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6. Ippolito G, Palazzo FF, Sebag F, De Micco C, Henry JF: Intraoperative diagnosis and treatment of parathyroid cancer and atypical parathyroid adenoma. Br J Surg; 2007 May;94(5):566-70
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  • [Title] Intraoperative diagnosis and treatment of parathyroid cancer and atypical parathyroid adenoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Distinction of parathyroid cancer from atypical parathyroid adenoma (APA) at operation is difficult.
  • The aim of this study was to determine whether parathyroid cancer and APA have different operative findings and long-term outcomes.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review was undertaken of patients with suspicious or malignant parathyroid tumours treated between 1974 and 2005.
  • Parathyroid cancer was defined as a lesion with vascular or tissue invasion, and APA as a neoplasm with broad fibrous bands, trabecular growth, mitosis and nuclear atypia.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients with suspicious or malignant parathyroid tumours were identified.
  • After histological review, parathyroid cancer was confirmed in 11 patients (group 1) and 16 tumours were classified as APA (group 2).
  • CONCLUSION: Operative findings cannot distinguish APA from parathyroid cancer reliably.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroidectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Intraoperative Period. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / etiology. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Br J Surg. 2007 Aug;94(8):1043; author reply 1043-4 [17636522.001]
  • [CommentIn] Br J Surg. 2007 Aug;94(8):1042-3; author reply 1043-4 [17636521.001]
  • (PMID = 17380564.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1323
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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7. Nakanishi S, Fukagawa M: [Therapeutic agents for disorders of bone and calcium metabolism. The calcimimetic cinacalcet HCl]. Clin Calcium; 2007 Jan;17(1):88-92
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  • Calcimimetics drug such as cinacalcet suppress the secretion of parathyroid hormone by sensitizing parathyroid calcium receptors to extracellular ionized calcium.
  • And some studies were reported the use of cinacalcet not only to manage primary hyperparathyroidism, but also secondary hyperparathyroidism in nondialyzed stage, renal transplant patients and parathyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cinacalcet Hydrochloride. Clinical Trials as Topic. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / drug therapy. Kidney Failure, Chronic / drug therapy. Kidney Transplantation. Mutation. Parathyroid Hormone / secretion. Parathyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17211098.001).
  • [ISSN] 0917-5857
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical calcium
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Calcium
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Naphthalenes; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride
  • [Number-of-references] 9
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8. Yip L, Seethala RR, Nikiforova MN, Nikiforov YE, Ogilvie JB, Carty SE, Yim JH: Loss of heterozygosity of selected tumor suppressor genes in parathyroid carcinoma. Surgery; 2008 Dec;144(6):949-55; discussion 954-5
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  • [Title] Loss of heterozygosity of selected tumor suppressor genes in parathyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The histologic diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is challenging.
  • LOH was determined for PC or parathyroid adenoma (PA) using a panel of 12 tumor suppressor gene loci.
  • Evaluation of LOH may be useful for the definitive diagnosis of PC.
  • [MeSH-major] Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / surgery. Loss of Heterozygosity. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology


9. Vestergaard P, Nielsen LR, Mosekilde L: [Cinacalcet--a new drug for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with uraemia, parathyroid cancer or primary hyperparathyroidism]. Ugeskr Laeger; 2006 Jan 3;168(1):29-32
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  • [Title] [Cinacalcet--a new drug for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with uraemia, parathyroid cancer or primary hyperparathyroidism].
  • It increases the sensitivity of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) to calcium, thus inducing a decrease in plasma parathyroid (PTH) levels.
  • Cinacalcet decreases plasma calcium and plasma PTH levels in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism or parathyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / drug therapy. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / drug therapy. Naphthalenes / therapeutic use. Parathyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uremia / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Calcium / blood. Cinacalcet Hydrochloride. Humans. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Receptors, Calcium-Sensing / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 16393559.001).
  • [ISSN] 1603-6824
  • [Journal-full-title] Ugeskrift for laeger
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ugeskr. Laeg.
  • [Language] dan
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Naphthalenes; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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10. Hahn MA, Howell VM, Gill AJ, Clarkson A, Weaire-Buchanan G, Robinson BG, Delbridge L, Gimm O, Schmitt WD, Teh BT, Marsh DJ: CDC73/HRPT2 CpG island hypermethylation and mutation of 5'-untranslated sequence are uncommon mechanisms of silencing parafibromin in parathyroid tumors. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2010 Mar;17(1):273-82
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  • [Title] CDC73/HRPT2 CpG island hypermethylation and mutation of 5'-untranslated sequence are uncommon mechanisms of silencing parafibromin in parathyroid tumors.
  • The tumor suppressor HRPT2/CDC73 is mutated in constitutive DNA from patients with the familial disorder hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome and in approximately 70% of all parathyroid carcinomas.
  • We sought to determine whether hypermethylation of a 713 bp CpG island extending 648 nucleotides upstream of the HRPT2 translational start site and 65 nucleotides into exon 1 might be a mechanism contributing to the loss of expression of parafibromin in parathyroid tumors.
  • We investigated a pool of tissue from 3 normal parathyroid glands, as well as 15 individual parathyroid tumor samples including 6 tumors with known HRPT2 mutations, for hypermethylation of the HRPT2 CpG island.
  • Methylation was not identified in any specimens despite complete loss of parafibromin expression in two parathyroid carcinomas with a single detectable HRPT2 mutation and retention of the wild-type HRPT2 allele.
  • [MeSH-major] 5' Untranslated Regions / genetics. Adenoma / genetics. CpG Islands / genetics. DNA Methylation. Gene Silencing. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Base Sequence. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism. DNA Mutational Analysis. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Molecular Sequence Data. Mutation / physiology. Parathyroid Glands / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20026646.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 5' Untranslated Regions; 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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11. Sharretts JM, Kebebew E, Simonds WF: Parathyroid cancer. Semin Oncol; 2010 Dec;37(6):580-90
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  • [Title] Parathyroid cancer.
  • Parathyroid cancer is an uncommon malignancy and rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism (HPT) with a high morbidity and patient death in advanced cases usually resulting from intractable hypercalcemia.
  • Inactivation of the HRPT2/CDC73 gene, encoding the putative tumor-suppressor protein parafibromin and discovered in the context of the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT) syndrome, is a common, somatic event in most parathyroid cancers.
  • Approximately 25% of patients with apparently sporadic parathyroid cancer carry germline HRPT2/CDC73 mutation.
  • Germline DNA analysis for HRPT2/CDC73 mutation is recommended in all patients with parathyroid cancer because of the potential benefit for first-degree relatives, who should nevertheless undergo serum calcium screening.
  • The histopathologic diagnosis of parathyroid cancer is nonspecific unless vascular, lymphatic, capsular, or soft tissue invasion is seen, or metastases are clinically evident.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis of parathyroid tumors for loss of parafibromin expression offers promise as a diagnostic tool.
  • En bloc tumor resection offers the highest chance of cure in patients with suspected parathyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • [Copyright] Published by Elsevier Inc.
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  • (PMID = 21167377.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8708
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 DK043012-06; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 DK043320-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS245489; NLM/ PMC3059245
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12. Goldner B, Milosević Z, Sadiković S, Stojanović M: [Clinical and radiological manifestations of paraneoplastic syndrome of bronchogenic carcinoma]. Srp Arh Celok Lek; 2005 May-Jun;133(5-6):248-53
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  • [Title] [Clinical and radiological manifestations of paraneoplastic syndrome of bronchogenic carcinoma].
  • The objective of this study was to present some clinical and radiological manifestations of PNS in relation to bronchogenic carcinoma (BC) and to evaluate the usefulness of imaging findings in the diagnosis of asymptomatic BC.
  • In the study group of 204 patients (146 male and 58 female) with proven bronchogenic carcinoma, PNS was present in 18 (8.62%) patients.
  • The predominant disorder was Lambert-Eaton Syndrome, associated with small-cell carcinoma.
  • Endocrine manifestations included: inappropriate antidiuretic hormone production syndrome (small-cell carcinoma), a gonadotropin effect with gynaecomastia and testicular atrophy (planocellular carcinoma, small-cell carcinoma), a case of Cushing Syndrome (small-cell carcinoma), and hypercalcaemia, due to the production of the parathyroid hormone-related peptide, which was associated with planocellular carcinoma.
  • A rare case of bilateral exophthalmos was found as PNS at adenocarcinoma.
  • Digital clubbing and hypertrophic osteoarthropathy (HO) were associated with planocellular and adenocarcinoma, while clubbing was much more common than HO, especially among women.
  • In the first group, PNS occurred late on in the illness, while in the second group, PNS preceded the diagnosis of BC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Bronchogenic / complications. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16392281.001).
  • [ISSN] 0370-8179
  • [Journal-full-title] Srpski arhiv za celokupno lekarstvo
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Srp Arh Celok Lek
  • [Language] srp
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Serbia and Montenegro
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13. Grodski S, Gill A, Robinson BG, Sidhu S: Nonfunctioning parathyroid cancer presenting as a cervical mass. Thyroid; 2008 Apr;18(4):473-4
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  • [Title] Nonfunctioning parathyroid cancer presenting as a cervical mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Medical Oncology / methods. Middle Aged. Thyroidectomy. Trachea / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18346007.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Sheikh A, Islam N: Minimally symptomatic severe hypercalcaemia in a patient with parathyroid carcinoma. J Pak Med Assoc; 2006 Jan;56(1):40-1
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  • [Title] Minimally symptomatic severe hypercalcaemia in a patient with parathyroid carcinoma.
  • The case of a 38 years old man with generalized pains fatigue, anorexia, constipation, polyuria serum calcium level of 20.6mg/dl in paired renal function parathyroid hormone is presented.
  • Sestamibi scan showed a functioning left inferior parathyroid tumor, which was successfully removed.
  • [MeSH-major] Calcium / blood. Carcinoma / complications. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroidectomy. Severity of Illness Index. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16454135.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-9982
  • [Journal-full-title] JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pak Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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15. Grzesiak JJ, Smith KC, Chalberg C, Truong C, Burton DW, Deftos LJ, Bouvet M: Heat shock protein-70 expressed on the surface of cancer cells binds parathyroid hormone-related protein in vitro. Endocrinology; 2005 Aug;146(8):3567-76
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  • [Title] Heat shock protein-70 expressed on the surface of cancer cells binds parathyroid hormone-related protein in vitro.
  • Using affinity chromatography, we applied extracts of cell-surface biotinylated proteins from cancer and normal cell lines over Sepharose beads coupled with different PTHrP-derived peptides.
  • Elution with the corresponding free peptide revealed a major protein of about 70 kDa that was present in all of the PTHrP peptide eluates from cancer cell extracts but not from normal breast cell extracts.
  • Taken together, these studies demonstrate a novel and biologically relevant interaction between cell surface-expressed HSP70 and PTHrP in cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins / metabolism. Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma. Amino Acid Sequence. Biotinylation. Bone Neoplasms. Cell Division. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Membrane / physiology. Chromatography, Affinity. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Osteosarcoma. Peptide Fragments / chemistry. Peptide Fragments / isolation & purification. Prostatic Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 15878959.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR47347; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK60588
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HSP70 Heat-Shock Proteins; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein; 0 / Peptide Fragments
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16. Kebig A, Mohr K: [Cinacalcet - an allosteric enhancer at the Ca2+-receptor]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr; 2008 Aug;133(33):1681-3
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  • Cinacalcet (trade name: Mimpara) enhances allosterically the action of Ca (2+)-ions at the parathyroid gland Ca (2+)-receptor which belongs to the superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors.
  • As a consequence blood levels of Ca (2+) and parathyroid hormone decline.
  • Cinacalcet is orally administered and approved for a) the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in patients with end stage renal disease receiving hemodialysis and b) to lower hypercalcemia in patients with parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Therapeutic monitoring includes measurement of blood levels of Ca (2+) and parathyroid hormone.
  • The stable suppression of parathyroid hormone levels under chronic treatment was shown in clinical trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypercalcemia / drug therapy. Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / drug therapy. Kidney Failure, Chronic / complications. Naphthalenes / therapeutic use. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Receptors, Calcium-Sensing / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Calcium / blood. Cinacalcet Hydrochloride. Drug Monitoring / methods. Humans. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Renal Dialysis

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  • (PMID = 18661462.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4413
  • [Journal-full-title] Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Naphthalenes; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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17. Schoretsanitis G, Daskalakis M, Melissas J, Tsiftsis DD: Parathyroid carcinoma: clinical presentation and management. Am J Otolaryngol; 2009 Jul-Aug;30(4):277-80
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  • [Title] Parathyroid carcinoma: clinical presentation and management.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma constitutes a rare cause of hyperparathyroidism.
  • Five patients, presenting with symptoms and clinical signs of parathyroid hyperfunction, were diagnosed with parathyroid carcinoma in our department over a 12-year period.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroidectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19563942.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-818X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Otolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Imoto Y, Muguruma N, Kimura T, Kaji M, Miyamoto H, Okamura S, Ito S, Nakasono M, Hirokawa M, Sano T: [A case of parathyroid hormone-related peptide producing gallbladder carcinoma presenting humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy]. Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi; 2007 Mar;104(3):401-6
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  • [Title] [A case of parathyroid hormone-related peptide producing gallbladder carcinoma presenting humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy].
  • Humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy (HHM) in neoplastic syndrome has been most commonly reported in squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Gallbladder carcinoma with HHM is uncommon.
  • In this report, we describe a male case of gallbladder carcinoma with marked hypercalcemia and a high level of serum parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Gallbladder Neoplasms / metabolism. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17337878.001).
  • [ISSN] 0446-6586
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai zasshi = The Japanese journal of gastro-enterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein
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19. Zhang JH, Panicker LM, Seigneur EM, Lin L, House CD, Morgan W, Chen WC, Mehta H, Haj-Ali M, Yu ZX, Simonds WF: Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein is a conserved target of tumor suppressor HRPT2/CDC73. Cell Death Differ; 2010 Oct;17(10):1551-65
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  • Parafibromin, a tumor suppressor protein encoded by HRPT2/CDC73 and implicated in parathyroid cancer and the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT) familial cancer syndrome, is part of the PAF1 transcriptional regulatory complex.

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  • (PMID = 20339377.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5403
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell death and differentiation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Death Differ.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / CPEB1 protein, Drosophila; 0 / CPEB1 protein, human; 0 / Drosophila Proteins; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / mRNA Cleavage and Polyadenylation Factors; EC 4.1.1.- / Carboxy-Lyases; EC 4.1.1.- / parafibromin protein, Drosophila
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS294982; NLM/ PMC3109426
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20. Yonekawa H, Sugitani I, Fujimoto Y, Arai M, Yamamoto N: A family of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A) with Cys630Tyr RET germline mutation: report of a case. Endocr J; 2007 Aug;54(4):531-5
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  • A 67-year-old woman presented a firm thyroid nodule, and preoperative examination revealed medullary thyroid carcinoma with primary hyperparthyoidism and no pheochromocytoma.
  • At surgery, bilateral medullary thyroid carcinomas and parathyroid adenoma were found.
  • Computed tomography scans and laboratory examination of blood have shown no evidence of tumor recurrence and no abnormality of parathyroid function during the 4 years after surgery.
  • A 40-year-old man, the proband's son, was shown to have the same RET mutation, underwent total thyroidectomy prophylactically, and only microscopic foci of medullary thyroid carcinoma were found.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Child. Family Health. Female. Genotype. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / genetics. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / pathology. Male. Mutation, Missense. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Pedigree. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17527003.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-8959
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human
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21. Capezzone M, Morabito E, Bellitti P, Giannasio P, de Santis D, Bruno R: Ectopic intrathyroidal nonfunctioning parathyroid cyst. Endocr Pract; 2007 Jan-Feb;13(1):56-8
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  • [Title] Ectopic intrathyroidal nonfunctioning parathyroid cyst.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe a rare case of ectopic intrathyroidal parathyroid cyst (PC) in a 29-year-old woman who had been referred to us because of a multinodular goiter.
  • Measurement of parathyroid hormone in the FNAB fluid showed a high concentration, suggestive of the diagnosis of PC.
  • Normal serum levels of parathyroid hormone and calcium indicated that it was a nonfunctioning intrathyroidal PC.
  • Histologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of intrathyroidal PC, and a papillary microcarcinoma (6 mm in diameter) was found in the right lobe of the thyroid.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / complications. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / ultrasonography. Cysts / pathology. Parathyroid Diseases / complications. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Thyroid Nodule / complications. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 17360302.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Singhal T, Jacobs M, Mantil JC: Tc-99m pertechnetate/sestamibi subtraction scan in a case of parathyroid carcinoma. Clin Nucl Med; 2008 Mar;33(3):196-7
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  • [Title] Tc-99m pertechnetate/sestamibi subtraction scan in a case of parathyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Radiopharmaceuticals. Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi

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  • (PMID = 18287845.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi; A0730CX801 / Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m
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23. Agha A, Carpenter R, Bhattacharya S, Edmonson SJ, Carlsen E, Monson JP: Parathyroid carcinoma in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome: two case reports of an unrecognised entity. J Endocrinol Invest; 2007 Feb;30(2):145-9
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  • [Title] Parathyroid carcinoma in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome: two case reports of an unrecognised entity.
  • CONTEXT: Primary hyperparathyroidism occurs in almost all patients with the syndrome of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), but the association of MEN1 with parathyroid carcinoma has only been described previously in a single patient.
  • In this report, we describe two further cases of parathyroid carcinoma presenting in MEN1 syndrome.
  • CASE REPORTS: The first patient was a 69-yr-old woman, who presented with severe primary hyperparathyroidism and tracheal compression by a large mediastinal mass, which was shown histologically to be a parathyroid carcinoma with a second similar lesion in the neck.
  • Neck exploration revealed two parathyroid glands only.
  • One of the parathyroid glands contained a tumor with fibrous banding, atypical mitoses, extra-capsular extension and moderate Ki 67 staining; features which are highly suggestive of carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This case report describes two further patients in whom parathyroid carcinomas occurred in the context of MEN1, which gives a new insight to the possible presenting phenotype of this condition.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1 / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Syndrome


24. Benit A, Allard J, Rimailho J, Fauvel J, Escourrou G, Vezzosi D, Donadille F, Bennet A, Caron P: Persistent and moderate hypercalcemia related to an ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma: Pre- and postoperative parathyroid hormone related-peptide and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 levels. J Endocrinol Invest; 2006 May;29(5):443-9
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  • [Title] Persistent and moderate hypercalcemia related to an ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma: Pre- and postoperative parathyroid hormone related-peptide and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 levels.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the role of PTH-related peptide (PTH-rP) and 1,25-dihyhydroxyvitamin D3 in a case of hypercalcemia related to an ovarian adenocarcinoma.
  • DESIGN: We report a case of humoral hypercalcemia in a patient aged 74 yr with a clear cell adenocarcinoma of the right ovary at an early stage of its development (stage T1aN0M0) revealed by moderate and persistent hypercalcemia (variable level between 2.7 and 3.2 mmol/l without any treatment) over six months.
  • CONCLUSION:. 1) moderate and persistent hypercalcemia can be observed at an early stage of an ovarian carcinoma;.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / complications. Calcitriol / blood. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Ovarian Neoplasms / complications. Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein / blood

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  • (PMID = 16794368.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein; FXC9231JVH / Calcitriol
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25. Kleinpeter KP, Lovato JF, Clark PB, Wooldridge T, Norman ES, Bergman S, Perrier ND: Is parathyroid carcinoma indeed a lethal disease? Ann Surg Oncol; 2005 Mar;12(3):260-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Is parathyroid carcinoma indeed a lethal disease?
  • BACKGROUND: Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare malignancy with a wide range of aggressiveness.
  • Our primary aim was to review the presentation, diagnosis, surgical treatment, and outcomes of patients, with the goal of assessing the incidence of death related to parathyroid carcinoma.
  • METHODS: The authors present a retrospective chart review on patients with parathyroid carcinoma from 1975 to 2004, identified by the tumor registry of a single tertiary-care center.
  • Median parathyroid hormone was 290 pg/mL.
  • Three of ten deaths were attributed to parathyroid carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Long-term survival is possible with parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Death associated with parathyroid carcinoma was uncommon.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / mortality. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Calcium / blood. Female. Humans. Male. Medical Records. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15827819.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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26. Fanthome B, Bharadwaj R, Suryanarayana KM: Parathyroid Neoplasms: The Army Hospital (Research & Referral) Experience. Med J Armed Forces India; 2006 Oct;62(4):312-5
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  • [Title] Parathyroid Neoplasms: The Army Hospital (Research & Referral) Experience.
  • BACKGROUND: Neoplasms of the parathyroid are common but parathyroid carcinoma is exceptionally rare.
  • In contrast to most other malignant endocrine tumours that are usually less hormonally active, malignant parathyroid tumours are hyper functional.
  • Malignant parathyroid tumours pose a diagnostic dilemma for the pathologist.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the clinicopathological profile of a case series of parathyroid neoplasms and determine features which facilitate a malignant diagnosis.
  • METHODS: A retrospective analysis of seven cases of surgically treated parathyroid tumours over a three-year period at a single centre was done.
  • Thick fibrous capsule and broad septal fibrosis was seen in both the carcinomas; these were thin in the adenomas.
  • CONCLUSION: Elevated serum calcium and parathormone values point to a parathyroid neoplasm.

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  • (PMID = 27688529.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-1237
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical journal, Armed Forces India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med J Armed Forces India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adenoma / Carcinoma / Parathyroid
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27. Cavalier E, Daly AF, Betea D, Pruteanu-Apetrii PN, Delanaye P, Stubbs P, Bradwell AR, Chapelle JP, Beckers A: The ratio of parathyroid hormone as measured by third- and second-generation assays as a marker for parathyroid carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Aug;95(8):3745-9
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  • [Title] The ratio of parathyroid hormone as measured by third- and second-generation assays as a marker for parathyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Parathyroid carcinoma (PCa) is a rare disease that can be difficult to differentiate initially from severe benign parathyroid adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / blood. Immunoassay / methods. Parathyroid Hormone / analysis. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroid Neoplasms / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers / blood. Female. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / blood. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20519352.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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28. Lu M, Forsberg L, Höög A, Juhlin CC, Vukojević V, Larsson C, Conigrave AD, Delbridge LW, Gill A, Bark C, Farnebo LO, Bränström R: Heterogeneous expression of SNARE proteins SNAP-23, SNAP-25, Syntaxin1 and VAMP in human parathyroid tissue. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2008 Jun 11;287(1-2):72-80
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  • [Title] Heterogeneous expression of SNARE proteins SNAP-23, SNAP-25, Syntaxin1 and VAMP in human parathyroid tissue.
  • Whether parathyroid cells express these proteins is not known.
  • In this study, we have examined the expression of the SNARE protein SNAP-25 and its cellular homologue SNAP-23, as well as syntaxin1 and VAMP (vesicle-associated membrane protein) in samples of normal parathyroid tissue, chief cell adenoma, and parathyroid carcinoma, using immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis.
  • SNAP-23 and VAMP were evenly expressed in all studied parathyroid tissues using immunohistochemistry and/or Western blot analysis.
  • SNAP-25 (and Syntaxin1) was not expressed in normal parathyroid tissue, but in approximately 20% of chief cell adenomas, and in approximately 45% of parathyroid carcinoma samples.
  • It is likely that the SNARE proteins SNAP-23 and VAMP play a role in the stimulus-secretion coupling and exocytosis of parathyroid hormone as these proteins were expressed in all of the parathyroid samples we studied.
  • SNAP-25 (and Syntaxin1) appears to be a tumour-specific protein(s) in parathyroid tissues since its expression was restricted to pathological tissues.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Glands / metabolism. SNARE Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Animals. Blotting, Western. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Humans. Male. Mice. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Qb-SNARE Proteins / metabolism. Qc-SNARE Proteins / metabolism. R-SNARE Proteins / metabolism. Synaptosomal-Associated Protein 25 / metabolism. Syntaxin 1 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18457912.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Qb-SNARE Proteins; 0 / Qc-SNARE Proteins; 0 / R-SNARE Proteins; 0 / SNAP23 protein, human; 0 / SNARE Proteins; 0 / Synaptosomal-Associated Protein 25; 0 / Syntaxin 1
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29. Iacobone M, Ruffolo C, Lumachi F, Favia G: Results of iterative surgery for persistent and recurrent parathyroid carcinoma. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2005 Sep;390(5):385-90
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  • [Title] Results of iterative surgery for persistent and recurrent parathyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is a rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Predictive Value of Tests. Reoperation. Sensitivity and Specificity. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 15933877.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2443
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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30. Slough CM, Randolph GW: Workup of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Cancer Control; 2006 Apr;13(2):99-105
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Workup of well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma (WDTC) includes three main entities: papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC), and Hurthle cell carcinoma (HCC).
  • A thorough knowledge of the natural history and presentation of these carcinomas is vital to the thyroid surgeon.
  • Given that patients with preoperative FNA positive for papillary cancer are expected to have clinically significant nodal disease in one third of cases, radiographic evaluation must be appropriately aggressive.
  • The extent of thyroidectomy is tailored not only to the patient's risk group and gross operative findings but also to the progress of the specific surgery in terms of parathyroid and recurrent laryngeal nerve preservation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16735983.001).
  • [ISSN] 1073-2748
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer control : journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Control
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
  • [Number-of-references] 72
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31. Bergero N, De Pompa R, Sacerdote C, Gasparri G, Volante M, Bussolati G, Papotti M: Galectin-3 expression in parathyroid carcinoma: immunohistochemical study of 26 cases. Hum Pathol; 2005 Aug;36(8):908-14
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  • [Title] Galectin-3 expression in parathyroid carcinoma: immunohistochemical study of 26 cases.
  • The diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is difficult and based on morphological features that are not totally reliable.
  • With the aim of identifying a marker of malignancy in parathyroid tumors, we tested the expression of galectin-3 (Gal-3), a lectin expressed in several malignant tumors, including follicular carcinomas (but not adenomas) of the thyroid.
  • Twenty-six PCs and 30 control parathyroid adenomas (PAs) were collected.
  • All cases were immunohistochemically tested for Gal-3 and for other markers claimed to be useful in the differential diagnosis of parathyroid neoplasms, namely, Ki67, p27, and bcl2.
  • We conclude that Gal-3 immunostaining is a valuable tool to support a diagnosis of PC in highly proliferating (Ki67 >6%) tumors affecting a single parathyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Galectin 3 / biosynthesis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16112008.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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32. Poissonnet G, Castillo L, Bozec A, Peyrottes I, Ettore F, Santini J, Demard F, Dassonville O: [Parathyroid carcinoma]. Bull Cancer; 2006 Mar 1;93(3):283-7
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  • [Title] [Parathyroid carcinoma].
  • Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare disease accounting for 1 to 5% of parathyroid neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 16567315.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6917
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin du cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Cancer
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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33. Damadi A, Harkema J, Kareti R, Saxe A: Use of pre-operative Tc99m-Sestamibi scintigraphy and intraoperative parathyroid hormone monitoring to eliminate neck exploration in mediastinal parathyroid adenocarcinoma. J Surg Educ; 2007 Mar-Apr;64(2):108-12
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  • [Title] Use of pre-operative Tc99m-Sestamibi scintigraphy and intraoperative parathyroid hormone monitoring to eliminate neck exploration in mediastinal parathyroid adenocarcinoma.
  • A 66-year-old white woman was found to have an elevated serum calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH) on routine health evaluation.
  • A sestamibi parathyroid scan revealed abnormal uptake in the anterior mediastinum.
  • Computed tomography of the chest demonstrated an anterior mediastinal mass compatible with a parathyroid adenoma but no neck masses.
  • The mass was completely resected with surrounding thymus gland.
  • Frozen section confirmed that excised tissue was parathyroid gland in origin.
  • Traditional recommendations have been to "clear the neck" of abnormal parathyroid tissue before undertaking a more morbid sternotomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Monitoring, Intraoperative. Neck / surgery. Parathyroid Hormone / analysis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Preoperative Care. Radiopharmaceuticals. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi

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  • (PMID = 17462212.001).
  • [ISSN] 1931-7204
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical education
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Educ
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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34. Temmim L, Sinowatz F, Hussein WI, Al-Sanea O, El-Khodary H: Intrathyroidal parathyroid carcinoma: a case report with clinical and histological findings. Diagn Pathol; 2008;3:46
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  • [Title] Intrathyroidal parathyroid carcinoma: a case report with clinical and histological findings.
  • The chance of an intrathyroidal occurrence of a parathyroid gland is about 1-3%.
  • Among the causes of hyperparathyroidism, parathyroid cases occur in less than 1% of patients.
  • Here we present the case of a 63 year old Saudi female suffering from an intrathyroidal parathyroid carcinoma.
  • The suspicion coming from the clinical investigations that the removed tumor tissue may be a parathyroid carcinoma could be confirmed by histology.
  • Although parathyroid adenoma and carcinoma have disparate natural history, it can be difficult to differentiate between the two entities.
  • Clinical presentation, operative findings may raise suspicion, but may not be conclusive especially if there is no evidence of invasion or metastasis, especially if the gland was intrathyroidal.

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  • (PMID = 19032735.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2627811
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35. Kung B, Winokur R, Cognetti D, O'Hara B, Rosen D: Parathyroid carcinoma: a rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism. Ear Nose Throat J; 2009 Sep;88(9):E10-3
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  • [Title] Parathyroid carcinoma: a rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Most cases of primary hyperparathyroidism (80 to 90%) are caused by a parathyroid adenoma; most of the rest are caused by either parathyroid gland hyperplasia or multiple adenomas.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma can be the cause of primary hyperparathyroidism in 1 to 5% of patients.
  • When the appropriate clinical scenario is presented, it must be considered in the differential diagnosis.
  • A sestamibi scan and magnetic resonance imaging detected the presence of what appeared to be a right inferior parathyroid adenoma.
  • Her intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) level was 2,257 pg/ml.
  • Following placement of bilateral ureteral stents and adequate hydration, the patient was taken to the operating room for a neck exploration and removal of a parathyroid adenoma with rapid intraoperative PTH monitoring.
  • A 4 x 2.5-cm, 10-g mass was removed from the right inferior pole of the thyroid gland.
  • On final pathologic examination, the mass was confirmed to be a parathyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 19750462.001).
  • [ISSN] 1942-7522
  • [Journal-full-title] Ear, nose, & throat journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ear Nose Throat J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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36. Megino Moreno T, Herranz Antolín S, Bernal Bello D, Alvarez De Frutos V: [Primary hyperparathyroidism due to parathyroid carcinoma]. Endocrinol Nutr; 2010 Dec;57(10):504-6
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  • [Title] [Primary hyperparathyroidism due to parathyroid carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Hiperparatiroidismo primario por carcinoma de paratiroides.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / complications. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 20951655.001).
  • [ISSN] 1579-2021
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinología y nutrición : órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol Nutr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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37. Svedlund J, Aurén M, Sundström M, Dralle H, Akerström G, Björklund P, Westin G: Aberrant WNT/β-catenin signaling in parathyroid carcinoma. Mol Cancer; 2010;9:294
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  • [Title] Aberrant WNT/β-catenin signaling in parathyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is a very rare malignancy with a high tendency to recur locally, and recurrent disease is difficult to eradicate.
  • We suggest that adjuvant epigenetic therapy should be considered as an additional option in the treatment of patients with recurrent or metastatic parathyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Parathyroid Neoplasms / microbiology. Wnt Proteins / metabolism. beta Catenin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 21078161.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-4598
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2993678
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38. Hung HC, Ou HY, Huang JS, Chuang MC, Wu TJ: Tumor-associated Hypercalcemia in a patient with Paget's disease. Kaohsiung J Med Sci; 2008 Mar;24(3):152-6
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  • Asymptomatic hypercalcemia with a low-normal intact parathyroid hormone level developed 9 years later.
  • After analysis of tumor markers and imaging studies, a clinical diagnosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma with multiple hepatic and lung metastases with pleural effusion was made.

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  • (PMID = 18364276.001).
  • [ISSN] 1607-551X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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39. Tousoulis D, Bosinakou E, Kotsopoulou M, Antoniades C, Katsi V, Stefanadis C: Effects of early administration of atorvastatin treatment on thrombotic process in normocholesterolemic patients with unstable angina. Int J Cardiol; 2006 Jan 26;106(3):333-7
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  • Plasma levels of PrtC were significantly increased in both controls (p < 0.01) and atorvastatin-treated patients (p < 0.05) at 1 week, while remained unaffected in atorvastatin-treated group at 6th week.

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  • [CommentIn] Int J Cardiol. 2008 Aug 18;128(2):282-4 [17655947.001]
  • (PMID = 16337041.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-5273
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cardiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cardiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Blood Coagulation Factors; 0 / Blood Proteins; 0 / Heptanoic Acids; 0 / Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrroles; 48A5M73Z4Q / Atorvastatin Calcium; 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol
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40. Tan GC, Shiran MS, Swaminathan M, Phang KS, Rohaizak M: Large retrosternal parathyroid carcinoma with primary hyperparathyroidism. Asian J Surg; 2007 Oct;30(4):286-9
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  • [Title] Large retrosternal parathyroid carcinoma with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma is an uncommon cause of parathyroid hormone (PTH)-dependent hypercalcaemia, accounting for less than 1% of all cases of hyperparathyroidism.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma is an indolent tumour with rather low malignant potential.
  • Consideration of parathyroid carcinoma in the differential diagnosis of hypercalcaemic disorders is important because the morbidity and mortality are substantial and the best prognosis is associated with early recognition and surgical resection.
  • Clinical indicators favouring parathyroid carcinoma over benign disease include markedly raised serum calcium levels, PTH and alkaline phosphatase.
  • A palpable neck mass with both kidney and skeletal manifestations also give a high index of suspicion of parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Histopathology alone is not sufficient to diagnose parathyroid cancer; it has to be correlated with the clinical findings.
  • The initial and most effective treatment for parathyroid carcinoma is complete resection of the primary lesion, and repeated operations for recurrence are useful.
  • The prognosis of parathyroid carcinomas is quite variable; 5-year survival rates vary from 40% to 86%, while the 10-year survival rate is approximately 49%.
  • We report a case of parathyroid carcinoma occurring in a 55-year-old woman who presented with bone pain and hypercalcaemia.

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  • (PMID = 17962134.001).
  • [ISSN] 1015-9584
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian J Surg
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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41. Juhlin CC, Haglund F, Villablanca A, Forsberg L, Sandelin K, Bränström R, Larsson C, Höög A: Loss of expression for the Wnt pathway components adenomatous polyposis coli and glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta in parathyroid carcinomas. Int J Oncol; 2009 Feb;34(2):481-92
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  • [Title] Loss of expression for the Wnt pathway components adenomatous polyposis coli and glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta in parathyroid carcinomas.
  • The development of parathyroid carcinoma has been associated with inactivating mutations of the Hyperparathyroidism type 2 (HRPT2) gene encoding parafibromin, a member of the human RNA Polymerase II-Associated Factor Complex (hPAF) and functionally linked to the Wingless type (Wnt) pathway.
  • In this study, we characterized the expression of Wnt pathway molecules in parathyroid benign and malignant tumors.
  • The study comprised 13 tumors from 12 cases of unequivocal parathyroid carcinoma, 18 cases of parathyroid adenoma, as well as non-tumorous parathyroid tissue.
  • Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) was uniformly expressed in non-tumorous parathyroid tissue and adenomas, but absent in carcinomas from 9 of 12 patients (75%).
  • Expression of glycogen synthase kinase 3-beta (GSK3-beta) was lost in 4/12 carcinomas and in 1/18 adenomas.
  • Loss of APC immunoreactivity was significantly associated with parathyroid carcinoma as compared to adenomas (p<0.001), giving a high specificity (100%) and sensitivity (75%) for the detection of parathyroid malignancy.
  • The results suggest the involvement of Wnt-pathway members APC and GSK3-beta in parathyroid carcinoma development.
  • In addition, APC immunohistochemistry could become a useful tool for improved recognition of parathyroid carcinoma together with immunohistochemistry for parafibromin and proliferation index.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / genetics. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 / genetics. Parathyroid Neoplasms / enzymology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Wnt Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / enzymology. Adenoma / genetics. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma / enzymology. Carcinoma / genetics. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / genetics. Sensitivity and Specificity


42. Placzkowski K, Christian R, Chen H: Radioguided parathyroidectomy for recurrent parathyroid cancer. Clin Nucl Med; 2007 May;32(5):358-60
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  • [Title] Radioguided parathyroidectomy for recurrent parathyroid cancer.
  • We report a case of radioguided parathyroidectomy in a patient with parathyroid carcinoma.
  • A 61-year-old woman presented to our center with persistent hypercalcemia (17.2 mg/dL) and hyperparathyroidism (PTH=324 pg/mL) following her second neck resection for recurrent parathyroid carcinoma at an outside facility.
  • With the intraoperative guidance of a hand-held gamma probe, a 2 cm recurrent parathyroid carcinoma was located and successfully excised.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroidectomy / methods. Radiosurgery / methods

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  • (PMID = 17452861.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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43. Messerer CL, Bugis SP, Baliski C, Wiseman SM: Normocalcemic parathyroid carcinoma: an unusual clinical presentation. World J Surg Oncol; 2006;4:10
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  • [Title] Normocalcemic parathyroid carcinoma: an unusual clinical presentation.
  • BACKGROUND: Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism and may be associated with significant disease related morbidity and mortality.
  • Preoperative diagnosis remains a challenge, which may jeopardize appropriate and successful patient treatment.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of parathyroid carcinoma diagnosed in a 60-year-old woman that presented with a tender nodule located at the left lower thyroid pole and had been present for several years.
  • Histopathological evaluation was diagnostic for a parathyroid carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare endocrine tumor which must be considered in the differential diagnosis of a nodular thyroid mass.

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44. Witteveen JE, Haak HR, Kievit J, Morreau H, Romijn JA, Hamdy NA: Challenges and pitfalls in the management of parathyroid carcinoma: 17-year follow-up of a case and review of the literature. Horm Cancer; 2010 Aug;1(4):205-14
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  • [Title] Challenges and pitfalls in the management of parathyroid carcinoma: 17-year follow-up of a case and review of the literature.
  • He was severely hypercalcaemic with 10-fold increased parathyroid hormone (PTH) concentrations.
  • A diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism was established and the patient was referred for parathyroidectomy.
  • At neck exploration, an enlarged parathyroid gland with invasive growth into the thyroid gland was found and removed, lymph nodes were cleared and hemithyroidectomy was performed.
  • A suspected diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma was confirmed histologically.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hypercalcemia / blood. Hypercalcemia / drug therapy. Hypercalcemia / surgery. Male. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroidectomy. Renal Dialysis

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  • (PMID = 21258429.001).
  • [ISSN] 1868-8500
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormones & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
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45. Fang JG, Ma HZ, Zhang ZB, Huang ZG, Chen XH, Zhou WG, Chen XJ, Han DM: [Total thyroidectomy: indications and complications]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2010 Nov;45(11):904-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the indications and complications of the total thyroidectomy in the management of thyroid cancer.
  • METHODS: Fifty-one patients with thyroid cancer operated with total thyroidectomy in a period from April 2007 to June 2010, were retrospective analyzed.
  • There were 48 cases of papillary adenocarcinoma, 1 follicular adenocarcinoma, and 2 medullary carcinoma as well, 2 cases with hyperthyroidism, 3 cases with remote metastasis.
  • The recurrent laryngeal nerve and the parathyroid gland, and supper laryngeal nerve were exposed routinely.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Under the skilled hand, total thyroidectomy is a safe procedure in the management of thyroid cancer.
  • Totally exposing the parathyroid gland and laryngeal nerve is the key point to prevent the major complications.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Medullary / surgery. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Postoperative Complications. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21215203.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-0860
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Thyroid cancer, medullary
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46. Rubello D, Armigliato M, Rampin L, Massaro A, Cittadin S, Pelizzo MR, Menaldo G, Muzzio PC, Gross MD: Intrathyroid parathyroid adenoma potentially mimicking a parathyroid carcinoma. Minerva Endocrinol; 2006 Sep;31(3):247-8
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  • [Title] Intrathyroid parathyroid adenoma potentially mimicking a parathyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma. Carcinoma. Parathyroid Neoplasms. Thyroid Diseases

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  • (PMID = 17213791.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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47. Padhi D, Salfi M, Emery M: Cinacalcet does not affect the activity of cytochrome P450 3A enzymes, a metabolic pathway for common immunosuppressive agents : a randomized, open-label, crossover, single-centre study in healthy volunteers. Drugs R D; 2008;9(5):335-43
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  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cinacalcet HCl (cinacalcet) is approved for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism in subjects receiving dialysis and for the reduction of hypercalcaemia in patients with parathyroid carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 18721002.001).
  • [ISSN] 1174-5886
  • [Journal-full-title] Drugs in R&D
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drugs R D
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcium Channel Agonists; 0 / Hypnotics and Sedatives; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Naphthalenes; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride; EC 1.14.14.1 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A; R60L0SM5BC / Midazolam; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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48. Wirowski D, Wicke C, Böhner H, Lammers BJ, Pohl P, Schwarz K, Goretzki PE: Presentation of 6 cases with parathyroid cysts and discussion of the literature. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2008 Aug;116(8):501-6
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  • [Title] Presentation of 6 cases with parathyroid cysts and discussion of the literature.
  • INTRODUCTION: Cystic lesions of the parathyroid glands are uncommon, and rare are those that cause primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Preoperative diagnosis can be challenging and some of these tumors might be misinterpreted as parathyroid carcinoma.
  • With an expertise of more than 1700 patients operated on primary hyperparathyroidism, we present six cases with cystic degeneration of a parathyroid gland causing primary hyperparathyroidism in five patients.
  • As cervical exploration was unsuccessful, sternotomy was performed and a cystic adenoma of a parathyroid gland could be resected from the anterior mediastinum.
  • The second patient - a 63-year-old female with severe hypercalcaemic crisis, operated on under suspicion of a parathyroid carcinoma - had a functional cyst of the parathyroid gland with a parathyroid hormone level of 700,000 pg/ml in the aspirated fluid.
  • Third, operation on a 70-year-old woman with a benign euthyreot goiter and the laboratory findings of primary hyperparathyroidism revealed a cystic adenoma adjacent to the thyroid gland, whose aspirate had a parathyroid hormone level of 1,500,000 pg/ml.
  • In the fourth case of a 67-year-old female with an adenoma of the right inferior parathyroid gland localized by ultrasonography, the cystic parathyroid adenoma was operated on by video-assistance.
  • It was suspected to be a thyroid cyst at the left-lower pole of the thyroid gland.
  • After hemithyroidectomy pathological evaluation revealed a large parathyroid cyst.
  • Final histopathological examination exposed multiple gland disease with a parathyroid adenoma as well as a cystic parathyroid gland.
  • DISCUSSION: Cystic adenomas of the parathyroid glands are often misdiagnosed as thyroid cysts or - in the case of extremely elevated parathyroid hormone levels - even as parathyroid carcinoma.
  • The routine preoperative diagnostic tools, such as ultrasonography or (99m)Tc-sestamibi-scintigraphy, cannot clearly distinguish between these entities and might be jeopardized by mediastinal localization, which is not uncommon in parathyroid adenomas with cystic degeneration.
  • [MeSH-major] Cysts / pathology. Cysts / surgery. Hyperparathyroidism / surgery. Parathyroid Diseases / pathology. Parathyroid Diseases / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18523916.001).
  • [ISSN] 0947-7349
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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49. Turki ZM, Hajri H, Zrig N, Kourda N, Ferjaoui M, Ben Slama C: [Toxic nodular goitre associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma and primary hyperparathyroidism]. Rev Laryngol Otol Rhinol (Bord); 2006;127(4):239-42
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  • [Title] [Toxic nodular goitre associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma and primary hyperparathyroidism].
  • [Transliterated title] Association d'un goitre multinodulaire toxique, d'un carcinome papillaire de la thyroïde, et d'une hyperparathyroïdie primaire.
  • The association of a toxic multinodular goitre with papillary thyroid carcinoma and primary hyperparathyroidism is very rare.
  • The diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism was made following renal complications and the discovery of papillary thyroid carcinoma was incidental during the surgical treatment of parathyroid adenoma.
  • It is recognised that hyperparathyroidism can be found in hyperthyroid patients, but the diagnosis of hyperparathyroidism in these cases is very difficult.
  • The fortuitous discovery of papillary thyroid carcinoma during parathyroid surgery has already been reported but in most cases it is a microcarcinoma.
  • In patients presenting with hyperthyroidism the risk of an associated carcinoma is generally felt to be negligeable.
  • The association of primary hyperparathyroidism, hyperthyroidism and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid is rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / epidemiology. Goiter, Nodular / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 17315788.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-1334
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue de laryngologie - otologie - rhinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Laryngol Otol Rhinol (Bord)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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50. Moran CA, Suster S: Primary parathyroid tumors of the mediastinum: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 17 cases. Am J Clin Pathol; 2005 Nov;124(5):749-54
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  • [Title] Primary parathyroid tumors of the mediastinum: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 17 cases.
  • We describe 17 cases (9 women, 8 men; aged 36 to 72 years) of primary parathyroid tumors occurring primarily in the anterior mediastinum.
  • Of 17 patients, 13 had clinical primary hyperparathyroidism, 1 had secondary hyperparathyroidism due to polycystic kidney disease, and 1 had a history of prostatic carcinoma and 1 of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
  • Histologically, 2 tumors showed features of parathyroid carcinoma, and 15 tumors showed more conventional features of parathyroid adenomas.
  • Immunohistochemical studies for chromogranin, synaptophysin, low-molecular-weight keratin (CAM 5.2), and parathyroid hormone were performed in 10 cases (8 parathyroid adenomas and 2 parathyroid carcinomas).
  • The cases highlight the importance of keeping primary parathyroid tumors in the differential diagnosis of anterior mediastinal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16203274.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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51. Troilo VL, D'Eredità G, Fischetti F, Berardi T: Parathyroid cancer as rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism. Case report and review of the literature. G Chir; 2009 Oct;30(10):432-6
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  • [Title] Parathyroid cancer as rare cause of primary hyperparathyroidism. Case report and review of the literature.
  • Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) due to parathyroid carcinoma is rare, and affects more frequently women in their 4th-5th decades of life.
  • Parathyroid cancer (PC) accounts for 0.5% up to 5% of the patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT).
  • Diagnosis of PC is not easy, and a lot of patients with PHPT receive no pre-operative or intra-operative diagnosis of malignancy.
  • We report the case of a 52 years old woman that underwent a single parathyroidectomy for hyperfunctioning gland.
  • Histological examination revealed carcinoma.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma is rare and surgery represent the only curative approach, although there can be a local recurrence of the disease.
  • A pre-operative diagnosis is not easy, and many features that suggest the diagnosis of malignancy are controversial.
  • According to the literature, we think that the cure of the parathyroid cancer is difficult to achieve.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / complications. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / etiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 19954585.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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52. Shimane T, Mori T, Ono T, Egawa S, Furuta A, Ikeda K, Kamakazu K, Kobayashi S, Sanbe T, Suzaki H: [Three cases of adenocarcinoma of the head and neck maintaining QOL by administration of docetaxel]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Dec;37(13):2897-900
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  • [Title] [Three cases of adenocarcinoma of the head and neck maintaining QOL by administration of docetaxel].
  • A primary head and neck adenocarcinoma is a comparatively rare disease, and surgical resection has been the first choice for its treatment.
  • In the present study, we performed chemotherapy with weekly administration of docetaxel in 3 cases with unresectable or recurrent adenocarcinoma of the head and neck on an outpatient basis, resulting in long-term maintenance of the patients' QOL.
  • Each case had submandibular gland carcinoma, parotid gland carcinoma, or parathyroid gland carcinoma.
  • The present results might suggest that it is possible to treat patients with adenocarcinoma in the head and neck without decreasing patients' QOL.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Head and Neck Neoplasms / drug therapy. Taxoids / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 21160265.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Taxoids; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel
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53. Al-Maghrabi JA, Asa SL: Expression of nm23 antimetastatic gene product in parathyroid hyperplasia, adenoma and carcinoma. An immunohistological assessment. Saudi Med J; 2005 May;26(5):728-31
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  • [Title] Expression of nm23 antimetastatic gene product in parathyroid hyperplasia, adenoma and carcinoma. An immunohistological assessment.
  • OBJECTIVE: The nm23 gene was initially cloned as a metastasis suppressor gene, but the clinical relevance of nm23 as a metastasis suppressor or prognostic indicator for human cancers remain controversial.
  • To evaluate the role of nm23 protein as a prognostic factor and its role in parathyroid neoplasia, we studied nm23 protein expression by immunohistochemical staining in parathyroid lesions.
  • They included parathyroid carcinomas (5 cases), adenomas (22 cases), hyperplasia (21 cases), and normal parathyroid tissue (10 cases).
  • RESULTS: Expression of nm23 protein was noted in adenomas and carcinomas as well as in hyperplastic parathyroid glands and there was no significant statistical difference between these groups.
  • Normal parathyroid glands did not show any intense immunoreactivity.
  • CONCLUSION: The results suggest that expression of nm23 in parathyroid lesions is correlated with tumor proliferation rather than suppression of invasion and metastasis.
  • While our data suggest that nm23 may help in the distinction of normal from proliferative parathyroids, these results do not point to nm23 as a reliable prognostic marker in parathyroid lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / metabolism. Monomeric GTP-Binding Proteins. Nucleoside-Diphosphate Kinase. Parathyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15951858.001).
  • [ISSN] 0379-5284
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / NM23 Nucleoside Diphosphate Kinases; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; EC 2.7.4.6 / NME1 protein, human; EC 2.7.4.6 / Nucleoside-Diphosphate Kinase; EC 3.6.5.2 / Monomeric GTP-Binding Proteins
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54. Yang YJ, Han JW, Youn HD, Cho EJ: The tumor suppressor, parafibromin, mediates histone H3 K9 methylation for cyclin D1 repression. Nucleic Acids Res; 2010 Jan;38(2):382-90
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  • Parafibromin, a component of the RNA polymerase II-associated PAF1 complex, is a tumor suppressor linked to hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome and sporadic parathyroid carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 19906718.001).
  • [ISSN] 1362-4962
  • [Journal-full-title] Nucleic acids research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucleic Acids Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / Histones; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1; EC 2.1.1. / SUV39H1 protein, human; EC 2.1.1.- / Methyltransferases; EC 2.1.1.- / histone methyltransferase; EC 2.1.1.43 / Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2811029
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55. Akinci B, Comlekci A, Tankurt E: Hypercalcemia of primary hyperparathyroidism was treated by cinacalcet in a patient with liver cirrhosis. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes; 2009 Mar;117(3):142-5
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  • Cinacalcet is a type II calcimimetic agent which is an allosteric modulator of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaR) located on the surface of the parathyroid cells.
  • Increasing sensitivity of CaR causes reduced secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and suppression of serum calcium levels.
  • Cinacalcet has recently been approved by Federal Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism on maintenance dialysis and hypercalcemia in patients with parathyroid cancer.
  • As she refused having parathyroid surgery for her parathyroid adenoma at first, her hypercalcemia was treated successfully with 30 mg/day cinacalcet for 6 months.
  • As she accepted surgery this time, her parathyroid adenoma was removed by minimally invasive parathyroidectomy.
  • Parathyroid adenoma was confirmed pathologically.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cinacalcet Hydrochloride. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 18561096.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-3646
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and clinical endocrinology & diabetes : official journal, German Society of Endocrinology [and] German Diabetes Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Clin. Endocrinol. Diabetes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Naphthalenes; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride
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61. Kebebew E: Parathyroid carcinoma, a rare but important disorder for endocrinologists, primary care physicians, and endocrine surgeons. Thyroid; 2008 Apr;18(4):385-6
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  • [Title] Parathyroid carcinoma, a rare but important disorder for endocrinologists, primary care physicians, and endocrine surgeons.
  • [MeSH-major] Endocrinology / methods. Medical Oncology / methods. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / therapy. Primary Health Care / methods

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  • (PMID = 18348705.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Editorial; Introductory Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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62. Akkaş BE, Vural GU, Tan G: Parathyroid adenomas seen in the clinical follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma: a diagnostic dilemma. Clin Nucl Med; 2009 Feb;34(2):70-1
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  • [Title] Parathyroid adenomas seen in the clinical follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma: a diagnostic dilemma.
  • The coexistence of nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma and parathyroid adenoma is an uncommon clinical entity.
  • In most of the previously published studies, thyroid carcinomas are diagnosed incidentally during or after the treatment of parathyroid disease, mostly in the pathology specimens.
  • Here, we report 2 cases of parathyroid adenoma who presented years after the treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • Neither of the patients had symptoms of hypercalcemia and hyperparathyroidism, and parathyroid adenomas were diagnosed on routine physical examination of the neck and on routine monitoring of serum calcium levels.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 19352252.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0229
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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63. Tamura G, Miyoshi H, Ogata SY, Sasou S, Kudoh S, Kikuchi J, Yanagawa N, Motoyama T: Parathyroid carcinoma with anaplastic feature: association of a p53 gene mutation with anaplastic transformation. Pathol Int; 2009 Feb;59(2):107-10
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  • [Title] Parathyroid carcinoma with anaplastic feature: association of a p53 gene mutation with anaplastic transformation.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare neoplasm that accounts for only 1-3% of cases of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma is a well-differentiated tumor that is sometimes difficult to differentiate histopathologically from its benign counterpart, parathyroid adenoma.
  • The molecular mechanism of parathyroid carcinogenesis remains unknown, and investigators have reported that abnormalities of the p53 gene do not play a significant role in parathyroid carcinogenesis, unlike in other human malignancies.
  • The present report describes parathyroid carcinoma with anaplastic transformation of differentiated parathyroid carcinoma in a patient with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Nuclear accumulation of p53 protein was found in anaplastic carcinoma cells but not in differentiated carcinoma cells.
  • Polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism followed by direct sequencing showed that anaplastic carcinoma cells carried a missense mutation at codon 248 (CGG to CAG) of the p53 gene, while the remaining differentiated carcinoma cells had the wild-type p53 gene.
  • These findings suggest that the p53 gene mutation is associated with anaplastic transformation of parathyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Genes, p53. Mutation, Missense. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. DNA Mutational Analysis. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism / etiology. Male. Parathyroidectomy. Polymorphism, Single-Stranded Conformational. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19154265.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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64. Pino Rivero V, Pantoja Hernández CG, Mora Santos ME, González Palomino A, Pardo Romero G, Gómez de Tejada Romero R, Blasco Huelva A: [Morphology of the parathyroid glands. A study of 146 samples and review of the literature]. An Otorrinolaringol Ibero Am; 2007;34(2):135-42
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  • [Title] [Morphology of the parathyroid glands. A study of 146 samples and review of the literature].
  • [Transliterated title] Morfología de las glándulas paratiroides. Estudio de 146 muestras y revisión de la literatura.
  • Parathyroid hyperfunction condition has a very diverse and unspecific symptoms and signs.
  • We have performed an anatomopathologic study of 146 parathyroid gland from patients diagnosed from hyperparathyroidism.
  • About a 72.6% of the patients presented a parathyroid adenoma while in the rest 27.4% it was observed principal cells hyperplasia.
  • Up to now we have not registered any cases of parathyroid carcinoma after anatomopathological exam of the removed gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Glands / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17549960.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-8874
  • [Journal-full-title] Anales otorrinolaringológicos ibero-americanos
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Otorrinolaringol Ibero Am
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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65. Sorrentino F, Atzeni J, Romano G, Buscemi G, Romano M: [Differentiated microcarcinoma of the thyroid gland]. G Chir; 2010 Jun-Jul;31(6-7):277-8
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  • [Title] [Differentiated microcarcinoma of the thyroid gland].
  • [Transliterated title] Il microcarcinoma differenziato della tiroide.
  • The papillary microcarcinoma is the most common form of thyroid cancer, followed by follicular microcarcinoma.
  • RESULTS: 42 carcinomas were detected, of which 24 PTMC and 1 follicular microcarcinoma.
  • The PTMC was associated with cancer in only 2 cases (papillary carcinoma and parathyroid carcinoma) in the remaining thyroid tissue was suffering from benign disease (20 goiters, 3 Hashimoto thyroiditis, a trabecular adenoma).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid in our series, represents 57% of all thyroid cancers.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Lymph Node Excision. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 20646369.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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66. Travaini L, Trifiro G, Paganelli G: A parathyroid carcinoma within a cold thyroid nodule. Ecancermedicalscience; 2009;3:150
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  • [Title] A parathyroid carcinoma within a cold thyroid nodule.
  • A right emithyroidectomy and right superior and inferior parathyroidectomy was performed and histopathological examination showed a parathyroid carcinoma (immunohistochemistry positive for PTH and chromogranin A, Ki-67 10%) associated with follicular hyperplasia.

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  • (PMID = 22276015.001).
  • [ISSN] 1754-6605
  • [Journal-full-title] Ecancermedicalscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ecancermedicalscience
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3223989
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67. Dudney WC, Bodenner D, Stack BC Jr: Parathyroid carcinoma. Otolaryngol Clin North Am; 2010 Apr;43(2):441-53, xi
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  • [Title] Parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare tumor that is prone to recurrence and poor local-regional control.
  • Despite advances in technologies that have shown promise for accurate diagnosis, the mainstay of initial diagnosis remains pathologic analysis and clinical assessment.
  • A surgeon's intraoperative analysis is important in managing patients with parathyroid carcinoma.
  • If parathyroid carcinoma is suspected intraoperatively, a more aggressive surgical strategy should be implemented.
  • This article presents a case series and summary of the existing parathyroid carcinoma literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hypercalcemia / blood. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Male. Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / secondary. Mediastinal Neoplasms / surgery. Middle Aged. Neck Dissection. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroidectomy. Ribs / pathology. Ribs / surgery. Thoracotomy. Thyroidectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20510726.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-8259
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngologic clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 69
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68. Domínguez JM, Velasco S, Goñi I, León A, González H, Claure R, Arteaga E, Campusano C, Fardella C, López JM, Mosso L, Rodríguez JA, González G: [Usefulness of intraoperative parathormone measurement to predict surgical cure in primary hyperparathyroidism]. Rev Med Chil; 2009 Dec;137(12):1591-6
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  • [Transliterated title] Utilidad de la PTH intraoperatoria como predictor de curación quirúrgica en hiperparatiroidismo primario.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Serum PTH was measured to all patients operated for PHPT between 2003 and 2008, before and five and ten minutes after the excision of the parathyroid gland causing the disease.
  • The criteria for complete cure were normal serum calcium at 24 hours and 6 months after surgery and the pathological confirmation of parathyroid gland excision.
  • The pathological study disclosed an adenoma in 69 (78%), and multiglandular disease in 16 (18%), a parathyroid cancer in one and a normal gland in one patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Calcium / blood. Hyperparathyroidism / surgery. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20361135.001).
  • [ISSN] 0034-9887
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista médica de Chile
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Chil
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Chile
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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69. Hunt JL: Molecular alterations in hereditary and sporadic thyroid and parathyroid diseases. Adv Anat Pathol; 2009 Jan;16(1):23-32
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  • [Title] Molecular alterations in hereditary and sporadic thyroid and parathyroid diseases.
  • Thyroid and parathyroid diseases are fairly common and can be either hereditary or sporadic in nature.
  • The genetic pathways of tumors of parathyroid and thyroid are beginning to be well understood and are proving to be useful diagnostic, prognostic, and potential therapeutic targets.
  • The molecular alterations in parathyroid and thyroid tumors and tumor-like processes are reviewed, with a focus on the potentially clinically useful diagnostic markers.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Diseases / genetics. Thyroid Diseases / genetics. Thyroid Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / classification. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / classification. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Humans. Hyperplasia. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2b / genetics. RNA / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / classification. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19098464.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4031
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 63231-63-0 / RNA
  • [Number-of-references] 157
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70. Meng Z, Tan J, Zhang M, Dong F, Jia Q, Zhang F: Tc-99m pertechnetate/sestamibi imaging in a case of recurrent parathyroid carcinoma with metabolic bone disorder. Clin Nucl Med; 2009 Jul;34(7):479-82
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  • [Title] Tc-99m pertechnetate/sestamibi imaging in a case of recurrent parathyroid carcinoma with metabolic bone disorder.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Diseases, Metabolic / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Calcium / blood. Humans. Male. Parathyroid Hormone / blood

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  • (PMID = 19542965.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-0229
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi; A0730CX801 / Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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71. Yang ZQ, Zhu LW, Wang PZ: [Diagnosis and surgical treatment of 48 cases of parathyroid adenoma and parathyroid carcinoma]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2006 Aug;28(8):625-7
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and surgical treatment of 48 cases of parathyroid adenoma and parathyroid carcinoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To summarize the experience in diagnosis and surgical treatment of parathyroid adenoma and carcinoma (PTA and PTC) in our department.
  • Among the 48 cases, 46 cases were of parathyroid adenoma and 2 cases of parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Serum calcium and PTH assays are both reliable methods for the diagnosis of PTA and PTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Calcium / blood. Echocardiography, Doppler, Color. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hypocalcemia / etiology. Male. Middle Aged. Neck Dissection. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroidectomy / adverse effects. Parathyroidectomy / methods. Retrospective Studies. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi

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  • (PMID = 17236561.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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72. Hahn MA, Marsh DJ: Identification of a functional bipartite nuclear localization signal in the tumor suppressor parafibromin. Oncogene; 2005 Sep 15;24(41):6241-8
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  • Parafibromin is a putative tumor suppressor encoded by HRPT2, mutations in which have been implicated in the familial tumor syndrome hyperparathyroidism jaw tumor syndrome (HPT-JT), and sporadic parathyroid carcinoma.
  • We have also shown that the C-terminal arm of this bipartite NLS plays the primary role in nuclear localization.
  • In support of these findings, specific HRPT2 mutations identified in HPT-JT or sporadic parathyroid carcinoma predicted to truncate parafibromin upstream of or within this NLS disrupt nuclear localization.
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Base Sequence. Cell Line. DNA Primers. Humans. Molecular Sequence Data. Mutagenesis, Site-Directed. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Sequence Homology, Amino Acid

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  • [Copyright] Oncogene (2005) 24, 6241-6248.
  • [ErratumIn] Oncogene. 2007 Feb 1;26(5):788
  • (PMID = 16116486.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-9232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Nuclear Localization Signals; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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73. Kettle AG, O'Doherty MJ: Parathyroid imaging: how good is it and how should it be done? Semin Nucl Med; 2006 Jul;36(3):206-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Parathyroid imaging: how good is it and how should it be done?
  • This has been suggested from the literature to be primarily the result of a parathyroid adenoma (80-85% of cases), hyperplasia involving more than 1 gland, usually with all 4 glands being involved (10-15% of cases), or the result, albeit rarely, of parathyroid carcinoma (0.5-1% of cases).
  • Surgical removal of the hypersecreting gland is the primary treatment; this procedure is best performed by a skilled surgeon who would normally find the abnormality in 95% of cases.
  • Functional imaging of parathyroid tissue using thallium was introduced in the 1980s but has largely been superceded by the use of (99m)Tc-labeled isonitriles.
  • A recent systematic review reported the percentage sensitivity (95% confidence intervals) for sestamibi in the identification of solitary adenomas as 88.44 (87.48-89.40), multigland hyperplasia 44.46 (41.13-47.8), double adenomas 29.95 (-2.19 to 62.09), and carcinoma 33 (33).
  • The subtraction technique using (99m)Tc-sestamibi and (123)I is the optimal technique enabling the site to be related to the thyroid tissue when the parathyroid gland is in the neck in a normal position.
  • In patients who have had surgical exploration by an experienced parathyroid surgeon in a unit with an experienced nuclear medicine team and negative sestamibi imaging, it is reasonable to image the patient with (11)C methionine.
  • There is no substitute for an experienced surgeon and an experienced imaging unit to provide a parathyroid service.
  • [MeSH-major] Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 16762611.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-2998
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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74. Tominaga Y: [Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and bone. The clinical perspective of parathyroid interventional therapy for advanced secondary hyperparathyroidism in the era of cinacalcet HCl]. Clin Calcium; 2009 Apr;19(4):545-50
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  • [Title] [Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and bone. The clinical perspective of parathyroid interventional therapy for advanced secondary hyperparathyroidism in the era of cinacalcet HCl].
  • Advanced secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) due to chronic kidney disease refractory to medical treatment should be indicated for parathyroid interventional therapy (parathyroidectomy [PTX] and percutaneous ethanol injection therapy [PEIT] ect).
  • However surgeons hesitate the operation for patients who belong to high risk group and have the possibility of severe complications, suffer from parathyroid carcinoma or parathyromatosis.
  • SHPT can be managed for long-term by PEIT, provided that only one parathyroid gland is enlarged.

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  • (PMID = 19329834.001).
  • [ISSN] 0917-5857
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical calcium
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Calcium
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Naphthalenes; 1406-16-2 / Vitamin D; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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75. Pahlavan PS, Severin MC: Parathyroid carcinoma: A rare case with mandibular brown tumor. Wien Klin Wochenschr; 2006 Apr;118(5-6):175-9
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  • [Title] Parathyroid carcinoma: A rare case with mandibular brown tumor.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma constitutes less than 1 % of primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • Cervical ultrasound revealed a hypoecho area suspicious of parathyroid adenoma.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma was later confirmed and en bloc resection was performed.
  • This unique case of parathyroid carcinoma in conjunction with brown tumor is the second reported case worldwide.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / surgery. Mandibular Neoplasms / secondary. Mandibular Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male. Palpation. Rare Diseases / diagnosis. Rare Diseases / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16773484.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-5325
  • [Journal-full-title] Wiener klinische Wochenschrift
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wien. Klin. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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76. Rubin MR, Bilezikian JP, Birken S, Silverberg SJ: Human chorionic gonadotropin measurements in parathyroid carcinoma. Eur J Endocrinol; 2008 Oct;159(4):469-74
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  • [Title] Human chorionic gonadotropin measurements in parathyroid carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: Preoperatively, it is difficult to differentiate between parathyroid cancer (PtCa) and severe primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) due to a benign tumor.
  • Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a tumor marker in trophoblastic and nontrophoblastic cancers and hyperglycosylated hCG is increased in hCG-secreting malignancies.
  • We investigated whether hCG can distinguish PtCa cancer from benign disease and add prognostic information.
  • Serum malignant hyperglycosylated hCG values in all of the cancer patients exceeded the maximal serum malignant hCG level of the PHPT subjects with benign disease (3.77 pmol/l).

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  • (PMID = 18625691.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK074457-03; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K24 DK074457; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK32333; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA 98350; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK074457; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / K24 DK074457-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA098350; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK032333
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0 / Naphthalenes; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS247354; NLM/ PMC2970867
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77. Newey PJ, Bowl MR, Cranston T, Thakker RV: Cell division cycle protein 73 homolog (CDC73) mutations in the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome (HPT-JT) and parathyroid tumors. Hum Mutat; 2010 Mar;31(3):295-307
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  • [Title] Cell division cycle protein 73 homolog (CDC73) mutations in the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome (HPT-JT) and parathyroid tumors.
  • The hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT) syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by the occurrence of parathyroid tumors in association with ossifying fibromas of the maxilla and/or mandible.
  • Somatic CDC73 mutations are a frequent finding in nonfamilial (i.e., sporadic) parathyroid carcinomas and have also been reported in benign sporadic parathyroid tumors as well as sporadic renal and fibro-osseous jaw tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism / genetics. Mutation. Parathyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20052758.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-1004
  • [Journal-full-title] Human mutation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Mutat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0601423; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G9825289; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / PAF1 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin; EC 2.7.7.- / RNA Polymerase II
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78. Romani AM, Panarese A, Pironi D, Zeri KP, Candioli S, Manigrasso A, Filippini A: [Parathyroid carcinoma: clinical case and review of the literature]. G Chir; 2006 Apr;27(4):169-72
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  • [Title] [Parathyroid carcinoma: clinical case and review of the literature].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinoma paratiroideo: caso clinico e revisione della letteratura.
  • INTRODUCTION: Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare endocrine neoplasm, difficult to define clinically and histopathologically.
  • Laboratory findings (PTH 580 pg/ml; Ca 12.40 mg/dl; P 1.9 mg/dl), echography, TC, and parathyroid scintigraphy, associated with clinical data, have suggested hypothesis of parathyroid carcinoma confirmed by histological examination and immunochemistry.
  • DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: No clinical or bio-humoral data allows a preoperative diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Only with definitive pathology and immunohistochemistry it is possible to differentiate an adenoma from a carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma. Parathyroid Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 16768874.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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79. Bhatia V, Saini MK, Shen X, Bi LX, Qiu S, Weigel NL, Falzon M: EB1089 inhibits the parathyroid hormone-related protein-enhanced bone metastasis and xenograft growth of human prostate cancer cells. Mol Cancer Ther; 2009 Jul;8(7):1787-98
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  • [Title] EB1089 inhibits the parathyroid hormone-related protein-enhanced bone metastasis and xenograft growth of human prostate cancer cells.
  • Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) plays a major role in prostate carcinoma progression and bone metastasis.
  • Once prostate cancers become androgen-independent, treatment options become limited.
  • Using the prostate cancer cell line C4-2 as a model, we studied the effects of PTHrP and the noncalcemic vitamin D analogue EB1089 on markers of prostate cancer cell progression in vitro and in vivo.
  • A direct correlation between PTHrP immunoreactivity and increasing tumor grade is observed in human prostate cancer specimens.
  • Thus, decreasing PTHrP production by treatment with vitamin D analogues may prove therapeutically beneficial for prostate cancer.

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  • (PMID = 19584236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-8514
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer Ther.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA083940-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA083940; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA83940; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA083940-08
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein; FXC9231JVH / Calcitriol; Q0OZ0D9223 / seocalcitol
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS120202; NLM/ PMC2727128
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80. Yoshida S: Intracranial metastatic parathyroid carcinoma: case report. Surg Neurol; 2006 Jan;65(1):81-3
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  • [Title] Intracranial metastatic parathyroid carcinoma: case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Although parathyroid carcinoma is not frequent, it is a slowly progressive disease characterized by frequent recurrences.
  • A review of the literature revealed only 2 other cases of intracranial metastatic parathyroid carcinoma.
  • We present here the case of cerebral metastases from parathyroid carcinoma that could be treated successfully.
  • She had undergone a parathyroidectomy for parathyroid carcinoma 18 years earlier.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This case report supports aggressive surgical management to eliminate all parathyroid hormone-secreting malignant tissue and prevent metabolic complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16378868.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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81. Moyes VJ, Monson JP, Chew SL, Akker SA: Clinical Use of Cinacalcet in MEN1 Hyperparathyroidism. Int J Endocrinol; 2010;2010:906163
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  • Cinacalcet, a calcimimetic agent licensed for the treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism and parathyroid carcinoma, may provide a medical alternative for the management of these complex patients.
  • Methods. A prospective audit was performed of eight patients; three males and five females, aged 20-38 at diagnosis.

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82. DeLellis RA: Parathyroid carcinoma: an overview. Adv Anat Pathol; 2005 Mar;12(2):53-61
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  • [Title] Parathyroid carcinoma: an overview.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare tumor that is responsible for <1% of cases of hyperparathyroidism in most parts of the world.
  • Parathyroid carcinomas tend to occur a decade earlier than adenomas, and the sex ratio approaches unity in contrast to the female preponderance of adenomas.
  • Most patients with carcinomas present with marked hypercalcemia and are more likely to have associated bone and renal disease than those with adenomas.
  • Although fibrosis and mitotic activity are common in carcinomas, these features are not specific for malignancy.
  • The diagnosis of carcinoma should be restricted to those tumors that show invasion of blood vessels, perineural spaces, soft tissues, thyroid gland, or other adjacent structures or to tumors with documented metastases.
  • Mutations of the HRPT2 gene (1q21-q32), which are responsible for the HPT-JT syndrome, have been implicated in the development of a high proportion of parathyroid carcinomas.
  • A subset of patients with mutation-positive carcinomas have germline mutations of the HRPT2 gene.
  • This finding suggests that some patients with apparent sporadic parathyroid carcinomas may have the HPT-JT syndrome or a variant of this syndrome.
  • Because of the high frequency of local recurrence following incomplete excision, an en bloc resection is the preferred surgical approach for treatment of parathyroid carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15731573.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-4109
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / MEN1 protein, human; 0 / Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 82
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83. Brown EM: Clinical utility of calcimimetics targeting the extracellular calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR). Biochem Pharmacol; 2010 Aug 1;80(3):297-307
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  • Calcimimetics, which activate the extracellular calcium (Ca(o)(2+))-sensing receptor in the parathyroid and other tissues participating in Ca(o)(2+) homeostasis, were the first described allosteric activators of a G-protein-coupled receptor.
  • Cinacalcet, the only calcimimetic currently approved for human use, is used clinically for treating secondary hyperparathyroidism (e.g., overactivity of parathyroid glands) in patients being dialyzed for chronic kidney disease.
  • By sensitizing the parathyroids to Ca(o)(2+), cinacalcet lowers the circulating parathyroid hormone (PTH) level.
  • The second approved use of cinacalcet is for treating hypercalcemia in patients with inoperable parathyroid carcinoma.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20382129.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2968
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK078331
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Naphthalenes; 0 / Receptors, Calcium-Sensing; 1K860WSG25 / Cinacalcet Hydrochloride; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
  • [Number-of-references] 81
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84. Chen H, Mack E, Starling JR: A comprehensive evaluation of perioperative adjuncts during minimally invasive parathyroidectomy: which is most reliable? Ann Surg; 2005 Sep;242(3):375-80; discussion 380-3
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  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the utility of several perioperative adjuncts for parathyroid localization during parathyroid surgery, we prospectively compared the accuracy of sestamibi-single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scanning, radioguided surgery, and intraoperative parathyroid hormone (ioPTH) testing.
  • Several perioperative adjuncts can be used to localize parathyroid adenomas, including sestamibi-SPECT scanning, radioguided surgery, and ioPTH testing.
  • The mean calcium and parathyroid hormone levels were 11.4 +/- 0.1 mg/dL and 136 +/- 6 pg/mL, respectively.
  • Of the 254 patients, 206 (81%) had a single parathyroid adenoma, 28 (11%) had double adenomas, 19 (8%) had hyperplasia, and one had parathyroid cancer.
  • All resected parathyroid glands were hypercellular (mean weight = 895 +/- 86 mg).
  • Of all the perioperative adjuncts used during parathyroid surgery, ioPTH testing has the highest sensitivity, positive predictive value, and accuracy.
  • Thus, the inherent variability of sestamibi scanning and radioguided techniques emphasizes the critical role of ioPTH testing during parathyroid surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroidectomy / methods. Radiosurgery / methods. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods

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  • (PMID = 16135923.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4932
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1357745
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85. Grzesiak JJ, Smith KC, Burton DW, Deftos LJ, Bouvet M: GSK3 and PKB/Akt are associated with integrin-mediated regulation of PTHrP, IL-6 and IL-8 expression in FG pancreatic cancer cells. Int J Cancer; 2005 Apr 20;114(4):522-30
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  • [Title] GSK3 and PKB/Akt are associated with integrin-mediated regulation of PTHrP, IL-6 and IL-8 expression in FG pancreatic cancer cells.
  • We have demonstrated recently that PTHrP is upregulated in pancreatic adenocarcinoma and that the ECM exerts regulatory control, at least in part, over PTHrP expression.
  • Our results demonstrate that, under serum-free conditions, adhesion of FG pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells on Fn is mediated by the alpha5beta1 integrin, whereas adhesion to Type I collagen is mediated by the alpha2beta1 integrin. alpha5beta1 integrin-mediated adhesion to Fn results in a phenotype that includes a reduction in cell proliferation, increased E-cadherin localization in cell-cell contacts, increased beta-catenin localization throughout the cell, inhibition of haptokinetic cell migration, and increased expression of PTHrP, IL-6 and IL-8 relative to alpha2beta1 integrin-mediated adhesion on Type I collagen.
  • A phosphoprotein immunoblotting screen of FG pancreatic cancer cells grown on either Fn or Type I collagen indicates that GSK3 and PKB/Akt are differentially phosphorylated on these 2 substrates.
  • These results implicate GSK3 and PKB/Akt in the integrin-mediated regulation of PTHrP, IL-6 and IL-8 in pancreatic cancer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Cadherins / metabolism. Cell Adhesion. Cell Movement. Collagen / chemistry. Collagen / metabolism. Culture Media, Serum-Free / pharmacology. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Humans. Integrin alpha2beta1 / metabolism. Integrin alpha5beta1 / metabolism. Microscopy, Fluorescence. Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein / metabolism. Phenotype. Phosphoproteins / chemistry. Phosphorylation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt. Radioimmunoassay. Signal Transduction. Time Factors. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 15609321.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR47347; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK60588
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Culture Media, Serum-Free; 0 / Integrin alpha2beta1; 0 / Integrin alpha5beta1; 0 / Integrins; 0 / Interleukin-6; 0 / Interleukin-8; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 9007-34-5 / Collagen; EC 2.7.11.1 / AKT1 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 2.7.11.26 / Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3
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86. Lautier T, Nasser W: The DNA nucleoid-associated protein Fis co-ordinates the expression of the main virulence genes in the phytopathogenic bacterium Erwinia chrysanthemi. Mol Microbiol; 2007 Dec;66(6):1474-90
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  • An E. chrysanthemi fis mutant displays a reduced motility and expression of hrpN, prtC and the sap operon.


87. Munhoz EA, Cardoso CL, Capelozza AL, Oliveira PR, Damante JH: Panoramic radiography and its role in the diagnosis of systemic disorders. Gen Dent; 2010 Jan-Feb;58(1):46-9
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  • [Title] Panoramic radiography and its role in the diagnosis of systemic disorders.
  • During palpation of the neck, a fixed nodule was detected on the superior portion of the left thyroid gland.
  • Biochemical tests showed elevated levels of serum alkaline osphatase, serum calcium, and parathyroid hormone.
  • As the serum phosphate was low, the final diagnosis was primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • A high radiopharmaceutical capitation was present in the left parathyroid gland.
  • The patient was referred to a head and neck surgeon, who removed the left thyroid lobule and the parathyroid gland.
  • The microscopic diagnosis was parathyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Hyperparathyroidism, Primary / diagnosis. Mandibular Diseases / radiography. Osteolysis / radiography. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Radiography, Panoramic
  • [MeSH-minor] Alkaline Phosphatase / blood. Biopsy. Calcium / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Hormone / blood. Phosphates / blood. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20129892.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-6771
  • [Journal-full-title] General dentistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gen Dent
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone; 0 / Phosphates; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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88. Sakals SA, Gillick MS, Kerr ME, Boston SE: Diagnosing the etiology of hypercalcemia in a dog: a case of primary hyperparathyroidism. Vet Pathol; 2010 May;47(3):579-81
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  • Serum total calcium, free calcium, and intact parathyroid hormone concentrations were elevated.
  • Surgical exploration of the ventral neck revealed a grossly enlarged right external parathyroid gland.
  • The histopathological diagnosis for the excised right parathyroid gland was an incompletely resected parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma in the dog is an infrequent cause of hypercalcemia and primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / veterinary. Dog Diseases / diagnosis. Hypercalcemia / veterinary. Hyperparathyroidism / veterinary. Parathyroid Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 20472810.001).
  • [ISSN] 1544-2217
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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89. Jiménez-Garcia A, Milán JA, García-Escudero A, Marín-Velarde C, Cantillana J, Echenique-Elizondo M: [Parathyroid carcinoma arising on transplanted parathyroid tissue after total parathyroidectomy for renal hyperparathyroidism]. Cir Esp; 2006 Jun;79(6):382-4
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  • [Title] [Parathyroid carcinoma arising on transplanted parathyroid tissue after total parathyroidectomy for renal hyperparathyroidism].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinoma paratiroideo sobre trasplante autólogo tras paratiroidectomía total en el hiperparatiroidismo renal.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma usually develops in association with primary hyperparathyroidism.
  • We present a case of parathyroid carcinoma arising on transplanted parathyroid tissue after total parathyroidectomy for renal hyperparathyroidism.
  • [MeSH-major] Hyperparathyroidism, Secondary / surgery. Parathyroid Glands / pathology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Parathyroidectomy / methods. Postoperative Complications

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  • (PMID = 16769005.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-739X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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90. Kapur U, Katz RL: Radioactive iodine-associated changes in thyroid on fine-needle aspiration. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Feb;38(2):119-20
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  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adenoma / complications. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / complications. Male. Middle Aged. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications. Prostatic Neoplasms / surgery. Venous Thrombosis / complications

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  • (PMID = 19459169.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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91. Moon SD, Park JH, Kim EM, Kim JH, Han JH, Yoo SJ, Yoon KH, Kang MI, Lee KW, Son HY, Kang SK, Oh SJ, Kim KM, Yoon SJ, Park JG, Kim IJ, Kang HC, Hong SW, Kim KR, Cha BY: A Novel IVS2-1G&gt;A mutation causes aberrant splicing of the HRPT2 gene in a family with hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Feb;90(2):878-83
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  • In addition, we detected two novel somatic mutations of HRPT2 in malignant parathyroid tumors from the affected individuals.
  • One, 85delG, causes premature termination; the other, an 18 bp in-frame deletion of 13_30delCTTAGCGTCCTGCGACAG, suggests that this region may be important in the development of the parathyroid carcinomas in HPT-JT syndrome.
  • These findings provide further evidence that mutation of HRPT2 is associated with the formation of parathyroid tumors in HPT-JT syndrome.

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  • (PMID = 15613436.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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92. Cetani F, Ambrogini E, Viacava P, Pardi E, Fanelli G, Naccarato AG, Borsari S, Lemmi M, Berti P, Miccoli P, Pinchera A, Marcocci C: Should parafibromin staining replace HRTP2 gene analysis as an additional tool for histologic diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma? Eur J Endocrinol; 2007 May;156(5):547-54
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  • [Title] Should parafibromin staining replace HRTP2 gene analysis as an additional tool for histologic diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma?
  • OBJECTIVE: HRPT2 gene mutations are associated with parathyroid carcinomas, and absence of parafibromin immunoreactivity has been suggested as a diagnostic marker of malignancy.
  • The aim of our study was to extend parafibromin studies in a series of benign and malignant parathyroid tumors and cross-validate the results of immunohistochemistry with those of HRPT2 analysis.
  • DESIGN AND PATIENTS: We performed parafibromin and cyclin D1 immunostaining and HRPT2 gene analysis using loss of heterozygosity studies and sequencing analysis in parathyroid specimens from 11 patients with carcinoma (eleven primary tumors, one skin, and four lung metastases), 22 with sporadic adenomas, and 4 with atypical adenomas.
  • RESULTS: Ten out of eleven parathyroid cancers were negative for parafibromin staining and showed HRPT2 gene abnormalities.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We have shown that negative parafibromin staining is almost invariably associated with HRPT2 mutations and confirm that loss of parafibromin staining strongly predicts parathyroid malignancy.
  • In clinical practice, these tests could be particularly useful in the subset of parathyroid tumors with equivocal histological examination.

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  • (PMID = 17468190.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDC73 protein, human; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
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93. Costanzo M, Terminella A, Marziani A, Chisari A, Missiato A, Cannizzaro MA: Giant mediastinal parathyroid adenoma: a case report. Ann Ital Chir; 2009 Jan-Feb;80(1):55-9
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  • [Title] Giant mediastinal parathyroid adenoma: a case report.
  • Neck and chest TC and 'TC sestamibi scintigraphy showed the presence of a 7 cm hyperfunctional ectopic parathyroid tissue in the postero-superior mediastinum infiltrating oesophagus.
  • The histological examination revealed a potentially malignant parathyroid adenoma with infiltration, without over-reaching the capsule.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Choristoma / pathology. Mediastinum / pathology. Parathyroid Glands. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19537125.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-469X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annali italiani di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Ital Chir
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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94. Hastings RH, Burton DW, Nefzi A, Montgrain PR, Quintana R, Deftos LJ: Combinatorial library discovery of small molecule inhibitors of lung cancer proliferation and parathyroid hormone-related protein expression. Cancer Biol Ther; 2010 Nov 15;10(10):1067-75
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  • [Title] Combinatorial library discovery of small molecule inhibitors of lung cancer proliferation and parathyroid hormone-related protein expression.
  • PTHrP (parathyroid hormone-related protein) is abnormally expressed in a substantial majority of lung cancers, especially non-small cell lung cancers, and plays a key role in tumor progression.
  • Thus, this oncoprotein could be a target for treating patients with lung cancer.
  • Two libraries of over 780,000 bis-cyclic thiourea and guanidine compounds each were tested in BEN lung carcinoma cells.
  • Similar effects on PTHrP mRNA were observed in A549 and H441 lung adenocarcinoma cells and in H727 lung carcinoid cells.
  • These results suggest that cyclic thiourea compounds inhibit PTHrP expression mediated by the P3 promoter, which is widely used in the majority of PTHrP-expressing cells, and that they may inhibit growth of lung cancer cells through the same mechanism.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Combinatorial Chemistry Techniques. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein / antagonists & inhibitors. Peptides, Cyclic / chemistry. Peptides, Cyclic / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Blotting, Western. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Humans. Luciferases / metabolism. Promoter Regions, Genetic. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 20890111.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-8576
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biology & therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein; 0 / Peptides, Cyclic; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 1.13.12.- / Luciferases
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95. Ríos S L, Sapunar Z J, Roa E I: [Primary hyperparathyroidism with severe skeletal involvement in one patient with parathyroid carcinoma]. Rev Med Chil; 2005 Jan;133(1):77-81
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  • [Title] [Primary hyperparathyroidism with severe skeletal involvement in one patient with parathyroid carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Hiperparatiroidismo primario con compromiso esquelético grave. Un caso de carcinoma paratiroideo.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma is an uncommon cause of primary hyperparathyroidism; however, when this condition is severe, cancer must be suspected.
  • The patient had a 4-cm parathyroid tumor, that was surgically excised, along with the ipsilateral thyroid lobe.
  • [MeSH-major] Femoral Fractures / etiology. Humeral Fractures / etiology. Hyperparathyroidism / etiology. Parathyroid Neoplasms / complications


96. Kinugasa Y, Morishige K, Kamiura S, Tsukamoto Y, Saji F: Parathyroid hormone-related protein-secreting uterine endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2006 Feb;36(2):113-5
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  • [Title] Parathyroid hormone-related protein-secreting uterine endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
  • The diagnosis of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP)-secreting metastatic uterine endometrioid cancer was made in a 32-year-old Japanese woman with humoral hypercalcemia of malignancy.
  • The primary endometrial cancer had been removed, and the tumor was diagnosed as Grade 1 endometrioid adenocarcinoma with shallow myometrial invasion.
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of hypercalcemia due to PTHrP secretion in uterine endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / chemistry. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / chemistry. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Hypercalcemia / etiology. Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16418186.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2811
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein
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97. Ahmad W, Kanatas AN, Mitchell DA: Parathyroid carcinoma radiographically mimicking a carotid body tumour. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 2010 Jun;39(6):620-2
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  • [Title] Parathyroid carcinoma radiographically mimicking a carotid body tumour.
  • Parathyroid carcinoma is a rare malignancy and is a cause of primary hyperparathyroidism in less than 1% of cases.
  • The authors present a case in which a lesion, radiologically suggestive of a carotid body tumour, but with the peroperative appearance of a vagal schwannoma had the definitive pathological diagnosis of parathyroid carcinoma.
  • Surgeons should be aware of unexpected malignant lesions involving the parathyroid glands.
  • [MeSH-major] Carotid Body Tumor / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Pneumonia / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoma / complications. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / radiography. Carcinoma / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20211541.001).
  • [ISSN] 1399-0020
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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98. Liu J, Wang JD: [Diagnosis and treatment of primary parathyroid carcinoma: report of 2 cases]. Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2008 Feb;43(2):150-1
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and treatment of primary parathyroid carcinoma: report of 2 cases].
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / therapy. Parathyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parathyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18510227.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-0860
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er bi yan hou tou jing wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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99. Gokden N, Gokden M, Phan DC, McKenney JK: The utility of PAX-2 in distinguishing metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma from its morphologic mimics: an immunohistochemical study with comparison to renal cell carcinoma marker. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Oct;32(10):1462-7
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  • [Title] The utility of PAX-2 in distinguishing metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma from its morphologic mimics: an immunohistochemical study with comparison to renal cell carcinoma marker.
  • Although immunohistochemical expression of PAX-2 has been described in a variety of primary renal cell carcinoma (RCC) subtypes and in metastatic RCC, its specificity as a marker of renal lineage in a metastatic setting has not been fully evaluated.
  • In addition, its utility has not been directly compared with the most widely used antibody in this setting, renal cell carcinoma marker (RCCma).
  • We studied PAX-2 expression in metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CC-RCC) and in a variety of nonrenal neoplasms with clear cytoplasm that may potentially mimic CC-RCC.
  • Five of the 50 mimics of CC-RCC (10%) had at least focal nuclear reactivity with PAX-2, including 1 of 3 parathyroid carcinomas (33%), 3 of 7 clear cell carcinomas of the ovary (43%), and the 1 clear cell papillary cystadenoma of the epididymis.
  • We conclude that PAX-2 is a useful marker for distinguishing metastatic CC-RCC from its potential morphologic mimics, but caution must be used in certain differential diagnostic settings where nonrenal tumors such as parathyroid carcinoma, ovarian clear cell carcinoma, and clear cell papillary cystadenoma of the epididymis were shown to express both PAX-2 and RCCma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / chemistry. Immunohistochemistry. Kidney Neoplasms / chemistry. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / analysis. PAX2 Transcription Factor / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Membrane / chemistry. Cell Nucleus / chemistry. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18685487.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / PAX2 Transcription Factor; 0 / PAX2 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.22 / MOK protein, human; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
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100. Anderson JA, Grabowska AM, Watson SA: PTHrP increases transcriptional activity of the integrin subunit alpha5. Br J Cancer; 2007 May 7;96(9):1394-403
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  • Increasing evidence is emerging highlighting the role of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) during metastasis by regulating cell adhesion.
  • RNA interference of endogenous PTHrP caused a significant reduction in cell adhesion of a breast cancer cell line to collagen type I, fibronectin and laminin (P<0.05) and of a colon cancer cell to collagen type I and fibronectin (P<0.05).
  • Overexpression of PTHrP induced a significant increase in cell adhesion of colon (P<0.0001) and breast (P<0.05) cancer cells to the same extracellular matrix proteins.
  • [MeSH-major] Integrin alpha5 / genetics. Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein / physiology. Transcription, Genetic
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma. Breast Neoplasms. Cell Line, Tumor. Colonic Neoplasms. Female. Flow Cytometry. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Protein Subunits / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 17406357.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Integrin alpha5; 0 / Parathyroid Hormone-Related Protein; 0 / Protein Subunits
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2360173
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