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1. Tamura H, Ohtsuka M, Washiro M, Kimura F, Shimizu H, Yoshidome H, Kato A, Seki N, Miyazaki M: Reg IV expression and clinicopathologic features of gallbladder carcinoma. Hum Pathol; 2009 Dec;40(12):1686-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Reg IV expression and clinicopathologic features of gallbladder carcinoma.
  • In this study, we examined Reg IV expression in the gallbladder and gallbladder carcinoma, and measured Reg IV levels in sera from patients with gallbladder carcinoma.
  • Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that high Reg IV levels were identified in 17 of 31 gallbladder carcinomas, whereas there was no apparent amplification in normal gallbladders.
  • Immunohistochemically, although only a small part of the epithelium with intestinal metaplasia in 2 of 4 cases with adenomyomatosis showed Reg IV expression, Reg IV was negative in all cases with normal gallbladder (n = 15) and cholelithiasis (n = 13).
  • In contrast, 34 (56%) of 61 gallbladder carcinomas were positive.
  • Expression was more frequently observed in well to moderately differentiated than in poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas and significantly correlated with expression of caudal-related homeobox transcription factor (a candidate for involvement in the induction of intestinal metaplasia).
  • Multivariate analysis revealed negative Reg IV expression, as well as hepatic parenchymal invasion, to be independently associated with a poor prognosis in patients with advanced gallbladder carcinoma.
  • Before surgical resection, 4 (33%) of 12 patients with gallbladder carcinoma had high serum Reg IV levels, whereas Reg IV was never elevated in 12 patients with benign diseases.
  • These results suggest that Reg IV is involved in gallbladder carcinoma carcinogenesis through intestinal metaplasia and is associated with relatively favorable prognosis in patients after surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Gallbladder Neoplasms / metabolism. Lectins, C-Type / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19716164.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDX2 protein, human; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Lectins, C-Type; 0 / REG4 protein, human
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2. Repiso A, Gómez Rodríguez R, González de Frutos C, de Artaza T, Sánchez Ruano JJ, Pérez Grueso MJ, Martínez Potenciano JL: [Angioma-like liver lesions in patients with chronic liver disease]. Rev Esp Enferm Dig; 2007 May;99(5):259-63
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Lesiones hepáticas sugestivas de angioma en pacientes con hepatopatía crónica.
  • During an average follow-up period of 35 months (6-168 months) we verified that, in two patients, these lesions, initially interpreted as angiomas were in fact malignancies (one hepatocellular carcinoma and one metastatic adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder).


3. Inagaki M, Goto J, Suzuki S, Ishizaki A, Tanno S, Kohgo Y, Tokusashi Y, Miyokawa N, Kasai S: Gallbladder carcinoma associated with occult pancreatobiliary reflux in the absence of pancreaticobiliary maljunction. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg; 2007;14(5):529-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Gallbladder carcinoma associated with occult pancreatobiliary reflux in the absence of pancreaticobiliary maljunction.
  • We herein report a case of gallbladder carcinoma associated with occult pancreatobiliary reflux (PR) in the absence of pancreatobiliary maljunction.
  • A 67-year-old woman was referred to our hospital for the evaluation and treatment of a gallbladder tumor.
  • Ultrasonography and computed tomography showed a nodular lesion in the fundus of the gallbladder, indicating the possibility of a gallbladder carcinoma.
  • An open cholecystectomy and partial resection of the liver bed of the gallbladder with regional lymphadenectomy was performed.
  • Biliary amylase and lipase levels sampled in the gallbladder were 2604 IU/l and 775 IU/l, respectively.
  • The histopathological findings of the resected specimen showed a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder with invasion to the muscle layer and no metastasis of the resected lymph nodes.
  • A high index of nuclear staining for MIB-I in the cancer cells (about 10%) was exhibited, and a few cells in the normal epithelium also stained positive.
  • [MeSH-major] Bile Reflux / complications. Carcinoma / complications. Gallbladder Neoplasms / complications. Pancreas / abnormalities. Pancreatic Diseases / complications

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  • (PMID = 17909727.001).
  • [ISSN] 0944-1166
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hepato-biliary-pancreatic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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4. von Delius S, Lersch C, Schulte-Frohlinde E, Mayr M, Schmid RM, Eckel F: Phase II trial of weekly 24-hour infusion of gemcitabine in patients with advanced gallbladder and biliary tract carcinoma. BMC Cancer; 2005;5:61
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  • [Title] Phase II trial of weekly 24-hour infusion of gemcitabine in patients with advanced gallbladder and biliary tract carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Patients with advanced gallbladder and biliary tract carcinoma face a dismal prognosis, as no effective palliative chemotherapy exists.
  • We evaluated the activity of a prolonged infusion of gemcitabine in advanced gallbladder and biliary tract carcinomas.
  • All patients were required to have histologically confirmed diagnosis and measurable disease.
  • However, the objective response rate of this regimen in gallbladder and biliary tract carcinomas was limited.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease Progression. Disease-Free Survival. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Models, Statistical. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15949047.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1180427
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5. Kibria R, Akram S, Barde CJ: Biliary-bronchial fistula following radiation therapy for gall bladder cancer successfully treated by endoscopic therapy. J Gastrointest Cancer; 2009;40(1-2):66-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Biliary-bronchial fistula following radiation therapy for gall bladder cancer successfully treated by endoscopic therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Biliary Fistula / surgery. Bronchial Fistula / surgery. Endoscopy, Digestive System / methods. Gallbladder Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy / adverse effects


6. Niinobu T, Nakagawa S, Itani Y, Nishikawa Y, Amano M, Higaki N, Hayashida H, Sakon M: [Rectal stenosis due to Schnitzler metastasis following surgery for gastric cancer--a case successfully treated with TS-1 and CDDP combination chemotherapy]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2005 Oct;32(11):1761-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Rectal stenosis due to Schnitzler metastasis following surgery for gastric cancer--a case successfully treated with TS-1 and CDDP combination chemotherapy].
  • The patient, a 40-year-old woman, underwent total gastrectomy and excision of the pancreatic tail, spleen and gallbladder for gastric cancer in September 2000.
  • A biopsy revealed the lesion to be Group V poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Rectal Diseases / drug therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Rectal Neoplasms / secondary. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16315933.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Pyridines; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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7. Akatsu T, Kameyama K, Kawachi S, Tanabe M, Aiura K, Wakabayashi G, Ueda M, Shimazu M, Kitajima M: Gallbladder carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells. J Gastroenterol; 2006 Jan;41(1):83-7
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  • [Title] Gallbladder carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells.
  • Occurrence in the gallbladder is extremely rare, with only one previous case.
  • We report here on an additional case of gallbladder carcinoma with an infiltrate of OGCs.
  • A 72-year-old woman presented with postprandial abdominal pain and was found to have a mass in the body of the gallbladder with direct liver invasion.
  • This case adds to a small body of literature on gallbladder carcinoma with OGCs.
  • Further studies are required to clearly define the prognostic significance of these giant cells in gallbladder cancer and the differences between adenosquamous carcinoma with OGCs and other gallbladder carcinomas (such as adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma) with those cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Giant Cells / pathology. Osteoclasts / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16501862.001).
  • [ISSN] 0944-1174
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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8. Hashimoto M, Okuda C, Sakurai C, Seki K, Matsuda M, Nagao G, Ueno M, Watanabe G: Adenoendocrine cell carcinoma of the gallbladder: differentiation of the endocrine component. J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2007 Jan;22(1):141-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adenoendocrine cell carcinoma of the gallbladder: differentiation of the endocrine component.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / diagnosis. Endocrine Glands / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Imaging. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17201900.001).
  • [ISSN] 0815-9319
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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9. Olivas Mendoza G, Mesina Sandoval J, Mata Orozco VM, Hernández M: [Complicated pregnancy with lithiasis and resectable gallbladder cancer. A case report and literature review]. Ginecol Obstet Mex; 2005 Dec;73(12):661-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Complicated pregnancy with lithiasis and resectable gallbladder cancer. A case report and literature review].
  • [Transliterated title] Embarazo con litiasis y cáncer vesicular resecable. Comunicación de un caso clínico y revisión bibliográfica.
  • Pregnancy complicated with gallbladder disease stone has an incidence of 2-14%, and more than 30% of patients do not respond to medical treatment; therefore, in order to reduce the morbidity and mortality in fetus and mother, surgical management would be required.
  • The current use of ultrasound of high resolution has facilitated the diagnosis and also, in the present clinical case, this imaging modality allowed us to suspect the unusual diagnosis reported, that corresponds to a female of 34 years old with 33 weeks of pregnancy, complicated with symptomatic gallbladder disease stone, whose pain was intractable at the expectant management.
  • The clinical diagnosis was corroborated by ultrasound and the report was: lithiasis, biliary sludge and an intragallbladder image of bilobular polypoid.
  • The patient was submitted to cholecystectomy by laparotomy, whose histopathologic findings were: cholelithiasis and in situ gallbladder adenocarcinoma with an exophytic growing variety.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma. Adenomatous Polyps. Carcinoma in Situ. Cholelithiasis. Gallbladder Neoplasms. Pregnancy Complications. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic


10. Coburn NG, Cleary SP, Tan JC, Law CH: Surgery for gallbladder cancer: a population-based analysis. J Am Coll Surg; 2008 Sep;207(3):371-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgery for gallbladder cancer: a population-based analysis.
  • BACKGROUND: Gallbladder cancer is an aggressive neoplasm, and resection is the only curative modality.
  • STUDY DESIGN: From 1988 to 2003, patients aged 18 to 85 years, resected of T1-3 M0 gallbladder cancer, were identified from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry.
  • RESULTS: Of the 2,835 resected patients with T1-T3 M0 cancer, only 8.6% underwent an en bloc resection, and 5.3% had a lymphadenectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Cholecystectomy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery. Lymph Node Excision

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  • (PMID = 18722943.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1190
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American College of Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Coll. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Turrini R, Lanzani G, Salmi A: [Gallbladder adenoma with focal adenocarcinoma: a case report]. Recenti Prog Med; 2007 Oct;98(10):506-8
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  • [Title] [Gallbladder adenoma with focal adenocarcinoma: a case report].
  • [Transliterated title] Adenoma con focale adenocarcinoma della colecisti: descrizione di un caso.
  • Gallbladder polyps represent a frequent and asymptomatic finding on abdominal sonography.
  • We describe the ultrasound features of an asymptomatic 13-mm gallbladder polyp in a 29-year-old male.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report of a gallbladder polyp already presenting severe dysplasia in a young Caucasian male without risk factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic. Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Polyps / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cholecystitis / complications. Cholecystitis / diagnosis. Cholecystitis / surgery. Chronic Disease. Humans. Male. Video-Assisted Surgery

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  • (PMID = 17970176.001).
  • [ISSN] 0034-1193
  • [Journal-full-title] Recenti progressi in medicina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Recenti Prog Med
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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12. Jain V, Gupta K, Kudva R, Rodrigues GS: A case of ovarian metastasis of gall bladder carcinoma simulating primary ovarian neoplasm: diagnostic pitfalls and review of literature. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 Jan-Feb;16 Suppl 1:319-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The best-known tumor of this type is signet ring cell adenocarcinoma (Krukenberg tumor) of gastric origin and large bowel.
  • While clinical and imaging results suggested a primary ovarian carcinoma with incidental cholelithiasis and choledocholithiasis, the final diagnosis was obtained on the basis of histopathologic findings of resected specimen.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16515613.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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13. Cho JY, Paik YH, Chang YS, Lee SJ, Lee DK, Song SY, Chung JB, Park MS, Yu JS, Yoon DS: Capecitabine combined with gemcitabine (CapGem) as first-line treatment in patients with advanced/metastatic biliary tract carcinoma. Cancer; 2005 Dec 15;104(12):2753-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Biliary tract carcinoma is an aggressive cancer, with median survival rarely exceeding 6 months.
  • METHODS: Patients with unresectable or metastatic intrahepatic or extrahepatic biliary duct carcinoma and gallbladder carcinoma were enrolled.
  • Eligible patients had histologically or cytologically confirmed, measurable adenocarcinoma and had not received prior therapy with capecitabine or gemcitabine.
  • Primary tumor sites were: intrahepatic (n = 14) and extrahepatic biliary duct (n = 16); gallbladder (n = 7); and ampulla (n = 7).

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 16294346.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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14. Hjartåker A, Langseth H, Weiderpass E: Obesity and diabetes epidemics: cancer repercussions. Adv Exp Med Biol; 2008;630:72-93
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Obesity and diabetes epidemics: cancer repercussions.
  • There is convincing evidence of a positive association between overweight/obesity and risk for adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus and the gastric cardia, colorectal cancer, postmenopausal breast cancer, endometrial cancer and kidney cancer (renal-cell).
  • Premenopausal breast cancer seems to be inversely related to obesity.
  • For all other cancer sites the evidence of an association between overweight/obesity and cancer is inadequate, although there are studies suggesting an increased risk of cancers of the liver, gallbladder, pancreas, thyroid gland and in lymphoid and haematopoietic tissue.
  • Far less is known about the association between diabetes mellitus type I (also called insulin dependent diabetes mellitus or juvenile diabetes), type II diabetes (called non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus or adult onset diabetes mellitus) and cancer risk.
  • The most common type of diabetes mellitus, type II, seems to be associated with liver and pancreas cancer and probably with colorectal cancer.
  • Some studies suggest an association with endometrial and postmenopausal breast cancer.
  • Studies reporting on the association between type I diabetes mellitus, which is relatively rare in most populations and cancer risk are scanty, but suggest a possible association with endometrial cancer.
  • Avoiding overweight and obesity, as well as preventing type II diabetes mellitus, is an important purpose to prevent cancer and other diseases.
  • Substantial public investments in preventing overweight, obesity and type II diabetes mellitus are both appropriate and necessary in order to have a major impact on their adverse health effects including cancer.

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  • (PMID = 18637486.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-2598
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in experimental medicine and biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 107
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15. Murguia E, Quiroga D, Canteros G, Sanmartino C, Barreiro M, Herrera J: Gallbladder metastases from ductal papillary carcinoma of the breast. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg; 2006;13(6):591-3
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  • [Title] Gallbladder metastases from ductal papillary carcinoma of the breast.
  • Breast cancer occurs primarily in women aged 25 years or older.
  • The gallbladder was hydropic; the wall was thickened, with a focal broad-based lesion on the mesenteric face of the body.
  • Histopathological evaluation of the focal broad-based lesion of the gallbladder revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma infiltration, without mucosal involvement.
  • The final pathological diagnosis was breast ductal papillary carcinoma metastases to the gallbladder.
  • A literature review revealed only a few more cases of metastasic breast carcinoma to the gallbladder.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17139439.001).
  • [ISSN] 0944-1166
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hepato-biliary-pancreatic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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16. Tomita H, Osada S, Matsuo M, Shimokawa K: Pancreatic cancer presenting with hematemesis from directly invading the duodenum: report of an unusual manifestation and review. Am Surg; 2006 Apr;72(4):363-6
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  • [Title] Pancreatic cancer presenting with hematemesis from directly invading the duodenum: report of an unusual manifestation and review.
  • Pancreatic cancer is a rare cause of gastrointestinal bleeding, and it is extremely rare for hematemesis to be the initial manifestation of invasive pancreatic cancer.
  • We report the case of a 67-year-old man with hematemesis who was found to have invasive pancreatic cancer with a bleeding duodenal ulcer.
  • Microscopic examination revealed that an adenocarcinoma originating from the pancreatic head extended to the muscularis propria of the duodenum.
  • The diagnosis, pathological findings, preoperative events, and postoperative outcome in this unusual case are reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Duodenum / pathology. Hematemesis / etiology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cholecystectomy. Gallbladder / pathology. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Pancreaticoduodenectomy

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  • (PMID = 16676866.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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17. Seo E, Abei M, Wakayama M, Fukuda K, Ugai H, Murata T, Todoroki T, Matsuzaki Y, Tanaka N, Hamada H, Yokoyama KK: Effective gene therapy of biliary tract cancers by a conditionally replicative adenovirus expressing uracil phosphoribosyltransferase: significance of timing of 5-fluorouracil administration. Cancer Res; 2005 Jan 15;65(2):546-52
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  • AxE1CAUP replicated and induced an increased UPRT expression in biliary cancer cells more efficiently than AxCAUP, a nonreplicative adenovirus carrying the UPRT gene.
  • In nude mice with s.c. biliary cancer xenografts, i.t.
  • Furthermore, in mice with peritoneally disseminated biliary cancer, i.p.
  • The present study shows that the CRAd expressing UPRT was a more potent sensitizer of biliary cancer to 5-FU, than was a nonreplicative UPRT-encoding vector or a CRAd without UPRT gene, even at a lower dose of the vector, and that timing of 5-FU administration was a key factor to maximize the efficacy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Gallbladder Neoplasms / therapy. Genetic Therapy / methods. Pentosyltransferases / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15695398.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.4.2.- / Pentosyltransferases; EC 2.4.2.9 / uracil phosphoribosyltransferase; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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18. Darmas B, Mahmud S, Abbas A, Baker AL: Is there any justification for the routine histological examination of straightforward cholecystectomy specimens? Ann R Coll Surg Engl; 2007 Apr;89(3):238-41
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  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Cholecystectomy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Gallstones / surgery. Lymphoma, B-Cell / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17394706.001).
  • [ISSN] 1478-7083
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann R Coll Surg Engl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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19. Ansari SM, Banu S, Awal MA, Siddique AB, Alam MM: Polypoid gall bladder lesions: is it necessary for immediate surgery? Bangladesh Med Res Counc Bull; 2007 Aug;33(2):44-7
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  • In 31 patients, who underwent surgery, the histological findings were cholesterol polyp/cholesterosis (n=14), cholesterosis with fibrous displasia of gall bladder (n=7), adenomyomatosis (n=3), hyperplastic cholecystosis (n=5) and adenocarcinoma (n=2).
  • Remaining 26 patients were under follow-up up to 18 months from first diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Gallbladder Diseases / surgery. Polyps / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Cholecystectomy. Cholesterol / metabolism. Gallbladder Neoplasms / metabolism. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery. Humans. Prospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18481437.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-9238
  • [Journal-full-title] Bangladesh Medical Research Council bulletin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bangladesh Med Res Counc Bull
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bangladesh
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 97C5T2UQ7J / Cholesterol
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20. Fuller CD, Thomas CR Jr, Wong A, Cavanaugh SX, Salter BJ, Herman TS, Fuss M: Image-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy for gallbladder carcinoma. Radiother Oncol; 2006 Oct;81(1):65-72
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  • [Title] Image-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy for gallbladder carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: Clinical and technical parameter analysis of patients treated with ultrasound-based image-guided tomotherapeutic IMRT for gallbladder cancer.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between 8/2001 and 5/2005, 10 patients with primary tumors of the gallbladder were treated by image-guided IMRT to median doses of 59 Gy.
  • CONCLUSION: Ultrasound-based image-guided IMRT is a feasible mechanism of delivering conformal radiation doses to tumors of the gallbladder with acceptable toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated / methods

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  • (PMID = 16971012.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-8140
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiotherapy and oncology : journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiother Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / M01-RR01346
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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21. Shimizu T, Tajiri T, Akimaru K, Arima Y, Yoshida H, Yokomuro S, Mamada Y, Taniai N, Mizuguchi Y, Kawahigashi Y, Naito Z: Combined neuroendocrine cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder: report of a case. J Nippon Med Sch; 2006 Apr;73(2):101-5
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  • [Title] Combined neuroendocrine cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder: report of a case.
  • Abdominal computed tomography confirmed thickening of the gallbladder wall and a 15 x 8 cm mass occupying almost all of the right lobe and medial segment of the liver.
  • With a preoperative diagnosis of malignant gallbladder tumor infiltrating the liver, right hepatic trisegmentectomy was performed.
  • Near this small cell proliferation was a focus of tubular adenocarcinoma that showed a zone of transition from the small cell neuroendocrine pattern.
  • The patient was diagnosed with neuroendocrine cell carcinoma combined with adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16641536.001).
  • [ISSN] 1345-4676
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Nippon Medical School = Nippon Ika Daigaku zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Nippon Med Sch
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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22. Inoue T, Shiraki K, Fuke H, Yamanaka Y, Miyashita K, Ito K, Suzuki M, Sugimoto K, Murata K, Nakano T: Cardiac metastases of gallbladder carcinoma. World J Gastroenterol; 2005 Apr 7;11(13):2048-9
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  • [Title] Cardiac metastases of gallbladder carcinoma.
  • This report describes the case of a 68-year-old woman diagnosed with advanced gallbladder cancer, whose autopsy revealed multiple metastases, including cardiac metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Heart Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 15801006.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4305737
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23. Lung PF, Cresswell AB, Psaila J, Patel AG: Novel deployment of a covered duodenal stent in open surgery to facilitate closure of a malignant duodenal perforation. World J Surg Oncol; 2009;7:79
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  • CASE PRESENTATION: A 38 year old Vietnamese man presented with a carcinoma of the colon which had invaded the gallbladder and duodenum with a sealed perforation of the second part of the duodenum.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Colonic Neoplasms / surgery. Duodenal Obstruction / surgery. Palliative Care / methods. Stents
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anastomosis, Surgical / methods. Cholecystectomy. Colonoscopy. Duodenal Neoplasms / secondary. Fatal Outcome. Gallbladder Neoplasms / secondary. Humans. Length of Stay. Male. Postoperative Complications / therapy

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  • [Cites] J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2001 Mar;12(3):283-97 [11287504.001]
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  • (PMID = 19860895.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2774690
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24. Mingoli A, Brachini G, Petroni R, Antoniozzi A, Cavaliere F, Simonelli L, Chirletti P, Modini C: Squamous and adenosquamous cell carcinomas of the gallbladder. J Exp Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Mar;24(1):143-50
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  • [Title] Squamous and adenosquamous cell carcinomas of the gallbladder.
  • Squamous and adenosquamous cell carcinomas (ASC and SCC) are rare subtypes of gallbladder cancer, traditionally considered more aggressive and with a poorer prognosis than adenocarcinoma.
  • We report about two patients affected by an advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the gallbladder.
  • Both had a large tumour in the gallbladder fossa region with infiltration of the liver.
  • Natural history, clinical findings, prognosis and outcome of this rare gallbladder tumour are discussed on the basis of a review of the English literature.
  • In conclusion, an aggressive and radical surgical treatment of advanced squamous and adenosquamous cell gallbladder carcinomas seems to be indicated for their low proclivity to distant spreading.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15943044.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-9078
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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25. Ahn JE, Byun JH, Ko MS, Park SH, Lee MG: Case report: neuroendocrine carcinoma of the gallbladder causing hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia. Clin Radiol; 2007 Apr;62(4):391-4
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  • [Title] Case report: neuroendocrine carcinoma of the gallbladder causing hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Glucose Metabolism Disorders / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17331836.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-9260
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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26. Park HS, Lim JY, Yoon DS, Park JS, Lee DK, Lee SJ, Choi HJ, Song SY, Lee WJ, Cho JY: Outcome of adjuvant therapy for gallbladder cancer. Oncology; 2010;79(3-4):168-73
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  • [Title] Outcome of adjuvant therapy for gallbladder cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of adjuvant therapy on the overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) after curative resection (RO) of patients with TNM stage II gallbladder (GB) cancer.
  • Among 61 stage II GB cancer patients, 43 received adjuvant therapy, while 18 others received surgery alone.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The data from this study do not provide evidence that adjuvant therapy is an effective treatment option for curative resected GB cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / therapy


27. Zheng HF, Song QJ, Shen DH: [Adenocarcinoma of gallbladder with chondrosarcomatous component: report of a case]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2006 Dec;35(12):770
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  • [Title] [Adenocarcinoma of gallbladder with chondrosarcomatous component: report of a case].
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Chondrosarcoma / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cholecystectomy. Female. Gallbladder / chemistry. Gallbladder / pathology. Gallbladder / surgery. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratin-3 / metabolism. S100 Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17374273.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Keratin-3; 0 / S100 Proteins
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28. Choi HJ, Yun SS, Kim HJ, Choi JH: Expression of p16 protein in gallbladder carcinoma and its precancerous conditions. Hepatogastroenterology; 2010 Jan-Feb;57(97):18-21
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  • [Title] Expression of p16 protein in gallbladder carcinoma and its precancerous conditions.
  • BACKGROUND/AIMS: Adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder is a highly malignant neoplasm. p16 is a tumor suppressor gene protein, which is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that regulates the G1-S phase of the cell cycle.
  • The purpose of the present study was to investigate the expression of p16 in gallbladder carcinoma and its precancerous conditions and to examine the relationship between p16 expression and clinicopathological parameters.
  • METHODOLOGY: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 20 cases of normal gallbladder, 20 cases of chronic cholecystitis, 20 cases of gallbladder adenoma, 20 cases of dysplasia, and 58 cases of adenocarcinoma were examined.
  • RESULTS: In normal gallbladder, no expression of p16 was found.
  • In gallbladder adenomas, expression of p16 was found in 20% (4/20).
  • In gallbladder adenocarcinomas, p16 expression was found in 27.6% (16/58).
  • CONCLUSIONS: P16 protein overexpression is an early and relatively common event in carcinogenesis of gallbladder carcinoma.
  • Expression of p16 may be an ancillary diagnostic marker of gallbladder carcinoma and its precancerous conditions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / metabolism. Cholecystitis / metabolism. Gallbladder Neoplasms / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20422865.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-6390
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepato-gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hepatogastroenterology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / P16 protein, human
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29. Eltawil KM, Gustafsson BI, Kidd M, Modlin IM: Neuroendocrine tumors of the gallbladder: an evaluation and reassessment of management strategy. J Clin Gastroenterol; 2010 Nov-Dec;44(10):687-95
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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine tumors of the gallbladder: an evaluation and reassessment of management strategy.
  • BACKGROUND: Gallbladder neuroendocrine tumors (GB-NETs) represent only 0.5% of all NETs, and little is known about their biological behavior.
  • STUDY: A PubMed search was undertaken using the following criteria: primary gallbladder and carcinoid or NET.
  • Finally, we compared the clinical presentation, management and prognosis of GB-NETs to that of gallbladder adenocarcinoma.
  • RESULTS: GB-NETs probably derive from either a multipotent stem cell or neuroendocrine cells in intestinal or gastric metaplasia of the gallbladder epithelium, which occurs consequent upon cholelithiasis/chronic inflammation.
  • Clinically and at surgery, GB-NETs are indistinguishable from gallbladder cancer (GBC) and "carcinoid syndrome" is evident in only ∼1%.The median survival was only 9.8 months among 278 cases of GB-NETs reported in SEER.
  • The 5 year survival rate for tumors classified as carcinoids/neuroendocrine carcinoma or small cell cancer (SCC) was 36.9 and 0%, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Gallbladder Neoplasms / therapy. Neuroendocrine Tumors / therapy

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  • (PMID = 20375728.001).
  • [ISSN] 1539-2031
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Al-Mashat F, Sibiany AM: Sister Mary Joseph's nodule of the umbilicus: is it always of gastric origin? A review of eight cases at different sites of origin. Indian J Cancer; 2010 Jan-Mar;47(1):65-9
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  • The primary tumors were gastric adenocarcinoma (two patients), ovarian adenocarcinoma (two patients), pancreatic carcinoma (one patient), colonic adenocarcinoma (one patient), gallbladder adenocarcinoma (one patient), and cholangiocarcinoma (one patient).
  • We believe that if the primary cancer is discovered at an early stage, the prognosis may improve.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20071793.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4774
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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31. Mojica P, Smith D, Ellenhorn J: Adjuvant radiation therapy is associated with improved survival for gallbladder carcinoma with regional metastatic disease. J Surg Oncol; 2007 Jul 1;96(1):8-13
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  • [Title] Adjuvant radiation therapy is associated with improved survival for gallbladder carcinoma with regional metastatic disease.
  • BACKGROUND: Gallbladder carcinoma is a rare malignancy and is associated with dismal outcomes.
  • The aim of this study was to better define the role of adjuvant radiation therapy in the management of gallbladder carcinoma.
  • METHODS: The Surveillance, Epidemiological, and End Results (SEER) survey from the National Cancer Institute was queried from 1992 to 2002.
  • RESULTS: There were a total of 3,187 cases of gallbladder carcinoma in the registry from 1992 to 2002.
  • CONCLUSION: The use of adjuvant radiation therapy is associated with improved survival in patients with locally advanced gallbladder cancer or gallbladder cancer with regional disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Gallbladder Neoplasms / mortality. Gallbladder Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17516546.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Chan KM, Yu MC, Lee WC, Jan YY, Chen MF: Adenosquamous/squamous cell carcinoma of the gallbladder. J Surg Oncol; 2007 Feb 1;95(2):129-34
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  • [Title] Adenosquamous/squamous cell carcinoma of the gallbladder.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Adenosquamous/squamous cell carcinoma is a rare histopathologic subtype of gallbladder malignancy.
  • Its clinical features have rarely been described, and its differences from the major histopathologic subtype, adenocarcinoma, remain uncertain.
  • METHODS: All patients with gallbladder carcinoma were retrospectively reviewed.
  • Patients with a histopathologic subtype of either adenosquamous (n = 12) or squamous cell (n = 2) carcinoma were categorized to group I, and patients with adenocarcinoma were categorized to group II.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with adenosquamous/squamous cell carcinoma of the gallbladder were generally similar to those with adenocarcinoma in clinical characteristics, but had a tendency for liver infiltration.
  • Although the two histopathologic subtypes of the gallbladder carcinoma had similar poor outcomes, better survival could be obtained by performing curative resection for these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17262729.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. Itoh T, Fuji N, Taniguchi H, Yasukawa S, Yasuda H, Wakabayashi N, Watanabe T, Kosuga T, Kashimoto K, Yanagisawa A, Naito K: Double cancer of the cystic duct and gallbladder associated with low junction of the cystic duct. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg; 2008;15(3):338-43
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  • [Title] Double cancer of the cystic duct and gallbladder associated with low junction of the cystic duct.
  • We report a case of double cancer of the cystic duct and gallbladder associated with low junction of the cystic duct.
  • Endoscopic retrograde cholangiography showed a stenotic lesion in the lower common bile duct and no visualization of the cystic duct or gallbladder.
  • A diagnosis of cancer arising from the cystic duct that entered the lower part of the common hepatic duct was made by intraductal ultrasonography, which showed an intraluminal protruding lesion in the cystic duct.
  • Isolated gallbladder cancer was also diagnosed, by abdominal computed tomography.
  • Histological examination revealed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of the cystic duct and well-differentiated adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder.
  • Double cancer of the cystic duct and gallbladder is extremely rare, and this case also suggests a relationship between a low junction of the cystic duct and neoplasm in the biliary tract.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Cystic Duct. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18535776.001).
  • [ISSN] 0944-1166
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hepato-biliary-pancreatic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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34. Akcali Z, Ozyilkan O, Sakalli H, Bal N, Noyan T: Gallbladder adenosquamous cell carcinoma: report of two cases. Acta Gastroenterol Belg; 2005 Oct-Dec;68(4):440-2
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  • [Title] Gallbladder adenosquamous cell carcinoma: report of two cases.
  • Adenocarcinoma is the usual histological presentation of the very rare gallbladder carcinoma.
  • Adenosquamous cell carcinoma accounts for less than 3.5% of gallbladder carcinomas, and is characterised by invasive growth, a reduced tendency for lymph node metastasis, an increased tendency for hepatic infiltration or liver metastasis, and a poorer prognosis than adenocarcinoma.
  • Adenosquamous carcinoma of the gallbladder was diagnosed on the post-operative pathological specimen.
  • Abdominal computed tomography (CT) imaging showed marked thickening of the gallbladder with direct extension of a mass into the left liver lobe.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / surgery. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16432998.001).
  • [ISSN] 1784-3227
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta gastro-enterologica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Gastroenterol. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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35. Giatromanolaki A, Sivridis E, Simopoulos C, Polychronidis A, Gatter KC, Harris AL, Koukourakis MI: Hypoxia inducible factors 1alpha and 2alpha are associated with VEGF expression and angiogenesis in gallbladder carcinomas. J Surg Oncol; 2006 Sep 1;94(3):242-7
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  • [Title] Hypoxia inducible factors 1alpha and 2alpha are associated with VEGF expression and angiogenesis in gallbladder carcinomas.
  • AIMS: To investigate the significance of the hypoxia inducible factors HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha in gallbladder adenocarcinomas and their relation to angiogenesis and to the expression of VEGF, an angiogenic factor transcriptionally regulated by HIFalphas.
  • METHODS: HIF-1alpha and 2alpha expression was assessed immunohistochemically in 60 patients with early gallbladder adenocarcinomas, treated with surgery alone.
  • CONCLUSION: Hypoxia inducible factors are upregulated in a large proportion of gallbladder adenocarcinomas, a feature strongly related to increased expression of VEGF and intensified angiogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors / biosynthesis. Gallbladder Neoplasms / metabolism. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit / biosynthesis. Neovascularization, Pathologic / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / biosynthesis

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  • [Copyright] 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16900513.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-4790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / endothelial PAS domain-containing protein 1
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36. Teo CH, Leow CK, Chang SA: A pseudoepidermoid cyst arising from exuberant squamous metaplasia of the gallbladder. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2005 Jun;129(6):e138-40
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  • [Title] A pseudoepidermoid cyst arising from exuberant squamous metaplasia of the gallbladder.
  • Squamous lesions of the gallbladder are uncommon.
  • We report a case of a pseudoepidermoid cyst in a middle-aged woman arising on a background of chronic cholecystitis and cholelithiasis, which induced exuberant squamous metaplasia of the entire gallbladder mucosa, clinically mimicking a gallbladder tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Epidermal Cyst / pathology. Gallbladder Diseases / pathology. Mucous Membrane / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Biomarkers / metabolism. Cholecystitis / complications. Cholecystitis / pathology. Cholecystitis / surgery. Choledocholithiasis / complications. Choledocholithiasis / pathology. Choledocholithiasis / surgery. Chronic Disease. Common Bile Duct / pathology. Common Bile Duct / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hepatic Duct, Common / pathology. Hepatic Duct, Common / surgery. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Jejunostomy. Metaplasia / pathology. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15913441.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers
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37. Furuse J, Okusaka T, Boku N, Ohkawa S, Sawaki A, Masumoto T, Funakoshi A: S-1 monotherapy as first-line treatment in patients with advanced biliary tract cancer: a multicenter phase II study. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2008 Oct;62(5):849-55
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  • [Title] S-1 monotherapy as first-line treatment in patients with advanced biliary tract cancer: a multicenter phase II study.
  • A pilot phase II study showed S-1 monotherapy to be safe and active against biliary tract cancer (BTC).
  • Eligible patients had pathologically proven, unresectable adenocarcinoma with no prior chemotherapy or radiotherapy.
  • The primary tumor sites were as follows: gallbladder (n = 20), extrahepatic bile duct (n = 15), and the ampulla of Vater (n = 5).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / drug therapy. Oxonic Acid / therapeutic use. Tegafur / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18214482.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5704
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Drug Combinations; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid
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38. Ricks AM, Han LY, Rashid A, Frumovitz M: Gallbladder carcinoma presenting as a pelvic mass with elevated serum testosterone: a case report. J Reprod Med; 2009 Apr;54(4):259-60
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  • [Title] Gallbladder carcinoma presenting as a pelvic mass with elevated serum testosterone: a case report.
  • Preoperative clinical diagnosis was suggestive of Sertoli-Leydig tumor.
  • Final diagnosis was stage IV primary gallbladder malignancy with metastases to the ovaries.
  • In women with complex pelvic masses, metastasis should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Testosterone / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Pain. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. CA-125 Antigen / blood. Cholecystectomy. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Diagnosis, Differential. Fallopian Tubes / surgery. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Ovariectomy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 19438170.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-7758
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Reprod Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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39. Kaufman M, Mehrotra B, Limaye S, White S, Fuchs A, Lebowicz Y, Nissel-Horowitz S, Thomas A: EGFR expression in gallbladder carcinoma in North America. Int J Med Sci; 2008;5(5):285-91
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  • [Title] EGFR expression in gallbladder carcinoma in North America.
  • Small studies from Asia and Australia have demonstrated EGFR over-expression in gallbladder cancer.
  • We sought to evaluate the expression of EGFR in a series of 16 gallbladder cancer patients from North America.
  • Eight patients had poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, six had moderately differentiated and two had well-differentiated tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Gallbladder Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18825277.001).
  • [ISSN] 1449-1907
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2556051
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; differentiation / endothelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) / gallbladder cancer / her-2-neu / survival
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40. Liu DC, Yang ZL, Jiang S: Identification of musashi-1 and ALDH1 as carcinogenesis, progression, and poor-prognosis related biomarkers for gallbladder adenocarcinoma. Cancer Biomark; 2010-2011;8(3):113-21
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  • [Title] Identification of musashi-1 and ALDH1 as carcinogenesis, progression, and poor-prognosis related biomarkers for gallbladder adenocarcinoma.
  • In this study, we investigated the expressions of Msi-1 and ALDH1 in gallbladder adenocarcinoma (n=100), peritumoral tissues (n=46), adenomatous polyp (n=15), and chronic cholecystitis (n=35) using immunohistochemical method.
  • The percentage of cases with positive Msi-1 and ALDH1 expression were significantly higher in gallbladder adenocarcinoma than that in peritumoral tissues, adenomatous polyp and chronic cholecystitis (ps < 0.01).
  • The expression of Msi-1 and ALDH1 was significantly associated with differentiation, tumor mass, lymph node metastasis and invasion of adenocarcinoma.
  • The expression of Msi-1 and ALDH1 was found to be highly consistent in gallbladder adenocarcinoma (p < 0.01).
  • Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that positive expression of Msi-1 or ALDH1 (p=0.016, p=0.006, respectively) was an independent bad-prognostic predictor in gallbladder adenocarcinoma.
  • Our study suggested that Msi-1 and/or ALDH1 expression might be closely related to the carcinogenesis, progression, clinical biological behaviors, and prognosis of gallbladder adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / physiopathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Gallbladder Neoplasms / physiopathology. Isoenzymes / analysis. Nerve Tissue Proteins / analysis. RNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Retinal Dehydrogenase / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenomatous Polyps / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Cholecystitis / metabolism. Disease Progression. Female. Gallbladder / chemistry. Gallbladder / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 22012766.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-8592
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biomarkers : section A of Disease markers
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biomark
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Isoenzymes; 0 / MSI1 protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins; EC 1.2.1.- / aldehyde dehydrogenase 1; EC 1.2.1.36 / Retinal Dehydrogenase
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41. Cho JY, Nam JS, Park MS, Yu JS, Paik YH, Lee SJ, Lee DK, Yoon DS: A Phase II study of capecitabine combined with gemcitabine in patients with advanced gallbladder carcinoma. Yonsei Med J; 2005 Aug 31;46(4):526-31
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  • [Title] A Phase II study of capecitabine combined with gemcitabine in patients with advanced gallbladder carcinoma.
  • The authors evaluated survival, response, and toxicity associated with using a combination of capecitabine and gemcitabine to treat patients with unresectable or metastatic gallbladder adenocarcinoma (GBC).
  • Median age at the time of diagnosis was 62 years (range, 41-78 years).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • [Cites] J Clin Oncol. 1999 Feb;17(2):585-92 [10080603.001]
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  • (PMID = 16127778.001).
  • [ISSN] 0513-5796
  • [Journal-full-title] Yonsei medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Yonsei Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2815838
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42. Okada K, Kijima H, Imaizumi T, Hirabayashi K, Matsuyama M, Yazawa N, Oida Y, Dowaki S, Tobita K, Ohtani Y, Tanaka M, Inokuchi S, Makuuchi H: Wall-invasion pattern correlates with survival of patients with gallbladder adenocarcinoma. Anticancer Res; 2009 Feb;29(2):685-91
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  • [Title] Wall-invasion pattern correlates with survival of patients with gallbladder adenocarcinoma.
  • Gallbladder carcinomas (GBC) frequently show vascular invasion and metastasis when the carcinoma cells invade the perimuscular connective tissue (pT2 according to the TNM classification) through the muscular layer.
  • Sixty-six surgically resected gallbladder adenocarcinomas invading the perimuscular connective tissue (pT2) and beyond the gallbladder wall, including the visceral serosa, (pT3/pT4) were examined.
  • In conclusion, the DG invasion pattern is an indicator of high malignant potential and indirectly worsens the prognosis of patients with gallbladder adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19331223.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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43. Cózar MP, Ortega F, Fuster C, Vázquez-Albadalejo C, Santos J, Almenar S: [PET detection of a primary gall bladder tumor and pericystic metastatic adenopathy]. Rev Esp Med Nucl; 2006 Mar-Apr;25(2):113-4
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  • [Transliterated title] Detección por PET de una tumoración primaria de vesícula biliar y adenopatía metastásica pericística.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / radionuclide imaging. Gallbladder Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / radionuclide imaging. Positron-Emission Tomography

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  • (PMID = 16759618.001).
  • [ISSN] 0212-6982
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista española de medicina nuclear
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Esp Med Nucl
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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44. Garg PK, Khurana N, Hadke NS: Subcutaneous and breast metastasis from asymptomatic gallbladder carcinoma. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int; 2009 Apr;8(2):209-11
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  • [Title] Subcutaneous and breast metastasis from asymptomatic gallbladder carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Though gallbladder carcinoma is associated with early lymphatic and hematogenous spread, the only common extra-abdominal site of metastasis is lung.
  • Gallbladder carcinoma metastasizing to breast and subcutaneous tissue is not known.
  • METHOD: This report describes an interesting and unusual case of asymptomatic gallbladder carcinoma presenting with subcutaneous and breast metastasis.
  • Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of these nodules revealed metastatic adenocarcinoma.
  • An ultrasound of the abdomen followed by a contrast-enhanced CT scan showed a growth in gallbladder, infiltrating the liver with multiple hepatic metastases.
  • CT-guided FNAC from the growth in the gallbladder revealed adenocarcinoma.
  • She was diagnosed as a case of metastatic adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder and palliative combination chemotherapy with gemcitabine and carboplatin was given.
  • She died within three weeks of diagnosis due to hepatic encephalopathy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This report highlights an unusual metastasis of gallbladder carcinoma to the breast and subcutaneous tissue presenting as multiple lesions, which has never been reported in the English literature.
  • These were unknown sites of metastasis for carcinoma of the gallbladder.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19357037.001).
  • [ISSN] 1499-3872
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatobiliary & pancreatic diseases international : HBPD INT
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HBPD INT
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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45. Kawanishi M, Kuwada Y, Mitsuoka Y, Sasao S, Mouri T, Takesaki E, Takahashi T, Toyota K, Nakatani T: A case of double gallbladder with adenocarcinoma arising from the left hepatic duct: a case report and review of the literature. Gastroenterol Res Pract; 2010;2010
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  • [Title] A case of double gallbladder with adenocarcinoma arising from the left hepatic duct: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Double gallbladder is a rare congenital biliary anomaly, but an accessory gallbladder arising from the left hepatic duct is a more remarkably rare congenital anomaly.
  • We report a case of double gallbladder with adenocarcinoma and gallstones, which was preoperatively diagnosed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and then confirmed by open laparotomy.

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  • (PMID = 20811488.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-630X
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterology research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol Res Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2926673
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46. Gumbs AA, Gayet B: Multimedia article. Totally laparoscopic extended right hepatectomy. Surg Endosc; 2008 Sep;22(9):2076-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / blood supply. Adenocarcinoma / complications. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic. Cholelithiasis / complications. Cholelithiasis / surgery. Embolization, Therapeutic. Gallbladder Neoplasms / blood supply. Gallbladder Neoplasms / complications. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery. Gallbladder Neoplasms / therapy. Humans. Incidental Findings. Male. Middle Aged. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures. Portal Vein

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  • (PMID = 18553117.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Video-Audio Media
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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47. Martínez-Román S, Frumovitz M, Deavers MT, Ramirez PT: Metastatic carcinoma of the gallbladder mimicking an advanced cervical carcinoma. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Jun;97(3):942-5
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  • [Title] Metastatic carcinoma of the gallbladder mimicking an advanced cervical carcinoma.
  • To our knowledge, only three cases of primary carcinoma of the gallbladder with metastasis to the cervix have been previously reported.
  • We report a case of metastatic gallbladder carcinoma mimicking a stage IIIB cervical carcinoma.
  • A Pap smear revealed adenocarcinoma, and a biopsy of the endocervical canal was consistent with poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma.
  • A chest CT revealed multiple lesions in both lungs suggestive of metastatic disease, and an abdominal CT revealed a gallbladder tumor with extension into the liver.
  • The patient underwent a CT-guided biopsy of one of the lung lesions and the pathologic findings were consistent with metastatic adenocarcinoma.
  • The patient was diagnosed with stage IVB primary gallbladder adenocarcinoma and was treated with capecitabine, but her condition deteriorated rapidly and she died 5 months later.
  • CONCLUSION: In patients with an atypical presentation for cervical adenocarcinoma, it is important to consider a metastatic tumor in the differential diagnosis and to perform a thorough work-up for metastatic disease before initiating therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans


48. Qayyum A, Mujtaba I: Effects of chemotherapy on patients with unresectable or metastatic adenocarcinoma of gallbladder. J Pak Med Assoc; 2007 Feb;57(2):71-4
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  • [Title] Effects of chemotherapy on patients with unresectable or metastatic adenocarcinoma of gallbladder.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of combination chemotherapy on disease status, toxicity and survival of patients with unresectable locally advanced or metastatic adenocarcinoma of gallbladder.
  • METHODS: Single arm study of twenty patients, with unresectable locally advanced or metastatic adenocarcinoma of gallbladder, who presented to oncology clinic at Ziauddin Hospital Nazimabad Karachi from January 1997 to December 1998.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17370788.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-9982
  • [Journal-full-title] JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pak Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 12001-76-2 / Vitamin B Complex; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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49. Saikusa N, Naito S, Iinuma Y, Ohtani T, Yokoyama N, Nitta K: Invasive cholangiocarcinoma identified in congenital biliary dilatation in a 3-year-old boy. J Pediatr Surg; 2009 Nov;44(11):2202-5
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  • A diagnosis of Todani's type 1a CBD was made.
  • The excision of extrahepatic bile duct and gallbladder and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy were performed.
  • However, the postoperative histopathologic examinations confirmed the presence of well-differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma with lymphovascular invasion.

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  • (PMID = 19944233.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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50. Wu W, Pan C, Yu H, Gong H, Wang Y: Heparanase expression in gallbladder carcinoma and its correlation to prognosis. J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2008 Mar;23(3):491-7
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  • [Title] Heparanase expression in gallbladder carcinoma and its correlation to prognosis.
  • The present study was to analyze the expression of and explore the prognostic value of heparanase and two important transcriptional factors, namely hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) and nuclear transcriptional factor kappa B p65 (NF-kappaB p65) in gallbladder cancer.
  • METHODS: Heparanase, HIF-1alpha and NF-kappaB p65 protein levels in 38 patients with gallbladder carcinoma were detected by immunohistochemistry and analyzed for clinicopathological significance.
  • CONCLUSION: Heparanase and HIF-1alpha are frequently expressed in gallbladder carcinoma and are associated with decreased survival.
  • High expression of heparanase, combined with NF-kappaB p65, may contribute to the highly invasive and metastatic behavior of gallbladder carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / enzymology. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / enzymology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / enzymology. Glucuronidase / analysis

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  • [CommentIn] J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008 Mar;23(3):343-4 [18318817.001]
  • (PMID = 17524042.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HIF1A protein, human; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 0 / Transcription Factor RelA; EC 3.2.1.- / heparanase; EC 3.2.1.31 / Glucuronidase
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51. D'Angelica M, Dalal KM, DeMatteo RP, Fong Y, Blumgart LH, Jarnagin WR: Analysis of the extent of resection for adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder. Ann Surg Oncol; 2009 Apr;16(4):806-16
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  • [Title] Analysis of the extent of resection for adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder.
  • Gallbladder cancer has historically been considered an incurable malignancy; although, extended resection has been associated with cure in selected patients.
  • The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of the extent of resection for gallbladder adenocarcinoma on disease-specific survival (DSS) and perioperative morbidity.
  • Analysis of a prospective hepatobiliary surgery database identified patients undergoing surgical resection for gallbladder adenocarcinoma from 1990 to 2002.
  • We conclude that tumor biology and stage, rather than extent of resection, predict outcome after resection for gallbladder cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Bile Duct Neoplasms / surgery. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery. Liver Neoplasms / surgery


52. Ikeda T, Ohgaki K, Miura M, Aishima S, Shimizu T, Maehara Y: Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor-producing gallbladder cancer without recurrence more than 2 years after resection: report of a case. Surg Today; 2005;35(7):590-3
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  • [Title] Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor-producing gallbladder cancer without recurrence more than 2 years after resection: report of a case.
  • Patients with gallbladder carcinoma rarely have remarkable granulocytosis.
  • Although surgical resection is the most effective treatment, patients with gallbladder carcinoma generally have a very poor prognosis.
  • We report a case of a rapidly growing gallbladder tumor associated with remarkable granulocytosis in a patient who has survived without recurrence for more than 2 years since undergoing resection.
  • A histological diagnosis of moderately differentiated gallbladder carcinoma with sarcomatous change invading the hepatic parenchyma was confirmed.
  • An immunohistochemical examination using polyclonal antibody against G-CSF was performed to stain the tumor cells, which confirmed the diagnosis of a G-CSF-producing tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Gallbladder Neoplasms / metabolism. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 15976958.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor
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53. Prakash M, Aiyappan SK, Kumar A, Sreenivasan R, Yadav TD, Khandelwal N: Solitary skeletal metastasis in carcinoma gallbladder: two case reports. Cancer Imaging; 2010;10:121-3
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  • [Title] Solitary skeletal metastasis in carcinoma gallbladder: two case reports.
  • We report 2 cases of carcinoma gallbladder with only solitary skeletal metastasis.
  • To the best of our knowledge there are only 3 case reports of carcinoma gallbladder with skeletal metastasis in the English literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / radiography. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Bone Neoplasms / radiography. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Gallbladder Neoplasms / radiography

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  • (PMID = 20529758.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-7330
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer imaging : the official publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] RFM9X3LJ49 / Bilirubin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2883781
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54. Singh S, Gupta P, Khanna R, Khanna AK: Simultaneous breast and ovarian metastasis from gallbladder carcinoma. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int; 2010 Oct;9(5):553-4
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  • [Title] Simultaneous breast and ovarian metastasis from gallbladder carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Gallbladder carcinoma is a common malignancy in the Indian subcontinent.
  • METHOD: This report describes an unusual case of carcinoma gallbladder metastasizing to the breast and ovary at the same time.
  • Ultrasound of the abdomen revealed hepatomegaly with thick-walled gallbladder with multiple stones and a mass at the fundus, but normal uterus and ovary.
  • Contrast-enhanced computer tomography of the abdomen showed a gallbladder mass infiltrating the liver parenchyma.
  • Histopathological examination revealed a poorly-differentiated adenocarcinoma with mar-gins free from tumor infiltration.
  • Simple mastectomy and salphingo-opherectomy were performed, and histopathological examination revealed a metastatic adenocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: This is an unusual case of carcinoma of the gallbladder with metastasis to the breast and ovary, which has not been documented before.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 20943468.001).
  • [ISSN] 1499-3872
  • [Journal-full-title] Hepatobiliary & pancreatic diseases international : HBPD INT
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HBPD INT
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine
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55. Oh SW, Yoon YS, Shin SA: Effects of excess weight on cancer incidences depending on cancer sites and histologic findings among men: Korea National Health Insurance Corporation Study. J Clin Oncol; 2005 Jul 20;23(21):4742-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effects of excess weight on cancer incidences depending on cancer sites and histologic findings among men: Korea National Health Insurance Corporation Study.
  • METHODS: We assessed the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and various cancers in a 10-year follow-up cohort of 781,283 Korean men who were free of prior cancer at baseline.
  • A proportional hazards model was used to examine the relationship between BMI and cancer.
  • RESULTS: Adenocarcinoma in the colon and rectosigmoid, hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, adenocarcinoma in the prostate, renal cell carcinoma, papillary carcinoma in the thyroid, small-cell carcinoma in the lung, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and melanoma had positive dose-dependent relationships with BMI (all P < .05).
  • Although no linear trend was found (P = .267), obese men who never smoked with a BMI of >or= 30 kg/m(2) had an increased risk of developing gastric adenocarcinoma (relative risk = 1.73).
  • Other cancers, such as leukemia, multiple myeloma, and gallbladder and pancreatic cancer, did not show significant associations.

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  • (PMID = 16034050.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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56. Pawlik TM, Gleisner AL, Vigano L, Kooby DA, Bauer TW, Frilling A, Adams RB, Staley CA, Trindade EN, Schulick RD, Choti MA, Capussotti L: Incidence of finding residual disease for incidental gallbladder carcinoma: implications for re-resection. J Gastrointest Surg; 2007 Nov;11(11):1478-86; discussion 1486-7
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  • [Title] Incidence of finding residual disease for incidental gallbladder carcinoma: implications for re-resection.
  • Re-resection for gallbladder carcinoma incidentally discovered after cholecystectomy is routinely advocated.
  • Between 1984 and 2006, 115 patients underwent re-resection at six major hepatobiliary centers for gallbladder carcinoma incidentally discovered during cholecystectomy.
  • Aggressive re-resection for incidental gallbladder carcinoma is warranted as the majority of patients have residual disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17846848.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-255X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastrointestinal surgery : official journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastrointest. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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57. Guo Y, Chen J, Liu Y, Hu YH, Li ZS: Iodine-125 biliary stent for palliative treatment of locally advanced gallbladder cancer. Endoscopy; 2010;42 Suppl 2:E259-60
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  • [Title] Iodine-125 biliary stent for palliative treatment of locally advanced gallbladder cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Iodine Radioisotopes / administration & dosage. Palliative Care / methods. Stents

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  • (PMID = 20931472.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-8812
  • [Journal-full-title] Endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endoscopy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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58. Engeland A, Tretli S, Austad G, Bjørge T: Height and body mass index in relation to colorectal and gallbladder cancer in two million Norwegian men and women. Cancer Causes Control; 2005 Oct;16(8):987-96
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  • [Title] Height and body mass index in relation to colorectal and gallbladder cancer in two million Norwegian men and women.
  • OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed at exploring the relations between BMI and stature and colorectal and gallbladder cancer in a huge Norwegian cohort with measured height and weight.
  • During follow-up, 47,117 colorectal and 1715 gallbladder cancer cases were registered.
  • Relative risks (RRs) of colorectal and gallbladder cancer were estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression.
  • RESULTS: The risk of colon cancer increased with increasing BMI in men; the RR of colon cancer per unit increase in BMI was 1.04 (95% CI: 1.04-1.05).
  • For mucinous colorectal adenocarcinomas, the risk increased to a larger extent with increasing BMI in both sexes.
  • The RR of colorectal cancer associated with 10 cm increase in height was 1.14 (95% CI: 1.11-1.16) in men and 1.17 (95% CI: 1.14-1.20) in women.
  • The risk of gallbladder cancer increased with increasing BMI in women; the overall RR associated with one unit increase in BMI was 1.06 (95% CI: 1.04-1.07).
  • There was no association between height and gallbladder cancer in either sex.
  • CONCLUSION: The risk of colon cancer increased with increasing BMI in men, and the risk of gallbladder cancer increased with increasing BMI in women.
  • In both sexes, the risk of colon cancer increased with increasing height.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / epidemiology. Body Height. Body Mass Index. Colorectal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / epidemiology


59. Shukla VK, Goel S, Trigun SK, Sharma D: Electrophoretic pattern of proteins in carcinoma of the gallbladder. Eur J Cancer Prev; 2008 Feb;17(1):9-12
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  • [Title] Electrophoretic pattern of proteins in carcinoma of the gallbladder.
  • Carcinoma of the gallbladder is a common health problem in the northern region of India and in spite of improved diagnostic techniques it is generally diagnosed at an advanced stage.
  • This study was carried out in 60 patients, 30 of whom were diagnosed with gallbladder carcinoma and 30 with cholelithiasis.
  • The results showed the mean concentration of total protein in gallbladder tissue of patients with carcinoma of the gallbladder was 51.83 +/- 3.36 mg/g tissue (45.33-57.80) and in patients with cholelithiasis it was 38.82 +/- 9.11 mg/g tissue (29.55-50.99) (P<0.001).
  • Protein electrophoresis of gallbladder tissue from the patients with carcinoma of the gallbladder showed three additional bands of protein (two protein bands were present in the region of 50-55 kDa and the third band was present in the region of 35 kDa), which were absent in the gallbladder tissue of cholelithiasis patients.
  • Mean total protein content in serum was 72.2 +/- 1.73 g/l (67.98-74.99) in patients of carcinoma of the gallbladder, whereas it was 71.01 +/- 3.4 g/l (60.00-78.99) (P>0.05) in the patients with cholelithiasis.
  • Electrophoretic analysis of serum protein revealed at least two additional protein bands in patients with carcinoma of the gallbladder as compared with electrophoretic pattern in cholelithiasis.
  • In conclusion, the presence of these new bands of protein in the gallbladder tissue and serum of the patients with carcinoma of the gallbladder indicate their role in the pathogenesis of the carcinoma of the gallbladder.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Blood Proteins / analysis. Cholelithiasis / diagnosis. Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel. Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18090904.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8278
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer prevention : the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Proteins
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60. Agrawal A, Agrawal CS, Kumar A, Tiwari A, Lakshmi R, Yadav R: Gall bladder carcinoma: stroke as first manifestation. Indian J Gastroenterol; 2006 Nov-Dec;25(6):316
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  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Stroke / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17264439.001).
  • [ISSN] 0254-8860
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of gastroenterology : official journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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61. Khunamornpong S, Lerwill MF, Siriaunkgul S, Suprasert P, Pojchamarnwiputh S, Chiangmai WN, Young RH: Carcinoma of extrahepatic bile ducts and gallbladder metastatic to the ovary: a report of 16 cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Jul;27(3):366-79
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  • [Title] Carcinoma of extrahepatic bile ducts and gallbladder metastatic to the ovary: a report of 16 cases.
  • Information on ovarian metastasis of carcinoma of the extrahepatic bile ducts and gallbladder is limited.
  • Sixteen examples are reported; 3 primary tumors were hilar cholangiocarcinomas, 5 common bile duct carcinomas, and 8 gallbladder carcinomas.
  • Signet ring cells were present in sufficient quantity for a diagnosis of Krukenberg tumor in four tumors.
  • Nonmucinous carcinomatous components included adenocarcinoma with high-grade endometrioid-like morphology in 2 cases, papillary adenocarcinoma simulating mixed müllerian epithelial adenocarcinoma in 1, and undifferentiated carcinoma in 2.
  • Although the diagnosis of a metastatic tumor to the ovary is possible in most of the cases based on standard diagnostic criteria, problems in the differential diagnosis may be posed by morphologic patterns that overlap strikingly with primary ovarian neoplasms, benign, borderline, and malignant, as discussed herein.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18580314.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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62. Tewari M, Kumar V, Mishra RR, Kumar M, Shukla HS: Is there a role for cholecystectomy in gallbladder carcinoma discovered to be unresectable for cure at laparotomy? World J Surg; 2008 Dec;32(12):2683-7
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  • [Title] Is there a role for cholecystectomy in gallbladder carcinoma discovered to be unresectable for cure at laparotomy?
  • BACKGROUND: Palliative operative resection in patients with locally advanced cancer of the gallbladder (GBC) found not to be amenable to radical resection for cure at exploration has received little attention.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Cholecystectomy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery. Palliative Care

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  • [CommentIn] World J Surg. 2008 Dec;32(12):2688-9 [18850247.001]
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  • (PMID = 18836852.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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63. Ikeda T, Nakayama Y, Hamada Y, Takeshita M, Iwasaki H, Maeshiro K, Yamashita Y, Kuroki M, Ikeda S: FU-MK-1 expression in human gallbladder carcinoma: an antigenic prediction marker for a better postsurgical prognosis. Am J Clin Pathol; 2009 Jul;132(1):111-7
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  • [Title] FU-MK-1 expression in human gallbladder carcinoma: an antigenic prediction marker for a better postsurgical prognosis.
  • Gallbladder carcinoma is an aggressive type of neoplasm difficult to cure by conventional procedures.
  • Because of the lack of reliable markers for assessing the prognosis, this retrospective study was designed to investigate the prognostic significance of MK-1 overexpression in human carcinoma of the gallbladder.
  • Immunohistochemical staining using monoclonal antibody FU-MK-1 (MK-1 antigen) was performed on paraffin-embedded tissues from 63 patients who had undergone surgical resection for gallbladder carcinoma.
  • All 21 papillary and 12 of 13 well-differentiated tubular adenocarcinomas but only 1 of 8 poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas were positive for FU-MK-1.
  • These results suggest that MK-1 expression is a prognostic marker in gallbladder carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Cell Adhesion Molecules / metabolism. Cholecystectomy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19864241.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-7722
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / EPCAM protein, human
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64. Iyer RV, Gibbs J, Kuvshinoff B, Fakih M, Kepner J, Soehnlein N, Lawrence D, Javle MM: A phase II study of gemcitabine and capecitabine in advanced cholangiocarcinoma and carcinoma of the gallbladder: a single-institution prospective study. Ann Surg Oncol; 2007 Nov;14(11):3202-9
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  • [Title] A phase II study of gemcitabine and capecitabine in advanced cholangiocarcinoma and carcinoma of the gallbladder: a single-institution prospective study.
  • AIM: To determine the clinical benefit response (CBR), time to tumor progression (TTP), overall survival, and effect on quality of life (QOL) of gemcitabine and capecitabine in patients with advanced biliary cancer.
  • All patients completed the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire and Pancreatic Cancer Module (EORTC QLQ-C30-PAN 26) questionnaire on day 1 of each cycle.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Gemcitabine and capecitabine at this dose and schedule are well tolerated and effective and may offer clinical benefit and maintain QOL in patients with advanced biliary cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bile Duct Neoplasms / drug therapy. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic / pathology. Cholangiocarcinoma / drug therapy. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17705089.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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65. Yong TL, Bohmer R, Pande GK, Birks SE, Loh DC, Hewitt PM: Liver resection: a regional hospital experience. ANZ J Surg; 2010 Oct;80(10):710-3
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  • Metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma was the most frequent pathology (n = 61).
  • Six patients had metastases from primaries other than colorectal cancer.
  • There were 13 resections for primary liver malignancy, 2 from invasion by gallbladder carcinoma, 1 for contiguous invasion by gastric cancer and 19 were for benign conditions.
  • At the end of the study period, 51 cancer patients were still alive (14 with disease recurrences) and 30 have died (23 from recurrent diseases).
  • Patients operated for colorectal cancer metastases achieved a 44% 5-year survival rate (median survival = 46 months).
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Hospitals, General. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Postoperative Complications. Prospective Studies. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2010 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
  • [ErratumIn] ANZ J Surg. 2011 Jan;81(1-2):107
  • (PMID = 21040331.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-2197
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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66. Orts JA, Morell L, Camps J, Traba ML, Belenguer A, Guerrero A: [Multiple enterolithiasis, coexisting with bladder and gallbladder lithiasis, associated with colon adenocarcinoma]. An Med Interna; 2005 May;22(5):227-30
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  • [Title] [Multiple enterolithiasis, coexisting with bladder and gallbladder lithiasis, associated with colon adenocarcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Enterolitiasis múltiple, coexistiendo con litiasis biliar y vesical, asociada a adenocarcinoma de colon.
  • We report a case of multiple enterolithiasis, very infrequent pathology, coexisting with bladder and gall bladder lithiasis in a patient with colon adenocarcinoma.
  • Diagnosis was made by X-rays and CT images.
  • No risk factors for lithogenesis were found in this patient excluding the intestinal stasis caused by intestinal narrowing as a result of adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Calculi / complications. Cholelithiasis / complications. Colonic Neoplasms / complications. Intestinal Diseases / complications. Urinary Bladder Calculi / complications

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  • (PMID = 16001938.001).
  • [ISSN] 0212-7199
  • [Journal-full-title] Anales de medicina interna (Madrid, Spain : 1984)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Med Interna
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 27YLU75U4W / Phosphorus; I38ZP9992A / Magnesium; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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67. Ueda S, Kubota M, Kuroki S, Wada M: Gallbladder cancer in a patient with Miller-Dieker syndrome. Acta Paediatr; 2006 Jan;95(1):113-4
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  • [Title] Gallbladder cancer in a patient with Miller-Dieker syndrome.
  • We report the case of a male patient with Miller-Dieker syndrome (MDS) and gallbladder cancer.
  • Chromosome analysis by fluorescence in situ hybridization revealed a deletion in the 17p13.3 region, an area thought to contain tumour suppressor genes, including the hypermethylated in cancer 1 gene.
  • Considering the rarity of gallbladder cancer in children, we propose that MDS as the genetic background of this patient may have played a role in the occurrence of gallbladder cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Abnormalities, Multiple / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / etiology. Chromosome Deletion. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17. Gallbladder Neoplasms / etiology


68. Sośnik H, Sośnik K: Double cancer of the gallbladder--a case report. Pol J Pathol; 2006;57(4):213-5
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  • [Title] Double cancer of the gallbladder--a case report.
  • The study presented the coexistence of papillary adenocarcinoma and microcellular neuroendocrine carcinoma of the gallbladder in a 56-year old female patient without cholelithiasis and developmental anomalies of the biliary-pancreatic ducts.
  • Considering the material obtained by the authors (94 cases), the above-mentioned was diagnosed in 1,06% of gallbladder carcinomas.
  • The authors analyzed literature data and considered pathogenetic factors, responsible for development of two gallbladder carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / diagnosis. Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary

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  • (PMID = 17285766.001).
  • [ISSN] 1233-9687
  • [Journal-full-title] Polish journal of pathology : official journal of the Polish Society of Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol J Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 8
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69. Kimura A, Tsuchiya Y, Lang I, Zoltan S, Nakadaira H, Ajioka Y, Kiyohara C, Oyama M, Nakamura K: Effect of genetic predisposition on the risk of gallbladder cancer in Hungary. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev; 2008 Jul-Sep;9(3):391-6
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  • [Title] Effect of genetic predisposition on the risk of gallbladder cancer in Hungary.
  • A CYP1A1 polymorphism has been associated with an increased risk for gallbladder cancer (GBC) in Japanese women.
  • Of 37 female cases, 21 (56.8%) were diagnosed as adenocarcinoma, and the remaining 16 (43.2%) were classified as non-adenocarcinoma.
  • The Ile/Val genotype was significantly associated with an increased risk of adenocarcinoma (OR 9.2; 95% CI: 2.6-32.6) and non-adenocarcinoma (OR 8.4; 95% CI: 2.2-32.4).
  • Additionally, the Arg/Pro genotype increased risk of non-adenocarcinoma (OR 3.8; 95% CI: 1.2-12.8).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Gallbladder Neoplasms / epidemiology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 18990008.001).
  • [ISSN] 2476-762X
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 1.14.14.1 / Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A1; EC 2.5.1.18 / Glutathione Transferase
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70. Brevet M, Brehant O, Dumont F, Regimbeau JM, Dupas JL, Chatelain D: [Adenomatous polyposis of the gallbladder and Gardner's syndrome. A rare association]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2007 Apr;31(4):425-7
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  • [Title] [Adenomatous polyposis of the gallbladder and Gardner's syndrome. A rare association].
  • [Transliterated title] Polypose adénomateuse vésiculaire et syndrome de Gardner: une association rare.
  • We report one case of adenomatous polyposis of the gallbladder in a 57 year-old woman with Gardner's syndrome presenting with cholangitis.
  • On gross examination the gallbladder contained two calculi and numerous flat or polypoid adenomas less than 1 cm in size.
  • Only 10 cases of gallbladder adenomas have been reported in the literature in patients presenting with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP).
  • These adenomatous gallbladder lesions are discovered late, often when the patient is older than 40.
  • Pathogenesis of gallbladder adenomas is still unclear.
  • It is difficult to assess the risk of malignancy: only 6 cases of gallbladder adenocarcinomas have been reported in patients with FAP.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyps / complications. Gallbladder Neoplasms / complications. Gardner Syndrome / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Cholecystectomy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gallbladder / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 17483782.001).
  • [ISSN] 0399-8320
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroentérologie clinique et biologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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71. Medina-Franco H, Ramos-Gallardo G, Orozco-Zepeda H, Mercado-Díaz MA: [Prognostic factor in gallbladder cancer]. Rev Invest Clin; 2005 Sep-Oct;57(5):662-5
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  • [Title] [Prognostic factor in gallbladder cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Factores pronósticos en cáncer de vesícula.
  • BACKGROUND: Gallbladder cancer is a rare and aggressive neoplasm.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this manuscript was to evaluate the prognostic factors associated with overall survival in gallbladder cancer patients.
  • METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of the patients with gallbladder cancer who received attention in a tertiary referral center in Mexico City during a 13 year period (1990-2002).
  • Fifty-seven percent of patients had previous diagnosis of cholelithiasis.
  • Ninety-eight percent of the tumors were adenocarcinoma and 25% were poorly differentiated.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Most cases of gallbladder cancer presented with advanced stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Gallbladder Neoplasms / mortality

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  • (PMID = 16419459.001).
  • [ISSN] 0034-8376
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de investigación clínica; organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev. Invest. Clin.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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72. Ariyama H, Qin B, Baba E, Tanaka R, Mitsugi K, Harada M, Nakano S: Gefitinib, a selective EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, induces apoptosis through activation of Bax in human gallbladder adenocarcinoma cells. J Cell Biochem; 2006 Mar 1;97(4):724-34
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  • [Title] Gefitinib, a selective EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, induces apoptosis through activation of Bax in human gallbladder adenocarcinoma cells.
  • Although gefitinib, a selective inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase, has been clinically demonstrated to be effective for certain cancer cell types, the molecular mechanisms of the anti-tumor activity have not been fully elucidated.
  • In this study, we investigated the mechanism of gefitinib-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in HAG-1 human gallbladder adenocarcinoma cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Apoptosis / drug effects. Gallbladder Neoplasms / metabolism. Quinazolines / pharmacology. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. bcl-2-Associated X Protein / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16229013.001).
  • [ISSN] 0730-2312
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cellular biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cell. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Quinazolines; 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases; S65743JHBS / gefitinib
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73. Chakravarty KD, Yeh CN, Jan YY, Chen MF: Factors influencing long-term survival in patients with T3 gallbladder adenocarcinoma. Digestion; 2009;79(3):151-7
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  • [Title] Factors influencing long-term survival in patients with T3 gallbladder adenocarcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: This study aimed to identify the factors influencing the surgical outcome in patients with T3 gallbladder adenocarcinoma (GBA).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19329854.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9867
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestion
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Digestion
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-19-9 Antigen; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen
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74. Tomita R: Gastric emptying function in patients 5 years after pylorus-preserving distal gastrectomy with or without preserving pyloric and hepatic branches of the vagal nerve for early gastric cancer. World J Surg; 2009 Oct;33(10):2119-26
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  • [Title] Gastric emptying function in patients 5 years after pylorus-preserving distal gastrectomy with or without preserving pyloric and hepatic branches of the vagal nerve for early gastric cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: To clarify the significance of preserving pyloric and hepatic branches of the vagal nerve (PHV) after pylorus preserving distal gastrectomy (PPG) for early gastric cancer, the author investigated the postgastrectomy syndrome and gastric emptying function at 5 years in PPG patients with or without preserving the PHV.
  • However, more cholecystolithiasis (gallbladder stones) was found in group A than in group B, with the difference being significant (P < 0.0391).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Gastric Emptying / physiology. Postgastrectomy Syndromes / physiopathology. Stomach Neoplasms / surgery. Vagus Nerve / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19649759.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2323
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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75. De Zoysa MI, Dharmawardana AS, Abayadeera AU, Pathirana AA: A case of metachronous biliary carcinoma. Ceylon Med J; 2010 Dec;55(4):128-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Common Bile Duct / abnormalities. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasms, Second Primary / surgery

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  • (PMID = 21341629.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-0875
  • [Journal-full-title] The Ceylon medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ceylon Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sri Lanka
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76. Jiao X, Huang J, Wu S, Lv M, Hu Y, Jianfu, Su X, Luo C, Ce B: hOGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism and susceptibility to gallbladder cancer in a Chinese population. Int J Cancer; 2007 Aug 1;121(3):501-5
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  • [Title] hOGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism and susceptibility to gallbladder cancer in a Chinese population.
  • To determine whether hOGG1 plays a role in the risk for adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder, we tested the association of this polymorphism with gallbladder cancer in a Chinese population-based, case control study of 204 cases and 209 controls.
  • The association between the genetic polymorphism of this gene and risk of the cancer was examined by using a multivariate analysis.
  • We found that the distribution of hOGG1 Ser326Cys genotypes among controls (Ser/Ser, 37.3%; Ser/Cys, 53.6% and Cys/Cys, 9.1%) was significantly different from that among gallbladder cancer cases (Ser/Ser, 43.1%; Ser/Cys, 36.3% and Cys/Cys, 20.6%).
  • Significantly increased risk for gallbladder cancer was both the hOGG1 326Ser/Cys (Odds ratio [OR] = 1.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0-3.7) and hOGG1 326Cys/Cys genotypes (OR = 4.5, 95% CI = 1.1-22.4).
  • We observed no statistically significant association between hOGG1 genotype and gallbladder cancer association in gallstone absence.
  • In contrast, a near-significant increase in risk for gallbladder cancer was observed for gallstone presence with the hOGG1 326Ser/Cys genotype (OR = 2.2, CI = 1.4-3.5) whereas a significant increase in association for gallbladder cancer was observed for gallstone presence with the 326Cys/Cys genotype (OR = 6.1, CI = 2.1-27.2).
  • These data corresponded with the fact that a significant trend towards increased association for gallbladder cancer was observed with potentially higher-risk hOGG1 genotypes in gallstone presence(p < 0.001, chi(2) trend test)but not in gallstone absence(p = 0.89, chi(2) trend test).
  • A significant increase in risk for gallbladder cancer was observed for larger gallstone (those with stone diameters 2 cm or greater) with the hOGG1 326Ser/Cys(OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.1-2.9) and hOGG1 326Cys/Cys genotypes(OR = 5.9, 95% CI = 1.6-18.0).
  • These data are consistent with the observation that a significant trend towards increased risk for gallbladder cancer was observed with potentially higher-risk hOGG1 genotypes in gallbladder cancer patients with larger gallstone (p < 0.001, chi(2) trend test).
  • However, we observed no statistically significant association between hOGG1 genotype and gallbladder cancer risk in gallbladder cancer patients with smaller gallstone (those with stone diameters 2 cm smaller) (hOGG1 326Ser/Cys:OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 0.8-4.0; hOGG1 326Cys/Cys:OR = 2.9, 95% CI = 0.6-29.4; p = 0.06, chi(2) tread test).
  • These results suggest that hOGG1 Ser326Cys polymorphism is associated with gallbladder cancer risk.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA Glycosylases / genetics. Gallbladder Neoplasms / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Polymorphism, Genetic

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17417784.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 452VLY9402 / Serine; EC 3.2.2.- / DNA Glycosylases; EC 3.2.2.- / oxoguanine glycosylase 1, human; K848JZ4886 / Cysteine
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77. Dutta U, Poornachandra KS: Heparanase and gallbladder cancer: new insights into understanding tumor growth and invasion. J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2008 Mar;23(3):343-4
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  • [Title] Heparanase and gallbladder cancer: new insights into understanding tumor growth and invasion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / enzymology. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / enzymology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / enzymology. Glucuronidase / analysis

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  • [CommentOn] J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008 Mar;23(3):491-7 [17524042.001]
  • (PMID = 18318817.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Editorial
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / HIF1A protein, human; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 0 / Transcription Factor RelA; EC 3.2.1.- / heparanase; EC 3.2.1.31 / Glucuronidase
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78. Li LF, Hu HZ, Liu C, Wang JH, Wu HP, Jin HJ, Su CQ, Jiang XQ, Liu J, Gu JZ, Wu MC, Qian QJ: [Establishment and characterization of a human gallbladder carcinoma cell line EH-GB1 originated from a metastatic tumor]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2010 Feb;32(2):84-7
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  • [Title] [Establishment and characterization of a human gallbladder carcinoma cell line EH-GB1 originated from a metastatic tumor].
  • OBJECTIVE: To establish a human gallbladder carcinoma cell line derived from a metastatic gallbladder carcinoma and identify its biological characteristics.
  • RESULTS: A novel metastatic gallbladder carcinoma cell line was successfully established and named "EH-GB1".
  • CONCLUSION: EH-GB1 cells might be the first stable cell line of human gallbladder carcinoma established from a metastatic focus of gallbladder carcinoma.
  • This cell line with continuous expressions of GFP and Red2 might be a novel and perfect experimental model for clinical and basic research on gallbladder carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / secondary. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Cell Line, Tumor / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20403235.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-19-9 Antigen; 147336-22-9 / Green Fluorescent Proteins
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79. Hamila F, Letaief R, Khnissi M, Derbel F, Mazhoud J, Ben Ali A, Dahmene Y, Ben Hadj Hamida R: [Port site recurrence after laparoscopic cholecystectomy]. Tunis Med; 2006 Nov;84(11):697-700
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  • BACKGROUND: Gallbladder cancer diagnosis is usually at a later stage.
  • Only 1% of gallbladder cancers are discovered fortuitously at infra-clinic stage when histological exam of cholecystectomy specimen.
  • Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was realised for gallbladder lithiasis or polyps.
  • The aim of our study is to report our series of port site metastasis complicating gallbladder cancer discovered fortuitously after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
  • Ten gallbladder cancers were diagnosed than the incidence was 0.39%.
  • RESULTS: Gallbladder cancer diagnosis was carried out by histology in 8 cases, and when port site metastasis in two cases whereas histological exam of cholecystectomy specimen was negative.
  • Recurrence of gallbladder cancer was in port site in 4 cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic / adverse effects. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Seeding. Skin Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17294893.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
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80. Hosaka A, Nagayoshi M, Sugizaki K, Masaki Y: Gallbladder perforation associated with carcinoma of the duodenal papilla: a case report. World J Surg Oncol; 2010;8:41
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  • [Title] Gallbladder perforation associated with carcinoma of the duodenal papilla: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Gallbladder perforation is a rare clinical condition, which mostly occurs following acute cholecystitis associated with cholelithiasis.
  • A tumor of the ampulla of Vater causes gradually progressive symptoms, and is rarely associated with perforation of the gallbladder.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: A 56-year-old man with carcinoma of the ampulla of Vater presented with spontaneous gallbladder perforation and localized bile peritonitis.
  • He complained of right upper abdominal pain, and laparotomy revealed perforation of the gallbladder with no gallstones.
  • Postoperative upper gastrointestinal endoscopy demonstrated a slightly enlarged duodenal papilla, and biopsy revealed adenocarcinoma of the ampulla.
  • CONCLUSION: Ampullary carcinoma can be associated with gallbladder perforation and present with acute manifestations.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Ampulla of Vater / pathology. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / pathology. Gallbladder / pathology. Gallbladder Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Pain. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pancreaticoduodenectomy. Peritonitis / diagnosis. Rupture, Spontaneous. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Cites] J Clin Ultrasound. 2002 Jun;30(5):270-4 [12116106.001]
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  • (PMID = 20487525.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2887867
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81. Wang WL, Farris AB, Lauwers GY, Deshpande V: Autoimmune pancreatitis-related cholecystitis: a morphologically and immunologically distinctive form of lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing cholecystitis. Histopathology; 2009 Jun;54(7):829-36
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • AIMS: Gallbladder involvement in autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is reported to be histologically similar to that seen in primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and biliary obstruction secondary to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The findings support our hypothesis that gallbladder involvement in AIP is a primary manifestation of this disease and not a secondary phenomenon related to biliary obstruction.
  • In conjunction with imaging and serology, examination of the gallbladder could provide collaborative evidence of AIP.
  • Evaluation of the gallbladder could also distinguish PSC from AIP-related cholangitis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal / complications. Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal / immunology. Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal / pathology. Cholangitis, Sclerosing / complications. Cholangitis, Sclerosing / immunology. Cholangitis, Sclerosing / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gallbladder / immunology. Gallbladder / pathology. Humans. Immunoglobulin G / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Pancreatic Neoplasms / complications. Pancreatic Neoplasms / immunology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology. Plasma Cells / immunology. Plasma Cells / pathology. Young Adult


82. Riechelmann RP, Townsley CA, Chin SN, Pond GR, Knox JJ: Expanded phase II trial of gemcitabine and capecitabine for advanced biliary cancer. Cancer; 2007 Sep 15;110(6):1307-12
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  • [Title] Expanded phase II trial of gemcitabine and capecitabine for advanced biliary cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: A phase 2 trial of gemcitabine and capecitabine (GemCap) in patients with advanced biliary cancer led to an objective response in approximately 30% of patients and a median survival of 14 months.
  • METHODS: Patients aged >18 years and who had a diagnosis of locally advanced biliary cancer received first-line treatment with capecitabine at a dose of 650 mg/m(2) twice daily for 14 days and gemcitabine at a dose of 1,000 mg/m(2) on Day 1 and Day 8, every 3 weeks until disease progression.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The GemCap regimen is active in patients with biliary cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biliary Tract Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Bile Duct Neoplasms / drug therapy. Capecitabine. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives. Follow-Up Studies. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 17628484.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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83. Kim SY, Oh YL, Kim KM, Jeong EG, Kim MS, Yoo NJ, Lee SH: Decreased expression of Bax-interacting factor-1 (Bif-1) in invasive urinary bladder and gallbladder cancers. Pathology; 2008 Oct;40(6):553-7
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  • [Title] Decreased expression of Bax-interacting factor-1 (Bif-1) in invasive urinary bladder and gallbladder cancers.
  • AIMS: Mounting evidence indicates that deregulation of apoptosis is involved in the mechanisms of cancer development.
  • The aim of this study was to explore whether loss of Bif-1 expression occurs in urinary bladder (UB) and gallbladder (GB) cancer tissues.
  • METHODS: We analysed Bif-1 protein expression in 41 transitional cell carcinomas of UB and 26 GB adenocarcinomas by immunohistochemistry.
  • [MeSH-major] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / biosynthesis. Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / metabolism. Gallbladder Neoplasms / metabolism. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18752120.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / SH3GLB1 protein, human
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84. Khoo JJ, Nurul AM: A clinicopathological study of nine cases of gallbladder carcinoma in 1122 cholecystectomies in Johor, Malaysia. Malays J Pathol; 2008 Jun;30(1):21-6
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  • [Title] A clinicopathological study of nine cases of gallbladder carcinoma in 1122 cholecystectomies in Johor, Malaysia.
  • An audit of 1122 cholecystectomies for a 6-year period from 2000 to 2005 was done to review cases of primary carcinoma of gallbladder.
  • There were nine cases of primary carcinoma of gallbladder.
  • Intra-operatively, an additional four cases were suspected as gallbladder carcinoma with the remaining three cases diagnosed as only having gallstones.
  • Six (66.67%) cases of gallbladder carcinoma had abnormal macroscopical lesions noted; either papillary lesions or polypoid masses.
  • Seven cases were found histologically to be adenocarcinoma.
  • Of these, two were papillary carcinoma and one signet ring cell type adenocarcinoma.
  • This study highlights the importance of careful macroscopical and microscopical evaluation of a routine pathological examination of gallbladder removed for cholecystitis or cholelithiasis.
  • It provides the incidence of gallbladder carcinoma in patients who underwent cholecystectomies in a government hospital in Johor, Malaysia.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cholecystectomy. Cholecystitis / complications. Cholecystitis / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gallstones / complications. Gallstones / pathology. Humans. Malaysia. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19108407.001).
  • [ISSN] 0126-8635
  • [Journal-full-title] The Malaysian journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Malays J Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Malaysia
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85. Larghi A, Lecca PG, Ardito F, Rossi ED, Fadda G, Nuzzo G, Costamagna G: Evaluation of hilar biliary strictures by using a newly developed forward-viewing therapeutic echoendoscope: preliminary results of an ongoing experience. Gastrointest Endosc; 2009 Feb;69(2):356-60
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  • BACKGROUND: Obtaining a definitive tissue diagnosis in patients with hilar biliary strictures (HBS) is often difficult.
  • RESULTS: Visualization and puncture of the primary lesion with a definitive tissue diagnosis was obtained in all of the 4 cases performed.
  • In the other 2 patients, a diagnosis of resectable hilar cholangiocarcinoma and poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma of unclear origin without evidence of vascular involvement was made, and plastic stents were placed before surgery; the first patient was found to have peritoneal metastases, and resection was aborted, and in the second patient, a gallbladder tumor was diagnosed in the surgical specimen.
  • [MeSH-major] Cholestasis, Intrahepatic / diagnosis. Endosonography / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Aged. Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis. Bile Ducts, Intrahepatic. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cholangiocarcinoma / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Stents

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  • (PMID = 19185697.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6779
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastrointestinal endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastrointest. Endosc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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86. Kamoshida S, Shiogama K, Shimomura R, Inada K, Sakurai Y, Ochiai M, Matuoka H, Maeda K, Tsutsumi Y: Immunohistochemical demonstration of fluoropyrimidine-metabolizing enzymes in various types of cancer. Oncol Rep; 2005 Nov;14(5):1223-30
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical demonstration of fluoropyrimidine-metabolizing enzymes in various types of cancer.
  • In order to know the tumor types susceptible to respective fluoropyrimidines, we investigated the expression of DPD, OPRT, TP and TS in various types of cancer with the immunoperoxidase method.
  • These four enzymes existed in all of the cancer types studied, such as pulmonary, gastric, colorectal, hepatic, cholecystic, pancreatic, renal, urocystic, and mammary cancers.
  • Respective types of cancers presented characteristic immunohistochemical features as follows: pulmonary adenocarcinoma, DPD- and TP-high; pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma, TS- and TP-high; intestinal-type gastric adenocarcinoma, TP-high; diffuse-type gastric adenocarcinoma, DPD-low and TS-high; colorectal adenocarcinoma, DPD- and TP-low, hepatocellular carcinoma, DPD-high, and TS- and OPRT-low; cholecystic adenocarcinoma, DPD- and TS-high; renal cell carcinoma, DPD-low, and OPRT- and TP-high; urocystic transitional cell carcinoma, DPD-high and OPRT-low; and mammary ductal carcinoma, OPRT-low, and TS- and TP-high.
  • The enzyme expression pattern in cancer tissue was generally similar to that of their normal counterparts.
  • However, TP immunoreactivity in adenocarcinomas of the lung, stomach and gallbladder, and urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder was stronger, and DPD immunoreactivity in adenocarcinoma of the breast was weaker, when compared with normal epithelial cells.
  • These results indicated that the key enzymes influencing the effects of fluoropyrimidines differ from cancer to cancer.

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  • (PMID = 16211289.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; EC 1.3.1.2 / Dihydrouracil Dehydrogenase (NADP); EC 2.1.1.45 / Thymidylate Synthase; EC 2.4.2.10 / Orotate Phosphoribosyltransferase; EC 2.4.2.4 / Thymidine Phosphorylase; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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87. Samanic C, Chow WH, Gridley G, Jarvholm B, Fraumeni JF Jr: Relation of body mass index to cancer risk in 362,552 Swedish men. Cancer Causes Control; 2006 Sep;17(7):901-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Relation of body mass index to cancer risk in 362,552 Swedish men.
  • BACKGROUND: Obesity has been linked with increased risk for cancers of the colon, kidney, breast, endometrium and gallbladder.
  • For other cancer sites, the relationship with obesity is less well quantified, and the effect of weight change on cancer risk is unclear.
  • Incident cancer cases were identified by linkage to the Swedish cancer registry.
  • Poisson regression models were used to estimate relative risks of cancer for both body-mass index (BMI) at baseline exam and, in a subgroup of 107,815 men, change in BMI after six years of follow-up, adjusting for age and smoking status.
  • The risks were most pronounced for esophageal adenocarcinoma (RR = 2.7; 95% CI = 1.3-5.6), renal cell carcinoma (RR = 1.8; 95% CI = 1.4-2.4), malignant melanoma (RR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.1-1.7), and cancers of the colon (RR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.5-2.0), rectum (RR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.1-1.7), and liver (RR = 3.6; 95% CI = 2.6-5.0).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Obesity and weight gain increase the risk for several forms of cancer in men, and underscore the need for further study into carcinogenic mechanisms and preventive interventions.

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  • (PMID = 16841257.001).
  • [ISSN] 0957-5243
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer causes & control : CCC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Causes Control
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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88. von Meyenfeldt EM, Mantel SF, Gouma DJ, van Gulik TM: [Tumors in the gallbladder: a possible differentiation between malignant and benign tumours]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2007 May 12;151(19):1049-54
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  • [Title] [Tumors in the gallbladder: a possible differentiation between malignant and benign tumours].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumoren in de galblaas; een moeilijke differentiatie tussen maligniteit en goedaardige tumor.
  • In a 59-year-old woman with pain in the right upper abdomen, echography and CT-scan revealed adenomatosis of the gallbladder.
  • In a 46-year-old man with fever and weight loss, echography revealed two polyps in the gallbladder.
  • In a 63-year-old man with systemic symptoms, a biopsy of the echographically diagnosed tumour of the gallbladder revealed that he had actually had cholecystitis.
  • Following cholecystectomy, an adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder was found.
  • Patients with a tumour in the gallbladder are often diagnosed with gallbladder cancer, which has a poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cholecystectomy / methods. Gallbladder Diseases / diagnosis. Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Polyps / diagnosis. Polyps / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Ultrasonography / methods

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  • [CommentIn] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2007 Jul 21;151(29):1653; author reply 1653 [17727189.001]
  • [CommentIn] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2007 Jul 21;151(29):1652-3; author reply 1653 [17729454.001]
  • [CommentOn] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2007 May 12;151(19):1083-6 [17552418.001]
  • (PMID = 17552411.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comment; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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89. Gakiopoulou H, Givalos N, Liapis G, Agrogiannis G, Patsouris E, Delladetsima I: Hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder. Dig Dis Sci; 2007 Dec;52(12):3358-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cholecystectomy / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17510803.001).
  • [ISSN] 0163-2116
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive diseases and sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig. Dis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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90. Albores-Saavedra J, Galliani C, Chable-Montero F, Batich K, Henson DE: Mucin-containing Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses with extracellular mucin deposits simulating mucinous carcinoma of the gallbladder. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Nov;33(11):1633-8
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  • [Title] Mucin-containing Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses with extracellular mucin deposits simulating mucinous carcinoma of the gallbladder.
  • Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses (R-As) are epithelial invaginations that extend down the gallbladder wall through the smooth muscle gaps and by this pathway they reach the subserosal connective tissue.
  • They were compared with 10 mucinous carcinomas of the gallbladder.
  • The remaining 4 patients complained of right upper quadrant pain and had a thickened gallbladder wall identified by computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.
  • The overlying surface gallbladder epithelium exhibited papillary hyperplasia with focal intestinal metaplasia in 2 patients, one of which had metachromatic leukodystrophy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Gallbladder / pathology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Mucins / metabolism

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2011 Jan;35(1):153-4 [21164300.001]
  • (PMID = 19738458.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Mucins
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91. Nakadaira K, Kurosaki I, Ueki H: [Recurrent gallbladder carcinoma treated with combination chemotherapy with gemcitabine, CPT-11 and S-1--a successful case with metastatic tumors replaced by marked calcification]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2008 May;35(5):837-9
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  • [Title] [Recurrent gallbladder carcinoma treated with combination chemotherapy with gemcitabine, CPT-11 and S-1--a successful case with metastatic tumors replaced by marked calcification].
  • We described a case with recurrent gallbladder carcinoma, successfully treated by combination chemotherapy using gemcitabine, CPT-11, and S-1 that was administered as second-line chemotherapy after failure of gemcitabine monotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Gallbladder Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18487925.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Drug Combinations; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid; 7673326042 / irinotecan; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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92. Lin LL, Picus J, Drebin JA, Linehan DC, Solis J, Strasberg SM, Tan B, Thorstad WL, Myerson R: A phase II study of alternating cycles of split course radiation therapy and gemcitabine chemotherapy for inoperable pancreatic or biliary tract carcinoma. Am J Clin Oncol; 2005 Jun;28(3):234-41
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  • The purpose of the present study was to determine the toxicity and response to treatment with full-dose gemcitabine given between cycles of split-course radiation therapy (nonconcurrent treatment) for inoperable periampullary adenocarcinoma.
  • A total of 42 patients (40 pancreatic, 1 gallbladder, 1 biliary tract) were enrolled between March 1999 and July 2002.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Bile Duct Neoplasms / therapy. Carcinoma / therapy. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Dose Fractionation. Gallbladder Neoplasms / therapy. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Pancreatic Neoplasms / therapy. Radiation-Sensitizing Agents / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 15923794.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-453X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Radiation-Sensitizing Agents; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine
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93. Zhu AX, Clark JW, Ryan DP, Meyerhardt JA, Enzinger PC, Earle CC, Fuchs CS, Regan E, Anbe H, Houghton M, Zhang J, Urrea P, Kulke MH: Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of S-1 administered for 14 days in a 21-day cycle in patients with advanced upper gastrointestinal cancer. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2007 Feb;59(3):285-93
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  • [Title] Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of S-1 administered for 14 days in a 21-day cycle in patients with advanced upper gastrointestinal cancer.
  • One partial response was seen in a patient with gemcitabine-refractory pancreatic adenocarcinoma and ten patients with pancreatic, gastric, or gallbladder carcinomas achieved stable disease as their best response to therapy.

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  • (PMID = 16786333.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5704
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K23 CA 093401; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / K30 HL04095
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Drug Combinations; 150863-82-4 / S 1 (combination); 1548R74NSZ / Tegafur; 5VT6420TIG / Oxonic Acid
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94. Tsuchiya A, Endo Y, Yazawa T, Saito A, Inoue N: Adenoendocrine cell carcinoma of the gallbladder: report of a case. Surg Today; 2006;36(9):849-52
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  • [Title] Adenoendocrine cell carcinoma of the gallbladder: report of a case.
  • Adenoendocrine cell carcinoma of the gallbladder is an uncommon form of cancer.
  • The abnormality was diagnosed to be a tumor-like mass in the gallbladder, and adenomyomatosis of the gallbladder was strongly suspected.
  • A laparoscopic cholecystectomy was successfully performed, and the histopathological finding was adenoendocrine cell carcinoma of the gallbladder.
  • The tumor cells of the small round cell carcinoma partly stained positively for synaptophysin, neuron-specific enolase, and CD 56, while adenocarcinoma cells showed positive reactions to keratin, which was thus suggestive of adenoendocrine cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / surgery. Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic. Gallbladder Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16937295.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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95. Akatsu T, Aiura K, Shimazu M, Ueda M, Wakabayashi G, Tanabe M, Kawachi S, Kitajima M: Can endoscopic ultrasonography differentiate nonneoplastic from neoplastic gallbladder polyps? Dig Dis Sci; 2006 Feb;51(2):416-21
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  • [Title] Can endoscopic ultrasonography differentiate nonneoplastic from neoplastic gallbladder polyps?
  • The present study aimed to clarify the endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) features of nonneoplastic (cholesterol polyps and adenomyomatosis) and neoplastic (adenoma and adenocarcinoma) gallbladder polyps and to evaluate the effectiveness and limitation of EUS in the differential diagnosis of these lesions.
  • We retrospectively compared EUS images with histologic findings in 29 surgical cases with gallbladder polyps with a diameter of 10 to 20 mm.
  • However, three of nine neoplastic lesions (three adenomas and six adenocarcinomas) showed one of these signs due to concomitant cholesterosis (n = 2) or proliferated Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses (n = 1).
  • In conclusion, 69% (20/29) of gallbladder polyps larger than 10 mm that were preoperatively suspected of malignancy were nonneoplastic.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnostic imaging. Adenoma / diagnostic imaging. Endosonography. Gallbladder Diseases / diagnostic imaging. Gallbladder Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Polyps / diagnostic imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16534690.001).
  • [ISSN] 0163-2116
  • [Journal-full-title] Digestive diseases and sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dig. Dis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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96. Kameyama H, Shirai Y, Date K, Kuwabara A, Kurosaki R, Hatakeyama K: Gallbladder carcinoma presenting as exfoliative dermatitis (erythroderma). Int J Gastrointest Cancer; 2005;35(2):153-5
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  • [Title] Gallbladder carcinoma presenting as exfoliative dermatitis (erythroderma).
  • The authors recently encountered a patient with gallbladder carcinoma presenting as erythroderma.
  • After confirming the diagnosis of erythroderma, asymptomatic gallbladder carcinoma was found.
  • Histologic examination of resected specimens revealed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with negative resection margins.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / complications. Dermatitis, Exfoliative / etiology. Gallbladder Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 15879631.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-3649
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gastrointestinal cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Gastrointest Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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97. Ciulla A, Romeo G, Genova G, Tomasello G, Agnello G, Cstronovo G: Gallbladder carcinoma late metastases and incisional hernia at umbilical port site after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. G Chir; 2006 May;27(5):214-6
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  • [Title] Gallbladder carcinoma late metastases and incisional hernia at umbilical port site after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
  • A potentially serious complication of laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the inadvertent dissemination of unsuspected gallbladder carcinoma.
  • There are increasing reports of seeding of tumor at the trocar sites following laparoscopic cholecystectomy in patients with unexpected or inapparent gallbladder carcinoma.
  • Although the mechanism of the abdominal wall recurrence is still unclear, laparoscopic handling of the tumor, perforation of the gallbladder, and extraction of the specimen without an endobag may be risk factors for the spreading of malignant cells.
  • The Authors report the case of late development of umbilical metastasis after laparoscopic cholecystectomy; the presence of an incisional hernia and the finding of a stone in subcutaneous tissue demonstrate the diffusion of tumor cells into subcutaneous tissue during the extraction of gallbladder.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Neoplasms / secondary. Abdominal Wall. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic / adverse effects. Gallbladder Neoplasms. Hernia, Abdominal / etiology. Neoplasm Seeding

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  • (PMID = 16857110.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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98. Ogren M, Bergqvist D, Wåhlander K, Eriksson H, Sternby NH: Trousseau's syndrome - what is the evidence? A population-based autopsy study. Thromb Haemost; 2006 Mar;95(3):541-5
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  • Despite numerous studies documenting the association between cancer and venous thromboembolism (VTE), the reason for the excessive risk in certain cancers remains obscure.
  • No large-scale studies have yet investigated the independent effects of cancer type, site and growth pattern.
  • The relationship between cancer and PE was evaluated with logistic regression.
  • Forty-two per cent of pancreatic cancer patients had PE (OR 2.55; 95% CI 2.10-3.09) (p<0.001); gall bladder, gastric, colorectal and pulmonary adenocarcinomas were similarly independently associated with PE.
  • In comparison with squamous cell lung cancer, patients with pulmonary adenocarcinoma had 1.65 times higher odds for PE (95% CI 1.20-2.29).
  • Adenocarcinoma and metastatic cancer were independently associated with PE risk (OR 1.27; 95% CI 1.16-1.40; p<0.001, and OR 1.10;95% CI 1.01-1.20; p=0.024, respectively) but when controlling for cancer type and spread, pancreatic cancer was still associated with an OR of 2.10 (95% CI 1.71-2.58) of PE (p<0.001).
  • We conclude that the risk of PE in cancer patients depends not only on the cancer site and spread but also on the histological type.
  • The excess independent risk in pancreatic cancer is intriguing and should warrant further research.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Gallbladder Neoplasms / complications. Pancreatic Neoplasms / complications. Pulmonary Embolism / etiology. Stomach Neoplasms / complications


99. Buc E, Lesurtel M, Belghiti J: Is preoperative histological diagnosis necessary before referral to major surgery for cholangiocarcinoma? HPB (Oxford); 2008;10(2):98-105
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  • [Title] Is preoperative histological diagnosis necessary before referral to major surgery for cholangiocarcinoma?
  • When imaging techniques fail to establish the accurate diagnosis, biopsy of the lesion is unavoidable.
  • Provided that between 8% and 43% of bile duct strictures are not ECC, the lesions mimicking ECC that should be ruled out are gallbladder cancer, Mirizzi syndrome, primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), autoimmune pancreatitis and portal biliopathy.
  • Systematic biopsy is usually difficult and has poor sensitivity, but a good knowledge of these mimicking ECC diseases, along with precise analysis of clinical and imaging semiology, may lead to a correct diagnosis without the need for biopsy.
  • The lack of the primary site, a relatively large tumour size and ancillary findings such as bile duct dilatation may provide a clue to the diagnosis.
  • If not, we advocate local resection with lymph node dissection, since ICC is the most likely diagnosis and surgery is the only curative treatment.
  • In the event of adenocarcinoma from unknown primary, surgery is an effective treatment even if prognosis is poor.

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  • [ISSN] 1365-182X
  • [Journal-full-title] HPB : the official journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HPB (Oxford)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2504385
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100. Ortiz J, Reich D, Joon HB, Martinez O, Manzarbeitia C: Six year disease free survival after liver transplantation in a patient with T3 gallbladder carcinoma: case presentation and review of the literature. World J Surg Oncol; 2006;4:45
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  • [Title] Six year disease free survival after liver transplantation in a patient with T3 gallbladder carcinoma: case presentation and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: The incidence of gallbladder carcinoma in cirrhotics is unknown.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: A sixty year old with primary sclerosing cholangitis, cirrhosis, and gallbladder polyps underwent liver transplantation.
  • A polypoid lesion measuring 1.5 x 0.5 cm was found on the fundus of the gallbladder.
  • Histological examination revealed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma with full thickness penetration of the gallbladder encroaching liver parenchyma.
  • CONCLUSION: "Incidentally" discovered stage IIA gallbladder carcinoma may not negatively affect long term survival after liver transplantation.

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  • (PMID = 16842623.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1540419
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