvier GG, Jensen K, Khanafshar E, Quivey JM, Glastonbury C, Kebebew E, Duh QY, Clark OH: Nonfunctioning parathyroid carcinoma: case report and review of literature. Endocr Pract; 2007 Nov-Dec;13(7):750-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Nonfunctioning parathyroid carcinoma: case report and review of literature.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report a case of nonfunctioning parathyroid carcinoma that was incidentally found during a thyroidectomy for multinodular goiter.
  • METHODS: We present a case report, detailing the clinical course and histologic findings in a patient with a nonfunctional parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Histologic examination revealed not only a multinodular thyroid but also a mass in the left lobe, which was diagnostic of a parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels were normal postoperatively.
  • Eleven months after the initial operation, a suprasternal mass developed, and she underwent neck reexploration and subtotal resection of an invasive recurrent nonfunctioning parathyroid carcinoma.
  • The serum parathyroid hormone and calcium levels were normal before and after the operation.
  • Twenty-three months after the initial operation, a computed tomographic scan of the chest revealed an interval increase in size of a nodule in the left lower lobe of the lung, and 30 months after her initial operation, she underwent resection of an isolated, 1-cm (greatest diameter), metastatic parathyroid carcinoma in the left lower lobe of the lung.
  • CONCLUSION: Nonfunctioning parathyroid carcinomas are difficult to diagnose and to treat.
  • Patients with nonfunctioning parathyroid carcinomas appear to have a poorer prognosis than do those with functioning parathyroid cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Calcium / blood. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Goiter, Nodular / complications. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Goiter, Nodular / surgery. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroidectomy. Radiotherapy. Thyroidectomy. Thyrotropin / blood. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18194932.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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82. Righi A, Dimosthenous K, Mize J: Mediastinal parathyroid carcinoma with tumor implants in a child: a unique occurrence. Int J Surg Pathol; 2008 Oct;16(4):458-60
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  • [Title] Mediastinal parathyroid carcinoma with tumor implants in a child: a unique occurrence.
  • A case of mediastinal parathyroid carcinoma is reported in a 10-year-old child.
  • [MeSH-major] Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18701514.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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83. Chaudhuri T, Chaterjee S, Mukherjee SK, Sengupta A, Mukhopadhyay AS: A rare presentation in a case of parathyroid carcinoma. J Indian Med Assoc; 2009 Apr;107(4):244-5
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  • [Title] A rare presentation in a case of parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma is a very rare endocrine malignancy, which usually presents with features of hypercalcaemia and a neck mass.
  • Here a case of parathyroid carcinoma, whose only presenting feature was multiple pathological fractures, without any palpable neck mass is reported.
  • En masse resection of the parathyroid mass along with ipsilateral hemithyroidectomy was performed, while the fractures were treated conservatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Parathyroidectomy / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19810371.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-5847
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Indian Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Indian Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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84. Osawa N, Onoda N, Kawajiri H, Tezuka K, Takashima T, Ishikawa T, Miyauchi A, Hirokawa M, Wakasa K, Hirakawa K: Diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma using immunohistochemical staining against hTERT. Int J Mol Med; 2009 Dec;24(6):733-41
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  • [Title] Diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma using immunohistochemical staining against hTERT.
  • The differential diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma from benign adenoma is often difficult when its typical clinicopathological features are absent, even with the aid of various molecular markers.
  • We recently demonstrated that telomerase activation through hTERT expression is a unique characteristic that is limited to parathyroid carcinoma and not seen in benign tumors.
  • In the present study, we investigated hTERT expression in parathyroid tumors using immunohistochemistry in an attempt to determine its clinical utility.
  • There was no evidence of immunoreactivity in the 4 normal parathyroid glands and the 18 typical adenomas.
  • All of the 6 carcinomas demonstrated a clear positive nuclear staining of hTERT.
  • Nucleolin, an hTERT-binding protein, was abundantly and homogeneously expressed in all specimens examined independent of the pathological diagnosis and hTERT or Ki-67 expression.
  • Therefore, it is possible that immunostaining with an anti-hTERT antigen (NCL-L-hTERT) individually may distinguish parathyroid carcinoma from benign tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / enzymology. Telomerase / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19885612.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-244X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of molecular medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Mol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / nucleolin; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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85. Agarwal G, Dhingra S, Mishra SK, Krishnani N: Implantation of parathyroid carcinoma along fine needle aspiration track. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2006 Nov;391(6):623-6
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  • [Title] Implantation of parathyroid carcinoma along fine needle aspiration track.
  • INTRODUCTION: Fine needle aspiration cytology is not a commonly employed diagnostic modality in the diagnosis of parathyroid tumors.
  • CASE REPORT: A 28 year old lady being followed-up for 5 years after en bloc resection of a parathyroid carcinoma presented with a nodule in the lower neck, away from the parathyroidectomy scar.
  • On evaluation, she had mild hypercalcemia and high normal serum parathyroid hormone levels.
  • FNAC and histology including immunohistochemistry for Chromogranin A after local excision of the nodule confirmed the nodule to be a recurrent parathyroid carcinoma along the needle track.
  • DISCUSSION: To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is only the second case of needle track implantation after FNA in parathyroid carcinoma reported to date.
  • This case highlights the risk of engraftment of parathyroid tissue after FNA and cautions against the use of FNA as a preoperative diagnostic modality for the evaluation of parathyroid lesions.

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  • (PMID = 17021789.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2443
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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86. Fiedler AG, Rossi C, Gingalewski CA: Parathyroid carcinoma in a child: an unusual case of an ectopically located malignant parathyroid gland with tumor invading the thymus. J Pediatr Surg; 2009 Aug;44(8):1649-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Parathyroid carcinoma in a child: an unusual case of an ectopically located malignant parathyroid gland with tumor invading the thymus.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma is exceptionally rare in children.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma in the pediatric population most typically presents with significant hypercalcemia and a palpable neck mass.
  • The authors report the seventh case of parathyroid carcinoma diagnosed in a child younger than 16 years.
  • To our knowledge, this case is the first documented case, in the pediatric population, of parathyroid carcinoma in an ectopically located parathyroid gland with tumor invading the thymus.
  • [MeSH-major] Choristoma / diagnosis. Choristoma / surgery. Mediastinal Diseases / diagnosis. Mediastinal Diseases / surgery. Parathyroid Glands. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thymus Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19635322.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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87. Chen J, Liu J, Wang J: [Diagnosis and surgical treatment of parathyroid carcinoma]. Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2010 Jun;24(12):541-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Diagnosis and surgical treatment of parathyroid carcinoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnosis and surgical treatment of parathyroid carcinoma (PTC).
  • Frozen section established diagnosis in only one case.
  • Routine histopathology combined with immunohistochemistry established the diagnosis in 3 patients.
  • CONCLUSION: The diagnosis of PTC is difficult before operation.
  • Routine blood examinations: blood calcium, blood PTH; Imaging examinations: ultrasonography, CT are helpful to diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20806856.001).
  • [ISSN] 1001-1781
  • [Journal-full-title] Lin chuang er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Journal of clinical otorhinolaryngology, head, and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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88. Kleinpeter KP, Lovato JF, Clark PB, Wooldridge T, Norman ES, Bergman S, Perrier ND: Is parathyroid carcinoma indeed a lethal disease? Ann Surg Oncol; 2005 Mar;12(3):260-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Is parathyroid carcinoma indeed a lethal disease?
  • BACKGROUND: Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare malignancy with a wide range of aggressiveness.
  • Our primary aim was to review the presentation, diagnosis, surgical treatment, and outcomes of patients, with the goal of assessing the incidence of death related to parathyroid carcinoma.
  • METHODS: The authors present a retrospective chart review on patients with parathyroid carcinoma from 1975 to 2004, identified by the tumor registry of a single tertiary-care center.
  • Median parathyroid hormone was 290 pg/mL.
  • Three of ten deaths were attributed to parathyroid carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Long-term survival is possible with parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Death associated with parathyroid carcinoma was uncommon.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / mortality. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Calcium / blood. Female. Humans. Male. Medical Records. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15827819.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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89. Xu SM, Wang P, Chen LR, Li ZY, Li GG: [Diagnosis and treatment of parathyroid carcinoma: 9 cases report and literature review]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2010 Jun 15;48(12):886-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Diagnosis and treatment of parathyroid carcinoma: 9 cases report and literature review].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the diagnosis and surgical treatment of parathyroid carcinoma.
  • METHODS: The clinical data of 9 cases of parathyroid carcinoma treated from January 1967 to December 2009 was analyzed retrospectively with the review of related Chinese literatures.
  • RESULTS: Parathyroid carcinoma accounted for 8.9% (8/90) of all patients with primary hyperparathyroidism in our hospital, and the other one case was transferred from another hospital.
  • Considering preoperative, intraoperative data and frozen sections pathology, all patients were diagnosed as parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Nine patients were followed-up for 1 - 14 years, no recurrence occurred, and the patient received palliative resection died from carcinoma two years after the operation.
  • In previous Chinese literatures and this group, there were total 146 patients reported as parathyroid carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma is established according to severe hypercalcemia, clinical features, subset B-ultrasound and Tc(99m)-sestamibi scanning, intraoperative finding of adherence to close structures and histopathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hypercalcemia / diagnosis. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroidectomy / methods. Retrospective Studies. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi

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  • (PMID = 21055220.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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90. Revert Marrahí P, Moreno Pérez O, Aznar Rodríguez S, Martínez Fuster S, López Maciá A, Boix Carreño E, Picó Alfonso AM: Primary hyperparathyroidism due to parathyroid carcinoma associated with pulmonary embolism. Endocrinol Nutr; 2008 Feb;55(2):97-101

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary hyperparathyroidism due to parathyroid carcinoma associated with pulmonary embolism.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is an uncommon disease affecting 0.5-5% of all patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • PC is characterized by the association of severe symptoms of hypercalcemia, high serum calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations and a palpable neck mass.
  • Definitive diagnosis can only be made by histological study after surgery.
  • Diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma was confirmed by histopathologic study.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2008 Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 22964103.001).
  • [ISSN] 1575-0922
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinología y nutrición : órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol Nutr
  • [Language] eng; spa
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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91. Caron P, Maiza JC, Renaud C, Cormier C, Barres BH, Souberbielle JC: High third generation/second generation PTH ratio in a patient with parathyroid carcinoma: clinical utility of third generation/second generation PTH ratio in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2009 Apr;70(4):533-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] High third generation/second generation PTH ratio in a patient with parathyroid carcinoma: clinical utility of third generation/second generation PTH ratio in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHP) is caused by parathyroid adenomas or hyperplasia, and occasionally by parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Recently a high third generation/second generation PTH ratio has been observed in some patients with parathyroid carcinoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We report the case of a 60-year old woman who was presented a fourth episode of PTH-related hypercalcaemia due to a parathyroid carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: Before surgery of the patient with parathyroid carcinoma, second generation PTH was 229 pg/ml, third generation PTH was 675 pg/ml and third generation/second generation PTH ratio was 2.95.
  • CONCLUSION: A high third generation/second generation PTH ratio could be observed in patients with parathyroid carcinoma, is uncommon in benign PHP and is absent in osteoporotic patients without PHP.
  • Therefore, PTH level can be measured using second and third generation assays in some PHP patients, and a specific surgical protocol for possible parathyroid carcinoma could be discussed in patients with a high third generation/second generation PTH ratio.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / blood. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroid Neoplasms / blood

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  • [ErratumIn] Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 2009 Oct;71(4):605
  • (PMID = 18782355.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / parathyroid hormone (7-84); SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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92. Toi PCh, Varghese RG, Ramdas A, Dasiah SD: Case report of parathyroid carcinoma with raised urinary catecholamines: a diagnostic dilemma. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2007 Apr;50(2):389-91
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  • [Title] Case report of parathyroid carcinoma with raised urinary catecholamines: a diagnostic dilemma.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma is often misdiagnosed as thyroid carcinoma clinically and also with fine needle aspiration cytology.
  • Moreover in cases misdiagnosed as thyroid carcinoma pre operatively, raised urinary catecholamines may mislead to a diagnosis of MEN2 A.
  • We report a case of a patient admitted to the surgery department ofour hospital with a swelling in the thyroid region, raised urinary catecholamines and urinary VMA levels, with hypercalciuria and elevated parathyroid hormone levels.
  • It was clinically suspected as thyroid carcinoma with parathyroid adenoma and associated MEN 2A syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Catecholamines / urine. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / urine
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vanilmandelic Acid / urine

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  • (PMID = 17883086.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Catecholamines; 55-10-7 / Vanilmandelic Acid
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93. Ríos S L, Sapunar Z J, Roa E I: [Primary hyperparathyroidism with severe skeletal involvement in one patient with parathyroid carcinoma]. Rev Med Chil; 2005 Jan;133(1):77-81
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  • [Title] [Primary hyperparathyroidism with severe skeletal involvement in one patient with parathyroid carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Hiperparatiroidismo primario con compromiso esquelético grave. Un caso de carcinoma paratiroideo.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma is an uncommon cause of primary hyperparathyroidism; however, when this condition is severe, cancer must be suspected.
  • The patient had a 4-cm parathyroid tumor, that was surgically excised, along with the ipsilateral thyroid lobe.
  • [MeSH-major] Femoral Fractures / etiology. Humeral Fractures / etiology. Hyperparathyroidism / etiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications


94. Chaychi L, Belbruno K, Golding A, Memoli V: Unusual manifestation of parathyroid carcinoma in the setting of papillary thyroid cancer. Endocr Pract; 2010 Jul-Aug;16(4):664-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Unusual manifestation of parathyroid carcinoma in the setting of papillary thyroid cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe a rare manifestation of parathyroid carcinoma in association with papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • She initially had undergone assessment 6 years previously, at which time an intact parathyroid hormone level was 89 pg/mL (reference range, 10 to 69) and the serum calcium concentration was 10.4 mg/dL (reference range, 8.2 to 10.2) in conjunction with normal alkaline phosphatase, creatinine, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels.
  • Subsequently, she was found to have multifocal papillary thyroid cancer in the right thyroid lobe and a 5-cm parathyroid carcinoma in the left side.
  • CONCLUSION: Synchronous parathyroid and thyroid carcinomas are extremely rare.
  • To our knowledge, our current case is the first documented patient with parathyroid carcinoma who had a clinical presentation consistent with longstanding mild adenoma in addition to synchronous papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20439239.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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95. Rathi MS, Ajjan R, Orme SM: A case of parathyroid carcinoma with severe hungry bone syndrome and review of literature. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2008 Aug;116(8):487-90
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  • [Title] A case of parathyroid carcinoma with severe hungry bone syndrome and review of literature.
  • She was found to be severely hypercalcaemic and exhibited features suggestive of parathyroid carcinoma (palpable neck mass, extremely high parathyroid hormone, high alkaline phosphatase, concomitant presence of renal disease and skeletal involvement).
  • HBS is a complication of parathyroid surgery where the correction of primary hyperparathyroidism is associated with rapid bone remineralisation, causing severe and prolonged hypocalcaemia.
  • HBS is relatively rare but has to be considered in the differential diagnosis of postoperative hypocalcaemia particularly in severe cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / complications. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 18095236.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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96. Tamura G, Miyoshi H, Ogata SY, Sasou S, Kudoh S, Kikuchi J, Yanagawa N, Motoyama T: Parathyroid carcinoma with anaplastic feature: association of a p53 gene mutation with anaplastic transformation. Pathol Int; 2009 Feb;59(2):107-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Parathyroid carcinoma with anaplastic feature: association of a p53 gene mutation with anaplastic transformation.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare neoplasm that accounts for only 1-3% of cases of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma is a well-differentiated tumor that is sometimes difficult to differentiate histopathologically from its benign counterpart, parathyroid adenoma.
  • The molecular mechanism of parathyroid carcinogenesis remains unknown, and investigators have reported that abnormalities of the p53 gene do not play a significant role in parathyroid carcinogenesis, unlike in other human malignancies.
  • The present report describes parathyroid carcinoma with anaplastic transformation of differentiated parathyroid carcinoma in a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Nuclear accumulation of p53 protein was found in anaplastic carcinoma cells but not in differentiated carcinoma cells.
  • Polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism followed by direct sequencing showed that anaplastic carcinoma cells carried a missense mutation at codon 248 (CGG to CAG) of the p53 gene, while the remaining differentiated carcinoma cells had the wild-type p53 gene.
  • These findings suggest that the p53 gene mutation is associated with anaplastic transformation of parathyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Genes, p53. Mutation, Missense. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. DNA Mutational Analysis. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism / etiology. Male. Parathyroidectomy. Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19154265.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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97. Bergero N, De Pompa R, Sacerdote C, Gasparri G, Volante M, Bussolati G, Papotti M: Galectin-3 expression in parathyroid carcinoma: immunohistochemical study of 26 cases. Hum Pathol; 2005 Aug;36(8):908-14
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  • [Title] Galectin-3 expression in parathyroid carcinoma: immunohistochemical study of 26 cases.
  • The diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is difficult and based on morphological features that are not totally reliable.
  • With the aim of identifying a marker of malignancy in parathyroid tumors, we tested the expression of galectin-3 (Gal-3), a lectin expressed in several malignant tumors, including follicular carcinomas (but not adenomas) of the thyroid.
  • Twenty-six PCs and 30 control parathyroid adenomas (PAs) were collected.
  • All cases were immunohistochemically tested for Gal-3 and for other markers claimed to be useful in the differential diagnosis of parathyroid neoplasms, namely, Ki67, p27, and bcl2.
  • We conclude that Gal-3 immunostaining is a valuable tool to support a diagnosis of PC in highly proliferating (Ki67 >6%) tumors affecting a single parathyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Galectin 3 / biosynthesis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16112008.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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98. Bossola M, Tazza L, Ferrante A, Giungi S, Carbone A, Gui D, Luciani G: Parathyroid carcinoma in a chronic hemodialysis patient: case report and review of the literature. Tumori; 2005 Nov-Dec;91(6):558-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Parathyroid carcinoma in a chronic hemodialysis patient: case report and review of the literature.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare disease in normal population as well as in patients with end-stage renal disease.
  • We describe a case of parathyroid carcinoma in a 59-year-old female patient with end-stage renal disease secondary to membranous glomerulonephritis treated by hemodialysis since 1995.
  • In September 1998, the calcium level was 12.4 mg/dl and intact parathyroid hormone serum levels were 1366 pg/ml (normal range, 25-65).
  • A routine ultrasonographic examination of the neck revealed enlargement of two parathyroid glands, the left inferior gland being the largest and measuring 2x3x2 cm.
  • In October 1998, resection of two parathyroid glands was performed.
  • On the basis of histology, which documented the presence of proliferating cells arranged in sheets or in a trabecular pattern, numerous mitosis and vascular invasion, a diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma was made.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Renal Dialysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Calcium / blood. Cell Proliferation. Female. Humans. Kidney Failure, Chronic / therapy. Middle Aged. Mitotic Index. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Parathyroid Hormone / blood

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  • (PMID = 16457158.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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99. Rawat N, Khetan N, Williams DW, Baxter JN: Parathyroid carcinoma. Br J Surg; 2005 Nov;92(11):1345-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Parathyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare malignancy affecting 0.5-5 per cent of all patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • This article reviews the literature on the pathogenesis, pathology, clinical features, diagnosis and management of parathyroid carcinoma.
  • The search words included 'parathyroid carcinoma', 'pathology', 'genetics', 'management' and 'radiotherapy'.
  • RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: The exact aetiology of parathyroid carcinoma remains obscure.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 16237743.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 71
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100. Yang ZQ, Zhu LW, Wang PZ: [Diagnosis and surgical treatment of 48 cases of parathyroid adenoma and parathyroid carcinoma]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2006 Aug;28(8):625-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Diagnosis and surgical treatment of 48 cases of parathyroid adenoma and parathyroid carcinoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To summarize the experience in diagnosis and surgical treatment of parathyroid adenoma and carcinoma (PTA and PTC) in our department.
  • Among the 48 cases, 46 cases were of parathyroid adenoma and 2 cases of parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Serum calcium and PTH assays are both reliable methods for the diagnosis of PTA and PTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Calcium / blood. Echocardiography, Doppler, Color. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hypocalcemia / etiology. Male. Middle Aged. Neck Dissection. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroidectomy / adverse effects. Parathyroidectomy / methods. Retrospective Studies. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi

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  • (PMID = 17236561.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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