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1. Nguyen DX, Chiang AC, Zhang XH, Kim JY, Kris MG, Ladanyi M, Gerald WL, Massagué J: WNT/TCF signaling through LEF1 and HOXB9 mediates lung adenocarcinoma metastasis. Cell; 2009 Jul 10;138(1):51-62
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  • [Title] WNT/TCF signaling through LEF1 and HOXB9 mediates lung adenocarcinoma metastasis.
  • Metastasis from lung adenocarcinoma can occur swiftly to multiple organs within months of diagnosis.
  • The mechanisms that confer this rapid metastatic capacity to lung tumors are unknown.
  • Activation of the canonical WNT/TCF pathway is identified here as a determinant of metastasis to brain and bone during lung adenocarcinoma progression.
  • Gene expression signatures denoting WNT/TCF activation are associated with relapse to multiple organs in primary lung adenocarcinoma.
  • Metastatic subpopulations isolated from independent lymph node-derived lung adenocarcinoma cell lines harbor a hyperactive WNT/TCF pathway.
  • Reduction of TCF activity in these cells attenuates their ability to form brain and bone metastases in mice, independently of effects on tumor growth in the lungs.
  • Thus, a distinct WNT/TCF signaling program through LEF1 and HOXB9 enhances the competence of lung adenocarcinoma cells to colonize the bones and the brain.


2. Grinberg-Rashi H, Ofek E, Perelman M, Skarda J, Yaron P, Hajdúch M, Jacob-Hirsch J, Amariglio N, Krupsky M, Simansky DA, Ram Z, Pfeffer R, Galernter I, Steinberg DM, Ben-Dov I, Rechavi G, Izraeli S: The expression of three genes in primary non-small cell lung cancer is associated with metastatic spread to the brain. Clin Cancer Res; 2009 Mar 1;15(5):1755-61
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  • [Title] The expression of three genes in primary non-small cell lung cancer is associated with metastatic spread to the brain.
  • PURPOSE: Brain metastases affect 25% of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
  • We hypothesized that the expression of genes in primary NSCLC tumors could predict brain metastasis and be used for identification of high-risk patients, who may benefit from prophylactic therapy.
  • Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis was used to analyze the correlation between gene expression and the occurrence of brain metastasis.
  • RESULTS: A score based on the expression levels of three genes, CDH2 (N-cadherin), KIFC1, and FALZ, was highly predictive of brain metastasis in early and advanced lung cancer.
  • The probability of remaining brain metastasis-free at 2 years after diagnosis was 90.0+/-9.5% for patients with stage I/stage II tumors and low score compared with 62.7+/-12% for patients with high score (P<0.01).
  • In patients with more advanced lung cancer, the brain metastasis-free survival at 24 months was 89% for patients with low score compared with only 37% in patients with high score (P<0.02).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The expression levels of three genes in primary NSCLC tumors may be used to identify patients at high risk for brain metastasis who may benefit from prophylactic therapy to the central nervous system.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / genetics. Antigens, Nuclear / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cadherins / genetics. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / genetics. Kinesin / genetics. Lung Neoplasms / genetics. Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics. Transcription Factors / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 19190132.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Nuclear; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDH2 protein, human; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / KIF1C protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / fetal Alzheimer antigen; EC 3.6.1.- / Kinesin
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3. Ribeiro HB, Paiva TF Jr, Mamprin GP, Gorzoni ML, Rocha AJ, Lancellotti CL: Carcinomatous encephalitis as clinical presentation of occult lung adenocarcinoma: case report. Arq Neuropsiquiatr; 2007 Sep;65(3B):841-4
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  • [Title] Carcinomatous encephalitis as clinical presentation of occult lung adenocarcinoma: case report.
  • A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadolinium, the method of choice, presumes the diagnosis.
  • Previous reports of this unusual form of metastatic disease have described patients with prior diagnosis of pulmonary adenocarcinoma.
  • We present the case of carcinomatous encephalitis in a 76-year-old woman as the primary manifestation of occult pulmonary adenocarcinoma with its clinical, imaging, and anatomopathological findings.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17952293.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-282X
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Neuropsiquiatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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4. Delgado-López PD, Martín-Velasco V, Castilla-Díez JM, Fernández-Arconada O, Corrales-García EM, Galacho-Harnero A, Rodríguez-Salazar A, Pérez-Mies B: Metastatic meningioma to the eleventh dorsal vertebral body: total en bloc spondylectomy. Case report and review of the literature. Neurocirugia (Astur); 2006 Jun;17(3):240-9
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  • [Title] Metastatic meningioma to the eleventh dorsal vertebral body: total en bloc spondylectomy. Case report and review of the literature.
  • Lung and intraabdominal organs are most frequently affected.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first description of a total en bloc spondylectomy through a posterior approach for the treatment of an intraosseous metastatic meningioma to the eleventh dorsal vertebra.
  • The pathological specimen was identified as adenocarcinoma and he initiated chemotherapy.
  • Advice from a second pathologist was seeked, who suggested the diagnosis of intraosseous meningioma.
  • In May 2004 the patient was admitted to our department and a new transpedicular biopsy confirmed the diagnosis.
  • Such score correlates with the chance of metastatizing: more than 40% in malignant meningiomas compared to 3.8% of brain tumors overall.

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  • (PMID = 16855782.001).
  • [ISSN] 1130-1473
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurocirugía (Asturias, Spain)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurocirugia (Astur)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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5. Lee HG, Lee B, Kim SM, Suh BJ, Yu HJ: A case of gastric adenocarcinoma presenting as meningeal carcinomatosis. Korean J Intern Med; 2007 Dec;22(4):304-7
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  • [Title] A case of gastric adenocarcinoma presenting as meningeal carcinomatosis.
  • The most common cancers involving the leptomeninges are breast, lung cancer and melanoma.
  • However, gastric adenocarcinoma has been rarely reported with leptomeningeal carcinomatosis.
  • The endoscopy showed a thickening of the folds of the stomach compatible with the diagnosis of a Borrman type IV gastric cancer.
  • The MRI of brain showed no abnormal findings; however, the patient complained of an intractable persistent headache, nausea and vomiting on admission day 6.
  • The cytology examination of the cerebrospinal fluid supported the diagnosis of metastatic signet ring cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / diagnosis. Meningeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Stomach Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18309694.001).
  • [ISSN] 1226-3303
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 3OWL53L36A / Mannitol
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2687665
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6. Marchi N, Mazzone P, Fazio V, Mekhail T, Masaryk T, Janigro D: ProApolipoprotein A1: a serum marker of brain metastases in lung cancer patients. Cancer; 2008 Mar 15;112(6):1313-24
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  • [Title] ProApolipoprotein A1: a serum marker of brain metastases in lung cancer patients.
  • BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) diagnostics is a promising tool for detection of neurological disorders, including brain metastases.
  • One of the earliest applications of CNS diagnostics was based on serum markers of blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction, which often correlates with acute, chronic, or incipient brain disease.
  • In the case of brain metastases, serum levels of S100beta demonstrated a good negative predictive value comparable to radiologic investigations.
  • METHODS: Of 103 patients enrolled in a lung cancer study, greater than 50% presented with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes consistent with chronic cerebrovascular disease and reflected by elevated serum S100beta.
  • To unveil serum protein, the authors used proteomic techniques that allow discrimination between patients with brain metastases and lung cancer patients affected by cerebrovascular ischemic changes without infiltrating tumor.
  • RESULTS: ProApolipoprotein A1, transferrin, haptoglobin, and transthyretin were upregulated in patients affected by chronic cerebrovascular disease and brain metastases compared with those affected only by vascular diseases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, these data support the use of serum markers for the early detection of brain metastases.
  • ProApolipoprotein A1 may be used in conjunction with S100beta for serum-based, MRI-independent diagnosis of metastatic brain tumors.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2008 American Cancer Society.
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  • (PMID = 18257091.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS43284; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS049514-03; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS049514-03; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS38195; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R21 NS077236; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL051614; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / 2R01 HL51614; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS049514; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / R01 NS038195
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apolipoprotein A-I; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Haptoglobins; 0 / Nerve Growth Factors; 0 / Prealbumin; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / Transferrin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS82107; NLM/ PMC2775530
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7. Arai A, Morishita A, Hanada Y, Aihara H: Solitary metastatic tumor within the optic chiasm--case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2010;50(2):158-61
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  • [Title] Solitary metastatic tumor within the optic chiasm--case report.
  • A 61-year-old female, previously treated for lung cancer, presented with a rare case of metastasis directly to the optic chiasm manifesting as visual deficits.
  • The histological diagnosis was adenocarcinoma, which was consistent with the primary lung cancer.
  • She received whole brain irradiation, resulting in mild improvement of her vision.
  • Suprasellar metastatic tumors to the pituitary gland, pituitary stalk, and hypothalamus are well documented, but solitary metastasis within the optic chiasm should be considered as one of several differential diagnoses of suprasellar tumors, in patients with or without a history of treated cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Optic Chiasm / pathology. Optic Nerve Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 20185885.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-8029
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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8. Arabi H, Shah M, Saleh H: Aspiration biopsy cytomorphology of primary pulmonary germ cell tumor metastatic to the brain. Diagn Cytopathol; 2009 Oct;37(10):715-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Aspiration biopsy cytomorphology of primary pulmonary germ cell tumor metastatic to the brain.
  • Extragonadal germ cell tumors are uncommon and such tumors originating from the lung parenchyma are extremely rare.
  • Her workup revealed two enhancing brain lesions and large lung mass involving the left lower lobe.
  • Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) of the lung followed by craniotomy was performed and the patient was initially diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma metastatic to the brain based on the cytomorphology of the lung FNA and histology of the brain mass.
  • However, retrospective investigation revealed markedly elevated alpha fetoprotein (AFP) of which the cytopathologist was unaware at the time of diagnosis.
  • A review of the cytology and surgical specimen slides, as well as immunohistochemistry (IHC) on the brain tumor and FNA cell block were preformed.
  • On the basis of the slides review, clinical findings, and immunostaining results, a diagnosis of primary pulmonary mixed germ cell tumor, containing choriocarcinoma and yolk sac elements, with brain metastases, was retrospectively made.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19373916.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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9. Granata A, Figura M, Gulisano S, Romeo G, Sicurezza E, Failla A, Scuderi R: [Central diabetes insipidus as a first manifestation of lung adenocarcinoma]. Clin Ter; 2007 Nov-Dec;158(6):519-22
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  • [Title] [Central diabetes insipidus as a first manifestation of lung adenocarcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Diabete insipido centrale come prima manifestazione di adenocarcinoma polmonare.
  • The pituitary gland and infundibulum can be involved in a variety of medical conditions, including infiltrative diseases, fungal infections, tuberculosis, primary and metastatic tumors.
  • Computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain showed a mass located in the sella turcica and suprasellar region.
  • Bronchoscopy and biopsy demonstrated a pulmonary adenocarcinoma.
  • Thus, we made a diagnosis of lung cancer with local and pituitary metastases.
  • In conclusion, in patients presenting with sudden onset of diabetes insipidus pituitary metastases should be taken in account in differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Diabetes Insipidus / etiology. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Bronchoscopy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Polyuria / etiology. Thirst. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


10. Hill HC: Challenges of utilizing immunostains to facilitate the diagnosis and management of metastatic adenocarcinoma. J Natl Med Assoc; 2008 Dec;100(12):1469-73
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  • [Title] Challenges of utilizing immunostains to facilitate the diagnosis and management of metastatic adenocarcinoma.
  • Treatment is based upon the results of several diagnostic radiographic modalities that may locate the occult primary and determine the extent of metastatic tumor burden.
  • We describe metastatic adenocarcinoma of unknown primary presenting as a pericardial effusion and coincident supraclavicular adenopathy.
  • The patient completed the chemotherapy and had stable metastatic tumor burden with an acceptable quality of life.
  • Two years after initial diagnosis, the patient expired because of disease progression.
  • Although immunohistochemical staining initially suggested metastatic breast carcinoma, her clinical course confirmed a lung primary.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Bromhexine. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Pericardial Effusion / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] J Natl Med Assoc. 2009 May;101(5):478 [19476202.001]
  • (PMID = 19110917.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-4693
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Natl Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q1J152VB1P / Bromhexine
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11. Kong A, Koukourou A, Boyd M, Crowe G: Metastatic adenocarcinoma mimicking 'target sign' of cerebral tuberculosis. J Clin Neurosci; 2006 Nov;13(9):955-8
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  • [Title] Metastatic adenocarcinoma mimicking 'target sign' of cerebral tuberculosis.
  • The 'target sign' of intracerebral tuberculomata was first described in 1979 and reported to be pathognomic for this diagnosis in 1988.
  • Subsequent histopathology demonstrated metastatic papillary adenocarcinoma and immunohistochemical studies revealed the origin to be that of primary lung carcinoma.
  • In summary, the 'target sign' is a non-specific radiologic finding but most commonly indicates cerebral tuberculoma or metastatic adenocarcinoma in the appropriate clinical context.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Tuberculosis, Central Nervous System / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Calcinosis / etiology. Calcinosis / pathology. Calcinosis / radiography. Cerebellopontine Angle / pathology. Cerebellopontine Angle / radiography. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Lung / pathology. Lung / radiography. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Telencephalon / pathology. Telencephalon / physiopathology. Telencephalon / radiography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17085301.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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12. Wu C, Li YL, Wang ZM, Li Z, Zhang TX, Wei Z: Gefitinib as palliative therapy for lung adenocarcinoma metastatic to the brain. Lung Cancer; 2007 Sep;57(3):359-64
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  • [Title] Gefitinib as palliative therapy for lung adenocarcinoma metastatic to the brain.
  • BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths in most countries.
  • In patients with metastases, such as the brain, the 1-year survival is 10% and most of these patients die in 1-3 months.
  • Data from large phase II trials of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) suggested that the histologic subtype of adenocarcinoma may be a prognostic factor for patients treated with gefitinib.
  • To evaluate the efficacy of gefitinib in palliative therapy for advanced patients with adenocarcinoma and brain metastases, we conducted a phase II study.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eligible patients had histologically confirmed adenocarcinoma and brain metastases confirmed with radiological studies.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that gefitinib has promising activity in palliative therapy for patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma and brain metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Palliative Care. Quinazolines / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17434236.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-5002
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Quinazolines; S65743JHBS / gefitinib
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13. Sato T, Soejima K, Nakayama S, Satomi R, Sayama K, Asano K: [A case of fat embolism syndrome associated with pathological femoral fracture caused by metastatic adenocarcinoma of the lung]. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi; 2010 Oct;48(10):765-8
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  • [Title] [A case of fat embolism syndrome associated with pathological femoral fracture caused by metastatic adenocarcinoma of the lung].
  • A 76-year-old woman with multiple bone metastases from lung adenocarcinoma was admitted due to a pathological femoral fracture.
  • Computed tomography of the chest revealed diffuse ground glass opacities in both lungs, and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed multiple acute infarctions.
  • Fat embolism syndrome should be considered as a differential diagnosis if consciousness disturbance and respiratory failure occur in patients with metastatic bone carcinoma and pathological long bone fractures.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Embolism, Fat / etiology. Femoral Fractures / etiology. Fractures, Spontaneous / etiology. Lung Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 21066866.001).
  • [ISSN] 1343-3490
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Kokyūki Gakkai zasshi = the journal of the Japanese Respiratory Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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14. Hariharan S, Zhu J, Nadkarni MA, Donahue JE: Metastatic lung cancer in the cerebellopontine angles mimicking bilateral acoustic neuroma. J Clin Neurosci; 2005 Feb;12(2):184-6
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  • [Title] Metastatic lung cancer in the cerebellopontine angles mimicking bilateral acoustic neuroma.
  • MRI revealed bilateral enhancing CPA lesions, which were suggestive of acoustic neuromas and a diagnosis of NF-2.
  • However, autopsy showed metastatic adenocarcinoma of the lung.
  • Therefore, metastatic carcinoma to the CPA can mimic bilateral acoustic neuromas; imaging studies alone may be insufficient to diagnose NF-2.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Cerebellopontine Angle / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neuroma, Acoustic


15. Strickland-Marmol LB, Khoor A, Livingston SK, Rojiani A: Utility of tissue-specific transcription factors thyroid transcription factor 1 and Cdx2 in determining the primary site of metastatic adenocarcinomas to the brain. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2007 Nov;131(11):1686-90
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  • [Title] Utility of tissue-specific transcription factors thyroid transcription factor 1 and Cdx2 in determining the primary site of metastatic adenocarcinomas to the brain.
  • CONTEXT: Brain metastases of adenocarcinoma of unknown primary pose a diagnostic dilemma to the surgical pathologist.
  • Although the most common source in these cases is the lung, determining a primary source is difficult on routinely stained slides.
  • Recently, attention has turned to tissue-specific transcription factors, such as thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF-1) and Cdx2, in the appraisal of metastatic adenocarcinomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: To characterize the previously unpublished immunohistochemical expression of the relatively new tissue-specific transcription factor Cdx2 in metastatic adenocarcinomas to the brain.
  • Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, Tampa, Fla, and retrieved 38 consecutive cases of metastatic adenocarcinoma (22 pulmonary, 10 breast, 6 gastrointestinal [2 esophagus/gastroesophageal junction, 4 colorectal]) to the brain with confirmation of the primary site by chart review and histologic evaluation.
  • RESULTS: Specificities and positive predictive values for Cdx2 and TTF-1 equaled 100% for metastatic gastrointestinal and pulmonary adenocarcinomas, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Cdx2 is a specific and valuable tool for the surgical pathologist when faced with the common problem of metastatic adenocarcinoma of unknown primary.
  • In conjunction with TTF-1, cytokeratin 7, and cytokeratin 20, Cdx2 can accurately differentiate the most common sources of metastatic adenocarcinoma to the brain.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Homeodomain Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Colorectal Neoplasms / metabolism. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / metabolism. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Keratin-20 / metabolism. Keratin-7 / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17979487.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDX2 protein, human; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / TTF1 protein, human
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16. Edelman MJ, Belani CP, Socinski MA, Ansari R, Obasaju CK, Monberg MJ, Chen R, Treat J: Incidence and outcomes associated with brain metastases (BM) in a three-arm phase III trial of gemcitabine in combination with carboplatin (GC) or paclitaxel (GP) versus paclitaxel plus carboplatin (PC) for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):8076

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  • [Title] Incidence and outcomes associated with brain metastases (BM) in a three-arm phase III trial of gemcitabine in combination with carboplatin (GC) or paclitaxel (GP) versus paclitaxel plus carboplatin (PC) for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
  • : 8076 Background: A limited number of randomized phase III studies of advanced or metastatic NSCLC have included a mixed population of patients (pts) with and without BM at presentation.
  • Analyses of pts with lung cancer from the 1970s and 1980s indicated that the incidence of BM at the time of diagnosis was approximately 10%.
  • Pts who developed BM as the only evidence of progression were able to be treated with whole brain radiation and steroids and remained on study.
  • 1) The higher incidence of BM (17.1%) observed in this trial may be related to the increasing incidence of adenocarcinoma, or to the increasing sensitivity of imaging modalities.

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  • (PMID = 27962650.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Ruffatti S, Zanchin G, Maggioni F: A case of intractable facial pain secondary to metastatic lung cancer. Neurol Sci; 2008 Apr;29(2):117-9
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  • [Title] A case of intractable facial pain secondary to metastatic lung cancer.
  • Persistent idiopathic facial pain, once called atypical facial pain, rarely anticipates the detection of a lung carcinoma.
  • Thirty-six cases of intractable facial pain secondary to lung neoplasm are described in the literature.
  • The onset of facial pain usually precedes the onset of symptoms and signs due to lung cancer by several months and therefore it should be considered, when present, as a possible marker for an early diagnosis of tumour.
  • We report a case of intractable facial pain associated with metastatic lung cancer in a non-smoker.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Facial Pain / etiology. Facial Pain / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Pain, Intractable / etiology. Pain, Intractable / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18483710.001).
  • [ISSN] 1590-1874
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurological sciences : official journal of the Italian Neurological Society and of the Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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18. Zhang H, Wang Y, Chen Y, Sun S, Li N, Lv D, Liu C, Huang L, He D, Xiao X: Identification and validation of S100A7 associated with lung squamous cell carcinoma metastasis to brain. Lung Cancer; 2007 Jul;57(1):37-45
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  • [Title] Identification and validation of S100A7 associated with lung squamous cell carcinoma metastasis to brain.
  • To identify potential markers associated with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) metastasis to brain, comparative proteome analysis on two lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell lines, NCI-H226 and H226Br (the brain metastatic cell line of NCI-H226), was performed using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by a tandem mass spectrometer with a matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) source.
  • To determine whether S100A7 overexpression is actually associated with SCC metastasis to brain, S100A7 protein was testified in 10 brain metastasis tissues from NSCLC, 38 primary NSCLC tissues including half matched local positive lymph nodes, 5 primary brain tumors and 2 non-cancer brain tissues by immunohistochemistry.
  • Of particular interest to us was that the positive staining of S100A7 could be found in 3/5 (60%) brain metastases tissue from SCC and 8/21 (38%) the primary lung SCC tissues, while no positive staining was observed in the brain metastases tissue from Ad (n=5), the primary adenocarcinoma (Ad) tissues (n=17), the primary brain tumors (n=5), all local positive lymph nodes from the primary NSCLC (n=19) and non-cancer brain tissues (n=2).
  • These findings suggest that S100A7 expression is closely associated with SCC metastasis to brain and may be a potential biomarker for monitoring the development of SCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / chemistry. Calcium-Binding Proteins / analysis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / chemistry. Lung Neoplasms / chemistry. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain / pathology. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / chemistry. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / metabolism. Case-Control Studies. Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis. Peptide Mapping. Proteome / analysis. Proteomics / methods. Reproducibility of Results. S100 Proteins

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  • (PMID = 17418446.001).
  • [ISSN] 0169-5002
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcium-Binding Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Proteome; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / S100A7 protein, human
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19. Dudek AZ, Kmak KL, Koopmeiners J, Keshtgarpour M: Skin rash and bronchoalveolar histology correlates with clinical benefit in patients treated with gefitinib as a therapy for previously treated advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. Lung Cancer; 2006 Jan;51(1):89-96
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  • [Title] Skin rash and bronchoalveolar histology correlates with clinical benefit in patients treated with gefitinib as a therapy for previously treated advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Only 15% of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with oral epidermal growth factor tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib, as a second-line therapy have objective responses.
  • Fifty percent will have improvement of lung cancer related symptoms.
  • We have performed a retrospective analysis of 76 patients who received gefitinib as a therapy for previously treated metastatic NSCLC at the University of Minnesota Comprehensive Cancer Center in order to describe characteristics of patients who will likely derive benefits from gefitinib therapy.
  • The Log-rank Test and Cox proportional hazards regression were used to assess the effect of the number of previous therapy lines, histology subtype, performance status, gender, stage of disease at initial diagnosis, and presence of skin rash on time to disease progression and overall survival (OS).
  • There were 37 female and 39 male patients; 47 patients had adenocarcinoma, 22 had squamous and 7 had other NSCLC histologies.
  • Six patients had no prior therapy, 23 had one, 32 had two, 8 had three, and 7 had four prior therapies for lung cancer.
  • Patients with brain metastases (26 patients) benefited from gefitinib therapy at least equally well as those without brain metastatic disease.
  • Patients with adenocarcinoma histology with bronchoalveolar features had superior median time to progression versus other lung cancer histology (14 months versus 3 months, p=0.076), which translated into survival advantage in this group >24 months (95% CI: 0.76, 24+) versus 6.6 months (p=0.0096).
  • We suggest that adenocarcinoma with bronchoalveolar features and the presence of skin rash may be used as predictors of gefitinib benefit.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid / cytology. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Exanthema / chemically induced. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Quinazolines / therapeutic use


20. Wu PF, Kuo KT, Kuo LT, Lin YT, Lee WC, Lu YS, Yang CH, Wu RM, Tu YK, Tasi JC, Tseng HM, Tseng SH, Cheng AL, Lin CH: O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase expression and prognostic value in brain metastases of lung cancers. Lung Cancer; 2010 Jun;68(3):484-90
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  • [Title] O(6)-Methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase expression and prognostic value in brain metastases of lung cancers.
  • Since there is great interest in pursuing the potential role of temozolomide, a novel alkylating agent, in the treatment of brain metastases, this study aimed to evaluate MGMT expression as well as its prognostic value in this devastating disease.
  • We studied the expression and methylation status of MGMT in 86 brain metastases of lung cancers.
  • Twenty of them had matched primary lung tumor tissues available for direct comparison.
  • Positive nuclear MGMT expression was detected more frequently in brain metastases as compared with primary lung cancers (83% versus 50%, P=0.004).
  • The discordance in MGMT expression persisted in the 20 paired primary and metastatic tumors (P=0.031).
  • Both univariate and multivariate analyses showed that median overall survival was significantly longer in patients with positive MGMT expression in brain metastases (16.5 versus 3.5 months, P<0.001).
  • In conclusion, MGMT expression was enhanced in brain metastases as compared with the primary lung cancers.
  • MGMT expression in brain metastases was significantly correlated with better survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. DNA Modification Methylases / metabolism. DNA Repair Enzymes / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19740564.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8332
  • [Journal-full-title] Lung cancer (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lung Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; EC 2.1.1.- / DNA Modification Methylases; EC 2.1.1.63 / MGMT protein, human; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes
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21. Rettenmaier NB, Epstein HD, Oi S, Robinson PA, Goldstein BH: Cerebral nocardia masquerading as metastatic CNS disease in an endometrial cancer patient. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2009;30(1):90-2
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  • [Title] Cerebral nocardia masquerading as metastatic CNS disease in an endometrial cancer patient.
  • We present the case of a 61-year-old woman previously treated for endometrial carcinoma, who three years later developed metastatic pulmonary disease and received systemic chemotherapy.
  • After five months, she developed a large right posterior lobe lesion, suspicious for metastatic CNS disease.
  • However, following neurosurgical resection of the lesion and infectious disease consultation, a diagnosis of nocardia was made.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Brain Abscess / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Nocardia Infections / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19317267.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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22. Boutemy M, Mispelaere D, Krzisch C, Jounieaux V: [Evaluation of combined chemotherapy with vinorelbine, ifosfamide and cisplatin in the treatment of metastatic non-small cell bronchial carcinoma]. Rev Mal Respir; 2005 Jun;22(3):413-9
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  • [Title] [Evaluation of combined chemotherapy with vinorelbine, ifosfamide and cisplatin in the treatment of metastatic non-small cell bronchial carcinoma].
  • Non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) represents 80% of bronchial carcinoma of which 40-50% are mefastatic at the time of diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSION: Treatment of stage IV NSCLC with NIP chemotherapy is effective and improves the survival of these patients independently of other prognostic factors such as age, the presence of cerebral metastases, performance status, histological type, the number of metastatic sites or the serum LOH level.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adult. Aged. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoma, Bronchogenic / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Cohort Studies. Female. Gastrointestinal Diseases / chemically induced. Hematologic Diseases / chemically induced. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Ifosfamide / adverse effects. Life Tables. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Smoking / adverse effects. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Vinblastine / administration & dosage. Vinblastine / adverse effects. Vinblastine / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 16227927.001).
  • [ISSN] 0761-8425
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue des maladies respiratoires
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Mal Respir
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; Q6C979R91Y / vinorelbine; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
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23. Ota S, Tsuchiya K, Anno M, Akiyamat H: [An autopsy case of miliary brain metastases]. No To Shinkei; 2006 Feb;58(2):161-5
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  • [Title] [An autopsy case of miliary brain metastases].
  • A 57-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with a diagnosis of psychiatric emergency.
  • Brain CT was also normal, therefore it was difficult to make a diagnosis.
  • But, we could clinically diagnose him as having pulmonary adenocarcinoma with numerous metastatic nodules of the brain.
  • Because miliary lesions in the cerebral hemispheres, brainstem and cerebellum were disclosed on brain MRI.
  • Furthermore, chest CT revealed the lung tumor in the left S8 area.
  • There was neither edema in the surrounding region of metastatic nodules nor mass effect on all MR images.
  • Spinal MRI showed no metastatic lesions.
  • The brain weighed 1,575 g.
  • Neuropathological findings revealed diffuse miliary brain metastases located in all parts of the brain, except for the medulla oblongata.
  • Histological examination disclosed multiple metastases from a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma with a predominant tubular pattern.
  • There was neither edema nor glial reaction in the surrounding area of metastatic lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16519114.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] Nō to shinkei = Brain and nerve
  • [ISO-abbreviation] No To Shinkei
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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24. Barajas RF, Chang JS, Sneed PK, Segal MR, McDermott MW, Cha S: Distinguishing recurrent intra-axial metastatic tumor from radiation necrosis following gamma knife radiosurgery using dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol; 2009 Feb;30(2):367-72
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  • [Title] Distinguishing recurrent intra-axial metastatic tumor from radiation necrosis following gamma knife radiosurgery using dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging.
  • BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: MR image-guided gamma knife radiosurgery is often used to treat intra-axial metastatic neoplasms.
  • Following treatment, it is often difficult to determine whether a progressively enhancing lesion is due to metastatic tumor recurrence or radiation necrosis.
  • The purpose of our study was to determine whether relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), relative peak height (rPH), and percentage of signal-intensity recovery (PSR) derived from dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging can distinguish recurrent metastatic tumor from radiation necrosis.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-seven patients with systemic cancer underwent gamma knife radiosurgery for metastatic lesions of the brain and subsequently developed enlarging regions of enhancement within the radiation field.
  • Subsequent surgical resection or clinicoradiologic follow-up established a diagnosis of recurrent metastatic tumor or radiation necrosis.
  • RESULTS: The mean, minimum, and maximum PSR values were significantly lower (P < .01) in cases of recurrent metastatic tumor.
  • The mean and maximum rCBV and rPH values were significantly higher (P < .02) in the recurrent metastatic tumor group.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The findings of our study suggest that perfusion MR imaging may be used to differentiate recurrent intra-axial metastatic tumor from gamma knife-induced radiation necrosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Postoperative Complications / diagnosis. Radiosurgery / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / secondary. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / surgery. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / surgery. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Necrosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19022867.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-959X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJNR Am J Neuroradiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS045013; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / TL1 RR024129-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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25. Abe T, Hayashi M, Tsutsui N, Ito K, Haraguchi M: [Two cases of meningeal carcinomatosis during gefitinib therapy for non-small cell lung cancer]. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi; 2006 Feb;44(2):144-9
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  • [Title] [Two cases of meningeal carcinomatosis during gefitinib therapy for non-small cell lung cancer].
  • "Case 1" A 56-year-old woman who suffered from postoperative recurrent non-small cell lung cancer received gefitinib therapy.
  • "Case 2" A 46-year-old man with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer started gefitinib therapy after chemotherapy.
  • The pulmonary lesions markedly improved responding to gefitinib therapy, however, approximately 6 months after the therapy was begun, multiple brain metastasis and meningeal carcinomatosis were detected.
  • Approximately 4 months after the diagnosis of meningeal carcinomatosis, he died of disease progression and disturbance of consciousness.
  • It has been reported that the central nervous system is a frequent metastatic site of non-small cell lung cancer in patients treated with gefitinib.
  • We should consider the possibility of metastatic central nervous system disease, even in patients in whom gefitinib therapy is apparently successful.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / etiology. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Meningeal Neoplasms / etiology. Quinazolines / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Disease Progression. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17228810.001).
  • [ISSN] 1343-3490
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Kokyūki Gakkai zasshi = the journal of the Japanese Respiratory Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Quinazolines; S65743JHBS / gefitinib
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26. Chen CH, Lai JM, Chou TY, Chen CY, Su LJ, Lee YC, Cheng TS, Hong YR, Chou CK, Whang-Peng J, Wu YC, Huang CY: VEGFA upregulates FLJ10540 and modulates migration and invasion of lung cancer via PI3K/AKT pathway. PLoS One; 2009;4(4):e5052
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  • [Title] VEGFA upregulates FLJ10540 and modulates migration and invasion of lung cancer via PI3K/AKT pathway.
  • BACKGROUND: Lung adenocarcinoma is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths among both men and women in the world.
  • Despite recent advances in diagnosis and treatment, the mortality rates with an overall 5-year survival of only 15%.
  • Although several well-known markers correlated with poor/metastasis prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma patients by immunohistochemistry was reported, the molecular mechanisms of lung adenocarcinoma development are still not clear.
  • To explore novel molecular markers and their signaling pathways will be crucial for aiding in treatment of lung adenocarcinoma patients.
  • METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To identify novel lung adenocarcinoma-associated /metastasis genes and to clarify the underlying molecular mechanisms of these targets in lung cancer progression, we created a bioinformatics scheme consisting of integrating three gene expression profile datasets, including pairwise lung adenocarcinoma, secondary metastatic tumors vs. benign tumors, and a series of invasive cell lines.
  • Among the novel targets identified, FLJ10540 was overexpressed in lung cancer tissues and is associated with cell migration and invasion.
  • Lung adenocarcinoma array profiles and tissue microarray IHC staining data showed that FLJ10540 and VEGF-A, as well as FLJ10540 and phospho-AKT exhibit positive correlations, respectively.
  • Stimulation of lung cancer cells with VEGF-A results in an increase in FLJ10540 protein expression and enhances complex formation with PI3K.
  • CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This finding set the stage for further testing of FLJ10540 as a new therapeutic target for treating lung cancer and may contribute to the development of new therapeutic strategies that are able to block the PI3K/AKT pathway in lung cancer cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Cell Cycle Proteins / physiology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Metastasis. Nuclear Proteins / physiology. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism. Up-Regulation / physiology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19337377.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Cep55 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2659802
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27. Matsuoka T, Morikage N, Kuga T, Nakayama T, Fujii Y: [A case of complete response in a primary lesion treated by gefitinib for two years after surgery of brain metastasis from lung cancer]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2006 Apr;33(4):497-500
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  • [Title] [A case of complete response in a primary lesion treated by gefitinib for two years after surgery of brain metastasis from lung cancer].
  • Under a diagnosis of cerebellar tumor and right lung tumor, she underwent a resection of cerebellar tumor on August 7, 2001.
  • The histopathological diagnosis was "metastatic adenocarcinoma".
  • Lung cancer was doubted as for the origin, however, she did not want further examination.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cerebellar Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Quinazolines / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16612160.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Quinazolines; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; Q6C979R91Y / vinorelbine; S65743JHBS / gefitinib
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28. Okuma Y, Hosomi Y, Takagi Y, Miyamoto S, Shimokawa T, Iguchi M, Okamura T, Saito K, Shibuya M: Long-term survival following metachronous intratumoral hemorrhage in an HIV-infected patient with lung cancer. Int J Clin Oncol; 2010 Oct;15(5):515-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term survival following metachronous intratumoral hemorrhage in an HIV-infected patient with lung cancer.
  • Due to the spread of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), HIV-infected patients now survive longer, and metastatic non-AIDS-defining carcinoma is increasing.
  • He was diagnosed as having lung adenocarcinoma and was found to have a brain metastasis with bleeding.
  • The patient underwent a second craniotomy and removal of hematoma, followed by whole-brain radiotherapy.
  • This lung cancer patient had been alive for 17 months despite the coexistence of two disorders with a poor prognosis, HIV infection and bleeding brain metastases from lung cancer.
  • This case revealed that physicians must include non-AIDS-defining cancer metastasis to the brain in the differential diagnosis of HIV-infected patients when they show stroke-like symptoms, and such patients may respond to treatment as well as non-HIV-infected patients with advanced lung cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. HIV Infections / complications. Intracranial Hemorrhages / etiology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology


29. Matsumoto S, Takahashi K, Iwakawa R, Matsuno Y, Nakanishi Y, Kohno T, Shimizu E, Yokota J: Frequent EGFR mutations in brain metastases of lung adenocarcinoma. Int J Cancer; 2006 Sep 15;119(6):1491-4
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  • [Title] Frequent EGFR mutations in brain metastases of lung adenocarcinoma.
  • Lung adenocarcinomas often metastasize to the brain, and the prognosis of patients with brain metastases is still very poor.
  • The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene is mutated in a considerable fraction of primary lung adenocarcinomas, in particular those with drastic response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
  • The present study was designed to elucidate the prevalence of EGFR mutations in brain metastases and the timing of their occurrence during cancer progression.
  • EGFR mutations were detected in 12 of 19 metastatic lung adenocarcinomas to the brain (63%).
  • This frequency was higher than those in previous studies for EGFR mutations at various stages of lung adenocarcinoma in East Asia, including Japan (i.e., 20-55%).
  • In 6 cases with EGFR mutations, the corresponding primary lung tumors were also examined for the mutations, and in all of them, the same types of EGFR mutations were detected also in the primary tumors.
  • In 2 of them, second metastatic brain tumors in addition to the first ones were also available for analysis, and the same types of EGFR mutations were detected in both the first and second ones in both cases.
  • These results indicate that EGFR mutations are present frequently in brain metastases and occur preceding brain metastasis.
  • These findings will be highly informative for treatment of metastatic lung adenocarcinoma to the brain.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Brain Neoplasms / genetics. Lung Neoplasms / genetics. Mutation. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics

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  • [CommentIn] Int J Cancer. 2007 Apr 15;120(8):1828-31; author reply 1832-3 [17236198.001]
  • (PMID = 16642476.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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30. Sundermeyer ML, Meropol NJ, Rogatko A, Wang H, Cohen SJ: Changing patterns of bone and brain metastases in patients with colorectal cancer. Clin Colorectal Cancer; 2005 Jul;5(2):108-13
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  • [Title] Changing patterns of bone and brain metastases in patients with colorectal cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Therapeutic advances for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) have been associated with prolonged survival.
  • This study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that expanded treatment options and resultant improved survival for patients with metastatic CRC are associated with an increased incidence of metastases at uncommon sites.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with metastatic CRC evaluated from 1993 to 2002 at the Fox Chase Cancer Center were identified.
  • Medical records were abstracted to obtain the following: date of diagnosis/metastasis, primary tumor site, therapeutic agents received, survival, and site(s) of metastases.
  • Incidence of bone and brain metastases were 10.4% (95% CI, 8.6%-12.4%) and 3% (95% CI, 2.2%-4.5%), respectively.
  • Patients with lung metastases were more likely to have bone metastases (16.1% vs. 6.4%; P < 0.0001) or brain metastases (6.2% vs. 1.2%; P < 0.0001) than those without.
  • CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate that the incidence of bone and brain metastases in patients with CRC is more common than previously reported and is associated with receipt of multiple systemic treatments.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / epidemiology. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / epidemiology. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology


31. McDonald JM, Pelloski CE, Ledoux A, Sun M, Raso G, Komaki R, Wistuba II, Bekele BN, Aldape K: Elevated phospho-S6 expression is associated with metastasis in adenocarcinoma of the lung. Clin Cancer Res; 2008 Dec 1;14(23):7832-7
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  • [Title] Elevated phospho-S6 expression is associated with metastasis in adenocarcinoma of the lung.
  • PURPOSE: The primary objective of this study was to determine whether markers of differentiation and activation of the Akt pathway are associated with metastasis in adenocarcinoma of the lung.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Paired primary and metastatic tumor samples were obtained from 41 patients who had undergone resection of both primary lung adenocarcinoma and brain metastatic lesions.
  • Biomarkers that showed relative discordance in expression between the matched pairs were then assessed in a cohort of 77 primary lung adenocarcinomas.
  • Validation was done in an independent cohort of 82 primary lung adenocarcinomas.
  • In contrast, p-S6 overexpression was significantly associated with metastatic tumors (20 of 21 discordant pairs).
  • The expression of E-cadherin, p-S6, and TTF-1 was evaluated in 77 primary lung adenocarcinomas, in which high p-S6 expression was associated with shorter time to metastasis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The biomarker p-S6 is overexpressed in metastatic tumors.
  • In primary tumors, higher p-S6 expression is associated with shorter metastatic-free survival.

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  • (PMID = 19047111.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA070907-040007; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA070907; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA070907-040007; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50CA70907
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Ribosomal Proteins; 0 / TTF1 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS83486; NLM/ PMC2614348
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32. Tamura M, Dohhba S, Funaki K, Sasaki S, Michiwa Y, Kurosaka Y, Takekawa S, Kiriyama M, Kojima Y, Kita T: [Pulmonary pleomorphic carcinoma; report of 2 cases]. Kyobu Geka; 2006 Jul;59(7):585-9
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  • Biopsy of the bone revealed metastatic adenocarcinoma.
  • With a diagnosis of primary lung cancer (cT2N1M1), two-staged operation was performed.
  • Pathological diagnosis was pleomorphic carcinoma [pT2N1M1 (OSS), stage IV].
  • Chest CT revealed a tumor in the right hilar region, which was diagnosed as adenocarcinoma by transbronchial lung biopsy.
  • Only thoracic drainage was performed since metastases to the brain and the rib were demonstrated.
  • Autopsy revealed pleomorphic carcinoma of the lung with metastasis to the brain, costa and mediastinal lymph nodes.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / radiography. Carcinoma / radiography. Lung Neoplasms / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Female. Humans. Male. Radiography, Thoracic. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16856536.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5252
  • [Journal-full-title] Kyobu geka. The Japanese journal of thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kyobu Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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33. Yserbyt J, Wilms G, Lievens Y, Nackaerts K: A 63-year-old man with peripheral facial nerve paralysis and a pulmonary lesion. Acta Clin Belg; 2009 May-Jun;64(3):231-4
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  • The diagnosis of an advanced stage lung adenocarcinoma was finally confirmed by bronchial biopsy.
  • MRI scanning showed diffuse brain metastases and revealed a pontine lesion as the most probable underlying cause of this case of peripheral facial nerve paralysis.
  • RESULTS: According to the MRI findings, the pontine lesion was responsible for the peripheral facial nerve paralysis, as an initial presenting symptom in this case of lung adenocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: This clinical case of a peripheral facial nerve paralysis was caused by a pontine brain metastasis and illustrates a rather rare presenting symptom of metastatic lung cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Facial Paralysis / etiology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19670564.001).
  • [ISSN] 1784-3286
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta clinica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Clin Belg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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34. Pentheroudakis G, Golfinopoulos V, Pavlidis N: Switching benchmarks in cancer of unknown primary: from autopsy to microarray. Eur J Cancer; 2007 Sep;43(14):2026-36
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: Published reports on identification of CUP primary site by autopsy or microarray-based multigene expression platforms were retrieved and analysed for year of publication, primary site, patient age, gender, histology, rate of primary identification, manifestations and metastatic deposits, microarray chip technology, training and validation sets, mathematical modelling, classification accuracy and number of classifying genes.
  • RESULTS: From 1944 to 2000, a total of 884 CUP patients (66% males) underwent autopsy in 12 studies after presenting with metastatic or systemic symptoms and succumbing to their disease.
  • A primary was identified in 644 (73%) of them, mostly in the lung (27%), pancreas (24%), hepatobiliary tree (8%), kidneys (8%), bowel, genital system and stomach, as a small focus of adenocarcinoma or poorly differentiated carcinoma.
  • An unpredictable systemic dissemination was evident with high frequency of lung (46%), nodal (35%), bone (17%), brain (16%) and uncommon (18%) deposits.
  • Between the 1944-1980 and the 1980-2000 series, female representation increased, 'undetermined neoplasm' diagnosis became rarer, pancreatic primaries were found less often while colonic ones were identified more frequently.
  • Four studies using microarray technology profiled more than 500 CUP cases using classifier set of genes (ranging from 10 to 495) and reported strikingly dissimilar frequencies of assigned primary sites (lung 11.5%, pancreas 12.5%, bowel 12%, breast 15%, hepatobiliary tree 8%, kidneys 6%, genital system 9%, bladder 5%) in 75-90% of the cases.
  • Discrepant assignment of primary sites by microarrays may be due to the presence of 'sanctuary sites' in autopsies, molecular misclassification and the postulated presence of a pro-metastatic genetic signature.
  • [MeSH-major] Microarray Analysis / methods. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17698346.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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35. Beachkofsky TM, Wisco OJ, Osswald SS, Osswald MB, Hodson DS: Pulmonary cutaneous metastasis: a case report and review of common cutaneous metastases. Cutis; 2009 Dec;84(6):315-22
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  • The literature on cutaneous metastatic disease can be difficult to interpret because of inconsistent study design and analysis among authors.
  • Diagnosis of cutaneous metastatic disease carries a grave prognosis.
  • The most common cutaneous metastasizing carcinomas--breast, lung, and colorectal cancer--also are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20166573.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-4162
  • [Journal-full-title] Cutis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cutis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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36. Destombe C, Botton E, Le Gal G, Roudaut A, Jousse-Joulin S, Devauchelle-Pensec V, Saraux A: Investigations for bone metastasis from an unknown primary. Joint Bone Spine; 2007 Jan;74(1):85-9
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  • Computed tomography (CT) of the chest and abdomen, CT of the brain, and tumor marker assays were performed as clinically indicated.
  • Using the final diagnosis as the reference standard, we evaluated the diagnostic usefulness of each investigation.
  • The primary was located in the lung in 37 patients, prostate in 26, breast or female genital tract in 24, urinary system in 11, gastrointestinal tract in 11, head and neck in 6, and other organs in 4.
  • The extraskeletal metastases were located chiefly in the liver (20.4%), lung (17.1%), pleura (13.2%), and brain (7.2%).
  • The histological biopsy findings indicated adenocarcinoma in 58 cases, epidermoid carcinoma in 28 cases, undifferentiated carcinoma in 2 cases, and other histological patterns in 9 cases.
  • In 80 patients, another metastatic site was easier to access than the bone metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor. Biopsy. Bone and Bones / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Cohort Studies. Diagnostic Imaging. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Urogenital Neoplasms / diagnosis. Urogenital Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Joint Bone Spine. 2008 Jan;75(1):100; author reply 100-1 [18083617.001]
  • (PMID = 17218141.001).
  • [ISSN] 1778-7254
  • [Journal-full-title] Joint, bone, spine : revue du rhumatisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Joint Bone Spine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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37. Hermet M, Delévaux I, Trouillier S, André M, Chazal J, Aumaître O: [Pituitary metastasis presenting as diabetes insipidus: a report of four cases and literature review]. Rev Med Interne; 2009 May;30(5):425-9
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  • CASE REPORTS: We report four cases in which diabetes insipidus revealed a metastatic stage of a lung (two cases) or a breast (two cases) cancer.
  • On brain magnetic resonance imaging there was an absence of high intensity signal in the posterior pituitary lobe (one case) or an infiltration of the posterior lobe (three cases).
  • CONCLUSION: Breast and lung malignancies are the most frequent causes of metastasis of the pituitary gland.
  • In most cases there are often other metastatic locations; however insipidus diabetes can reveal the metastatic stage of the cancer.
  • A pituitary biopsy may be necessary to obtain the diagnosis.


38. Granata A, Viola G, Privitera C, Romeo G, Cacciaguerra S, Gaeta M, Sicurezza E, Figuera M: Smoking, polyuria and impaired vision. Clin Nephrol; 2007 Jan;67(1):49-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The pituitary gland can be involved in a variety of medical conditions, including metastatic tumors.
  • Computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain showed a mass located in the sella turcica and in the suprasellar region.
  • CT scan of the chest showed a mass in the right superior lobe with mediastinal lymphadenopathy, with bronchoscopy and biopsy features of pulmonary adenocarcinoma.
  • Therefore, is that in patients with risk factors for cancer and sudden onset of diabetes insipidus pituitary metastasis should be taken into account in differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Diabetes Insipidus, Neurogenic / etiology. Hemianopsia / etiology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / secondary. Polyuria / etiology. Smoking / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 17269600.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0430
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Nephrol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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39. Besada CH, Migliaro M, Christiansen SB, Funes JA, Ajler PM, Mónaco RD: Restricted diffusion in a ring-enhancing mucoid metastasis with histological confirmation: case report. J Comput Assist Tomogr; 2010 Sep-Oct;34(5):770-2

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  • Diagnosis of abscess was suggested based on radiological findings.
  • A suspicious lung nodule was found in the systemic evaluation, and histological examination of the brain lesion confirmed metastatic adenocarcinoma with mucoid content confirmed by further specific pathological tests.
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain Abscess / diagnosis. Contrast Media. Diagnosis, Differential. Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20861784.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-3145
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of computer assisted tomography
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Comput Assist Tomogr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media
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40. Hornick JL, Dal Cin P, Fletcher CD: Loss of INI1 expression is characteristic of both conventional and proximal-type epithelioid sarcoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Apr;33(4):542-50
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  • We evaluated 350 tumors: 136 ES, including 64 conventional ("distal") ES, 64 proximal-type ES, and 8 with hybrid features of conventional and proximal-type ES; 54 metastatic carcinomas (22 from lung, 6 breast, 6 stomach, 5 colorectum, 5 kidney, 5 prostate, 5 pancreas); 12 metastatic testicular embryonal carcinomas; 20 metastatic melanomas; 20 epithelioid mesotheliomas; 20 epithelioid angiosarcomas; 10 epithelioid hemangioendotheliomas; 24 epithelioid malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST); 22 myoepithelial carcinomas of soft tissue; 7 anaplastic large cell lymphomas; 5 histiocytic sarcomas; and 10 control MRT of infancy (4 brain, 3 liver, 2 soft tissue, 1 kidney).
  • Immunostaining for INI1 can be used to confirm the diagnosis of ES in the appropriate context.
  • Loss of INI1 expression may also be helpful to distinguish epithelioid MPNST from metastatic melanoma in a subset of cases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Carcinoma, Embryonal / metabolism. Carcinoma, Embryonal / secondary. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Infant. Male

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  • (PMID = 19033866.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / SMARCB1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors
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41. Valdespino-Castillo VE, Ruiz-Jaime A: [Renal cell carcinoma with colon metastases: an infrequent site for metastases]. Cir Cir; 2008 Jul-Aug;76(4):339-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Clear cell carcinoma is the most frequent histological type, and 30% of renal carcinomas have metastasized at the time of diagnosis.
  • CLINICAL CASE: We report the case of a 60-year-old male with a history of metastatic RCC.
  • CONCLUSIONS: RCC metastases are most frequent in lung, liver, and bone and less frequent in brain, skin, and soft tissue.
  • Metastatic clear cell carcinoma requires surgery and immunotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Colonic Neoplasms / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Colectomy / methods. Combined Modality Therapy. Follow-Up Studies. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / etiology. Humans. Immunotherapy. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Nephrectomy / methods. Remission Induction

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  • (PMID = 18778546.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-7411
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía y cirujanos
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Cir
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha
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42. Sergieva S, Hadjieva T, Doldurova M, Stefanova S, Dudov A: Nuclear medicine approaches in the monitoring of thyroid cancer patients. J BUON; 2006 Oct-Dec;11(4):511-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • RESULTS: (131)I scan was positive in 63 patients showing thyroid remnants in 31 cases, lymph node metastases in 24 cases (17 to the neck, 7 to the neck/mediastinum), pulmonary metastases in 6 cases, bone and brain lesions in 2 cases.
  • These false negative results were observed predominantly in cases with less differentiated metastatic disease, especially after several courses of high-dose (131)I therapy. (99m)Tc-MIBI scan revealed the presence of lymph node and/or lung metastases (non-functioning metastases) in 14 of them, false negative results were obtained in 2 cases, and one false positive in 1 case.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radionuclide imaging. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / therapy. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Papillary / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Papillary / therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neck / ultrasonography. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroidectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17309186.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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43. Murguia E, Quiroga D, Canteros G, Sanmartino C, Barreiro M, Herrera J: Gallbladder metastases from ductal papillary carcinoma of the breast. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg; 2006;13(6):591-3
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  • Breast carcinoma has the potential for widespread dissemination, such as metastasis to axillary lymph nodes, bone, lung, pleura, brain, and soft tissues.
  • Histopathological evaluation of the focal broad-based lesion of the gallbladder revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma infiltration, without mucosal involvement.
  • The final pathological diagnosis was breast ductal papillary carcinoma metastases to the gallbladder.
  • Computed tomography (CT) scan of the brain, chest, abdomen, and pelvis was performed, without any pathological findings.
  • Six months after the surgery positron emission tomography (PET) showed no evidence of metastatic disease.

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  • (PMID = 17139439.001).
  • [ISSN] 0944-1166
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hepato-biliary-pancreatic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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44. Benjamin H, Lebanony D, Rosenwald S, Cohen L, Gibori H, Barabash N, Ashkenazi K, Goren E, Meiri E, Morgenstern S, Perelman M, Barshack I, Goren Y, Edmonston TB, Chajut A, Aharonov R, Bentwich Z, Rosenfeld N, Cohen D: A diagnostic assay based on microRNA expression accurately identifies malignant pleural mesothelioma. J Mol Diagn; 2010 Nov;12(6):771-9
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  • The definitive identification of malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) has significant clinical implications, yet other malignancies often involve the lung pleura, confounding the diagnosis of MPM.
  • In the absence of accurate markers, MPM can be difficult to distinguish from peripheral lung adenocarcinoma and metastatic epithelial cancers.
  • We identified microRNA biomarkers for the differential diagnosis of MPM and developed a standardized microRNA-based assay.
  • Hsa-miR-193-3p was overexpressed in MPM, while hsa-miR-200c and hsa-miR-192 were overexpressed in peripheral lung adenocarcinoma and carcinomas that frequently metastasize to lung pleura.
  • The assay reached a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 94% in a blinded validation set of 68 samples from the lung and pleura.
  • This diagnostic assay can provide a useful tool in the differential diagnosis of MPM from other malignancies in the pleura.

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  • (PMID = 20864637.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-7811
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of molecular diagnostics : JMD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Mol Diagn
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MicroRNAs
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2963911
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45. Geller SA: Challenges of utilizing immunostains to facilitate the diagnosis and management of metastatic adenocarcinoma. J Natl Med Assoc; 2009 May;101(5):478
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Lung Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Challenges of utilizing immunostains to facilitate the diagnosis and management of metastatic adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Immunohistochemistry. Lung Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Female. Humans. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology

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  • [CommentOn] J Natl Med Assoc. 2008 Dec;100(12):1469-73 [19110917.001]
  • (PMID = 19476202.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-4693
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Natl Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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