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1. Maru DM, Singh RR, Hannah C, Albarracin CT, Li YX, Abraham R, Romans AM, Yao H, Luthra MG, Anandasabapathy S, Swisher SG, Hofstetter WL, Rashid A, Luthra R: MicroRNA-196a is a potential marker of progression during Barrett's metaplasia-dysplasia-invasive adenocarcinoma sequence in esophagus. Am J Pathol; 2009 May;174(5):1940-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] MicroRNA-196a is a potential marker of progression during Barrett's metaplasia-dysplasia-invasive adenocarcinoma sequence in esophagus.
  • Barrett's esophagus (BE)/Barrett's metaplasia (BM) is a recognized precursor of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) with an intermediary stage of dysplasia.
  • The low yield and high cost of endoscopic screening of patients with BE underscores the need for novel biomarkers, such as microRNA (miRNA), which have emerged as important players in neoplastic progression for risk assessment of developing dysplasia/adenocarcinoma.
  • Higher levels of miR-196a were observed in EA, BE, and dysplastic lesions compared with normal squamous mucosa, and in high-grade dysplasia compared with BE and low-grade dysplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Barrett Esophagus / diagnosis. Esophageal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Esophagus / pathology. MicroRNAs / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Calgranulin B / genetics. Calgranulin B / metabolism. Cornified Envelope Proline-Rich Proteins / genetics. Cornified Envelope Proline-Rich Proteins / metabolism. DNA Primers / chemistry. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Keratin-5 / genetics. Keratin-5 / metabolism. Male. Metaplasia. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Retrospective Studies. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 19342367.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-2191
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calgranulin B; 0 / Cornified Envelope Proline-Rich Proteins; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / KRT5 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-5; 0 / MIRN196 microRNA, human; 0 / MicroRNAs; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / SPRR2C protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2671281
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2. Ong CA, Lao-Sirieix P, Fitzgerald RC: Biomarkers in Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma: predictors of progression and prognosis. World J Gastroenterol; 2010 Dec 7;16(45):5669-81
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  • [Title] Biomarkers in Barrett's esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma: predictors of progression and prognosis.
  • Barrett's esophagus is a well-known premalignant lesion of the lower esophagus that is characterized by intestinal metaplasia of the squamous epithelium.
  • It is clinically important due to the increased risk (0.5% per annum) of progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA), which has a poor outcome unless diagnosed early.
  • The current clinical management of Barrett's esophagus is hampered by the lack of accurate predictors of progression.
  • Biomarkers have the potential to improve radically the clinical management of patients with Barrett's esophagus and EA but have not yet entered mainstream clinical practice.
  • This review aims to highlight the most promising predictive and prognostic biomarkers in Barrett's esophagus and EA and to discuss what is required to move the field forward towards clinical application.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Barrett Esophagus / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Esophageal Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 21128316.001).
  • [ISSN] 2219-2840
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U105365007
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Genetic Markers
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2997982
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3. Cook MB, Wild CP, Everett SM, Hardie LJ, Bani-Hani KE, Martin IG, Forman D: Risk of mortality and cancer incidence in Barrett's esophagus. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2007 Oct;16(10):2090-6
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Esophageal Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Risk of mortality and cancer incidence in Barrett's esophagus.
  • BACKGROUND: There are very few prospective follow-up studies of Barrett esophagus (BE) cohorts assessing the risk of extraesophageal cancer incidence or mortality.
  • RESULTS: All-cause mortality was found to be elevated in patients with BE [SMR, 1.21; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.06, 1.37] and remained so after esophageal cancers were excluded (SMR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.01-1.32).
  • Increased mortality risks were also found for malignant neoplasms of the esophagus (SMR, 7.26; 95% CI, 3.87-12.42) and diseases of the digestive system (SMR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.11-3.40).
  • Circulatory disease mortality was borderline statistically significant (SMR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.00-1.52; P = 0.053) for those with a specialized intestinal metaplasia diagnosis of BE.
  • In the cancer incidence analyses, esophageal malignancies (SIR, 8.66; 95% CI, 4.73-14.53) and esophageal adenocarcinomas (SIR, 14.29; 95% CI, 7.13-22.56) were found to be increased in BE.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study has shown evidence of an increased risk of esophageal cancer incidence and mortality in BE.
  • It has also shown that those who have a histologic BE diagnosis may also have an increased risk of circulatory disease mortality.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Barrett Esophagus / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality. Esophageal Neoplasms / mortality. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / mortality. Precancerous Conditions / mortality

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  • (PMID = 17890521.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Li M, Anastassiades CP, Joshi B, Komarck CM, Piraka C, Elmunzer BJ, Turgeon DK, Johnson TD, Appelman H, Beer DG, Wang TD: Affinity peptide for targeted detection of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus. Gastroenterology; 2010 Nov;139(5):1472-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Affinity peptide for targeted detection of dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus.
  • BACKGROUND & AIMS: Dysplasia is a premalignant condition in Barrett's esophagus that is difficult to detect on endoscopy because of its flat architecture and patchy distribution.
  • We aim to select and validate an affinity peptide that binds to esophageal dysplasia for future clinical studies.
  • METHODS: Peptide selection was performed using phage display by removing nonspecific binders using Q-hTERT (intestinal metaplasia) cells and achieving specific binding against OE33 (esophageal adenocarcinoma) cells.
  • On esophageal specimens (n = 12), the fluorescence intensity (mean ± SEM) in 1-mm intervals classified histologically as squamous (n = 145), intestinal metaplasia (n = 83), dysplasia (n = 61), and gastric mucosa (n = 69) was 46.5 ± 1.6, 62.3 ± 5.8, 100.0 ± 9.0, and 42.4 ± 3.0 arb units, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The peptide sequence SNFYMPL binds specifically to dysplasia in Barrett's esophagus and can be fluorescence labeled to target premalignant mucosa on imaging.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20637198.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-0012
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U54 CA163059; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U54 CA163059-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U54 CA13642; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U54 CA136429; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U54 CA136429-01
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Affinity Labels; 0 / Carrier Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS365874; NLM/ PMC3319360
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5. Buskens CJ, Hulscher JB, van Gulik TM, Ten Kate FJ, van Lanschot JJ: Histopathologic evaluation of an animal model for Barrett's esophagus and adenocarcinoma of the distal esophagus. J Surg Res; 2006 Oct;135(2):337-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Histopathologic evaluation of an animal model for Barrett's esophagus and adenocarcinoma of the distal esophagus.
  • INTRODUCTION: Barrett's esophagus and adenocarcinoma of the esophagus are related to long-standing duodeno-gastroesophageal reflux.
  • The development of an animal model in which Barrett's esophagus and/or carcinoma is induced by duodeno-(gastro-)esophageal reflux could provide better understanding of the pathogenesis of the metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence and would create the possibility of investigating new treatment strategies for this aggressive disease.
  • Sequential morphological changes (i.e., esophagitis, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, and carcinoma) were studied after 4, 6, and 12 months.
  • In these animals, extensive esophagitis with squamous cell hyperplasia was found.
  • After 1 year, 9 of the 10 animals had developed a glandular metaplastic segment (median length, 10 mm), which was histologically and immunohistologically characteristic for the specialized columnar epithelium of Barrett's esophagus without signs of dysplasia.
  • Finally, in seven animals a mucinous tumor with cytologic characteristics of a well-differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma was found without infiltrative growth.
  • Although they showed cytological characteristics of malignancy, histopathologic evaluation was more suggestive of a reactive mucous producing lesion fitting the diagnosis "esophagitis cystica profunda."
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Barrett Esophagus / pathology. Disease Models, Animal. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Gastrointestinal Tract / surgery


6. di Pietro M, Peters CJ, Fitzgerald RC: Clinical puzzle: Barrett's oesophagus. Dis Model Mech; 2008 Jul-Aug;1(1):26-31
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  • The incidence of oesophageal adenocarcinoma has increased dramatically in the Western world over the past two decades.
  • Owing to its dismal 5-year prognosis in advanced stages, early diagnosis is required in order to improve survival rates.
  • Barrett's is defined as the substitution of the normal stratified squamous epithelium of the oesophagus with a columnar cell lining with intestinal-type differentiation; a phenomenon commonly referred to as intestinal metaplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Barrett Esophagus / pathology. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biomarkers / analysis. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Disease Progression. Early Diagnosis. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Models, Biological

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  • (PMID = 19048049.001).
  • [ISSN] 1754-8411
  • [Journal-full-title] Disease models & mechanisms
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis Model Mech
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U105365007
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2561971
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7. Allameh A, Rasmi Y, Nasseri-Moghaddam S, Tavangar SM, Sharifi R, Sadreddini M: Immunohistochemical analysis of selected molecular markers in esophagus precancerous, adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma in Iranian subjects. Cancer Epidemiol; 2009 Jul;33(1):79-84
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunohistochemical analysis of selected molecular markers in esophagus precancerous, adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma in Iranian subjects.
  • AIM: To investigate changes in potential causative factors during progression of esophagus cancer in a population living in high-risk area in Iran.
  • SUBJECTS: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded esophageal specimens (n=87) from patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), Barrett's metaplasia, adenocarcinoma (ADC) and squamous cells carcinoma (SCC) were collected based on their pathological diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: P53 expression was not detected in esophageal tissues from normal and GERD samples, whereas it was found positive in Barrett's, ADC, and SCC samples.
  • CONCLUSION: The pathological changes in ADC and SCC samples which were associated with increasing frequency of NT and COX-2 provides further evidence for involvement of these inflammatory factors in progression of esophagus cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Esophageal Neoplasms / metabolism. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Barrett Esophagus / metabolism. Barrett Esophagus / pathology. Case-Control Studies. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21 / metabolism. Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism. Disease Progression. Esophagus / metabolism. Esophagus / pathology. Female. Gastroesophageal Reflux / metabolism. Gastroesophageal Reflux / pathology. Glutathione S-Transferase pi / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Iran. Male. Middle Aged. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism. Tyrosine / analogs & derivatives. Tyrosine / metabolism. Young Adult


8. Alvarez H, Rojas PL, Yong KT, Ding H, Xu G, Prasad PN, Wang J, Canto M, Eshleman JR, Montgomery EA, Maitra A: Mesothelin is a specific biomarker of invasive cancer in the Barrett-associated adenocarcinoma progression model: translational implications for diagnosis and therapy. Nanomedicine; 2008 Dec;4(4):295-301
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mesothelin is a specific biomarker of invasive cancer in the Barrett-associated adenocarcinoma progression model: translational implications for diagnosis and therapy.
  • Esophageal adenocarcinoma arises in the backdrop of Barrett metaplasia-dysplasia sequence, with the vast majority of patients presenting with late-stage malignancy.
  • Mesothelin expression was assessed in esophageal tissue microarrays encompassing the entire histological spectrum of Barrett-associated dysplasia and adenocarcinoma.
  • In contrast, normal squamous and cardiac mucosa, as well as noninvasive Barrett lesions, failed to label with mesothelin.
  • Mesothelin was expressed in the esophageal adenocarcinoma cell line JH-EsoAd1 but not in primary human esophageal epithelial cells.
  • Anti-mesothelin antibody-conjugated nanoparticles can be useful for the diagnosis and therapy of mesothelin-overexpressing esophageal adenocarcinomas.

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  • (PMID = 18691948.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-9642
  • [Journal-full-title] Nanomedicine : nanotechnology, biology, and medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nanomedicine
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA119397-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA119397; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA119397-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA119397
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / GPI-Linked Proteins; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / mesothelin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS79893; NLM/ PMC2606904
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9. Ormeci N, Savas B, Coban S, Palabiyikoğlu M, Ensari A, Kuzu I, Kursun N: The usefulness of chromoendoscopy with methylene blue in Barrett's metaplasia and early esophageal carcinoma. Surg Endosc; 2008 Mar;22(3):693-700
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The usefulness of chromoendoscopy with methylene blue in Barrett's metaplasia and early esophageal carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Barrett's esophagus is a condition that is premalignant for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and the esophagogastric junction.
  • Early detection of Barrett's metaplasia and dysplasia is very important to decrease the mortality and morbidity from esophageal adenocarcinoma cancer.
  • This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of methylene blue-targeted biopsies in the differential diagnosis of intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia, and superficial esophageal carcinoma.
  • The esophagus was stained with methylene blue, after which six biopsies were taken from stained and unstained areas.
  • However, there was no statistical difference between the two methods in the diagnosis of esophagitis or esophageal carcinoma (p > 0.05).
  • Stained biopsies were superior to unstained biopsies in terms of sensitivity for Barrett's epithelium and esophageal carcinoma (p < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSION: Chromoendoscopy is useful for delineating Barrett's epithelium and for indicating the correct location for securing biopsies where dysplasia or early esophageal cancer is suspected.
  • [MeSH-major] Barrett Esophagus / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Esophagoscopy / methods. Methylene Blue. Precancerous Conditions / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Needle. Cohort Studies. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Risk Assessment. Sensitivity and Specificity. Staining and Labeling / methods

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  • (PMID = 17704887.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2218
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical endoscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Endosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] T42P99266K / Methylene Blue
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10. Gaddam S, Sharma P: Advances in endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of Barrett's esophagus. J Dig Dis; 2010 Dec;11(6):323-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Advances in endoscopic diagnosis and treatment of Barrett's esophagus.
  • Barrett's esophagus (BE) is defined as abnormal specialized columnar metaplasia with intestinalization in place of the normal squamous esophageal epithelium.
  • Patients with high grade dysplasia (HGD) and early cancer have a high rate of progression to invasive adenocarcinoma and traditionally these patients were treated with esophagectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma. Barrett Esophagus. Endoscopy, Digestive System / trends. Esophageal Neoplasms

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
  • (PMID = 21091894.001).
  • [ISSN] 1751-2980
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of digestive diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dig Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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11. Montgomery E, Mamelak AJ, Gibson M, Maitra A, Sheikh S, Amr SS, Yang S, Brock M, Forastiere A, Zhang S, Murphy KM, Berg KD: Overexpression of claudin proteins in esophageal adenocarcinoma and its precursor lesions. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2006 Mar;14(1):24-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Overexpression of claudin proteins in esophageal adenocarcinoma and its precursor lesions.
  • The authors identified upregulation of Claudins 3, 4, and 7 in gastric adenocarcinoma using Affymetrix U-133 oligonucleotide microarrays and immunohistochemistry (IHC).
  • While normal gastric mucosa lacked Claudin 3, 4, and 7 expression, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia showed these proteins.
  • The authors hypothesized that Claudins would be similarly overexpressed in Barrett's esophagus (BE)/adenocarcinoma.
  • Claudins 3, 4, and 7 gene expression was analyzed by Affymetrix U-133 microarrays in three esophageal adenocarcinomas, one case of BE, and three normal esophagi.
  • IHC validation was performed using tissue microarrays constructed from esophageal resection specimens containing squamous (44 cases), gastric (40 cases), and non-dysplastic BE (16 cases), low-grade and high-grade dysplasia (16 and 26 cases), adenocarcinoma (58 cases), and nodal metastases (27 cases).
  • By microarray analysis, Claudin 3 showed a marked increase in mRNA expression compared with normal esophagus (approximately 100-fold).
  • By IHC, Claudin 3 expression was 1+ in most (>95%) normal squamous or gastric tissues and 2+ to 4+ in more than 80% of high-grade dysplasia, adenocarcinoma, and metastases specimens.
  • Claudin 4 protein expression was 2+ or less in most squamous and gastric mucosa (>90%) but 3+ or 4+ in BE, low- and high-grade dysplasia, adenocarcinoma, and metastases specimens (>90%).
  • Claudin 7 expression was minimal in squamous and gastric mucosa but strong (3+ to 4+) in BE and low-grade dysplasia.
  • In high-grade dysplasia, adenocarcinoma, and metastases, Claudin 7 was less intense, with 60% to 70% staining 3+ or 4+ and 30% to 40% staining weakly (1+ or 2+).
  • The findings suggest that alterations in Claudin proteins are an early event in tumorigenesis and may provide targets for diagnosis and directed therapy for esophageal adenocarcinoma and its precursors.

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  • (PMID = 16540726.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-2016
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CLDN3 protein, human; 0 / CLDN4 protein, human; 0 / CLDN7 protein, human; 0 / Claudin-3; 0 / Claudin-4; 0 / Claudins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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12. Jaquet Y, Pilloud R, Grosjean P, Radu A, Monnier P: Extended endoscopic mucosal resection in the esophagus and hypopharynx: a new rigid device. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol; 2007 Jan;264(1):57-62
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  • [Title] Extended endoscopic mucosal resection in the esophagus and hypopharynx: a new rigid device.
  • We present a new device allowing for the diagnosis and treatment of extended superficial lesions of the esophagus and hypopharynx such as early squamous cell carcinoma, intestinal metaplasia with high grade intraepithelial neoplasia or early adenocarcinoma arising in Barrett's esophagus.
  • The deep resection margin was precisely located at the submucosal level, a prerequisite for a safe resection of superficial cancers of the esophagus and hypopharynx.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Endoscopy / methods. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Esophageal Neoplasms / surgery. Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Hypopharyngeal Neoplasms / surgery. Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures / instrumentation
  • [MeSH-minor] Barrett Esophagus / pathology. Barrett Esophagus / surgery. Early Diagnosis. Equipment Design. Humans. Mucous Membrane / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17043858.001).
  • [ISSN] 0937-4477
  • [Journal-full-title] European archives of oto-rhino-laryngology : official journal of the European Federation of Oto-Rhino-Laryngological Societies (EUFOS) : affiliated with the German Society for Oto-Rhino-Laryngology - Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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13. Long KB, Hornick JL: SOX2 is highly expressed in squamous cell carcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract. Hum Pathol; 2009 Dec;40(12):1768-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] SOX2 is highly expressed in squamous cell carcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • SOX2 is a high-mobility group box embryonic stem cell transcription factor that is expressed in the developing foregut and normal gastric epithelium and is downregulated in intestinal metaplasia of the stomach and esophagus.
  • In addition, SOX2 colocalizes with p63 in the basal layer and plays a critical role in the maintenance of the stratified squamous epithelium of the esophagus.
  • SOX2 expression in squamous cell carcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract has not been previously evaluated.
  • The purpose of this study was to determine whether SOX2 is differentially expressed in squamous cell carcinomas versus adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and rectum/anal canal and to compare its expression to p63, cytokeratin 5/6, and CDX2.
  • In total, 93 tumors were evaluated: 26 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas, 23 esophageal adenocarcinomas, 21 squamous cell carcinomas of the anal canal, and 23 rectal adenocarcinomas.
  • SOX2 was expressed in 81% of esophageal squamous cell carcinomas and 91% of anal canal squamous cell carcinomas, compared to 13% and 17% of esophageal and rectal adenocarcinomas, respectively. p63 was expressed in 96% of esophageal squamous cell carcinomas and 100% of anal canal squamous cell carcinomas; the single squamous cell carcinoma negative for p63 was strongly positive for SOX2.
  • Cytokeratin 5/6 was expressed in most esophageal and anal canal squamous cell carcinomas, but was also positive in 43% of esophageal adenocarcinomas and 13% of rectal adenocarcinomas.
  • In summary, SOX2 is preferentially expressed in squamous cell carcinomas of the esophagus and anal canal compared to adenocarcinomas from these sites.
  • SOX2 may be useful in an immunohistochemical panel to differentiate between squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas of the gastrointestinal tract.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / metabolism. SOXB1 Transcription Factors / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Homeodomain Proteins / biosynthesis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratin-5 / biosynthesis. Keratin-6 / biosynthesis. Membrane Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19716157.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDX2 protein, human; 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Keratin-5; 0 / Keratin-6; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / SOX2 protein, human; 0 / SOXB1 Transcription Factors
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14. Maezato K, Nishimaki T, Oshiro M, Yamashiro T, Sasaki H, Sashida Y: Signet-ring cell carcinoma of the esophagus associated with Barrett's epithelium: report of a case. Surg Today; 2007;37(12):1096-101
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Signet-ring cell carcinoma of the esophagus associated with Barrett's epithelium: report of a case.
  • We herein report a case of infiltrative esophageal signet-ring cell carcinoma resembling gastric signet-ring cell carcinoma.
  • Grossly, the tumor was a diffusely infiltrative carcinoma involving the lower esophagus measuring 11 cm in diameter.
  • Histologically, the tumor was signet-ring cell carcinoma covered with normal squamous epithelium.
  • However, the most superficial part of the tumor center contained a region of Barrett's mucosa with incomplete-type intestinal metaplasia and a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma component with goblet cells.
  • The expression of cytokeratins 7 and 20 also indicated that both the Barrett's mucosa and the signet-ring cell carcinoma had an esophageal origin.
  • Esophageal signet-ring cell carcinoma with diffuse infiltrative growth is quite rare, and may need a special treatment strategy because of its highly aggressive behavior and poor treatment outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Barrett Esophagus / complications. Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / pathology. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Esophagectomy. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 18030574.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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15. Ponsot P: [Barrett's oesophagus: endoscopic diagnosis and follow-up]. Ann Chir; 2006 Jan;131(1):3-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Barrett's oesophagus: endoscopic diagnosis and follow-up].
  • Barrett's oesophagus (BO), or replacement of the squamous mucosa by a specialized intestinal metaplasia due to gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD), predisposes to adenocarcinoma.
  • Macroscopic diagnosis of BO is sometimes difficult and, in case of doubt, endoscopy should be redone after a period of efficient anti-secretory treatment.
  • Diagnosis of BO is histological and should be confirmed by biopsies.
  • The incidence of adenocarcinoma is globally estimated at 0.5% patient by year of follow-up, and exists for both short and long BO.
  • Due to this low incidence, screening for BO is only justified in patients at high risk for adenocarcinoma (male gender, age > 50 ans, old GORD in a young patient).
  • Low-grade dysplasia (LGD) then high-grade dysplasia (HGD) precedes adenocarcinoma.
  • Histological diagnosis of LGD is difficult: the main cause of confusion is inflammation so diagnosis of LGD must be confirmed after a 3-month high-dose anti-secretory treatment.
  • Diagnosis of HGD is easier but multiple biopsies are needed to determine the focal or multifocal disposition of HGD.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / etiology. Barrett Esophagus / diagnosis. Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal. Esophageal Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Gastroesophageal Reflux / complications. Humans. Prognosis. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 16376849.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-3944
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de chirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Chir
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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16. Chandrasoma P, Wijetunge S, Demeester SR, Hagen J, Demeester TR: The histologic squamo-oxyntic gap: an accurate and reproducible diagnostic marker of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Nov;34(11):1574-81
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  • This study provides a method to develop a histologic definition of GERD based on biopsies obtained from the affected esophagus.
  • Biopsies were obtained from the esophagus, around the gastroesophageal junction and the stomach: proximal, body, and antrum.
  • Patients who had oxyntocardiac±cardiac±intestinal epithelia between the squamous epithelium proximally and the proximal limit of gastric oxyntic mucosa distally were defined as having a squamo-oxyntic gap.
  • Only oxyntocardiac epithelium was seen in 190 (11.5%) of the patients, oxyntocardiac and cardiac epithelia in 898 (54.3%), and intestinal metaplasia in addition to the other 2 epithelial types in 567 (34.2%).
  • The prevalence of intestinal metaplasia was directly proportional to length of the squamo-oxyntic gap, being 24.3% (340/1399) when the length was <1 cm, and 83.5% (147/176) with length 1 to 5 cm.
  • All patients with a length more than 5 cm had intestinal metaplasia.
  • The distribution of the 3 epithelia was constant irrespective of the length of the squamocolumnar gap; intestinal metaplasia, when present, was seen maximally in the proximal region of the gap, cardiac epithelium intermediate and oxyntocardiac epithelium in the most distal segment of the gap.
  • The squamo-oxyntic gap started in a dilated region distal to the end of the tubular esophagus and distal to the proximal limit of the rugal folds and extended into the tubular esophagus.
  • Distal gastric biopsies showed no evidence of significant inflammation, intestinal metaplasia or Helicobacter pylori infection in 1543 (93.2%) of the patients, indicating that the squamo-oxyntic gap was largely independent of gastric pathology.
  • We provide evidence that the squamo-oxyntic gap is equivalent to the columnar-lined esophagus.
  • The presence of intestinal metaplasia within the squamo-oxyntic gap is the most accurate risk indicator for esophageal adenocarcinoma and defines Barrett esophagus.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Barrett Esophagus / diagnosis. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Esophageal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Esophagus / pathology. Gastroesophageal Reflux / diagnosis. Parietal Cells, Gastric / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. California. Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal. Humans. Metaplasia. Predictive Value of Tests. Reproducibility of Results. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. Severity of Illness Index

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2011 May;35(5):773; author reply 773-4 [21502913.001]
  • (PMID = 20871393.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Micev M, Cosić-Micev M: [Pathology and pathobiology of the oesophageal carcinoma]. Acta Chir Iugosl; 2010;57(2):15-26
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Identification of dysplasia in mucosal biopsies is the most reliable pathologic indicator of an increased risk of development of squamous cell carcinoma and passes through the sequence of chronic esophagitis, low-grade and high-grade dysplasia and invasive carcinoma.
  • Although Barrett's esophagus is a precursor to esophageal adenocarcinoma and have a well described sequence of carcinogenesis: the Barrett's metaplasia-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence, not all patients with this disorder require intensive surveillance.
  • More studies are needed to define other early nonmorphologic biomarkers for risk of squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Barrett Esophagus / complications. Barrett Esophagus / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Humans

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  • (PMID = 20954310.001).
  • [ISSN] 0354-950X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Iugoslavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir Iugosl
  • [Language] srp
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Serbia
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18. Dias Pereira A, Suspiro A, Chaves P: Cancer risk in Barrett's oesophagus. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2007 Nov;19(11):915-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • )Barrett's oesophagus results from the replacement of the normal squamous lining of the oesophagus by a columnar epithelium.
  • It is the sole known premalignant condition for oesophageal adenocarcinoma.
  • The prerequisite of the presence of intestinal metaplasia for the diagnosis of Barrett's oesophagus, although widely accepted, is questioned by some authors.
  • How adenocarcinoma incidence is influenced by requiring or not intestinal metaplasia for Barrett's oesophagus diagnosis is unknown.
  • Data on adenocarcinoma incidence in short segments (<3 cm) are very scarce, but it is believed to be lower than in long segments.
  • Frequently, therapeutic intervention is performed when high-grade dysplasia is diagnosed, preventing progression to adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Barrett Esophagus / pathology. Esophagus / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Disease Progression. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology. Esophagoscopy. Humans. Incidence. Intestines / pathology. Metaplasia. Risk

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  • (PMID = 18049157.001).
  • [ISSN] 0954-691X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gastroenterology & hepatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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19. Punia RS, Arya S, Mohan H, Duseja A, Bal A: Spectrum of clinico-pathological changes in Barrett oesophagus. J Assoc Physicians India; 2006 Mar;54:187-9
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  • OBJECTIVES: Barrett oesophagus is replacement of squamous epithelium to specialised intestinal metaplasia.
  • It is associated with an increased risk for adenocarcinoma which develops through dysplasia.
  • On histology examination, in 6 cases, squamous epithelium was replaced by intestinal epithelium containing goblet cells and in 7 cases it was replaced by gastric epithelium.
  • Associated dysplasia was not seen in any of the case, while one case showed associated adenocarcinoma.
  • There is a paucity of patients with pure dysplasia in Barrett metaplasia.
  • Despite the fact that there are a number of patients presenting with Barrett esophagus and carcinoma, very few patients present with dysplasia, indicating that Barrett oesophagus is a silent disease presenting later as a carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Barrett Esophagus / diagnosis. Barrett Esophagus / pathology. Esophageal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Esophageal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Biopsy. Esophagoscopy. Female. Humans. India. Male. Metaplasia. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Sex Factors. Staining and Labeling

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  • (PMID = 16800342.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-5772
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Assoc Physicians India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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20. Chandrasoma P: Controversies of the cardiac mucosa and Barrett's oesophagus. Histopathology; 2005 Apr;46(4):361-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Confusion regarding the diagnosis of Barrett's oesophagus exists because of a false dogma that cardiac mucosa is normally present in the gastro-oesophageal junctional region.
  • Recent data indicate that the only normal epithelia in the oesophagus and proximal stomach are squamous epithelium and gastric oxyntic mucosa.
  • When this fact is recognized, it becomes easy to develop precise histological definitions for the normal state (presence of only squamous and oxyntic mucosa), metaplastic oesophageal columnar epithelium (cardiac mucosa with and without intestinal metaplasia, and oxynto-cardiac mucosa), the gastro-oesophageal junction (the proximal limit of gastric oxyntic mucosa), the oesophagus (that part of the foregut lined by squamous and metaplastic columnar epithelium), reflux disease (the presence of metaplastic columnar epithelium), and Barrett's oesophagus (cardiac mucosa with intestinal metaplasia).
  • It is also possible to assess accurately the severity of reflux which is directly proportional to the amount of metaplastic columnar epithelium, and the risk of adenocarcinoma which is related to the amount of dysplasia in intestinal metaplastic epithelium present within the columnar lined segment of the oesophagus.
  • Histopathological precision cannot be matched by any other modality and can convert the confusion that exists regarding diagnosis of Barrett's oesophagus to complete lucidity in a manner that is simple, accurate, and reproducible.
  • [MeSH-major] Barrett Esophagus / pathology. Cardia / pathology. Gastric Mucosa / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Esophagogastric Junction / pathology. Humans. Metaplasia

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  • [CommentIn] Histopathology. 2006 Jul;49(1):97-8; author reply 98 [16842257.001]
  • (PMID = 15810947.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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21. Basseri B, Conklin JL, Mertens RB, Lo SK, Bellack GS, Shaye OA: Heterotopic gastric mucosa (inlet patch) in a patient with laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) and laryngeal carcinoma: a case report and review of literature. Dis Esophagus; 2009;22(4):E1-5
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  • The inlet patch is an area of heterotopic gastric mucosa most commonly located in the postcricoid portion of the esophagus at, or just below, the level of the upper esophageal sphincter.
  • Esophageal and supraesophageal symptoms are commonly associated with inlet patch, while esophageal adenocarcinoma rarely complicates it.
  • Laryngeal adenocarcinoma associated with inlet patch is not described in the literature.
  • Upper endoscopy at our institution revealed an upper esophageal stricture and a 1 cm inlet patch.
  • Biopsies showed columnar mucosa (predominantly gastric cardiac/fundic type) consistent with inlet patch, with focal intestinal metaplasia.
  • Dysphagia and regurgitation were improved by serial dilatations of the upper esophageal stricture.

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  • (PMID = 19473208.001).
  • [ISSN] 1442-2050
  • [Journal-full-title] Diseases of the esophagus : official journal of the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dis. Esophagus
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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22. di Pietro M, Fitzgerald RC: Barrett's oesophagus: an ideal model to study cancer genetics. Hum Genet; 2009 Aug;126(2):233-46
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Chronic gastro-oesophageal reflux disease can induce a metaplastic change of the distal oesophagus called Barrett's oesophagus whereby the normal squamous epithelium is substituted by a columnar epithelium.
  • Patients with Barrett's oesophagus are at increased risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma which occurs through dysplastic stages with increasing degree of cellular and architectural disorganization.
  • Here, we review the knowledge acquired so far on the genetic and molecular alterations along the oesophageal metaplasia-dysplasia-carcinoma sequence.
  • [MeSH-major] Barrett Esophagus / diagnosis. Barrett Esophagus / genetics. Esophageal Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Endoscopy / methods. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Male. Medical Oncology / methods. Metaplasia. Models, Biological. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19365640.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1203
  • [Journal-full-title] Human genetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Genet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U105365007
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 220
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23. Chlumská A, Boudová L, Benes Z, Zámecník M: Histopathologic changes in gastroesophageal reflux disease. A study of 126 bioptic and autoptic cases. Cesk Patol; 2007 Oct;43(4):142-7
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  • The histologic diagnosis of reflux esophagitis is still complicated by the lack of a consensus opinion on what is the normal mucosa in the area of the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ).
  • Most authors consider GEJ as the junction between the squamous and the cardiac epithelium.
  • These glands are in fact indistinguishable from metaplastic mucosa that arises in the distal esophagus in consequence of gastroesophageal reflux (GER).
  • In our series of 120 endoscopic biopsies of the GEJ and distal esophagus the cardia type mucosa (CM) was always present.
  • In 17 cases, CM displayed intestinal metaplasia (IM) predominantly of incomplete type and no dysplasia.
  • In one specimen of esophagus resected for adenocarcinoma, CM with incomplete IM was found in the vicinity of the tumor.
  • Squamous metaplastic epithelium was often seen near the orifices of submucosal esophageal glands in these areas, indicating the metaplastic nature of the glandular mucosa in the distal esophagus.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cardia / pathology. Esophagogastric Junction / pathology. Esophagus / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18188921.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-7875
  • [Journal-full-title] Československá patologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cesk Patol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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24. Jin Z, Olaru A, Yang J, Sato F, Cheng Y, Kan T, Mori Y, Mantzur C, Paun B, Hamilton JP, Ito T, Wang S, David S, Agarwal R, Beer DG, Abraham JM, Meltzer SJ: Hypermethylation of tachykinin-1 is a potential biomarker in human esophageal cancer. Clin Cancer Res; 2007 Nov 1;13(21):6293-300
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  • [Title] Hypermethylation of tachykinin-1 is a potential biomarker in human esophageal cancer.
  • PURPOSE: Our aim was to investigate whether and at what stage hypermethylation of the tachykinin-1 (TAC1) gene is associated with human esophageal neoplastic transformation.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: TAC1 promoter hypermethylation was examined by real-time methylation-specific PCR in 258 human esophageal specimens and 126 plasma samples from patients or tissues at various stages of neoplastic evolution.
  • RESULTS: TAC1 hypermethylation in tissue samples showed highly discriminative receiver-operator characteristic curve profiles, clearly distinguishing esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) from normal esophagus (P < 0.0001).
  • Both frequencies and normalized methylation values of TAC1 tissue methylation were significantly higher in Barrett's metaplasia (BE), dysplastic Barrett's esophagus, EAC, and ESCC than in normal esophagus (P < 0.01).
  • The frequency of TAC1 hypermethylation increased dramatically and early during neoplastic progression, from 7.5% in normal esophagus to 55.6% in BE from patients with Barrett's metaplasia alone, 57.5% in dysplastic Barrett's esophagus, and 61.2% in EAC.
  • CONCLUSIONS: TAC1 promoter hypermethylation is a common event in both major histologic types of human esophageal carcinoma, occurs early, correlates with other progression risk factors in esophageal adenocarcinogenesis, and is a tissue biomarker of a poor prognosis in ESCC.
  • Circulating methylated TAC1 promoter DNA also offers potential as a biomarker for the diagnosis of EAC.

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  • (PMID = 17975140.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / T32 DK067872; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA001808; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA085069; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA106763
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Tachykinins; 63231-63-0 / RNA; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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