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1. Jiao X, Huang J, Wu S, Lv M, Hu Y, Jianfu, Su X, Luo C, Ce B: hOGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism and susceptibility to gallbladder cancer in a Chinese population. Int J Cancer; 2007 Aug 1;121(3):501-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] hOGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism and susceptibility to gallbladder cancer in a Chinese population.
  • To determine whether hOGG1 plays a role in the risk for adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder, we tested the association of this polymorphism with gallbladder cancer in a Chinese population-based, case control study of 204 cases and 209 controls.
  • The association between the genetic polymorphism of this gene and risk of the cancer was examined by using a multivariate analysis.
  • We found that the distribution of hOGG1 Ser326Cys genotypes among controls (Ser/Ser, 37.3%; Ser/Cys, 53.6% and Cys/Cys, 9.1%) was significantly different from that among gallbladder cancer cases (Ser/Ser, 43.1%; Ser/Cys, 36.3% and Cys/Cys, 20.6%).
  • Significantly increased risk for gallbladder cancer was both the hOGG1 326Ser/Cys (Odds ratio [OR] = 1.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0-3.7) and hOGG1 326Cys/Cys genotypes (OR = 4.5, 95% CI = 1.1-22.4).
  • We observed no statistically significant association between hOGG1 genotype and gallbladder cancer association in gallstone absence.
  • In contrast, a near-significant increase in risk for gallbladder cancer was observed for gallstone presence with the hOGG1 326Ser/Cys genotype (OR = 2.2, CI = 1.4-3.5) whereas a significant increase in association for gallbladder cancer was observed for gallstone presence with the 326Cys/Cys genotype (OR = 6.1, CI = 2.1-27.2).
  • These data corresponded with the fact that a significant trend towards increased association for gallbladder cancer was observed with potentially higher-risk hOGG1 genotypes in gallstone presence(p < 0.001, chi(2) trend test)but not in gallstone absence(p = 0.89, chi(2) trend test).
  • A significant increase in risk for gallbladder cancer was observed for larger gallstone (those with stone diameters 2 cm or greater) with the hOGG1 326Ser/Cys(OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.1-2.9) and hOGG1 326Cys/Cys genotypes(OR = 5.9, 95% CI = 1.6-18.0).
  • These data are consistent with the observation that a significant trend towards increased risk for gallbladder cancer was observed with potentially higher-risk hOGG1 genotypes in gallbladder cancer patients with larger gallstone (p < 0.001, chi(2) trend test).
  • However, we observed no statistically significant association between hOGG1 genotype and gallbladder cancer risk in gallbladder cancer patients with smaller gallstone (those with stone diameters 2 cm smaller) (hOGG1 326Ser/Cys:OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 0.8-4.0; hOGG1 326Cys/Cys:OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 0.6-29.4; p = 0.06, chi(2) tread test).
  • These results suggest that hOGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism is associated with gallbladder cancer risk.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA Glycosylases / genetics. Gallbladder Neoplasms / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Polymorphism, Genetic

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17417784.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 452VLY9402 / Serine; EC 3.2.2.- / DNA Glycosylases; EC 3.2.2.- / oxoguanine glycosylase 1, human; K848JZ4886 / Cysteine
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2. de la Cruz J, Hidalgo LA, Feliu J, Admella C, Muns R, del Bas M, Suñol X: [Gallbladder adenocarcinoma: tumoral staging, histological prognostic factors and survival]. Cir Esp; 2005 Jan;77(1):18-21
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  • [Title] [Gallbladder adenocarcinoma: tumoral staging, histological prognostic factors and survival].
  • [Transliterated title] Adenocarcinoma de vesícula biliar: estadio tumoral, factores pronósticos histológicos y supervivencia.
  • INTRODUCTION: Gallbladder adenocarcinoma is an aggressive tumor and is one of the digestive tract malignancies with the poorest prognosis.
  • Because of loco-regional extension and delayed diagnosis, curative resection is often impossible.
  • To determine histological prognostic factors and survival in relation to tumoral stage at diagnosis, we performed a retrospective study of our patients with gallbladder carcinoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHOD: Sixty-two patients with gallbladder adenocarcinoma diagnosed over a 15-year period were retrospectively included in this study.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative diagnosis of gallbladder adenocarcinoma is difficult except in advanced cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / mortality. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16420877.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-739X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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3. Yoshimitsu K, Irie H, Aibe H, Tajima T, Nishie A, Asayama Y, Matake K, Yamaguchi K, Matsuura S, Honda H: Well-differentiated adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder with intratumoral cystic components due to abundant mucin production: a mimicker of adenomyomatosis. Eur Radiol; 2005 Feb;15(2):229-33
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  • [Title] Well-differentiated adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder with intratumoral cystic components due to abundant mucin production: a mimicker of adenomyomatosis.
  • The prevalence and etiology of the cystic components within gallbladder carcinomas as seen on MR images were evaluated.
  • A retrospective review of MR images was performed for 35 proven gallbladder carcinomas in search of radiologically detectable intratumoral cystic components.
  • Three cases out of 35 proven gallbladder carcinomas were found to have intratumoral cystic components.
  • They were all well-differentiated adenocarcinomas, and the cystic components consisted of dilated neoplastic glands filled with abundant mucin pool.
  • Although rare, radiologists need to be aware that well-differentiated gallbladder carcinoma with mucin production can have cystic components, which may mimic adenomyomatosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenomyoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Japan / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence. Retrospective Studies. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • (PMID = 15662477.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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4. Piekarski JH, Kusinska R, Nejc D, Pluta P, Sek P, Bilski A, Durczynski A, Kubiak R, Pasz-Walczak G, Jeziorski A: Recurrence of cholangiogenous carcinoma in port-sites two years after laparoscopic removal of noncancerous gallbladder. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2008 May;20(5):474-7
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  • [Title] Recurrence of cholangiogenous carcinoma in port-sites two years after laparoscopic removal of noncancerous gallbladder.
  • Analysis of morphology and cytokeratin profile (CK19+ and CK20+/-) of resected port-site tumor allows us to establish the diagnosis of tubular carcinoma with probable cholangiogenic origin.
  • The primary carcinoma was not diagnosed in archival gallbladder tissue, despite repeated histological examination.
  • Patient history and histological/immunohistochemical picture of the recurrent tumor suggested that primary carcinoma was probably located in the gallbladder, but was not detected during initial and repeated histological examinations of postoperative specimen.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Wall. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic / adverse effects. Cholecystitis / surgery. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary

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  • (PMID = 18403952.001).
  • [ISSN] 0954-691X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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5. Chen YY, Yi CH, Chen CL, Huang SC, Hsu YH: Hemorrhagic cholecystitis after anticoagulation therapy. Am J Med Sci; 2010 Oct;340(4):338-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed with the histopathology report disclosing adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Aged. Angina, Unstable / drug therapy. Aspirin / adverse effects. Female. Gallbladder Neoplasms / complications. Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Heparin / adverse effects. Humans

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  • (PMID = 20601855.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-2990
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of the medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticoagulants; 9005-49-6 / Heparin; R16CO5Y76E / Aspirin
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6. Zhang L, Han F, Huang CS, Pang C, Han YZ, Hua YW: [Analysis of the treatment of unexpected gallbladder cancer]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2005 Apr 1;43(7):460-2
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  • [Title] [Analysis of the treatment of unexpected gallbladder cancer].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the secondary operation methods and the effects on the prognosis of unexpected gallbladder cancer (UGC).
  • The 41 patients had undergone gallbladder excision because of cholecystitis complicated lithiasis of gallbladder (32 cases), polypi of gallbladder or adenoma (9 cases).
  • Postoperative pathology showed that 32 cases were adenocarcinoma of gallbladder, 6 cases were squamous carcinoma, 3 cases were squamous adenocarcinoma.
  • The second operation chose the improved method of Glenn excision of carcinoma of gallbladder.
  • RESULTS: On the second operation, 14 cases were with lymphatic metastasis, 14 with gallbladder metastasis, 6 with bile duct metastasis, 2 with pancreas metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cholecystectomy / methods. Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15854374.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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7. DeWitt J, Misra VL, Leblanc JK, McHenry L, Sherman S: EUS-guided FNA of proximal biliary strictures after negative ERCP brush cytology results. Gastrointest Endosc; 2006 Sep;64(3):325-33
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  • BACKGROUND: Accurate nonoperative diagnosis of proximal biliary strictures (PBSs) is often difficult.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Performance of EUS-FNA, with the final diagnosis determined by surgical pathology study or the results of EUS-FNA and follow-up.
  • EUS-FNA (median, 4 passes; range, 1-11) demonstrated malignancy in 17 of 24 (71%) patients with findings showing adenocarcinoma (15), lymphoma (2), atypical cytology (3), or benign cells (4).
  • Pathology results from 8 of 24 (33%) patients who underwent surgery showed hilar cholangiocarcinoma (6), gallbladder cancer (1), and a benign, inflammatory stricture (1).
  • CONCLUSIONS: EUS-FNA is a sensitive method for the diagnosis of PBSs following negative results or unsuccessful ERCP brush cytology.

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  • [CommentIn] Gastrointest Endosc. 2006 Sep;64(3):334-7 [16923478.001]
  • (PMID = 16923477.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-5107
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastrointestinal endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastrointest. Endosc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Sai JK, Suyama M, Kubokawa Y: A case of gallbladder carcinoma associated with pancreatobiliary reflux in the absence of a pancreaticobiliary maljunction: A hint for early diagnosis of gallbladder carcinoma. World J Gastroenterol; 2006 Jul 28;12(28):4593-5
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  • [Title] A case of gallbladder carcinoma associated with pancreatobiliary reflux in the absence of a pancreaticobiliary maljunction: A hint for early diagnosis of gallbladder carcinoma.
  • A 62-year-old man with progressive thickening of the gallbladder wall visited our outpatient clinic.
  • The biliary amylase level in the common bile duct was 19,900 IU/L and that of the gallbladder was 127,000 IU/L, although endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography revealed no pancreaticobiliary maljunction.
  • Histology demonstrated a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder.
  • Pancreatobiliary reflux and associated gallbladder carcinoma were confirmed in the present case, in the absence of a pancreaticobiliary maljunction.
  • Earlier detection of the pancreatobiliary reflux and progressive thickening of the gallbladder wall might have led to an earlier resection of the gallbladder and improved this patient's poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Bile Reflux / etiology. Common Bile Duct / physiopathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / complications. Pancreas / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Amylases / analysis. Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde. Gallbladder / enzymology. Gallbladder / pathology. Gallbladder / physiopathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16874881.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4125656
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9. Hara S, Kijima H, Okada K, Igarashi Y: Invasive micropapillary variant of the gallbladder adenocarcinoma and its aggressive potential for lymph node metastasis. Biomed Res; 2010 Apr;31(2):89-95
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  • [Title] Invasive micropapillary variant of the gallbladder adenocarcinoma and its aggressive potential for lymph node metastasis.
  • An invasive micropapillary variant (IMPV) has recently been described in several organs but has not been reported in the gallbladder.
  • We analyzed the clinicopathologic findings of IMPV and compared them with those of a conventional adenocarcinoma in the gallbladder to clarify the highly aggressive potential of IMPV of gallbladder carcinoma.
  • Ninety consecutive cases of surgically resected gallbladder carcinomas were studied for age, gender, type, depth of invasion and lymph node and distant metastases.
  • Histologically, IMPV of gallbladder carcinoma was characterized by a small cluster of tumor cells lying within clear stromal spaces.
  • IMPV is a useful predictor of regional lymph node metastasis in gallbladder adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20460736.001).
  • [ISSN] 1880-313X
  • [Journal-full-title] Biomedical research (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biomed. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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10. Young RH: From Krukenberg to today: the ever present problems posed by metastatic tumors in the ovary. Part II. Adv Anat Pathol; 2007 May;14(3):149-77
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Coverage of intestinal adenocarcinoma emphasizes the landmark 1987 paper of RH Lash and WR Hart.
  • The limited information on spread of tumors of the gallbladder and extrahepatic bile ducts is then reviewed before more detailed consideration of hepatic neoplasms, prompted by recent contributions on hepatocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, the latter based on significant experience with this problem in Thailand.
  • The section on appendiceal neoplasms highlights ovarian spread of diverse tumors ranging from typical intestinal-type adenocarcinoma to signet-ring cell carcinomas with various patterns which in the ovary may prompt diagnoses such as a goblet cell (mucinous) carcinoid tumor, but whose ovarian features place them in the category of a Krukenberg tumor.
  • The diverse problems in differential diagnosis of carcinoid tumor (provoked by nested, acinar, and other patterns, including folliclelike spaces) are then reviewed.
  • The section on breast cancer emphasizes that, although usually a manifestation of late stage disease and often not bulky in the ovaries, metastatic breast cancer may form large masses which can represent the clinical presentation.
  • That patients with breast cancer have an increased risk of primary ovarian cancer and that the latter is more common than secondary spread of breast cancer is noted.
  • The section on lung tumors largely reflects information in a recent paper that small cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma are the lung cancers that spread to the ovary most commonly.
  • The extremely broad differential diagnosis posed by metastatic malignant melanoma ranging from that of an oxyphilic tumor, to a small cell tumor, to a follicle-forming neoplasm, is then considered.
  • The sections on renal cell carcinoma and other urinary tract neoplasms emphasize the differential diagnosis of metastatic clear cell carcinoma and primary clear cell carcinoma, an issue usually resolvable by an awareness of the various features of the ovarian variant, rarely or never seen in the renal variant.
  • The sections on ovarian spread of uterine carcinomas emphasize the problems owing to cervical adenocarcinomas, which have a greater tendency to involve the ovaries than squamous cell carcinomas and can simulate primary mucinous or endometrioid cancers.
  • The microscopic features of malignant mesothelioma are so different from those of primary ovarian carcinoma in most instances that the diagnosis should be readily established on routine microscopic evaluation.
  • The differential diagnosis of the desmoplastic small round cell tumor is more complex because of the greater overlap with the many other small cell malignant tumors that may involve the ovaries primarily or secondarily.
  • However, as pointed out in brief concluding remarks, despite the aid of that modality, as in surgical pathology overall, careful consideration of the clinical background, distribution of disease, gross characteristics and spectrum of routine microscopic findings, will lead to the correct diagnosis in the majority of cases and at the very least lead to formulation of a considered differential diagnosis such that use of special techniques may be judicious and those results placed in context of the time-honored clinical and pathologic features.
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. History, 19th Century. History, 20th Century. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17452813.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-4109
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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11. Legan M, Luzar B, Ferlan-Marolt V, Cör A: Cyclooxygenase-2 expression determines neo-angiogenesis in gallbladder carcinomas. Bosn J Basic Med Sci; 2006 Nov;6(4):58-63
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cyclooxygenase-2 expression determines neo-angiogenesis in gallbladder carcinomas.
  • Neo-angiogenesis may have an important role in the poor prognosis of gallbladder carcinoma.
  • An enhanced expression of COX-2 was found in precancerous lesions and in gallbladder carcinoma, likely to be involved in carcinogenesis as well as in angiogenesis.
  • To study the relationships between the COX-2 expression and degree of vascularization, as well as to evaluate their role in the prognosis of patients with gallbladder carcinoma.
  • 27 cases of gallbladder adenocarcinoma were included, classified grading I-III according the WHO classification.
  • Our data show that the MVD corresponds to the COX-2 overexpression in gallbladder carcinomas.
  • Augmented tumor neovascularization induced by COX-2 might be responsible for the poor prognosis in gallbladder carcinoma patients.

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  • (PMID = 17177652.001).
  • [ISSN] 1512-8601
  • [Journal-full-title] Bosnian journal of basic medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bosn J Basic Med Sci
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / ENG protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Cell Surface; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
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12. Costantini M, Montalti R, Rossi G, Luisa L, Masetti M, Di Benedetto F, Giorgio G: Adenocarcinoid tumor of the extrahepatic biliary tract. Int J Surg Pathol; 2008 Oct;16(4):455-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The term adenocarcinoid was first coined by Warkel et al in 1978 to describe a group of uncommon low-grade malignant appendiceal tumors with morphologic and histochemical evidence of both glandular (adenocarcinoma) and neuroendocrine (carcinoid) differentiation for which several terms have been used in the past.
  • Although the appendix is the most frequent site of this tumor, similar neoplasms have been reported also in other sites, such as colon, gallbladder, Vater's ampulla, and stomach.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoid Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Klatskin Tumor / pathology. Middle Aged. Ovarian Cysts / complications. Sjogren's Syndrome / complications. Tonsillectomy

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  • (PMID = 18480386.001).
  • [ISSN] 1066-8969
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Tan Y, Meng HP, Wu Q, Wang FQ, Wu HR: [Proteomic study of gallbladder cancer, with special reference on the expression and significance of annexin A3]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2010 Jun;39(6):382-6
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  • [Title] [Proteomic study of gallbladder cancer, with special reference on the expression and significance of annexin A3].
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the potential molecular targets for diagnosis and treatment of gallbladder cancer by analyzing and comparing the proteomes expressed in human gallbladder cancer and benign gallbladder tissues.
  • AnnexinA3 expression was examined by streptavidin peroxidase immunohistochemical technique on paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 50 patients of gallbladder cancer and 38 cases of chronic eholecystitis.
  • There were forty six differentially expressed proteins in the tissue samples of gallbladder cancer.
  • The positive expression rates of annexinA3 in gallbladder cancer was significantly higher than that in chronic cholecystitis, and the difference was statistically significant (74.0% vs 21.1%, P < 0.01).
  • In the gallbladder cancer, no correlation was obtained between annexinA3 and age, gender or histologicl type (P > 0.05), but overexpression of annexinA3 correlated significantly with those cases with a lower histological grading (40.0% vs 82.5%, P < 0.05); lymph node or distant metastasis (40.9% vs 100%, P < 0.05); or a shorter survival time after operation (50.0% vs 93.8%, P < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Significant discrepancies in protein expression exist among gallbladder cancer and benign gallbladder tissues.
  • AnnexinA3 plays an important role in the initiation and progression of human gallbladder cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Annexin A3 / metabolism. Gallbladder Neoplasms / metabolism. Gene Expression Profiling

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  • (PMID = 21055154.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proteome; EC 3.1.4.43 / Annexin A3
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14. Kitajima K, Kobayashi S, Shiba H, Uwagawa T, Ishida Y, Aiba K, Kawakami M, Yanaga K: Successful treatment of advanced gallbladder cancer with an anticancer drug S-1: assessment based on intratumoral gene. Int J Clin Oncol; 2008 Dec;13(6):545-51
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  • [Title] Successful treatment of advanced gallbladder cancer with an anticancer drug S-1: assessment based on intratumoral gene.
  • While surgical resection is the most effective treatment for gallbladder cancer, most of these cancers are not resectable at the time of diagnosis, and therefore, chemotherapy serves as the primary therapy in many cases.
  • However, to date, there is no standard chemotherapy for this cancer.
  • We report a case of advanced gallbladder cancer for which the anticancer drug S-1 was effective.
  • On workup, all abdominal images revealed the presence of advanced gallbladder cancer that had invaded the liver.
  • Because the gallbladder formed a relatively hard and swollen mass involving the omentum, as revealed during exploration, the surgical resection of the gallbladder was not possible at that time, and only hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed.
  • Pathologically, the tumor was diagnosed as an adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder, and no evidence of liver invasion was found.
  • Intratumoral gene expression analysis of the resected gallbladder revealed significantly elevated DPD expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Dihydrouracil Dehydrogenase (NADP) / genetics. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / genetics. Oxonic Acid / therapeutic use. Tegafur / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19093184.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Drug Combinations; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid; EC 1.3.1.2 / Dihydrouracil Dehydrogenase (NADP); U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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15. Fujita T, Fukuda K, Ohmura Y, Nishi H, Mano M, Komatsubara S, Doihara H, Shimizu N: Long-term survival of a patient with advanced adenosquamous carcinoma of the gallbladder after radical resection. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg; 2005;12(2):147-50
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  • [Title] Long-term survival of a patient with advanced adenosquamous carcinoma of the gallbladder after radical resection.
  • Patients with adenosquamous carcinoma of the gallbladder tend to present with a bulky tumor that frequently displays involvement with adjacent organs, and diagnosis is usually made at an advanced stage.
  • This may contribute to the poor prognosis of patients with adenosquamous carcinoma of the gallbladder compared to patients with adenocarcinoma.
  • We present herein a patient with advanced adenosquamous carcinoma of the gallbladder who is doing well with no evidence of recurrence more than 5 years after radical resection.
  • On admission, abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed an irregularly shaped solid mass extending from the fundus of the gallbladder, and invasion of the stomach was strongly suspected.
  • Gallbladder carcinoma was diagnosed, and radical resection, including partial gastrectomy, was performed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / surgery. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15868080.001).
  • [ISSN] 0944-1166
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hepato-biliary-pancreatic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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16. Oh SJ, Lee SJ, Lee HY, Paik YH, Lee DK, Lee KS, Chung JB, Yu JS, Yoon DS: [Extrapancreatic tumors in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm of the pancreas]. Korean J Gastroenterol; 2009 Sep;54(3):162-6
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  • Five, six, and two extrapancreatic malignancies had been diagnosed before, during, and after the diagnosis of IPMN.
  • Gastric adenocarcinoma (3 patients, 23%) and colorectal carcinoma (3 patients, 23%) were the most common neoplasms.
  • Other extrapancreatic tumors included lung cancer (n=2), prostatic cancer (n=1), renal cell carcinoma (n=1), cholangiocellular carcinoma (n=1), urinary bladder cancer (n=1), and gallbladder cancer (n=1), respectively.
  • As benign tumor, there were two gallbladder adenoma, one gastric adenoma, one colonic adenoma and one benign ovarian cystic neoplasm, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / epidemiology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [CommentIn] Korean J Gastroenterol. 2009 Sep;54(3):196-8 [19844158.001]
  • (PMID = 19844152.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-9992
  • [Journal-full-title] The Korean journal of gastroenterology = Taehan Sohwagi Hakhoe chi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] kor
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
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17. D'Angelica M, Dalal KM, DeMatteo RP, Fong Y, Blumgart LH, Jarnagin WR: Analysis of the extent of resection for adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder. Ann Surg Oncol; 2009 Apr;16(4):806-16
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  • [Title] Analysis of the extent of resection for adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder.
  • Gallbladder cancer has historically been considered an incurable malignancy; although, extended resection has been associated with cure in selected patients.
  • The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of the extent of resection for gallbladder adenocarcinoma on disease-specific survival (DSS) and perioperative morbidity.
  • Analysis of a prospective hepatobiliary surgery database identified patients undergoing surgical resection for gallbladder adenocarcinoma from 1990 to 2002.
  • We conclude that tumor biology and stage, rather than extent of resection, predict outcome after resection for gallbladder cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Bile Duct Neoplasms / surgery. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / surgery


18. Chianakwana GU, Okafor PI, Anyanwu SN: Carcinoma of the gallbladder at the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital--a 5-year retrospective study. Niger J Clin Pract; 2005 Jun;8(1):10-3
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  • [Title] Carcinoma of the gallbladder at the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital--a 5-year retrospective study.
  • BACKGROUND: Carcinoma of the gallbladder is often missed because of the low index of suspicion.
  • AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To review the incidence, pattern and outcome of carcinoma of the gallbladder in our center and to highlight the need for early diagnosis.
  • DESIGN: Retrospective survey of all cases of carcinoma of the gallbladder.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients who had histologically confirmed carcinoma in the general surgical units of the Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital over a 5-year period were reviewed and, from their case notes, the following information on sex, age, mode of presentation, time of diagnosis, stage of disease, treatment given and outcome were extracted.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-one cases of gallbladder carcinoma were seen out of a total of 692 cases of different types of cancers seen in the general surgical units, giving an incidence of 3.04%.
  • The outcome was good in patients who presented with features of cholecystitis but who turned out to be cases of early carcinoma of the gallbladder because after five years of follow-up, none of them has shown any features of recurrence.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Carcinoma of the gallbladder may present as cholecystitis.
  • Early presentation to hospital by patients would avert delay and improve early diagnosis, early treatment, and better outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / epidemiology. Hospitals, University / statistics & numerical data

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  • (PMID = 16392449.001).
  • [ISSN] 1119-3077
  • [Journal-full-title] Nigerian journal of clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Niger J Clin Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
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19. Yokoyama Y, Nishio H, Ebata T, Abe T, Igami T, Oda K, Nimura Y, Nagino M: New classification of cystic duct carcinoma. World J Surg; 2008 Apr;32(4):621-6
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  • BACKGROUND: Farrar's criteria for cystic duct carcinoma (histopathologic diagnosis of a carcinoma strictly limited to the cystic duct) are impractical especially when making a diagnosis of primary cystic duct carcinoma in its advanced stage.
  • Therefore, in our previous study, we proposed a new definition of cystic duct carcinoma: a gallbladder tumor, the center of which is located in the cystic duct.
  • RESULTS: There was more papillary or well differentiated adenocarcinoma in the CC type lesions than in the HH type.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / classification. Bile Duct Neoplasms / classification. Carcinoma, Papillary / classification. Cystic Duct

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  • (PMID = 18224484.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Shukla PJ, Barreto SG, Shrikhande SV, Mohandas KM, Purandare N, Rangarajan V: Detection of gall bladder cancer metastases in rare sites by PET scan. Indian J Gastroenterol; 2007 Nov-Dec;26(6):303-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Detection of gall bladder cancer metastases in rare sites by PET scan.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / radionuclide imaging. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Tomography, Emission-Computed
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Radiopharmaceuticals

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  • (PMID = 18431025.001).
  • [ISSN] 0254-8860
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of gastroenterology : official journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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21. Yildirim S, Ezer A, Colakoglu T, Caliskan K, Bal N, Noyan T, Moray G, Haberal M: An unusual case of port site metastasis after laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a renal transplant patient: a case report. Transplant Proc; 2006 Jun;38(5):1369-70
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  • We present an unusual case of port site adenocarcinoma metastasis from unknown origin following laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
  • A biopsy from the port sites led to the diagnosis of adenocarcinoma metastasis.
  • Port site metastasis after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is seen especially after gallbladder cancer, and less frequently after intraabdominal malignancy independent of tumor stage.
  • Our patient illustrated that port site metastasis probably spread from an undetected cancer site of an early stage intraabdominal tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / etiology. Cholecystectomy / adverse effects. Kidney Transplantation. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 16797306.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-1345
  • [Journal-full-title] Transplantation proceedings
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transplant. Proc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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22. Brevet M, Brehant O, Dumont F, Regimbeau JM, Dupas JL, Chatelain D: [Adenomatous polyposis of the gallbladder and Gardner's syndrome. A rare association]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2007 Apr;31(4):425-7
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  • [Title] [Adenomatous polyposis of the gallbladder and Gardner's syndrome. A rare association].
  • [Transliterated title] Polypose adénomateuse vésiculaire et syndrome de Gardner: une association rare.
  • We report one case of adenomatous polyposis of the gallbladder in a 57 year-old woman with Gardner's syndrome presenting with cholangitis.
  • On gross examination the gallbladder contained two calculi and numerous flat or polypoid adenomas less than 1 cm in size.
  • Only 10 cases of gallbladder adenomas have been reported in the literature in patients presenting with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP).
  • These adenomatous gallbladder lesions are discovered late, often when the patient is older than 40.
  • Pathogenesis of gallbladder adenomas is still unclear.
  • It is difficult to assess the risk of malignancy: only 6 cases of gallbladder adenocarcinomas have been reported in patients with FAP.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyps / complications. Gallbladder Neoplasms / complications. Gardner Syndrome / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Cholecystectomy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gallbladder / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 17483782.001).
  • [ISSN] 0399-8320
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroentérologie clinique et biologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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23. Pavić I, Marusić Z, Mijić A, Balicević D, Kruslin B, Tomas D: A case of signet-ring cell carcinoma of the gallbladder: immunohistochemistry and differential diagnosis. Acta Clin Croat; 2010 Jun;49(2):159-62
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  • [Title] A case of signet-ring cell carcinoma of the gallbladder: immunohistochemistry and differential diagnosis.
  • The morphological spectrum of gallbladder carcinoma is broad and variable.
  • Most of these tumors are tubular adenocarcinomas.
  • One of such tumors is the signet-ring cell carcinoma, which is a highly aggressive, mucin producing variant of gallbladder adenocarcinoma predominantly or exclusively composed of signet-ring cells.
  • We found only three cases of signet-ring cell carcinoma of the gallbladder previously reported.
  • We present the case of an 86-year-old woman with signet-ring cell carcinoma of the gallbladder and discuss the potential diagnostic dilemmas
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / diagnosis. Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 21086733.001).
  • [ISSN] 0353-9466
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta clinica Croatica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Clin Croat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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24. Iqbal M, Gondal KM, Qureshi AU, Tayyab M: Comparative study of ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology with open/laparoscopic biopsy for diagnosis of carcinoma gallbladder. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak; 2009 Jan;19(1):17-20
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  • [Title] Comparative study of ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration cytology with open/laparoscopic biopsy for diagnosis of carcinoma gallbladder.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the accuracy of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) in cases of gallbladder mass.
  • RESULTS: Fifty cases with mean age 60.71+11.073 years presented with mass gallbladder underwent FNAC.
  • Smears showed adenocarcinoma 23, undifferentiated carcinoma in 7, dysplasia and suspicion of malignancy in 5, hemorrhagic background without malignant cells in 12 and inflammatory cells with no malignancy in 3 cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biopsy, Needle / methods. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Ultrasonography, Interventional / methods

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  • (PMID = 19149974.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-386X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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25. Eltawil KM, Gustafsson BI, Kidd M, Modlin IM: Neuroendocrine tumors of the gallbladder: an evaluation and reassessment of management strategy. J Clin Gastroenterol; 2010 Nov-Dec;44(10):687-95
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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine tumors of the gallbladder: an evaluation and reassessment of management strategy.
  • BACKGROUND: Gallbladder neuroendocrine tumors (GB-NETs) represent only 0.5% of all NETs, and little is known about their biological behavior.
  • STUDY: A PubMed search was undertaken using the following criteria: primary gallbladder and carcinoid or NET.
  • Finally, we compared the clinical presentation, management and prognosis of GB-NETs to that of gallbladder adenocarcinoma.
  • RESULTS: GB-NETs probably derive from either a multipotent stem cell or neuroendocrine cells in intestinal or gastric metaplasia of the gallbladder epithelium, which occurs consequent upon cholelithiasis/chronic inflammation.
  • Clinically and at surgery, GB-NETs are indistinguishable from gallbladder cancer (GBC) and "carcinoid syndrome" is evident in only ∼1%.The median survival was only 9.8 months among 278 cases of GB-NETs reported in SEER.
  • The 5 year survival rate for tumors classified as carcinoids/neuroendocrine carcinoma or small cell cancer (SCC) was 36.9 and 0%, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Gallbladder Neoplasms / therapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / therapy

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  • (PMID = 20375728.001).
  • [ISSN] 1539-2031
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Tischoff I, Tannapfel A: [Pathologic and anatomic evidence of peritoneal metastases]. Chirurg; 2007 Dec;78(12):1085-6, 1088-90
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  • [Transliterated title] Peritonealmetastasen in der pathologisch-anatomischen Befundung.
  • Ovarian carcinoma, colorectal cancer, and gastric cancer are the most frequent ones that show peritoneal involvement, along with carcinomas of the pancreas, gallbladder, uterus, and lung.
  • Especially in cancer of unknown primary tumour, the discrimination between primary peritoneal tumours and peritoneal metastases is difficult and often requires immunohistochemical identification.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma / secondary. Carcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Small Cell / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous / secondary. Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Mesothelioma / pathology. Mesothelioma / surgery. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Peritonitis / pathology. Pseudomyxoma Peritonei / pathology. Pseudomyxoma Peritonei / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18030433.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4722
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift für alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurg
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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27. Anjaneyulu V, Shankar-Swarnalatha G, Rao SC: Carcinoid tumor of the gall bladder. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2007 Apr;11(2):113-6
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  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Middle Aged. Silver Nitrate. Silver Staining. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17349570.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Grimelius stain; 95IT3W8JZE / Silver Nitrate
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28. Liu DC, Yang ZL, Jiang S: Identification of musashi-1 and ALDH1 as carcinogenesis, progression, and poor-prognosis related biomarkers for gallbladder adenocarcinoma. Cancer Biomark; 2010-2011;8(3):113-21
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  • [Title] Identification of musashi-1 and ALDH1 as carcinogenesis, progression, and poor-prognosis related biomarkers for gallbladder adenocarcinoma.
  • In this study, we investigated the expressions of Msi-1 and ALDH1 in gallbladder adenocarcinoma (n=100), peritumoral tissues (n=46), adenomatous polyp (n=15), and chronic cholecystitis (n=35) using immunohistochemical method.
  • The percentage of cases with positive Msi-1 and ALDH1 expression were significantly higher in gallbladder adenocarcinoma than that in peritumoral tissues, adenomatous polyp and chronic cholecystitis (ps < 0.01).
  • The expression of Msi-1 and ALDH1 was significantly associated with differentiation, tumor mass, lymph node metastasis and invasion of adenocarcinoma.
  • The expression of Msi-1 and ALDH1 was found to be highly consistent in gallbladder adenocarcinoma (p < 0.01).
  • Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that positive expression of Msi-1 or ALDH1 (p=0.016, p=0.006, respectively) was an independent bad-prognostic predictor in gallbladder adenocarcinoma.
  • Our study suggested that Msi-1 and/or ALDH1 expression might be closely related to the carcinogenesis, progression, clinical biological behaviors, and prognosis of gallbladder adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / physiopathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Gallbladder Neoplasms / physiopathology. Isoenzymes / analysis. Nerve Tissue Proteins / analysis. RNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Retinal Dehydrogenase / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenomatous Polyps / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Cholecystitis / metabolism. Disease Progression. Female. Gallbladder / chemistry. Gallbladder / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 22012766.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-8592
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biomarkers : section A of Disease markers
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biomark
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Isoenzymes; 0 / MSI1 protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins; EC 1.2.1.- / aldehyde dehydrogenase 1; EC 1.2.1.36 / Retinal Dehydrogenase
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29. Wirowski D, Treckmann J, Böhner H: [Paraneoplastic thrombosis of the internal jugular and subclavian veins as first manifestation of gall bladder cancer]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr; 2008 Dec;133(49):2562-4
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  • [Title] [Paraneoplastic thrombosis of the internal jugular and subclavian veins as first manifestation of gall bladder cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Paraneoplastische Thrombose der Vena jugularis interna und Vena subclavia als Erstmanifestation eines Gallenblasenkarzinoms.
  • INVESTIGATION AND DIAGNOSIS: Computed tomograph (CT) and phlebography showed extensive thrombosis of sigmoid sinus and the internal jugular, brachiocephalic and subclavian veins on the left side.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Jugular Veins. Paraneoplastic Syndromes / radiography. Subclavian Vein. Thrombosis / radiography


30. Lynch BC, Lathrop SL, Ye D, Ma TY, Cerilli LA: Expression of the p16(INK4a) gene product in premalignant and malignant epithelial lesions of the gallbladder. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2008 Jun;12(3):161-4
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  • [Title] Expression of the p16(INK4a) gene product in premalignant and malignant epithelial lesions of the gallbladder.
  • The sequence of molecular changes leading to neoplastic transformation in the gallbladder remains elusive.
  • The aim of this study is to characterize the spectrum of nuclear p16 protein product immunohistochemical expression in tissue microarray cores taken from resected gallbladders, comprising histologically normal gallbladder epithelia (n = 29), dyplastic epithelia (n = 19), reactive atypia (n = 7), and gallbladder adenocarcinoma (n = 23).
  • Our data demonstrate that nuclear p16 expression is absent in normal gallbladder epithelium and is a frequent event in high-grade dysplasia of the gallbladder and gallbladder adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Gallbladder Neoplasms / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Gallbladder / metabolism. Gallbladder / pathology. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18486890.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16
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31. Wang YK, Zhao W, Hao Y, Zhang Y, Guo YB, Meng NL, Ma L, Li J: [Clinicopathologic features of gallbladder adenocarcinoma with marked stromal fibrosis--a report of 19 cases]. Ai Zheng; 2006 Jul;25(7):896-900
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  • [Title] [Clinicopathologic features of gallbladder adenocarcinoma with marked stromal fibrosis--a report of 19 cases].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Macropathologic types of gallbladder cancer are mostly polyp type, intumescent type, and cauliflower form lump.
  • Its histological types include well or poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, mucinous adenocarcinoma, and undifferentiated cancer.
  • This research was to explore the clinicopathologic features of gallbladder adenocarcinoma with marked stromal fibrosis.
  • METHODS: Pathology of 19 cases of gallbladder adenocarcinoma with marked stromal fibrosis was observed using a light microscopy and SP immunohistochemistry.
  • RESULTS: Most of the patients had long-term history of cholecystitis gallbladder calculus.
  • B ultrasound showed that the gallbladder wall was irregularly thickened or presented nodosity.
  • Observed with naked eyes, gallbladder adenocarcinoma with marked stromal fibrosis did not form cancer nodule and extrude into the gallbladder lumen, the gallbladder wall showed regional thickening, a few cases showed diffuse irregular thickening.
  • Observed under a light microscope, the adenocarcinoma cells were mostly arranged as single layers, seldom arranged as multiple layers, and formed adenoid structures with different sizes, various shapes, and irregular arrangement; the nuclei were heterogenic with haryomitosis presented in a few cases; inflammatory cells were infiltrated in hyperplastic fibrous connective tissue of some cases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The clinical manifestation, macropathologic type, histological characteristics of gallbladder adenocarcinoma with stromal fibrosis are different from other types of adenocarcinoma.
  • Its genesis may be related to chronic cholecystitis: long-term inflammation causes regional hyperplasia and heterogeneity of the gland body, lead to focal or regional thickening of the gallbladder wall, and result in gallbladder adenocarcinoma with stromal fibrosis finally.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Gallbladder / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Keratins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cholecystectomy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fibrosis. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Immunophenotyping. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16831286.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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32. Verderame F, Russo A, Di Leo R, Badalamenti G, Santangelo D, Cicero G, Valerio MR, Gulotta G, Tomasello G, Gebbia N, Fulfaro F: Gemcitabine and oxaliplatin combination chemotherapy in advanced biliary tract cancers. Ann Oncol; 2006 Jun;17 Suppl 7:vii68-72
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  • BACKGROUND: Biliary tract cancers are uncommon tumors with a poor prognosis and most patients present with invasive and inoperable disease at diagnosis.

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  • (PMID = 16760298.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-8041
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 04ZR38536J / oxaliplatin; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine
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33. Crowe DR, Eloubeidi MA, Chhieng DC, Jhala NC, Jhala D, Eltoum IA: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy of hepatic lesions: computerized tomographic-guided versus endoscopic ultrasound-guided FNA. Cancer; 2006 Jun 25;108(3):180-5
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  • BACKGROUND: Computerized tomographic (CT)-guided fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology is a well-established tool in the diagnosis of hepatic lesions.
  • The gallbladder, extrahepatic biliary system, and perihilar lymph nodes are readily accessible.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Endosonography. Liver Neoplasms / pathology


34. Vilos GA, Edris F, Al-Mubarak A, Ettler HC, Hollett-Caines J, Abu-Rafea B: Hysteroscopic surgery does not adversely affect the long-term prognosis of women with endometrial adenocarcinoma. J Minim Invasive Gynecol; 2007 Mar-Apr;14(2):205-10
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  • [Title] Hysteroscopic surgery does not adversely affect the long-term prognosis of women with endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of hysteroscopic surgery on the long-term clinical outcome of women diagnosed with endometrial cancer.
  • After diagnosis of endometrial malignancy, women were counseled regarding their disease and management, in accordance with established clinical practice guidelines.
  • MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Among the 3401 women, there were 19 women with endometrial adenocarcinoma, 3 of whom were known to harbor cancer before hysteroscopic surgery.
  • Her cancer reverted to complex hyperplasia, and she requested hysterectomy 4 years later.
  • No residual cancer was found.
  • After 5 years of follow-up, 1 patient died from carcinoma of the gallbladder (2 years), and 2 died at 4 years; 1 at the age of 87 years of natural causes and the other at the age of 86 years from acute renal failure unrelated to her cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: Resectoscopic surgery did not adversely affect the 5-year survival and the long-term prognosis in 14 women with endometrial cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery. Hysteroscopy. Uterine Hemorrhage / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17368258.001).
  • [ISSN] 1553-4650
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of minimally invasive gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Minim Invasive Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. Kim JH, Kim WH, Kim JH, Yoo BM, Kim MW: Unsuspected gallbladder cancer diagnosed after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: focus on acute cholecystitis. World J Surg; 2010 Jan;34(1):114-20
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  • [Title] Unsuspected gallbladder cancer diagnosed after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: focus on acute cholecystitis.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to investigate clinicopathological features of patients who were diagnosed with unsuspected gallbladder cancer (UGC) after laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) and to clarify the relationship between acute cholecystitis (AC) and unsuspected gallbladder cancer.
  • Twenty-six patients (1.0%) were diagnosed with gallbladder cancer after LC.
  • We excluded patients with preoperatively or intraoperatively suspected gallbladder cancer.
  • RESULTS: Of 1,128 patients with AC, 19 (1.6%) were identified with gallbladder cancer after surgery.
  • The preoperative diagnosis included a high rate of acute and severe acute cholecystitis (n = 19; 73.1%).
  • Adenocarcinoma (92.3%) and pT2 (65.4%) were the most common pathological findings.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The preoperative diagnosis included a high rate of acute and severe acute cholecystitis.
  • Therefore, we suggest that AC may not influence the prognosis of unsuspected gallbladder cancer after LC.
  • [MeSH-major] Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic. Cholecystitis / complications. Cholecystitis / surgery. Gallbladder Neoplasms / complications. Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 19898893.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2323
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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36. Matheus AS, Jukemura J, Montagnini AL, Kunitake T, Patzina RA, da Cunha JE: Synchronous adenocarcinoma of the major and minor duodenal papilla. J Gastrointest Surg; 2008 Jul;12(7):1301-3
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  • [Title] Synchronous adenocarcinoma of the major and minor duodenal papilla.
  • Contrast-enhanced computed tomography and abdominal ultrasound showed slight dilatation of the biliary tree and gallbladder without calculi.
  • First endoscopically biopsy diagnosed no tumor, and a second biopsy diagnosed as papillary adenocarcinoma.
  • Gross examination showed two tumors seen as prolapsed nodules growing isolated from the minor and major duodenal papillae measuring 1.5 and 1.0 cm, respectively, both covered by duodenal mucosa and the histologic study of both lesions demonstrated a moderately differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma, which invaded duodenal wall.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Ampulla of Vater. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Pancreatic Ducts. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal / methods. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Pancreaticoduodenectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17876672.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4626
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastrointest. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. Scaringi S, Nesi G, Bargellini T, Batignani G, Tonelli F: Iterative surgical resection of a recurrent gallbladder carcinoma with long-term survival: report of a case. In Vivo; 2010 Mar-Apr;24(2):215-7
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  • [Title] Iterative surgical resection of a recurrent gallbladder carcinoma with long-term survival: report of a case.
  • Gallbladder carcinoma is a rare, but often lethal disease.
  • Unfortunately, at the time of diagnosis, patients usually have advanced disease (T3-T4) and long-term survival is dismal, ranging from 5 to 12% in the literature.
  • However, this cancer can be successfully treated when the tumour is organ-confined (T1-T2 tumours), as happens in the case of incidental diagnosis at the time of cholecystectomy for gallstones.
  • Here we describe a patient with recurrent gallbladder carcinoma who, treated with iterative surgical resection, is alive and disease-free at 5 years after the final surgical procedure.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20363997.001).
  • [ISSN] 0258-851X
  • [Journal-full-title] In vivo (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] In Vivo
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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38. Oshiro H, Matsuo K, Mawatari H, Inayama Y, Yamanaka S, Nagahama K, Endo I, Shimada H, Nakajima A, Kubota K: Mucin-producing gallbladder adenocarcinoma with focal small cell and large cell neuroendocrine differentiation associated with pancreaticobiliary maljunction. Pathol Int; 2008 Dec;58(12):780-6
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  • [Title] Mucin-producing gallbladder adenocarcinoma with focal small cell and large cell neuroendocrine differentiation associated with pancreaticobiliary maljunction.
  • Herein is reported a case of mucin-producing carcinoma of the gallbladder in a 55-year-old Japanese woman.
  • Although the patient's status and laboratory data initially suggested biliary pancreatitis due to gallstone, radiography and endoscopy confirmed the presence of pancreaticobiliary maljunction and a gallbladder tumor with excessive mucin, in which the duodenal papilla and the common bile duct were impacted.
  • Following surgery, the gallbladder tumor was histopathologically diagnosed as a mixed endocrine-exocrine carcinoma.
  • There was no evidence of lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, or direct invasion outside the gallbladder.
  • Thus, the final classification of pT2N0M0 stage II was given to this lesion, according to the Union Internationale Contre le Cancer guidelines.
  • Mucin-producing gallbladder carcinoma is a rare clinical condition that can occur in patients with pancreaticobiliary maljunction.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Common Bile Duct / abnormalities. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Mucins / metabolism. Pancreatic Ducts / abnormalities

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  • (PMID = 19067853.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Mucins
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39. Wu QH, Mo LW, Zhang T, Chen XY, Zhang Z, Mao ZH, Jiang Y, Wang ML, Zheng MH: [Clinical prognostic multivariate analysis of incidental gallbladder cancer: a case controlled retrospective study]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2010 Jun 1;48(11):812-5
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  • [Title] [Clinical prognostic multivariate analysis of incidental gallbladder cancer: a case controlled retrospective study].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prognostic risk factors in incidental gallbladder cancer (IGBC) and evaluate the effect of laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC) applied in treating IGBC.
  • METHODS: The retrospective study enrolled 55 patients with incidental gallbladder adenocarcinoma treated between January 2001 and December 2008.
  • [MeSH-major] Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 21163047.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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40. Martínez-Román S, Frumovitz M, Deavers MT, Ramirez PT: Metastatic carcinoma of the gallbladder mimicking an advanced cervical carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Jun;97(3):942-5
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  • [Title] Metastatic carcinoma of the gallbladder mimicking an advanced cervical carcinoma.
  • To our knowledge, only three cases of primary carcinoma of the gallbladder with metastasis to the cervix have been previously reported.
  • We report a case of metastatic gallbladder carcinoma mimicking a stage IIIB cervical carcinoma.
  • A Pap smear revealed adenocarcinoma, and a biopsy of the endocervical canal was consistent with poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma.
  • A chest CT revealed multiple lesions in both lungs suggestive of metastatic disease, and an abdominal CT revealed a gallbladder tumor with extension into the liver.
  • The patient underwent a CT-guided biopsy of one of the lung lesions and the pathologic findings were consistent with metastatic adenocarcinoma.
  • The patient was diagnosed with stage IVB primary gallbladder adenocarcinoma and was treated with capecitabine, but her condition deteriorated rapidly and she died 5 months later.
  • CONCLUSION: In patients with an atypical presentation for cervical adenocarcinoma, it is important to consider a metastatic tumor in the differential diagnosis and to perform a thorough work-up for metastatic disease before initiating therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans


41. Tai CM, Hung CM, Lee TC, Chang HC, Wang HP: Primary gastric angiosarcoma presenting as an asymptomatic gastric submucosal tumor. J Formos Med Assoc; 2007 Nov;106(11):961-4
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  • Preoperative diagnosis is difficult and should be differentiated from adenocarcinoma or gastrointestinal stromal tumor.
  • Abdominal ultrasonography showed a heteroechogenic tumor with several notably anechoic portions between the stomach and the gallbladder.
  • These findings confirmed a diagnosis of primary gastric angiosarcoma.

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  • (PMID = 18063519.001).
  • [ISSN] 0929-6646
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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42. Jain V, Gupta K, Kudva R, Rodrigues GS: A case of ovarian metastasis of gall bladder carcinoma simulating primary ovarian neoplasm: diagnostic pitfalls and review of literature. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 Jan-Feb;16 Suppl 1:319-21
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  • The best-known tumor of this type is signet ring cell adenocarcinoma (Krukenberg tumor) of gastric origin and large bowel.
  • While clinical and imaging results suggested a primary ovarian carcinoma with incidental cholelithiasis and choledocholithiasis, the final diagnosis was obtained on the basis of histopathologic findings of resected specimen.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16515613.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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43. Goudard Y, Mingoutaud L, De La Villeon B, de Saint-Blancard P, Hervouet M, Pons F: [Cystic metastases of gallbladder adenocarcinoma]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2010 Apr-May;34(4-5):e9-e11
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  • [Title] [Cystic metastases of gallbladder adenocarcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Métastases kystiques d'un adénocarcinome de la vésicule biliaire.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Bile Duct Neoplasms / secondary. Cystic Duct / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20171033.001).
  • [ISSN] 0399-8320
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroentérologie clinique et biologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] France
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44. Kefeli M, Gonullu G, Can B, Malatyalioglu E, Kandemir B: Metastasis of adenocarcinoma of the gall bladder to an endometrial polyp detected by endometrial curettage: case report and review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 Jul;28(4):343-6
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  • [Title] Metastasis of adenocarcinoma of the gall bladder to an endometrial polyp detected by endometrial curettage: case report and review of the literature.
  • Breast carcinoma is the most frequent extragenital cancer that metastasizes to the endometrial polyp.
  • We report the case of a 63-year-old with metastatic gall bladder adenocarcinoma involving endometrial polyps detected by endometrial curetting.
  • After this diagnosis, bone metastases were detected during radiologic screening.
  • Gastrointestinal tumor metastasis to an endometrial polyp is a very rare event, but if a patient with a known primary extragenital tumor has abnormal vaginal bleeding, the possibility of metastasis should be included in the differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Endometrial Neoplasms / secondary. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Polyps / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19483630.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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45. Park SY, Roh SJ, Kim YN, Kim SZ, Park HS, Jang KY, Chung MJ, Kang MJ, Lee DG, Moon WS: Expression of MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC and MUC6 in cholangiocarcinoma: prognostic impact. Oncol Rep; 2009 Sep;22(3):649-57
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • However, in cancer cells and during cancer progression, the expression profile of mucins is altered and expression of some mucins is correlated with prognosis for certain malignancies.
  • In addition, this study was performed to identify whether immunohistochemical staining for mucins is useful to differentiate cholangiocarcinoma from adenocarcinoma of the pancreas and gallbladder.
  • Immunohistochemical staining for MUC1, MUC2, MUC5AC and MUC6 was performed for 85 cases of cholangiocarcinoma, including 34 cases of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), 51 cases of extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ECC), 11 cases of gallbladder adenocarcinoma and 14 cases of pancreas adenocarcinoma.
  • There was no significant difference for the mucin staining patterns of cholangiocarcinomas, pancreatic adenocarcinomas and gallbladder adenocarcinomas.

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  • (PMID = 19639217.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MUC1 protein, human; 0 / MUC2 protein, human; 0 / MUC5AC protein, human; 0 / MUC6 protein, human; 0 / Mucin 5AC; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Mucin-2; 0 / Mucin-6
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46. von Meyenfeldt EM, Mantel SF, Gouma DJ, van Gulik TM: [Tumors in the gallbladder: a possible differentiation between malignant and benign tumours]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2007 May 12;151(19):1049-54
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  • [Title] [Tumors in the gallbladder: a possible differentiation between malignant and benign tumours].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumoren in de galblaas; een moeilijke differentiatie tussen maligniteit en goedaardige tumor.
  • In a 59-year-old woman with pain in the right upper abdomen, echography and CT-scan revealed adenomatosis of the gallbladder.
  • In a 46-year-old man with fever and weight loss, echography revealed two polyps in the gallbladder.
  • In a 63-year-old man with systemic symptoms, a biopsy of the echographically diagnosed tumour of the gallbladder revealed that he had actually had cholecystitis.
  • Following cholecystectomy, an adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder was found.
  • Patients with a tumour in the gallbladder are often diagnosed with gallbladder cancer, which has a poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cholecystectomy / methods. Gallbladder Diseases / diagnosis. Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Polyps / diagnosis. Polyps / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Ultrasonography / methods

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  • [CommentIn] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2007 Jul 21;151(29):1653; author reply 1653 [17727189.001]
  • [CommentIn] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2007 Jul 21;151(29):1652-3; author reply 1653 [17729454.001]
  • [CommentOn] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2007 May 12;151(19):1083-6 [17552418.001]
  • (PMID = 17552411.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comment; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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47. Choi HJ, Yun SS, Kim HJ, Choi JH: Expression of p16 protein in gallbladder carcinoma and its precancerous conditions. Hepatogastroenterology; 2010 Jan-Feb;57(97):18-21
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  • [Title] Expression of p16 protein in gallbladder carcinoma and its precancerous conditions.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder is a highly malignant neoplasm. p16 is a tumor suppressor gene protein, which is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that regulates the G1-S phase of the cell cycle.
  • The purpose of the present study was to investigate the expression of p16 in gallbladder carcinoma and its precancerous conditions and to examine the relationship between p16 expression and clinicopathological parameters.
  • METHODOLOGY: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 20 cases of normal gallbladder, 20 cases of chronic cholecystitis, 20 cases of gallbladder adenoma, 20 cases of dysplasia, and 58 cases of adenocarcinoma were examined.
  • RESULTS: In normal gallbladder, no expression of p16 was found.
  • In gallbladder adenomas, expression of p16 was found in 20% (4/20).
  • In gallbladder adenocarcinomas, p16 expression was found in 27.6% (16/58).
  • CONCLUSIONS: P16 protein overexpression is an early and relatively common event in carcinogenesis of gallbladder carcinoma.
  • Expression of p16 may be an ancillary diagnostic marker of gallbladder carcinoma and its precancerous conditions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / metabolism. Cholecystitis / metabolism. Gallbladder Neoplasms / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20422865.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / P16 protein, human
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48. Maldjian PD, Ghesani N, Ahmed S, Liu Y: Adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder: another cause for a "hot" gallbladder on 18F-FDG PET. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2007 Jul;189(1):W36-8
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  • [Title] Adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder: another cause for a "hot" gallbladder on 18F-FDG PET.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / radionuclide imaging. Colonic Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Colonic Polyps / radionuclide imaging. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Gallbladder / radionuclide imaging. Gallbladder Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. False Positive Reactions. Humans. Male. Radiopharmaceuticals

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  • (PMID = 17579133.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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49. Lada PE, Taborda B, Sánchez M, Tommasino J, Rosso FF, Gramática L, Alecha Gil J, Echenique Elizondo M: [Adenosquamous and squamous carcinoma of the gallbladder]. Cir Esp; 2007 Apr;81(4):202-6
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  • [Title] [Adenosquamous and squamous carcinoma of the gallbladder].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinoma adenoescamoso y epidermoide de la vesícula biliar.
  • INTRODUCTION: Squamous and adenosquamous carcinomas of the gallbladder have poor prognosis.
  • MATERIAL AND METHOD: We performed a retrospective observational study of five patients with squamous or adenosquamous carcinoma of the gallbladder.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In both histological types of gallbladder carcinoma, treatment depends on the grade of local and regional invasion and tumor spread at diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17403356.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-739X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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50. Ziadi T, Alahyane A, El Fahssi M, Makhmari R, Elhjouji A, Baba H, Ould Jiddou C, Nafae I, Mejdane A, Bounaim A, Ait Ali A, Zentar A, Hommadi A, Sair K: [Adenocarcinoma of gallbladder revealed by acanthosis nigricans]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2009 Oct-Nov;33(10-11):986-8
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  • [Title] [Adenocarcinoma of gallbladder revealed by acanthosis nigricans].
  • [Transliterated title] Acanthosis nigricans révélateur d'un adénocarcinome de la vésicule biliaire.
  • [MeSH-major] Acanthosis Nigricans / etiology. Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19765931.001).
  • [ISSN] 0399-8320
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroentérologie clinique et biologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] France
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51. Zaydfudim V, Feurer ID, Wright JK, Pinson CW: The impact of tumor extent (T stage) and lymph node involvement (N stage) on survival after surgical resection for gallbladder adenocarcinoma. HPB (Oxford); 2008;10(6):420-7
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  • [Title] The impact of tumor extent (T stage) and lymph node involvement (N stage) on survival after surgical resection for gallbladder adenocarcinoma.
  • INTRODUCTION: Tumor extent (T stage) and lymph node involvement (N stage) have a known combined negative effect on survival in patients with gallbladder adenocarcinoma, but the independent effects of these factors have been less well described.
  • We investigated whether T stage and N stage independently predict survival after surgery for gallbladder adenocarcinoma.
  • METHODS: We queried the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database for patients treated with surgical resection for gallbladder adenocarcinoma between 1988 and 2004.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Tumor extent and lymph node metastases are independent predictors of survival after surgical resection for gallbladder adenocarcinoma.
  • Tumor penetration of the gallbladder wall and pathologically confirmed lymph node involvement each carry poor prognosis.

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  • (PMID = 19088928.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-182X
  • [Journal-full-title] HPB : the official journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HPB (Oxford)
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / AHRQ HHS / HS / T32 HS013833
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2597319
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; SEER registry / gallbladder cancer / lymph node metastases / survival / tumor extent
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52. Makiyama A, Qin B, Uchino K, Shibata Y, Arita S, Isobe T, Hirano G, Kusaba H, Baba E, Akashi K, Nakano S: Schedule-dependent synergistic interaction between gemcitabine and oxaliplatin in human gallbladder adenocarcinoma cell lines. Anticancer Drugs; 2009 Feb;20(2):123-30
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  • [Title] Schedule-dependent synergistic interaction between gemcitabine and oxaliplatin in human gallbladder adenocarcinoma cell lines.
  • To define the most effective combination schedule of gemcitabine and oxaliplatin (L-OHP), we investigated the in-vitro interaction between these drugs in a panel of four human gallbladder adenocarcinoma cell lines (HAG-1, GB-d1, NOZ, and G-415).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / pharmacology. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Organoplatinum Compounds / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 19209029.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5741
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 04ZR38536J / oxaliplatin; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine
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53. Joo HJ, Kim GH, Jeon WJ, Chae HB, Park SM, Youn SJ, Choi JW, Sung R: Metachronous bile duct cancer nine years after resection of gallbladder cancer. World J Gastroenterol; 2009 Jul 21;15(27):3440-4
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  • [Title] Metachronous bile duct cancer nine years after resection of gallbladder cancer.
  • We report a rare case of a 74-year-old man with metachronous gallbladder cancer and bile duct cancer who underwent curative resection twice, with the operations nine years apart.
  • At the age of 65 years, the patient underwent a cholecystectomy and resection of the liver bed for gallbladder cancer.
  • This was a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma, with negative resection margins (T2N0M0, stage IB).
  • We diagnosed this lesion as a perihilar bile duct cancer, Bismuth type IIIa, and performed bile duct excision, right hepatic lobectomy and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy.
  • The histological diagnosis was a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma with one regional lymph node metastasis (T1N1M0, stage IIB).
  • This case is compared with 11 other cases of metachronous biliary tract cancer published in the world medical literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • [Cites] J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg. 2001;8(4):374-8 [11521184.001]
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  • (PMID = 19610150.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2712910
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54. Wu Q, Kiguchi K, Kawamoto T, Ajiki T, Traag J, Carbajal S, Ruffino L, Thames H, Wistuba I, Thomas M, Vasquez KM, DiGiovanni J: Therapeutic effect of rapamycin on gallbladder cancer in a transgenic mouse model. Cancer Res; 2007 Apr 15;67(8):3794-800
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  • [Title] Therapeutic effect of rapamycin on gallbladder cancer in a transgenic mouse model.
  • In this study, we used BK5.erbB2 transgenic mice as an animal model to examine the therapeutic effect of rapamycin as a potential treatment for gallbladder cancer.
  • Homozygous BK5.erbB2 mice overexpressing the wild-type rat erbB2 gene in basal epithelial cells of the gallbladder have an approximately 70% incidence of gallbladder adenocarcinoma by 2 to 3 months of age.
  • Rapamycin significantly reduced the incidence and severity of gallbladder carcinoma in BK5.erbB2 mice in a dose-dependent manner.
  • Furthermore, rapamycin treatment led to decreased levels of phosphorylated p70 S6 kinase (Thr(389)) in gallbladder tissue as assessed by both Western blot and immunofluorescence analyses.
  • Finally, immunofluorescence staining revealed elevated phosphorylated Akt (Ser(473)) and phosphorylated mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR; Ser(2448)) in human gallbladder cancer compared with normal gallbladder tissue.
  • Based on our results using a novel genetically engineered mouse model and the fact that the Akt/mTOR pathway is activated in human gallbladder cancer, rapamycin and related drugs may be effective therapeutic agents for the treatment of human gallbladder cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / pharmacology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Sirolimus / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 17440093.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 099526; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 16672
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; EC 2.7.- / Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.1.1 / MTOR protein, human; EC 2.7.1.1 / TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.1.1 / mTOR protein, mouse; EC 2.7.1.1 / mTOR protein, rat; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 2.7.11.1 / Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 70-kDa; W36ZG6FT64 / Sirolimus
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55. Tomita H, Osada S, Matsuo M, Shimokawa K: Pancreatic cancer presenting with hematemesis from directly invading the duodenum: report of an unusual manifestation and review. Am Surg; 2006 Apr;72(4):363-6
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  • [Title] Pancreatic cancer presenting with hematemesis from directly invading the duodenum: report of an unusual manifestation and review.
  • Pancreatic cancer is a rare cause of gastrointestinal bleeding, and it is extremely rare for hematemesis to be the initial manifestation of invasive pancreatic cancer.
  • We report the case of a 67-year-old man with hematemesis who was found to have invasive pancreatic cancer with a bleeding duodenal ulcer.
  • Microscopic examination revealed that an adenocarcinoma originating from the pancreatic head extended to the muscularis propria of the duodenum.
  • The diagnosis, pathological findings, preoperative events, and postoperative outcome in this unusual case are reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Duodenum / pathology. Hematemesis / etiology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cholecystectomy. Gallbladder / pathology. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Pancreaticoduodenectomy

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  • (PMID = 16676866.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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56. Yang LP, Yang ZL, Tan XG, Miao XY: [Expression of annexin A1 (ANXA1) and A2 (ANXA2) and its significance in benign and malignant lesions of gallbladder]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2010 Aug;32(8):595-9
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  • [Title] [Expression of annexin A1 (ANXA1) and A2 (ANXA2) and its significance in benign and malignant lesions of gallbladder].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the expression levels of ANXA1 and ANXA2 and elucidate their clinicopathological significance in adenocarcinoma, peritumoral tissues, adenomatous polyp and chronic cholecystitis of gallbladder.
  • METHODS: EnVision(TM) immunohistochemical staining was used to detect the expression of ANXA1 and ANXA2 in paraffin-embedded tissue sections from resected specimens of adenocarcinoma (n = 108), peritumoral tissue (n = 46), adenomatous polyp (n = 15) and chronic cholecystitis (n = 35).
  • RESULTS: The positive rates and scores of ANXA1 and ANXA2 were significantly higher in adenocarcinoma (59.3%, 56.5%; 3.2 ± 0.9, 3.4 ± 0.8) than those in peritumoral tissues (34.8%, 1.1 ± 0.8, P < 0.01; 30.4%, 1.0 ± 0.8, P < 0.01), adenomatous polyp (26.7%, 0.9 ± 0.7, P < 0.05 or P < 0.01; 26.7%, 0.9 ± 0.8, P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) and chronic cholecystitis (17.1%, 0.7 ± 0.9, P < 0.01; 20.0%, 0.8 ± 0.8, P < 0.01).
  • The benign lesions with positive ANXA1 and/or ANXA2 expression showed mild to severe atypical hyperplasia of the gallbladder epithelium.
  • The positive rates of ANXA1 and/or ANXA2 were significantly lower in the well-differentiated adenocarcinoma, in a maximal diameter of < 2 cm, with no metastasis to lymph nodes and no invasion to surrounding tissues than those in the moderately or poorly-differentiated adenocarcinoma, in a maximal diameter of ≥ 2 cm, with metastasis to lymph nodes and invasion in surrounding tissues (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01).
  • A high consistence was found between the expression levels of ANXA1 and ANXA2 (χ(2) = 67.84, P < 0.01), and a close positive correlation between the scores of ANXA1 and ANXA2 (r = 0.78, P < 0.01) in gallbladder adenocarcinoma.
  • Kaplan-Meier analysis and multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that ANXA1 or ANXA2 was not an independent prognostic predictor in gallbladder adenocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: The expression levels of ANXA1 and/or ANXA2 may be important biological markers in the carcinogenesis, progression and biological behaviors of gallbladder adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Annexin A1 / metabolism. Annexin A2 / metabolism. Gallbladder Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / surgery. Adenomatous Polyps / metabolism. Adenomatous Polyps / pathology. Adult. Aged. Cholecystectomy / methods. Cholecystitis / metabolism. Cholecystitis / pathology. Female. Gallbladder / metabolism. Gallbladder / pathology. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Proportional Hazards Models. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 21122411.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ANXA2 protein, human; 0 / Annexin A1; 0 / Annexin A2
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57. Henson DE, Schwartz AM, Nsouli H, Albores-Saavedra J: Carcinomas of the pancreas, gallbladder, extrahepatic bile ducts, and ampulla of vater share a field for carcinogenesis: a population-based study. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2009 Jan;133(1):67-71
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  • [Title] Carcinomas of the pancreas, gallbladder, extrahepatic bile ducts, and ampulla of vater share a field for carcinogenesis: a population-based study.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a field effect for carcinogenesis exists in the ampulla of Vater, extrahepatic bile ducts, gallbladder, and pancreas.
  • DESIGN: Data were obtained from National Cancer Institute's Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Program from 1973 through 2005.
  • Cases were compared by age frequency density plots, age-specific incidence rates, and logarithmic plots of the age-specific incidence rates and age of diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: Incidence rates were 11.71, 1.43, 0.88, and 0.49 per 100,000 persons at risk for pancreatic, gallbladder, extrahepatic bile ducts, and ampullary carcinomas, respectively.
  • Logarithmic plots of the age-specific incidence rates with age of diagnosis produced parallel linear rate patterns for the 4 sites indicative of similar populations for tumor development.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Carcinomas of the pancreas, gallbladder, extrahepatic bile ducts, and ampulla have a common embryonic cellular ancestry, differentiation pathways, mucosal histologic patterns, and population-related tumor development indicating a field effect in carcinogenesis.
  • Parallel linear rate patterns indicate (1) the rate of cancer development is similar in all 4 sites even though the absolute incidence rates vary and (2) regardless of location, the ductal epithelium is equally susceptible to malignant transformation.
  • If carcinogenic pathways to cancer are similar, then the different incidence rates seen clinically may depend on the relative surface area of the ductal system in these sites.
  • Pancreatic cancers are most common because the surface area of the pancreas' ductal system is greater than that of the gallbladder, extrahepatic bile ducts, and ampulla.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2009 Jun;133(6):850 [19492873.001]
  • (PMID = 19123739.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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58. Shukla VK, Gurubachan, Sharma D, Dixit VK, Usha: Diagnostic value of serum CA242, CA 19-9, CA 15-3 and CA 125 in patients with carcinoma of the gallbladder. Trop Gastroenterol; 2006 Oct-Dec;27(4):160-5
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  • [Title] Diagnostic value of serum CA242, CA 19-9, CA 15-3 and CA 125 in patients with carcinoma of the gallbladder.
  • BACKGROUND: Tumor markers have an increasing significance in the diagnosis and evaluation of tumor, but their role in gallbladder cancer has not been established.
  • The present study was undertaken to determine the utility of serological markers in carcinoma of the gallbladder (CaGB).
  • CA242, CA19-9, CA15-3 and CA125 were assayed preoperatively in serum of patients with carcinoma of the gallbladder (39), cholelithiasis (16) and healthy controls (8) using ELISA technique.
  • RESULTS: Mean concentration of all tumor markers was significantly raised in carcinoma of the gallbladder when compared with cholelithiasis.
  • CONCLUSION: Assay of CA242, CA15-3, CA19-9 and CA 125 are fairly good markers for discriminating patients of carcinoma of the gallbladder from cholelithiasis.
  • Serum markers seem to be less sensitive when used individually in carcinoma of the gallbladder but may prove useful in combination.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate / blood. Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17542293.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-636X
  • [Journal-full-title] Tropical gastroenterology : official journal of the Digestive Diseases Foundation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Trop Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate; 0 / CA 242 antigen; 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0 / CA-19-9 Antigen; 0 / Mucin-1
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59. Varadarajulu S, Eloubeidi MA: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration in the evaluation of gallbladder masses. Endoscopy; 2005 Aug;37(8):751-4
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  • [Title] Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration in the evaluation of gallbladder masses.
  • BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: There are very few data on endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) of gallbladder masses.
  • The aim of this study was to assess the utility and safety of EUS-FNA in the evaluation of patients with gallbladder masses.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Six patients who underwent EUS-FNA of gallbladder masses over a 2-year period between 2002 and 2004 were studied retrospectively.
  • Abdominal computed tomography (CT) prior to EUS had revealed a definitive gallbladder mass in only one of the six patients and no gallbladder masses were identified in any of the patients who had undergone prior transabdominal ultrasound.
  • RESULTS: At EUS, all the patients were found to have an echo-poor mass arising from the gallbladder wall or within the lumen of the gallbladder.
  • EUS-FNA of the gallbladder masses revealed adenocarcinoma in five patients and benign disease in one patient.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In patients with obstructive jaundice and equivocal ultrasound or CT findings, evaluation of the gallbladder for the presence of a primary malignancy by EUS is useful.
  • In patients with gallbladder masses, EUS-FNA can be performed safely and can help to make a definitive diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / ultrasonography. Endosonography. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 16032495.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-726X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endoscopy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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60. Shiwani MH: Surgical management of gall bladder carcinoma. J Pak Med Assoc; 2007 Feb;57(2):87-91
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  • CaGB is a rare form of cancer and its association with gallstone disease should be recognised.
  • Although overall prognosis is poor, early diagnosis of CaGB and radical surgery provides better outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17370792.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-9982
  • [Journal-full-title] JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pak Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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61. Yokomuro S, Arima Y, Mizuguchi Y, Shimizu T, Kawahigashi Y, Kannda T, Arai M, Tajiri T: Occult gallbladder carcinoma after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a report of four cases. J Nippon Med Sch; 2007 Aug;74(4):300-5
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  • [Title] Occult gallbladder carcinoma after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a report of four cases.
  • Of these patients, 4 (4.7%) were found to have occult gallbladder carcinoma (GC) either during or after the procedure.
  • The prevalence of gallbladder carcinoma has recently been increasing.
  • Because flat infiltrating GC and GC with cholecystitis and numerous stones are difficult to diagnose preoperatively, we recommend taking frozen sections from patients who are of advanced age (older than 70 years), have a long history of stones, or have a thickened gallbladder wall.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic. Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Gallstones / surgery. Humans. Male. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17878700.001).
  • [ISSN] 1345-4676
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Nippon Medical School = Nippon Ika Daigaku zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Nippon Med Sch
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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62. Akatsu T, Kameyama K, Kawachi S, Tanabe M, Aiura K, Wakabayashi G, Ueda M, Shimazu M, Kitajima M: Gallbladder carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells. J Gastroenterol; 2006 Jan;41(1):83-7
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  • [Title] Gallbladder carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells.
  • Occurrence in the gallbladder is extremely rare, with only one previous case.
  • We report here on an additional case of gallbladder carcinoma with an infiltrate of OGCs.
  • A 72-year-old woman presented with postprandial abdominal pain and was found to have a mass in the body of the gallbladder with direct liver invasion.
  • This case adds to a small body of literature on gallbladder carcinoma with OGCs.
  • Further studies are required to clearly define the prognostic significance of these giant cells in gallbladder cancer and the differences between adenosquamous carcinoma with OGCs and other gallbladder carcinomas (such as adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma) with those cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Giant Cells / pathology. Osteoclasts / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Prognosis

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  • [ISSN] 0944-1174
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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63. Mishra PK, Jatawa SK, Raghuram GV, Pathak N, Jain A, Tiwari A, Varshney S, Maudar KK: Correlation of aberrant expression of p53, Rad50, and cyclin-E proteins with microsatellite instability in gallbladder adenocarcinomas. Genet Mol Res; 2009;8(4):1202-10
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  • [Title] Correlation of aberrant expression of p53, Rad50, and cyclin-E proteins with microsatellite instability in gallbladder adenocarcinomas.
  • Gallbladder carcinoma is an uncommon, but highly malignant tumor, with poor prognostic, and diagnostic manifestations in early stages.
  • The Indian Council of Medical Research reported increased incidence of gallbladder carcinoma in the surviving population of the Bhopal gas tragedy that involved exposure of more than 500,000 people to methyl isocyanate gas.
  • The severity of exposure, and increased multi-systemic morbidity in the survivors stimulated us to examine the molecular changes leading to gallbladder carcinoma.
  • Surgically resected samples (N = 40) of gallbladder carcinoma were studied for the p53, Rad50, and cyclin-E expression by immunohistofluorescence bioimaging.
  • Among the 40 samples, 23, 11, and 10 showed p53, Rad50, and cyclin-E expression, respectively, in moderately differentiated adenocarcinomas, demonstrating the prevalence and invasiveness of this disease in the methyl isocyanate-exposed population (P = 0.0009).
  • We conclude that there was altered expression of p53, Rad50, and cyclin-E in the malignant transformation of gallbladder carcinoma in this methyl isocyanate gas-exposed cohort.
  • Hence, these proteins may be useful as markers to identify premalignant lesions that are likely to progress into malignant adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Cyclin E / metabolism. DNA Repair Enzymes / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Gallbladder Neoplasms / metabolism. Microsatellite Repeats / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19866438.001).
  • [ISSN] 1676-5680
  • [Journal-full-title] Genetics and molecular research : GMR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genet. Mol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin E; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Rad50 protein, human; 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes
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64. Triolo O, Antico F, Mancuso A, Salimbeni V, Nicotina PA: Postmenopausal bleeding and vaginal nodules as the first presenting sign of adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2005;26(5):543-4
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  • [Title] Postmenopausal bleeding and vaginal nodules as the first presenting sign of adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder.
  • On biopsy, light microscopy suggested that the lesions might be metastatic foci from an extragenital cancer, with a prevalent tubular growth pattern.
  • Subsequently, high serum levels of such tumor marker were also found, and an extragenital cancer was suspected of pancreatic or biliary origin.
  • A mass in the gallbladder fossa was then detected by computed tomography and a primary gallbladder adenocarcinoma was confirmed on ultrasound-guided biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vaginal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Postmenopause. Uterine Hemorrhage / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16285575.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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65. Chakravarty KD, Yeh CN, Jan YY, Chen MF: Factors influencing long-term survival in patients with T3 gallbladder adenocarcinoma. Digestion; 2009;79(3):151-7
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  • [Title] Factors influencing long-term survival in patients with T3 gallbladder adenocarcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: This study aimed to identify the factors influencing the surgical outcome in patients with T3 gallbladder adenocarcinoma (GBA).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19329854.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9867
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestion
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Digestion
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-19-9 Antigen; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen
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66. Noda H, Chiba F, Toyama N, Konishi F: Mucin-producing carcinoma of the gallbladder associated with primary sclerosing cholangitis and ulcerative colitis. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg; 2009;16(1):83-5
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  • [Title] Mucin-producing carcinoma of the gallbladder associated with primary sclerosing cholangitis and ulcerative colitis.
  • Mucin-producing carcinoma of the gallbladder is very rare.
  • We report here a case of mucin-producing carcinoma of the gallbladder associated with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and ulcerative colitis (UC).
  • Enhanced computed tomography and ultrasonography showed an enlarged gallbladder associated with wall thickening and diffuse papillary protrusion.
  • Under the diagnosis of an early carcinoma of the gallbladder, we performed simple cholecystectomy.
  • The tumor showed a papillary growth pattern located diffusely in the gallbladder with a massive amount of mucin filling the gallbladder.
  • Histologically, it was diagnosed as a papillary adenocarcinoma localized in the mucosal layer.
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of mucin-producing carcinoma of the gallbladder associated with PSC and UC.
  • PSC and UC patients should be regarded as a high-risk group not only for cholangiocarcinoma but also carcinoma of the gallbladder.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / complications. Cholangitis, Sclerosing / complications. Colitis, Ulcerative / complications. Gallbladder Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 19096754.001).
  • [ISSN] 1436-0691
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hepato-biliary-pancreatic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cholagogues and Choleretics; 0 / Gastrointestinal Agents; 119059-81-3 / ursodeoxycholylcysteic acid; 3XC8GUZ6CB / Sulfasalazine; 724L30Y2QR / Ursodeoxycholic Acid; A3OGP4C37W / Cysteic Acid
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67. Mosnier JF, Kandel C, Cazals-Hatem D, Bou-Hanna C, Gournay J, Jarry A, Laboisse CL: N-cadherin serves as diagnostic biomarker in intrahepatic and perihilar cholangiocarcinomas. Mod Pathol; 2009 Feb;22(2):182-90
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  • As a definite immunoprofile of this tumor is missing, the histopathologic diagnosis of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma is difficult.
  • The aim of this study was to explore E- and N-cadherin expressions in intrahepatic bile duct tumors, and to determine their potential interest in differential diagnosis.
  • Tissue-microarrays including 20 esophageal, 86 gastric, 8 small bowel, 64 colonic, 18 pancreatic, 6 gallbladder, and 7 extrahepatic biliary tract adenocarcinomas, 22 hepatocellular carcinomas, and normal tissues were constructed.
  • Among noncholangiocarcinomas, only 1% gastric and 66% gallbladder adenocarcinomas and all the hepatocellular carcinomas expressed N-cadherin at the membrane of tumor cells.
  • Finally, for the diagnosis of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas, the specificity value of membranous expression of N-cadherin was 88%, whereas that of the combination cytokeratin 7/membranous N-cadherin was 98%.
  • In combination with cytokeratin 7 and Hep Par1, N-cadherin is a reliable tool for the histopathological diagnosis of primary hepatic tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. France. Humans. Immunoblotting. Immunohistochemistry. Keratin-7 / analysis. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Reproducibility of Results. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18622386.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDH1 protein, human; 0 / CDH2 protein, human; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / KRT7 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-7
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68. Albores-Saavedra J, Henson DE, Moran-Portela D, Lino-Silva S: Cribriform carcinoma of the gallbladder: a clinicopathologic study of 7 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Nov;32(11):1694-8
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  • [Title] Cribriform carcinoma of the gallbladder: a clinicopathologic study of 7 cases.
  • Carcinomas of the gallbladder are morphologically heterogeneous.
  • We report here the clinicopathologic features of 7 cribriform carcinomas of the gallbladder that resemble cribriform carcinomas of the breast.
  • These 7 patients were younger than those with conventional adenocarcinomas of the gallbladder (average age for males 71 y and average age for females 72 y).
  • None of the 4 cribriform carcinomas of the gallbladder tested showed immunoreactivity for estrogen and progesterone receptors.
  • Three patients with high nuclear grade cribriform carcinomas died as a result of the tumor which infiltrated the liver by direct extension; 3 patients with low nuclear grade cribriform carcinomas confined to the gallbladder wall survived 4 to 7 years after cholecystectomy and 1 patient was lost to follow-up.
  • In conclusion, this study provides support to previous observations that a small proportion of gallbladder carcinomas display an unusual but predominant cribriform pattern similar to that of some invasive breast carcinomas.
  • In contrast to mammary cribriform carcinomas, those arising in the gallbladder occur in individuals usually with gallstones, may coexist with skeletal osteosarcoma, lack estrogen and progesterone receptors, and behave aggressively like conventional adenocarcinomas of the gallbladder.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18769339.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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69. Ansari SM, Banu S, Awal MA, Siddique AB, Alam MM: Polypoid gall bladder lesions: is it necessary for immediate surgery? Bangladesh Med Res Counc Bull; 2007 Aug;33(2):44-7
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  • In 31 patients, who underwent surgery, the histological findings were cholesterol polyp/cholesterosis (n=14), cholesterosis with fibrous displasia of gall bladder (n=7), adenomyomatosis (n=3), hyperplastic cholecystosis (n=5) and adenocarcinoma (n=2).
  • Remaining 26 patients were under follow-up up to 18 months from first diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Gallbladder Diseases / surgery. Polyps / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Cholecystectomy. Cholesterol / metabolism. Gallbladder Neoplasms / metabolism. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18481437.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-9238
  • [Journal-full-title] Bangladesh Medical Research Council bulletin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bangladesh Med Res Counc Bull
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bangladesh
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol
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70. Zheng HF, Song QJ, Shen DH: [Adenocarcinoma of gallbladder with chondrosarcomatous component: report of a case]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2006 Dec;35(12):770
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  • [Title] [Adenocarcinoma of gallbladder with chondrosarcomatous component: report of a case].
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Chondrosarcoma / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cholecystectomy. Female. Gallbladder / chemistry. Gallbladder / pathology. Gallbladder / surgery. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratin-3 / metabolism. S100 Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17374273.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Keratin-3; 0 / S100 Proteins
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71. Sakellaridis T, Mathioulakis S, Antiochos C: Synchronous early primary adenocarcinoma of both rectum and gallbladder. Report of a case. Int Semin Surg Oncol; 2005 Sep 14;2:19
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  • [Title] Synchronous early primary adenocarcinoma of both rectum and gallbladder. Report of a case.
  • BACKGROUND: Synchronous early primary cancers are rare and in addition synchronous adenocarcinoma of both rectum and gallbladder is extremely rare.
  • CASE REPORT: We report an unusual case of synchronous early primary adenocarcinoma of rectum and gallbladder.
  • An endoscopy revealed adenocarcinoma of the lower rectum.
  • The histopathological diagnosis was well to middle differentiate adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder (T2, N0, M0; stage II) and middle differentiate adenocarcinoma of the rectum (T2, N0, M0; stage II).
  • CONCLUSION: For the cases of extracolonic primary cancer associated with colorectal primary carcinoma, Warren and Gates' diagnostic criteria are used.

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  • [Cites] Chir Ital. 2001 Jan-Feb;53(1):133-9 [11280822.001]
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  • (PMID = 16162293.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7800
  • [Journal-full-title] International seminars in surgical oncology : ISSO
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Semin Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1236954
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72. van den Bos IC, Hussain SM, Dwarkasing RS, Stoop H, Zondervan PE, Krestin GP, de Man RA: Hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder: a mimicker of hepatocellular carcinoma. Br J Radiol; 2007 Dec;80(960):e317-20
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  • [Title] Hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder: a mimicker of hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • We present a case of a large gallbladder tumour in a patient with no known liver disease and elevated alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), in whom a differential diagnosis from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a non-cirrhotic liver was particularly difficult given the combination of the size of the tumour, solitary nature, elevated AFP and striking resemblance with HCC at histology.
  • In presenting this patient, we would like to emphasise the role of MRI as a problem-solving tool for analysis of rare tumours of non-hepatocellular origin, including hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18065642.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-880X
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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73. Cereda S, Passoni P, Reni M, Viganò MG, Aldrighetti L, Nicoletti R, Villa E: The cisplatin, epirubicin, 5-fluorouracil, gemcitabine (PEFG) regimen in advanced biliary tract adenocarcinoma. Cancer; 2010 May 1;116(9):2208-14
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  • [Title] The cisplatin, epirubicin, 5-fluorouracil, gemcitabine (PEFG) regimen in advanced biliary tract adenocarcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Biliary tract adenocarcinoma (BTA) is an uncommon tumor with a poor prognosis and no standard, systemic chemotherapy.
  • The combined cisplatin, epirubicin, 5-fluorouracil, and gemcitabine (PEFG) regimen is an effective, upfront treatment for advanced pancreatic cancer.
  • METHODS: PEFG (cisplatin 40 mg/m(2) and epirubicin 40 mg/m(2) on Day 1; gemcitabine 600 mg/m(2) on Days 1 and 8; and 5-fluorouracil [FU] 200 mg/m(2) daily as a continuous infusion) was administered to chemotherapy-naive patients who had a cytologic or histologic diagnosis of locally advanced or metastatic BTA, aged <or=75 years, and a performance status (PS) >60 either until they had evidence progressive disease or for a maximum of 6 months.
  • Primary tumor sites were the intrahepatic bile duct in 10 patients (27%), the extrahepatic bile duct in 8 patients (22%), the gallbladder in 12 patients (32%), and the ampulla of Vater in 7 patients (19%).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 20187098.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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74. Ragazzi M, Carbonara C, Rosai J: Nonneoplastic signet-ring cells in the gallbladder and uterine cervix. A potential source of overdiagnosis. Hum Pathol; 2009 Mar;40(3):326-31
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  • [Title] Nonneoplastic signet-ring cells in the gallbladder and uterine cervix. A potential source of overdiagnosis.
  • We describe 3 cases of nonneoplastic signet-ring cell change in ulcerated mucosa, 2 of them in the gallbladder and 1 in an endocervical polyp.
  • In the gallbladder cases, there were focal collections of signet-ring cells both on the mucosal surface and within the lumen of tubules, whereas in the endocervical polyp, the signet-ring cell aggregates were entirely confined to the mucosal surface.
  • A review of the literature disclosed only other 2 previously reported cases of benign signet-ring cell changes in the gallbladder and none--to the best of our knowledge--in an endocervical polyp.
  • Awareness of this phenomenon is of importance to avoid a potential overdiagnosis of signet-ring cell adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / diagnosis. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Gallbladder Diseases / pathology. Polyps / pathology. Uterine Cervical Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Keratins / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Mucous Membrane / pathology. Ulcer / pathology. Young Adult


75. Hashimoto M, Okuda C, Sakurai C, Seki K, Matsuda M, Nagao G, Ueno M, Watanabe G: Adenoendocrine cell carcinoma of the gallbladder: differentiation of the endocrine component. J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2007 Jan;22(1):141-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adenoendocrine cell carcinoma of the gallbladder: differentiation of the endocrine component.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / diagnosis. Endocrine Glands / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Imaging. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17201900.001).
  • [ISSN] 0815-9319
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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76. Park JS, Jung WH, Kim JK, Hwang HK, Cho SI, Yoon DS, Chi HS, Kim BR: Estrogen receptor alpha, estrogen receptor beta, and progesterone receptor as possible prognostic factor in radically resected gallbladder carcinoma. J Surg Res; 2009 Mar;152(1):104-10
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  • [Title] Estrogen receptor alpha, estrogen receptor beta, and progesterone receptor as possible prognostic factor in radically resected gallbladder carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Gallbladder carcinoma is a relatively rare malignancy with a poor prognosis.
  • Gallbladder carcinoma occurs more frequently in women than men, yet expression of the estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone (PR) have not been studied.
  • We applied an immunohistochemical stain to examine the expression of ER(alpha), ER(beta), and PR in radically resected gallbladder carcinoma.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We immunohistochemically investigated 30 specimens of gallbladder adenocarcinoma tissues using ER(alpha), ER(beta), and PR antibodies.
  • RESULTS: Adenocarcinoma of gallbladder is negative for both ER(alpha) and PR.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Evaluation of ER(beta) expression in gallbladder carcinoma may be an important factor in identifying a poor prognostic group of gallbladder carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / metabolism. Estrogen Receptor alpha / metabolism. Estrogen Receptor beta / metabolism. Gallbladder Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Gallbladder / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Republic of Korea / epidemiology. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18394649.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-8673
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of surgical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Surg. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Estrogen Receptor beta; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone
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77. Ojima H, Hasegawa T, Matsuno Y, Sakamoto M: Extramedullary myeloid tumour (EMMT) of the gallbladder. J Clin Pathol; 2005 Feb;58(2):211-3
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  • [Title] Extramedullary myeloid tumour (EMMT) of the gallbladder.
  • This report describes a rare case of an extramedullary myeloid tumour (EMMT) of the gallbladder in a patient without leukaemia.
  • Abdominal computed tomography revealed a tumorous mass measuring 6.0 x 4.5 cm and involving the entire gallbladder.
  • A percutaneous needle biopsy was attempted, but because adenocarcinoma could not be completely ruled out, the use of undue force was considered dangerous.
  • Under a preoperative diagnosis of gallbladder carcinoma, a hepatopancreatoduodenectomy was performed.
  • In conclusion, a correct diagnosis of EMMT can be made using appropriate immunohistochemical staining.
  • [MeSH-major] Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Myeloid / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15677545.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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78. Albores-Saavedra J, Grider DJ, Wu J, Henson DE, Goodman ZD: Giant cell tumor of the extrahepatic biliary tree: a clinicopathologic study of 4 cases and comparison with anaplastic spindle and giant cell carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Apr;30(4):495-500
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  • We report four previously undescribed primary giant cell tumors of the extrahepatic biliary tree and morphologically compare them with 10 anaplastic spindle and giant cell carcinomas with osteoclast-like giant cells of the gallbladder.
  • Two giant cell tumors were located in the distal common bile duct; one in the cystic duct and one in the gallbladder.
  • The 3 patients with bile duct tumors were male, and the only patient with a gallbladder tumor was a female.
  • The patients with bile duct tumors presented with biliary obstruction, and the patient with a gallbladder tumor presented with symptoms of cholelithiasis and a gallbladder mass.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Cholestasis, Extrahepatic / etiology. Cholestasis, Extrahepatic / pathology. Cholestasis, Extrahepatic / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Osteoclasts / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2008 Feb;32(2):335-7; author response 337 [18223338.001]
  • (PMID = 16625096.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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79. Obana T, Fujita N, Noda Y, Kobayashi G, Ito K, Sugawara T, Horaguchi J, Takasawa O, Endo T, Nakahara K, Sawai T, Uzuki M, Watanabe M: Endoscopic biliary imaging and clinicopathological features of cystic duct cancer. J Gastroenterol; 2008;43(2):171-8
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  • [Title] Endoscopic biliary imaging and clinicopathological features of cystic duct cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Cystic duct cancer fulfilling Farrar's criteria is relatively rare, but tumors whose origin is estimated to be in the cystic duct exist.
  • The clinical features of such "broadly defined" cystic duct cancer have not been clarified.
  • As a control group, 55 cases of middle or lower bile duct cancer (group B) were used (in 20 of the 55 cases of group B, tumors extended to the cystic duct intraluminally (group B-C (+)). RESULTS:.
  • (b) bilateral bile duct narrowing (apple-core-like appearance): 27% versus 95% (P<0.001). (2) IDUS was unable to visualize the cysticocholedochal junction (negative "confluence sign") more often in group C (67%) than in group B-C (+) (13%) (P<0.01). (3) Histologically, tumors extended to the gallbladder and the bile duct in 36% and 91% of the cases in group C, respectively. (4) The median survival time of the two groups was 21 and 28 months, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cystic Duct. Endoscopy, Digestive System
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Aged. Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prognosis. Ultrasonography, Interventional

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  • (PMID = 18306991.001).
  • [ISSN] 0944-1174
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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80. Vang R, Gown AM, Barry TS, Wheeler DT, Ronnett BM: Immunohistochemistry for estrogen and progesterone receptors in the distinction of primary and metastatic mucinous tumors in the ovary: an analysis of 124 cases. Mod Pathol; 2006 Jan;19(1):97-105
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  • Immunohistochemical studies were performed on 124 mucinous tumors, including 52 primary ovarian tumors (30 atypical proliferative (borderline) mucinous tumors of gastrointestinal type, 11 atypical proliferative (borderline) mucinous tumors of seromucinous (endocervical-like) type, and 11 invasive mucinous carcinomas of usual (gastrointestinal) type) and 72 metastatic mucinous carcinomas in the ovary (primary sites: colorectum (24), pancreas (13), endocervix (eight), stomach (four), gallbladder/bile duct (four), appendix (four), and unknown (15)).
  • All atypical proliferative mucinous tumors of gastrointestinal type, primary ovarian mucinous carcinomas, and metastatic mucinous carcinomas were negative for ER and PR with the exception of three metastatic endocervical adenocarcinomas which exhibited only weak expression of ER without PR.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Receptors, Progesterone / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Appendiceal Neoplasms / metabolism. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / metabolism. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gallbladder Neoplasms / metabolism. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / metabolism. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology. Ovary / chemistry. Ovary / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / metabolism. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16294196.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone
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81. Yamamoto A, Ozeki Y, Ito Y, Horita R, Saji S, Sugiyama H, Matsunaga K: [A case of well differentiated mucinous carcinoma of the gallbladder]. Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi; 2010 Nov;107(11):1821-7
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  • [Title] [A case of well differentiated mucinous carcinoma of the gallbladder].
  • We report a case of well differentiated mucinous carcinoma of the gallbladder.
  • An 80-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of fever and CT showed a mass in the fundus of the gallbladder and choledocholithiasis.
  • Abdominal ultrasonography and CT showed a 4 cm mass in the fundus of the gallbladder.
  • Based on a diagnosis of adenomyomatosis or mucinous carcinoma of the gallbladder, a laparotomy revealed a white mass in the fundus of gallbladder.
  • Intra-operative pathological diagnosis of lymph node of cystic duct was mucinous carcinoma.
  • Pathological diagnosis confirmed well differentiated mucinous carcinoma of the gallbladder.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous. Gallbladder Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 21071900.001).
  • [ISSN] 0446-6586
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai zasshi = The Japanese journal of gastro-enterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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82. Zhong L, Li L, Yao QY: Preoperative evaluation of pancreaticobiliary tumor using MR multi-imaging techniques. World J Gastroenterol; 2005 Jun 28;11(24):3756-61
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  • METHODS: MR multi-imaging techniques, including MR cross-sectional imaging, MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and 3D dynamic contrast-enhanced MR angiography (3D DCE MRA), were performed to make prospective diagnosis and preoperative evaluation in 28 patients with suspected pancreaticobiliary tumors.
  • There were 17 cases of pancreatic adenocarcinoma, 8 cases of biliary system carcinoma and 3 cases of non-neoplastic lesions.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Preoperative Care. Prospective Studies. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 15968734.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4316030
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83. Tokunaga T, Arakawa H, Kuwashima Y: A case of lepidic pulmonary metastasis from adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder mimicking acute interstitial pneumonia. Clin Radiol; 2005 Nov;60(11):1213-5
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  • [Title] A case of lepidic pulmonary metastasis from adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder mimicking acute interstitial pneumonia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Diseases, Interstitial / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


84. Zielinski MD, Atwell TD, Davis PW, Kendrick ML, Que FG: Comparison of surgically resected polypoid lesions of the gallbladder to their pre-operative ultrasound characteristics. J Gastrointest Surg; 2009 Jan;13(1):19-25
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  • [Title] Comparison of surgically resected polypoid lesions of the gallbladder to their pre-operative ultrasound characteristics.
  • BACKGROUND: Polypoid lesions of the gallbladder (PLG) have been a common finding on ultrasound examinations of the abdomen and are more prevalent since our use of equipment incorporating pulse shaping increased bandwidth, and enhanced phase use for image reconstruction began in 1996.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of 130 patients who had a pre-operative ultrasound of the gallbladder and subsequently underwent cholecystectomy between August 1996 and July 2007 at the Mayo Clinic Rochester.
  • Of these, there were 23 pseudopolyps and six true polyps with neoplastic changes on final pathology (four dysplastic adenomas and two adenocarcinomas).
  • Three asymptomatic polyps < or = 10 mm (4%) in maximum diameter based on pre-operative ultrasound imaging (US) had neoplastic changes at pathology (two dysplastic adenomas and one adenocarcinoma).
  • CONCLUSION: Histopathologic analysis of polypoid lesions of the gallbladder continues to be the gold standard to identify malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Cholecystectomy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Polyps / diagnostic imaging. Preoperative Care / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 18972168.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4626
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastrointest. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
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85. Kim WS, Choi DW, You DD, Ho CY, Heo JS, Choi SH: Risk factors influencing recurrence, patterns of recurrence, and the efficacy of adjuvant therapy after radical resection for gallbladder carcinoma. J Gastrointest Surg; 2010 Apr;14(4):679-87
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  • [Title] Risk factors influencing recurrence, patterns of recurrence, and the efficacy of adjuvant therapy after radical resection for gallbladder carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUNDS: Gallbladder carcinoma (GBC) is an aggressive neoplasm, and resection is the only curative modality.
  • METHODS: The records of patients that underwent surgical resection with curative intent for gallbladder carcinoma from October 1994 and August 2007 were retrospectively reviewed.
  • RESULTS: One hundred sixty-six patients underwent surgical resection with curative intent for gallbladder adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20094817.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4626
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastrointest. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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86. Alberts SR, Al-Khatib H, Mahoney MR, Burgart L, Cera PJ, Flynn PJ, Finch TR, Levitt R, Windschitl HE, Knost JA, Tschetter LK: Gemcitabine, 5-fluorouracil, and leucovorin in advanced biliary tract and gallbladder carcinoma: a North Central Cancer Treatment Group phase II trial. Cancer; 2005 Jan 1;103(1):111-8
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  • [Title] Gemcitabine, 5-fluorouracil, and leucovorin in advanced biliary tract and gallbladder carcinoma: a North Central Cancer Treatment Group phase II trial.
  • The authors evaluated 6-month survival, response, and toxicity associated with a combination of gemcitabine, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and leucovorin (LV) in patients with unresectable or metastatic biliary tract or gallbladder adenocarcinoma (ACA).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This combination regimen was manageable in patients with advanced biliary tract and gallbladder ACA.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / drug therapy. Cholangiocarcinoma / drug therapy. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15558814.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-15083; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-25224; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-35101; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-35103; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-35195; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-35415; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-35448; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-37404; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-37417; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-52352; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-60276; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-63826; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-63848; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-63849
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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87. Kamisawa T, Egawa N, Tsuruta K, Okamoto A: Gallbladder carcinoma associated with pancreaticobiliary maljunction presenting as severe acute pancreatitis. J Gastroenterol; 2005 Jun;40(6):659-60
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  • [Title] Gallbladder carcinoma associated with pancreaticobiliary maljunction presenting as severe acute pancreatitis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / complications. Bile Ducts, Extrahepatic / abnormalities. Gallbladder Neoplasms / complications. Pancreatic Ducts / abnormalities. Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Abnormalities, Multiple. Aged. Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde. Cholecystectomy. Diagnosis, Differential. Endosonography. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Laparotomy

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  • [Cites] Pancreatology. 2002;2(2):122-8 [12123092.001]
  • [Cites] Hepatogastroenterology. 2003 Sep-Oct;50(53):1665-8 [14571812.001]
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  • (PMID = 16007404.001).
  • [ISSN] 0944-1174
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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88. Kim H, Song JY, Cho JY, Yoon YS, Han HS, Lee HS, Ryu HS, Choe G: Strong cytoplasmic expression of COX2 at the invasive fronts of gallbladder cancer is associated with a poor prognosis. J Clin Pathol; 2010 Dec;63(12):1048-53
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  • [Title] Strong cytoplasmic expression of COX2 at the invasive fronts of gallbladder cancer is associated with a poor prognosis.
  • AIM: The significance of cell cycle proteins, p21 and p53, and cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX2) is still controversial in gallbladder adenocarcinoma.
  • Conflicting results exist with regard to the prognostic significance of p21 and p53 expression, and the strong association of gallbladder cancer with chronic inflammation makes it only natural that COX2 negativity is rarely encountered, even in non-neoplastic biliary epithelia.
  • METHODS: The authors explored whether the p21 and p53-labelling indices (LI) and strong cytoplasmic COX2 expression differ in the central parts (TC) and invasive fronts (IF) of gallbladder cancer.
  • Paraffin-embedded whole tissue sections of 67 gallbladder cancers were immunohistochemically analysed for p21, p53 and COX2-LI at the IF and TC, and results were correlated with the clinicopathological features.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The IF of gallbladder cancer is characterised by significantly increased expression of p21, p53 and strong COX2 expression, and strong cytoplasmic COX2 expression at IF is associated with a poorer prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism. Gallbladder Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20924037.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDKN1A protein, human; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS2 protein, human
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89. Okada K, Kijima H, Imaizumi T, Hirabayashi K, Matsuyama M, Yazawa N, Oida Y, Dowaki S, Tobita K, Ohtani Y, Tanaka M, Inokuchi S, Makuuchi H: Wall-invasion pattern correlates with survival of patients with gallbladder adenocarcinoma. Anticancer Res; 2009 Feb;29(2):685-91
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  • [Title] Wall-invasion pattern correlates with survival of patients with gallbladder adenocarcinoma.
  • Gallbladder carcinomas (GBC) frequently show vascular invasion and metastasis when the carcinoma cells invade the perimuscular connective tissue (pT2 according to the TNM classification) through the muscular layer.
  • Sixty-six surgically resected gallbladder adenocarcinomas invading the perimuscular connective tissue (pT2) and beyond the gallbladder wall, including the visceral serosa, (pT3/pT4) were examined.
  • In conclusion, the DG invasion pattern is an indicator of high malignant potential and indirectly worsens the prognosis of patients with gallbladder adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19331223.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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90. Suh B: Resolution of persistent Pediococcus bacteremia with daptomycin treatment: case report and review of the literature. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis; 2010 Jan;66(1):111-5
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  • A case of bacteremia caused by Pediococcus acidilactici occurring in a patient with metastatic adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder is described.

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  • [ErratumIn] Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis.2010 Apr;66(4):460
  • (PMID = 19081696.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0070
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic microbiology and infectious disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; NWQ5N31VKK / Daptomycin
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91. Al-Mashat F, Sibiany AM: Sister Mary Joseph's nodule of the umbilicus: is it always of gastric origin? A review of eight cases at different sites of origin. Indian J Cancer; 2010 Jan-Mar;47(1):65-9
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  • The primary tumors were gastric adenocarcinoma (two patients), ovarian adenocarcinoma (two patients), pancreatic carcinoma (one patient), colonic adenocarcinoma (one patient), gallbladder adenocarcinoma (one patient), and cholangiocarcinoma (one patient).
  • We believe that if the primary cancer is discovered at an early stage, the prognosis may improve.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20071793.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4774
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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92. Tanaka S, Kubota D, Lee SH, Oba K, Yamamoto T, Ikebe T, Kubo S, Matsuyama M: Latent gallbladder carcinoma in a young adult patient with acute cholecystitis: report of a case. Surg Today; 2007;37(8):713-5
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  • [Title] Latent gallbladder carcinoma in a young adult patient with acute cholecystitis: report of a case.
  • Acute cholecystitis associated with gallbladder carcinoma is very rare in young patients (younger than 30 years of age).
  • Moreover, a definitive preoperative diagnosis is difficult.
  • Computed tomography and ultrasonography demonstrated an enlarged gallbladder with a diffuse thick wall and a 2-cm gallstone obstructing the cystic duct.
  • The preoperative diagnosis of gallstone-induced acute cholecystitis was made and an open cholecystectomy was thus performed 2 days after admission.
  • The macroscopic findings showed a necrotic enlarged gallbladder with a thick wall and a gallstone, but no intraluminal nodular lesion.
  • Histologic examinations revealed well-differentiated focal adenocarcinoma in the gallbladder mucosa, but no venous, lymphatic, or perineural invasion.
  • [MeSH-major] Cholecystitis, Acute / complications. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery. Gallstones / complications

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  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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93. Kanthan R, Sharanowski K, Senger JL, Fesser J, Chibbar R, Kanthan SC: Uncommon mucosal metastases to the stomach. World J Surg Oncol; 2009;7:62
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  • BACKGROUND: Metastases to the stomach from an extra-gastric neoplasm are an unusual event, identified in less than 2% of cancer patients at autopsy.
  • The stomach may be involved by hematogenous spread from a distant primary (most commonly breast, melanoma or lung), or by contiguous spread from an adjacent malignancy, such as the pancreas, esophagus and gallbladder.
  • METHODS/RESULTS: The first is a 19-year-old male who received a diagnosis of testicular choriocarcinoma in September 2004.
  • The second is a 75-year-old male, generally well, who was diagnosed with adenocarcinoma of the lung in September 2005.
  • Poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of the lung was demonstrated in a subsequent biopsy of "gastric polyps".
  • Biopsies of the colonic and gastric mucosa demonstrated moderately differentiated invasive colonic adenocarcinoma with metastatic deposits in the stomach.
  • CONCLUSION: While the accurate recognition of these lesions at endoscopy is fraught with difficulty, pathological awareness of such uncommon metastases in the gastric mucosa is essential for accurate diagnosis and optimal patient management.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Choriocarcinoma / secondary. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Mucous Membrane / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19650900.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2734526
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94. Kawanishi M, Kuwada Y, Mitsuoka Y, Sasao S, Mouri T, Takesaki E, Takahashi T, Toyota K, Nakatani T: A case of double gallbladder with adenocarcinoma arising from the left hepatic duct: a case report and review of the literature. Gastroenterol Res Pract; 2010;2010
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  • [Title] A case of double gallbladder with adenocarcinoma arising from the left hepatic duct: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Double gallbladder is a rare congenital biliary anomaly, but an accessory gallbladder arising from the left hepatic duct is a more remarkably rare congenital anomaly.
  • We report a case of double gallbladder with adenocarcinoma and gallstones, which was preoperatively diagnosed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and then confirmed by open laparotomy.

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  • (PMID = 20811488.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-630X
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterology research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol Res Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2926673
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95. Hijioka S, Mekky MA, Bhatia V, Sawaki A, Mizuno N, Hara K, Hosoda W, Shimizu Y, Tamada K, Niwa Y, Yamao K: Can EUS-guided FNA distinguish between gallbladder cancer and xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis? Gastrointest Endosc; 2010 Sep;72(3):622-7
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  • [Title] Can EUS-guided FNA distinguish between gallbladder cancer and xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis?
  • BACKGROUND: EUS-guided FNA (EUS-FNA) is a useful modality for sampling various targets, but its applicability to gallbladder (GB) mass lesions is limited.
  • The final diagnosis was based on surgical histopathological results or follow-up outcome.
  • Adenocarcinoma was confirmed by EUS-FNA in 8 of the 9 patients with suspected unresectable GB carcinoma, and the FNA was inconclusive in one.
  • The accuracy of EUS-FNA for detecting malignancy and for the final diagnosis was 93.3% (95% CI, 62.4%-99.9%) and 80% (95% CI, 54%-93.7%), respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Endosonography. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Interventional
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cholecystitis / pathology. Cholecystitis / ultrasonography. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gallbladder / pathology. Gallbladder / ultrasonography. Granuloma / pathology. Granuloma / ultrasonography. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Xanthomatosis / pathology. Xanthomatosis / ultrasonography

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20630515.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6779
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastrointestinal endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastrointest. Endosc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis
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96. El-Serag H, Hill C, Jones R: Systematic review: the epidemiology of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in primary care, using the UK General Practice Research Database. Aliment Pharmacol Ther; 2009 Mar 1;29(5):470-80
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  • BACKGROUND: Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common diagnosis in primary care; however, there has been no comprehensive review of the epidemiology of GERD in this setting.
  • A new diagnosis of GERD was associated with being overweight, obese or an ex-smoker.
  • Prior diagnoses of ischaemic heart disease, peptic ulcer disease, nonspecific chest pain, nonspecific abdominal pain, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma were associated with a subsequent new GERD diagnosis.
  • A first diagnosis of GERD was associated with an increased risk of a subsequent diagnosis of oesophageal adenocarcinoma, oesophageal stricture, chronic cough, sinusitis, chest pain, angina, gallbladder disease, irritable bowel syndrome or sleep problems.
  • Mortality may be higher in patients with a GERD diagnosis than in those without in the first year after diagnosis, but not long term.

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  • (PMID = 19035977.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2036
  • [Journal-full-title] Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aliment. Pharmacol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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97. Sato S, Ishii M, Fujihira T, Ito E, Ohtani Y: Gallbladder adenocarcinoma with human chorionic gonadotropin: a case report and review of literature. Diagn Pathol; 2010;5:46
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  • [Title] Gallbladder adenocarcinoma with human chorionic gonadotropin: a case report and review of literature.
  • BACKGROUND: The case of adenocarcinoma with human chorionic gonadtropin (HCG), primary in the male gallbladder, is extremely rare.
  • METHODS: We herein describe a case of primary gallbladder adenocarcinoma associated by ectopic HCG positive tumor cells in a 79-year-old male.
  • RESULTS: Pathological examination showed a mixture of moderately and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with ectopic HCG and placental alkaline phosphatase (PlAP) in tumor cells, though the increase of serum or urinary HCG secretion was not confirmed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A case of gallbladder cancer with ectopic HCG production is quite rare in the literature, though many similar cases in other site, especially in GI tract, are reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / chemistry. Chorionic Gonadotropin / analysis. Gallbladder Neoplasms / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 20594358.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0 / GPI-Linked Proteins; 0 / Isoenzymes; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase; EC 3.1.3.1 / alkaline phosphatase, placental
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2910002
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98. Bode MK, Perälä J, Mäkelä JT, Leinonen S: Intra-arterial chemotherapy with mitomycin C in gallbladder cancer: a follow-up study. J Surg Oncol; 2005 Aug 1;91(2):102-6
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  • [Title] Intra-arterial chemotherapy with mitomycin C in gallbladder cancer: a follow-up study.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There is only limited and somewhat controversial information available on hepatic artery infusion of cytotoxic agents in gallbladder cancer.
  • We report the results of 5-year follow-up of all gallbladder cancer patients treated with surgery and intra-arterial mitomycin C or mitomycin C alone in our hospital during 15 years.
  • METHODS: Thirty-five patients with gallbladder cancer were treated with superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy (SIAC) with mitomycin C during 1981-1996.
  • Survival was measured from diagnosis, and all patients were followed up until death or the end of January 2002.
  • Survival was significantly better for tumors limited to the gallbladder wall, as expected.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The median survival of gallbladder cancer patients treated with surgery and SIAC seems to be significantly better compared to the previously reported outcome of surgical treatment alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Mitomycin / administration & dosage

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16028283.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 50SG953SK6 / Mitomycin
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99. Reid KM, Ramos-De la Medina A, Donohue JH: Diagnosis and surgical management of gallbladder cancer: a review. J Gastrointest Surg; 2007 May;11(5):671-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnosis and surgical management of gallbladder cancer: a review.
  • Gallbladder cancer is one of the most lethal carcinomas and continues to pose many challenges for surgeons.
  • Identifiable risk factors for carcinoma of the gallbladder include cholelithiasis, an anomalous pancreaticobiliary junction, and focal mucosal microcalcifications.
  • Adenocarcinoma is the primary histologic type in most patients and the tumor is frequently associated with Kras and p53 mutations.
  • Current trials are investigating the role of capecitabine, oxaliplatin, and bevacizumab in the management of gallbladder carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / surgery. Cholecystectomy. Diagnostic Imaging. Hepatectomy. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Pancreaticoduodenectomy. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 17468929.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-255X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastrointest. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 79
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100. Lohsiriwat V, Vongjirad A, Lohsiriwat D: Value of routine histopathologic examination of three common surgical specimens: appendix, gallbladder, and hemorrhoid. World J Surg; 2009 Oct;33(10):2189-93
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Value of routine histopathologic examination of three common surgical specimens: appendix, gallbladder, and hemorrhoid.
  • BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to assess the need for a routine histopathologic examination of three common surgical specimens (appendix, gallbladder, hemorrhoid) and its impact on the further management of the patients.
  • The reports were excluded if patients had a clinical diagnosis or suspicion of malignancy.
  • RESULTS: Of 4545 appendectomy specimens, 44 (0.97%) revealed incidental unexpected pathological diagnoses, including one adenocarcinoma and one primary appendiceal lymphoma.
  • Unexpected pathologic gallbladder findings were found in 88 (2%) of 4317 cholecystectomy specimens.
  • Gallbladder cancer (GBC) was detected in 24 specimens (0.56%).
  • A clinical diagnosis of empyema and patient's age over 60 years were two significant risk factors for an unexpected GBC [odds ratio (OR) 11.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.2-29.2 and OR 6.2, 95% CI 2.1-18.2, respectively].
  • About one-fourth of patients with unexpected gallbladder findings required further management.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The routine histopathology examination of the appendix and gallbladder, particularly in cases of empyema and patient's age over 60 years, is of value for identifying unsuspected conditions requiring further postoperative management.
  • [MeSH-major] Appendix / pathology. Diagnostic Tests, Routine. Gallbladder / pathology. Hemorrhoids / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19669232.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2323
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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