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1. Hahn HS, Yoon SG, Hong JS, Hong SR, Park SJ, Lim JY, Kwon YS, Lee IH, Lim KT, Lee KH, Shim JU, Mok JE, Kim TJ: Conservative treatment with progestin and pregnancy outcomes in endometrial cancer. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2009 Aug;19(6):1068-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Conservative treatment with progestin and pregnancy outcomes in endometrial cancer.
  • INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of conservative treatment with progestin and pregnancy outcomes in women with early-stage endometrial cancer.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 35 patients with endometrial adenocarcinoma, who were treated with progestin from January 1996 to December 2006.
  • Women with early-stage grade 1 endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma, who wanted to receive conservative treatment or preserve fertility, were included.
  • Complete remission (CR) was defined as no evidence of endometrial adenocarcinoma or hyperplasia.
  • Partial remission was diagnosed when the patient developed endometrial hyperplasia, and persistent disease was defined as residual endometrial adenocarcinoma by pathologic confirmation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Conservative treatment with progestin can be considered a good therapeutic option in patients with well-differentiated early-stage endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma who wish to preserve their uteri or become pregnant.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / rehabilitation. Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / rehabilitation. Pregnancy Outcome. Progestins / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19820370.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Progestins; C2QI4IOI2G / Medroxyprogesterone Acetate; TJ2M0FR8ES / Megestrol Acetate
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2. Papanas N, Giatromanolaki A, Galazios G, Maltezos E, Sivridis E: Endometrial carcinoma and diabetes revisited. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2006;27(5):505-8
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  • [Title] Endometrial carcinoma and diabetes revisited.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether endometrial adenocarcinomas are intrinsically different in diabetic as compared to non-diabetic patients.
  • METHODS: A series of 208 patients with histologically confirmed endometrial adenocarcinomas were divided into groups of diabetic (n = 63) and non-diabetic (n = 145) patients.
  • RESULTS: A history of a second neoplasia was significantly more frequent in diabetic than in non-diabetic patients (p = 0.001), but other endometrial cancer associated characteristics, such as tumor morphology, FIGO stage, obesity, hypertension, nulliparity, estrogen use and menopausal status did not differ between the groups.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A second neoplasia occurred significantly more frequently in diabetic than in non-diabetic patients with endometrial carcinoma, but long-term survival and other clinical and histological features were the same in the two groups.
  • These results indicate that endometrial adenocarcinoma is not intrinsically different in diabetic patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Diabetes Complications. Endometrial Neoplasms / complications. Neoplasms, Second Primary / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 17139988.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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3. Bellone S, Shah HR, McKenney JK, Stone PJ, Santin AD: Recurrent endometrial carcinoma regression with the use of the aromatase inhibitor anastrozole. Am J Obstet Gynecol; 2008 Sep;199(3):e7-e10
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  • [Title] Recurrent endometrial carcinoma regression with the use of the aromatase inhibitor anastrozole.
  • Recurrent/metastatic endometrial adenocarcinoma that is not amenable to cure with local or regional therapy and/or chemotherapy represents a discouraging clinical entity for the clinician.
  • We report the case of 58-year-old woman with recurrent endometrial carcinoma that was resistant to chemotherapy that was treated successfully with the aromatase inhibitor anastrozole.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Aromatase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Nitriles / therapeutic use. Triazoles / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18550023.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6868
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aromatase Inhibitors; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Triazoles; 2Z07MYW1AZ / anastrozole
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4. Hanifi-Moghaddam P, Gielen SC, Kloosterboer HJ, De Gooyer ME, Sijbers AM, van Gool AJ, Smid M, Moorhouse M, van Wijk FH, Burger CW, Blok LJ: Molecular portrait of the progestagenic and estrogenic actions of tibolone: behavior of cellular networks in response to tibolone. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Feb;90(2):973-83
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  • Tibolone is a synthetic steroid with estrogenic effects on brain, vagina, and bone without stimulating the endometrium.
  • The objective of this study was to characterize the expression profile that reflects the endometrial responses to the separated estrogenic (growth-inducing) and progestagenic (growth-inhibiting) actions of tibolone, thus gaining insight into the counteracting effect of these properties of tibolone on the endometrium.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Cell Differentiation / drug effects. Cell Division / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Endometrial Neoplasms / genetics. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Estradiol / pharmacology. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Nerve Net. Transcription, Genetic / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 15572424.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogen Receptor Modulators; 0 / Norpregnenes; 0 / Progestins; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; FF9X0205V2 / tibolone
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5. Yoshida M, Watanabe G, Shirota M, Maekawa A, Taya K: Reduction of primordial follicles caused by maternal treatment with busulfan promotes endometrial adenocarcinoma development in donryu rats. J Reprod Dev; 2005 Dec;51(6):707-14
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  • [Title] Reduction of primordial follicles caused by maternal treatment with busulfan promotes endometrial adenocarcinoma development in donryu rats.
  • Ovarian dysfunction leading to hormonal imbalance plays a crucial role in uterine carcinogenesis in rats as well as women.
  • However, the effects of a reduction in primordial follicles at birth on uterine adenocarcinoma development have hitherto not been determined.
  • The present study was therefore conducted using female Donryu rats, a high incidence rat strain of uterine adenocarcinoma.
  • The incidence of uterine adenocarcinomas and multiplicity of uterine neoplastic lesions were significantly increased by the 5.0 mg/kg, but not the 2.5 mg/kg busulfan treatment.
  • These results provide evidence that the reduction of primordial follicles promotes uterine adenocarcinoma development in rats in association with an earlier occurrence of the persistent estrus status.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / etiology. Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating / pharmacology. Busulfan / pharmacology. Endometrial Neoplasms / etiology. Ovarian Diseases / chemically induced. Ovarian Follicle / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 16177545.001).
  • [ISSN] 0916-8818
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of reproduction and development
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Reprod. Dev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Gonadal Steroid Hormones; G1LN9045DK / Busulfan
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6. Yamamoto S, Tsuda H, Aida S, Shimazaki H, Tamai S, Matsubara O: Immunohistochemical detection of hepatocyte nuclear factor 1beta in ovarian and endometrial clear-cell adenocarcinomas and nonneoplastic endometrium. Hum Pathol; 2007 Jul;38(7):1074-80
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical detection of hepatocyte nuclear factor 1beta in ovarian and endometrial clear-cell adenocarcinomas and nonneoplastic endometrium.
  • Recent studies have noted specific expression of hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF) 1beta in ovarian clear-cell adenocarcinoma (CCA).
  • In this study, we aimed to determine whether HNF-1beta can be a specific marker of CCA in both the ovary and the endometrium and to assess the pathological significance of HNF-1beta expression in CCAs.
  • We examined HNF-1beta expression immunohistochemically in 186 ovarian carcinomas, including 40 CCAs; 33 endometrial carcinomas, including 5 CCAs; 22 endometria at different stages of the menstrual cycle (5 in the proliferative, 12 in the secretory, and 5 in the menstrual phases); and 7 gestational endometria.
  • The incidence of HNF-1beta immunoreactivity differed significantly between CCAs and other histology in both the ovary (100% in the former versus 2% in the latter) and the endometrium (100% in the former versus 0% in the latter) (P < .0001 each).
  • In nonneoplastic endometrium, 25% or more immunoreactive cells were confined to the mid-to-late secretory phase of the menstrual cycle and gestational endometrium.
  • HNF-1beta would be an excellent marker for distinguishing CCAs from other lesions in both the ovary and the endometrium.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Endometrium / metabolism. Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-beta / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17442376.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 138674-15-4 / Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-beta
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7. Hayasaka T, Nakahara K, Kojimahara T, Saito-Sekiguchi M, Motoyama T, Kurachi H: Endometrioid adenocarcinoma with a functioning stroma. J Obstet Gynaecol Res; 2007 Jun;33(3):381-3
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  • [Title] Endometrioid adenocarcinoma with a functioning stroma.
  • A case of a 70-year-old woman with endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the ovary with functioning stroma is presented.
  • The endometrial tissue showed hyperplastic changes.
  • The surgical specimens consisted of a multilocular cystic ovarian tumor of 95 mm in diameter and an enlarged uterus.
  • Histologically, the tumor was composed of proliferating, atypical, columnar cancer cells resembling early secretory endometrial cells, and condensation of plumed stromal cells resembling theca lutein cells.
  • The diagnosis of endometrial adenocarcinoma of the ovary with functioning stroma was made.
  • Mucinous epithelial ovarian tumors most commonly present with estrogenic stroma, although the frequency of endometrioid adenocarcinoma with functioning stroma is very low.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Estradiol / blood. Follicle Stimulating Hormone / blood. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17578372.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-8076
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone
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8. Marcos Sánchez F, Sánchez Díaz E, Marrupe González D, Albo Castaño MI, Viana Alonso A, Juárez Ucelay F: [Carcinoma of the Fallopian tube: a case]. An Med Interna; 2006 Feb;23(2):83-5
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  • [Title] [Carcinoma of the Fallopian tube: a case].
  • [Transliterated title] Un caso de carcinoma de trompa de Falopio.
  • Pathological study showed proliferative endometrium, bilateral follicular cysts and well differentiated serous adenocarcinoma located at fallopian tube.
  • [MeSH-major] Fallopian Tube Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16566658.001).
  • [ISSN] 0212-7199
  • [Journal-full-title] Anales de medicina interna (Madrid, Spain : 1984)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Med Interna
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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9. Ozbudak IH, Karaveli S, Simsek T, Erdogan G, Pestereli E: Neoangiogenesis and expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha, vascular endothelial growth factor, and glucose transporter-1 in endometrioid type endometrium adenocarcinomas. Gynecol Oncol; 2008 Mar;108(3):603-8
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  • [Title] Neoangiogenesis and expression of hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha, vascular endothelial growth factor, and glucose transporter-1 in endometrioid type endometrium adenocarcinomas.
  • METHODS: Expression of HIF-1alpha VEGF, and GLUT-1 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and microvessel density (MVD) was determined by CD 34 immunostaining in 100 endometrioid type endometrial adenocarcinoma, FIGO Stages I-IV.
  • CONCLUSION: HIF-1alpha was increasingly expressed from early stages through advance stages of endometrioid adenocarcinoma, paralleled by activation of its downstream genes such as GLUT-1, VEGF and increased angiogenesis.
  • These results highlight the importance of hypoxia and related pathways in progression of endometrial carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / metabolism. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / physiopathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 18191183.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucose Transporter Type 1; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
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10. Temkin SM, Pezzullo JC, Hellmann M, Lee YC, Abulafia O: Is body mass index an independent risk factor of survival among patients with endometrial cancer? Am J Clin Oncol; 2007 Feb;30(1):8-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Is body mass index an independent risk factor of survival among patients with endometrial cancer?
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether body mass index (BMI) is an independent risk factor for survival in patients with endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • METHODS: Women treated for endometrial cancer at the State University of New York (SUNY), Downstate and Kings County Hospital between January 1982 and September 2003 were eligible.
  • Patients were divided into groups based upon their histology at the time of diagnosis.
  • The first included patients with low-grade endometrioid adenocarcinoma (FIGO grades 1 and 2); the second included grade 3 endometrioid adenocarcinoma; and the third contained papillary serous and clear cell carcinomas.
  • There were 312 patients (70%) treated for low-grade endometrial adenocarcinoma; 64 patients (14%) for grade 3 endometrioid adenocarcinoma; and 71 patients (16%) for papillary serous and clear cell adenocarcinoma.
  • BMI was also correlated to tumor grade, stage at diagnosis, age, and race.
  • Statistical analyses revealed the majority of the association between BMI and survival can be attributed to the association between BMI and these other risk factors for survival in endometrial cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Increased BMI is associated with survival advantage among patients with endometrial cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / physiopathology. Body Mass Index. Endometrial Neoplasms / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 17278888.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-453X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Shah YM, Rowan BG: The Src kinase pathway promotes tamoxifen agonist action in Ishikawa endometrial cells through phosphorylation-dependent stabilization of estrogen receptor (alpha) promoter interaction and elevated steroid receptor coactivator 1 activity. Mol Endocrinol; 2005 Mar;19(3):732-48
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The Src kinase pathway promotes tamoxifen agonist action in Ishikawa endometrial cells through phosphorylation-dependent stabilization of estrogen receptor (alpha) promoter interaction and elevated steroid receptor coactivator 1 activity.
  • Tamoxifen is the most widely used selective estrogen receptor modulator for breast cancer in clinical use today.
  • However, tamoxifen agonist action in endometrium remains a major hurdle for tamoxifen therapy.
  • To examine these mechanisms, the effect of src kinase on estrogen and tamoxifen signaling in tamoxifen-resistant Ishikawa endometrial adenocarcinoma cells was assessed.
  • Src kinase exhibited the additional function of potentiating the transcriptional activity of Gal-steroid receptor coactivator 1 (SRC-1) and Gal-cAMP response element binding protein-binding protein in endometrial cancer cells while having no effect on Gal-p300-associated factor and Gal fusions of the other p160 coactivators glucocorticoid-interacting protein 1 (transcriptional intermediary factor 2/nuclear coactivator-2/SRC-2) and amplified in breast cancer 1 (receptor-associated coactivator 3/activator of transcription of nuclear receptor/SRC-3).
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tamoxifen / agonists. Tamoxifen / analogs & derivatives. Tamoxifen / pharmacology. src-Family Kinases / metabolism


12. Ferrandina G, Zannoni GF, Petrillo M, Vellone V, Martinelli E, Scambia G: Glassy cell carcinoma of the endometrium: a case report and review of the literature. Pathol Res Pract; 2007;203(4):217-20
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  • [Title] Glassy cell carcinoma of the endometrium: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Glassy cell carcinomas are composed of malignant cells showing a "ground glass" cytoplasm, distinct cell membranes, and large nuclei with prominent nucleoli.
  • To our knowledge, only 12 cases of glassy cell endometrial carcinomas (EGCC) have been reported until now.
  • A 63-year-old patient complaining of irregular vaginal bleeding underwent hysteroscopy-guided biopsy revealing a well-differentiated endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
  • The final diagnosis was FIGO stage IB poorly differentiated endometrial adenosquamous carcinoma with > 90% of glassy tumor cells.
  • The patient is alive, with no evidence of disease for 69 months after diagnosis.
  • We describe an additional case of EGCC and review the data of the literature, emphasizing the need to strictly define the criteria for the diagnosis and the potential usefulness of assessing biologic parameters for the prognostic characterization of this rare entity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Hypertension / pathology. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Uterine Hemorrhage / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17400400.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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13. Lane G: Obesity and gynaecological cancer. Menopause Int; 2008 Mar;14(1):33-7
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  • [Title] Obesity and gynaecological cancer.
  • The problem of obesity has significant implications for the diagnosis and treatment of gynaecological cancer.
  • The cancer most frequently associated with obesity is that of the endometrium.
  • The risk of endometrial cancer is 2-3 times higher in overweight and obese women.
  • With regard to ovarian cancer the evidence is inconsistent.
  • Few data are available regarding cervical cancer and obesity.
  • There is evidence that obesity is associated with adenocarcinoma rather than squamous carcinoma.
  • Data on vulval cancer and obesity are scant.

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  • (PMID = 18380959.001).
  • [ISSN] 1754-0453
  • [Journal-full-title] Menopause international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Menopause Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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14. Boutet G: [Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (Mirena) and breast cancer: what do we learn from literature for clinical practice?]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil; 2006 Nov;34(11):1015-23
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  • [Title] [Levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (Mirena) and breast cancer: what do we learn from literature for clinical practice?].
  • [Transliterated title] Dispositif intra-utérin au lévonorgestrel (Mirena) et cancer du sein: que nous apporte la littérature pour la pratique quotidienne?
  • Annual occurrence of breast cancer is constantly increasing in France.
  • In 2000, the number of breast cancer cases for women of 30-49 years was estimated at 9,918, which represents 23.7% of all breast cancer cases diagnosed that year.
  • Because contraception is an important matter for women whose ovarian function survived cancer treatments, the question of whether to use such device on a woman with breast cancer has become a frequent and controversial gynaecological issue.
  • First, whether the use of IUD LNG increases the risk of breast cancer: there is at the moment no "A" level answer available.
  • Second, whether the use of IUD LNG counterbalances the endometrial effects of Tamoxifene: based on a limited level of evidence via a single randomised controlled trial on a small number of patients for one year only, this device appears to be able to prevent benign endometrial modifications.
  • However, there is no conclusive study regarding its effectiveness on the prevention of endometrium adenocarcinoma caused by Tamoxifene.
  • Third, whether a woman with a personal antecedent of breast cancer can safely use DIU LNG: it is necessary to remove it promptly upon suspicion or diagnosis, to dissuade its use in case of current cancer, and, in the event of cancer remission for more than 5 years, to generally avoid this contraceptive method except on a case by case basis and with a regular medical follow-up.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / prevention & control. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Endometrial Neoplasms / prevention & control. Evidence-Based Medicine. Female. France / epidemiology. Humans. Middle Aged. Tamoxifen / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17092752.001).
  • [ISSN] 1297-9589
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynécologie, obstétrique & fertilité
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol Obstet Fertil
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Contraceptive Agents, Female; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 5W7SIA7YZW / Levonorgestrel
  • [Number-of-references] 59
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15. Kyroudi A, Paefthimiou M, Symiakaki H, Mentzelopoulou P, Voulgaris Z, Karakitsos P: Increasing diagnostic accuracy with a cell block preparation from thin-layer endometrial cytology: a feasibility study. Acta Cytol; 2006 Jan-Feb;50(1):63-9
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  • [Title] Increasing diagnostic accuracy with a cell block preparation from thin-layer endometrial cytology: a feasibility study.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate (1) the feasibility of preparing cell blocks by inverted filter sedimentation (IFS-CB) from endometrial samplings processed by the ThinPrep (TP) technique (Cytyc Corp., Boxborough, Massachusetts, U.S.A.
  • ), and (2) the possibility of increasing the diagnostic accuracy of TP endometrial cytology by examining the tissue architecture as an adjunctive method of detecting endometrial lesions.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Three hundred one endometrial samplings were obtained, using the Endogyn endometrial device (Biogyn S. n.c., Italy), from perimenopausal and postmenopausal women.
  • The endometrial samplings were collected in a vial with liquid fixative for the TP processing.
  • Diagnoses on IFS-CB preparations obtained by endometrial sampling matched those of the hysterectomy specimens.
  • The addition of IFS-CB histology to the cytologic diagnosis by TP increased the diagnostic accuracy of endometrial cytology to 96.3% and 100% for benign/atrophic endometrium and adenocarcinoma, respectively (p = 0.39 and 0.46).
  • CONCLUSION: This study illustrates the merit of linking TP cytology with direct endometrial sampling, including small tissue fragments and material adequate for IFS-CB preparation.
  • TP cytology provides an accurate cytologic diagnosis and the possibility of IFS-CB preparation, which could be a valuable diagnostic adjunct to TP cytology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Endometrial Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endometrium / pathology. Specimen Handling

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  • (PMID = 16514842.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Halabalaki M, Alexi X, Aligiannis N, Lambrinidis G, Pratsinis H, Florentin I, Mitakou S, Mikros E, Skaltsounis AL, Alexis MN: Estrogenic activity of isoflavonoids from Onobrychis ebenoides. Planta Med; 2006 May;72(6):488-93
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  • Compounds 1 - 4 induced cell proliferation and gene expression in breast and endometrial cancer cells in an ER-dependent manner.
  • While the antiestrogen ICI 182,780 could inhibit the induction of proliferation of ER-positive breast cancer cells by 1-4, it could not prevent 1 from exhibiting significant ER-independent cytotoxicity at 10 microM.
  • By contrast, 1 was much less cytotoxic and only weakly estrogenic for ER-positive endometrial adenocarcinoma cells.

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  • (PMID = 16773531.001).
  • [ISSN] 0032-0943
  • [Journal-full-title] Planta medica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Planta Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Isoflavones; 0 / Phytoestrogens; 0 / Plant Extracts
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17. Stewart CJ, Little L: Immunophenotypic features of MELF pattern invasion in endometrial adenocarcinoma: evidence for epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Histopathology; 2009 Jul;55(1):91-101
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  • [Title] Immunophenotypic features of MELF pattern invasion in endometrial adenocarcinoma: evidence for epithelial-mesenchymal transition.
  • AIMS: Endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinomas (EEC) may show a distinctive morphological alteration characterized by the presence of microcystic, elongated and fragmented ('MELF') glands.
  • These changes share features of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in carcinomas arising at other sites.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Immunophenotyping. Mesoderm / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19614771.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cadherins; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone
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18. Puppa G, Shozu M, Perin T, Nomura K, Gloghini A, Campagnutta E, Canzonieri V: Small primary adenocarcinoma in adenomyosis with nodal metastasis: a case report. BMC Cancer; 2007;7:103
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  • [Title] Small primary adenocarcinoma in adenomyosis with nodal metastasis: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Malignant transformation of adenomyosis is a very rare event.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: The patient was a 57-year-old woman with a slightly enlarged uterus, who underwent total hysterectomy and unilateral adnexectomy.
  • On gross inspection, the uterine wall displayed a single nodule measuring 5 cm and several small gelatinous lesions.
  • A few of these glands were transformed into a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma.
  • The endometrium was completely examined and tumor free.
  • The carcinoma was, therefore, considered to be an endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from adenomyosis.
  • Four months later, an ultrasound scan revealed enlarged pelvic lymph nodes: a cytological diagnosis of metastatic adenocarcinoma was made.
  • Immunohistochemical studies showed an enhanced positivity of the tumor site together with the neighbouring adenomyotic foci for estrogen receptors, aromatase, p53 and COX-2 expression when compared to the distant adenomyotic glands and the endometrium.
  • CONCLUSION: Adenocarcinoma in adenomyosis may be affected by local hormonal influence and, despite its small size, may metastasize.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adenomyoma / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Leiomyoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17584489.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 1.14.14.1 / Aromatase; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1913924
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19. Carico E, Atlante M, Giarnieri E, Raffa S, Bucci B, Giovagnoli MR, Vecchione A: E-cadherin and alpha-catenin expression in normal, hyperplastic and neoplastic endometrium. Anticancer Res; 2010 Dec;30(12):4993-7
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  • [Title] E-cadherin and alpha-catenin expression in normal, hyperplastic and neoplastic endometrium.
  • The aim of this study was to determine whether modulation of expression of cell adhesion molecules may occur in neoplastic transformation of endometrial epithelium.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: E-Cadherin and α-catenin protein expression were evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 124 biopsies representative of normal, hyperplastic and neoplastic endometrium.
  • RESULTS: In normal endometrium (proliferative, secretive and atrophic endometrium) strong homogeneous, E-cadherin and α-catenin reactivity was found; 58.3% and 66.6% of biopsies representative of simple hyperplastic endometrium were homogeneously positive for E-cadherin and α-catenin, respectively, whereas no samples representative of atypical hyperplasia showed evidence of homogeneous E-cadherin or α-catenin expression.
  • No expression of homogeneous E-cadherin was seen in endometrial adenocarcinomas; α-catenin homogeneous immunostaining was observed in 2 G1 and 2 G2 out of 22 adenocarcinoma samples (18.2%).
  • A homogeneous co-expression of both molecules was seen only in normal (70%) and simple hyperplastic (46%) endometrium.
  • CONCLUSION: These results suggest that E-cadherin and α-catenin down-regulation might be associated with neoplastic transformation of endometrial tissues.
  • [MeSH-major] Cadherins / biosynthesis. Endometrial Hyperplasia / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. alpha Catenin / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Endometrium / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Prognosis. Tissue Distribution

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  • (PMID = 21187480.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cadherins; 0 / alpha Catenin
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20. Allison KH, Reed SD, Voigt LF, Jordan CD, Newton KM, Garcia RL: Diagnosing endometrial hyperplasia: why is it so difficult to agree? Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 May;32(5):691-8
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  • [Title] Diagnosing endometrial hyperplasia: why is it so difficult to agree?
  • Current World Health Organization classification of endometrial hyperplasia is problematic because of poor diagnostic reproducibility.
  • We sought to determine factors that cause diagnostic disagreement in a review of 2601 endometrial specimens.
  • Blinded random specimens of normal endometrium, hyperplasias, and carcinoma were reviewed by 2 pathologists, with review by a third pathologist in cases with disagreement.
  • All cases of endometrial hyperplasia or carcinoma were scored for degree of glandular crowding, architectural complexity, and cytologic atypia.
  • Sample adequacy, hyperplasia volume, presence of metaplasia, or endometrial polyp were also scored.
  • The percent specific agreement was 90.3% for no hyperplasia, 31.1% for simple hyperplasia, 51.1% for complex hyperplasia, 49.8% for atypical hyperplasia, and 57.5% for adenocarcinoma.
  • High diagnostic disagreement in endometrial hyperplasia is related to both sample adequacy and interpretation of histologic features present.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Endometrial Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endometrium / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cohort Studies. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Observer Variation. Reproducibility of Results. Single-Blind Method. World Health Organization

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  • (PMID = 18347507.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD044813; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD044813-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS103495; NLM/ PMC2682169
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21. Fanfani F, Fagotti A, Restaino G, Guerriero M, Scambia G: Endometrial cancer arising in both horns of didelphys uterus in a Down's syndrome woman. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 Jun;101(3):537-9
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  • [Title] Endometrial cancer arising in both horns of didelphys uterus in a Down's syndrome woman.
  • BACKGROUND: There are only few reports of endometrial cancer arising in patients with uterine malformations.
  • Down's syndrome is characterized by a reduced risk of solid tumors, and there are no reports about its correlation with uterine malformations.
  • CASE: An endometrial adenocarcinoma arising in both horns of a didelphys uterus of a Down's syndrome woman.
  • CONCLUSION: Uterine malformations and genetical disorders may cause a delayed diagnosis of gynecological cancers.
  • Gynecological examination in asymptomatic patients and differential diagnosis in abnormal uterine bleeding patients should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Down Syndrome / complications. Endometrial Neoplasms / complications. Uterus / abnormalities

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  • (PMID = 16487578.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Gurgan T, Bozdag G, Demirol A, Ayhan A: Preserving fertility before assisted reproduction in women with endometrial carcinoma: case report and literature review. Reprod Biomed Online; 2007 Nov;15(5):561-5
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  • [Title] Preserving fertility before assisted reproduction in women with endometrial carcinoma: case report and literature review.
  • Fertility-preserving treatment with progestin may be considered in nulliparous women with well-differentiated endometrial carcinoma.
  • Owing to persistent menstrual irregularity and thick endometrium, a diagnostic office hysteroscopy with endometrial biopsy was performed and revealed a well-differentiated adenocarcinoma.
  • Although the woman wished to retain her childbearing potential with conservative management followed by an assisted reproduction cycle, the repeated endometrial biopsies during progestin treatment revealed persistent adenocarcinoma.
  • Complementary surgery was performed due to persistent endometrial malignancy, which noted well-differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinoma without myometrial invasion or extrauterine disease.
  • A review of cases with endometrial carcinoma that have been treated with conservative management and a subsequent assisted cycle is also presented here.
  • Therefore, patient and physician should always consider carefully if fertility-preserving management is preferred after diagnosis of endometrial carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / drug therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Fertility. Megestrol Acetate / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18028748.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-6483
  • [Journal-full-title] Reproductive biomedicine online
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reprod. Biomed. Online
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; TJ2M0FR8ES / Megestrol Acetate
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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23. Stone P, Burnett A, Burton B, Roman J: Overcoming extreme obesity with robotic surgery. Int J Med Robot; 2010 Dec;6(4):382-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Obesity is often associated with endometrial cancer and has posed a challenge in surgical management.
  • For the patient with uterine cancer, surgery is necessary for staging, control of symptoms and cure.
  • While surgery is the principal modality for the treatment and management of uterine cancer, the morbidly obese patient faces increased complications and longer postoperative recovery.
  • She was diagnosed with endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterus, FIGO grade 1.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Since obesity is a significant risk factor for endometrial cancer and the prevalence of obesity is increasing, developing surgical techniques to appropriately manage these patients is important.
  • With the increasing obesity of our population and the high prevalence of uterine cancer, further advancement of equipment, anaesthesia and surgical techniques to accommodate the larger patient while decreasing complications have yet to be standardized.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / surgery. Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery. Laparoscopy / methods. Obesity, Morbid / complications. Robotics / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 20812220.001).
  • [ISSN] 1478-596X
  • [Journal-full-title] The international journal of medical robotics + computer assisted surgery : MRCAS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Med Robot
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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24. Kim JJ, Chapman-Davis E: Role of progesterone in endometrial cancer. Semin Reprod Med; 2010 Jan;28(1):81-90
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  • [Title] Role of progesterone in endometrial cancer.
  • Progesterone is a key hormone in the endometrium that opposes estrogen-driven growth.
  • Insufficient progesterone will result in unopposed estrogen action that could lead to the development of endometrial hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma.
  • Although these endometrial neoplasias can regress in response to progestin treatment, this does not occur in all instances.
  • To understand this resistance to progesterone and to improve on existing hormonal therapies, it is imperative that the molecular mechanisms of progesterone action through its receptor be deciphered in endometrial cancer.
  • This review highlights what is known thus far regarding the efficacy of progestin therapy in the clinic and the role of progesterone in endometrial cancer cell behavior and gene regulation.

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  • (PMID = 20104432.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-4564
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Reprod. Med.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA127674-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA127674; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA127674; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA127674-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Progestins; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone
  • [Number-of-references] 85
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS282704; NLM/ PMC4767501
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25. Hidaka T, Nakamura T, Shima T, Yuki H, Saito S: Paclitaxel/carboplatin versus cyclophosphamide/adriamycin/cisplatin as postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy for advanced endometrial adenocarcinoma. J Obstet Gynaecol Res; 2006 Jun;32(3):330-7
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  • [Title] Paclitaxel/carboplatin versus cyclophosphamide/adriamycin/cisplatin as postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy for advanced endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • AIM: There is no standard chemotherapy regimen for patients with advanced endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • METHODS: Twenty-eight patients who underwent surgery and had histologically confirmed advanced endometrial adenocarcinoma, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage III/IV, received combination chemotherapy.
  • National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria grade 3-4 thrombocytopenia and gastrointestinal toxicities occurred significantly less frequently in the paclitaxel/carboplatin group (0% and 16.7%) than in the CAP group (31.3% and 68.8%) (P = 0.0389 and P = 0.0062).
  • CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that paclitaxel/carboplatin is a promising regimen which could be substituted for CAP, with major activity and a highly acceptable toxicity profile for the treatment of advanced endometrial adenocarcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16764625.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-8076
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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26. Ma XX, Zhang SL, Gao S, Lu JM, Dong F: [Expressions of aromatase protein and sex hormone receptor in endometrial lesions]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Jun;41(6):395-8
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  • [Title] [Expressions of aromatase protein and sex hormone receptor in endometrial lesions].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the expression of aromatase protein, estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and nuclear antigen associated with cell proliferation Ki67 in endometrial diseases and their clinical significance in diagnosis and endocrine therapy of endometrial diseases.
  • METHOD: Expressions of aromatase, ER, PR and Ki-67 were detected with immunohistochemistry technic (streptavidin-peroxidase-biotin, SP) in 148 cases including 30 of endometrial hyperplasia, 30 of atypical proliferation and 88 of endometrial adenocarcinoma as observational group and 15 cases of proliferative endometrium and 15 cases of secretory endometrium as control group.
  • RESULTS: Expression of aromatase protein and ER, PR, Ki67 in endometrial hyperplasia, atypical proliferation had no significant difference comparing with the proliferative endometrium group (P > 0.05).
  • In endometrial adenocarcinoma, the expression of aromatase protein increased obviously (64%, 56/88), which was higher than in benign diseases [atypical proliferation group was 23% (7/30), endometrial hyperplasia group was 13% (4/30)] and control group significantly (P < 0.01).
  • The positive expression of ER, PR in endometrial adenocarcinoma decreased [22% (19/88), 19% (17/88)], and Ki67 increased (41%, 36/88) and there was a significant difference compared with control group (P < 0.01).
  • Aromatase was not consistent with ER, PR and Ki67 in endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Aromatase protein is related to the incidence of endometrial adenocarcinoma, and the expression of proteins (aromatase, ER, PR and Ki67) provides theoretical basis for understanding biological behavior of endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Aromatase / metabolism. Endometrial Hyperplasia / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Endometrium / metabolism. Receptors, Steroid / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16831363.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-567X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 0 / Receptors, Steroid; EC 1.14.14.1 / Aromatase
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27. Ibáñez Pinto A, Fernández Salgado E, Castro Ortiz E, Baltar Arias R, Vázquez Vázquez S, Ledo Barro L, Vázquez San Luis J, Vázquez Astray E: [Gastrointestinal bleeding of obscure origin caused by a metastatic endometrial adenocarcinoma. Response to hormonal therapy]. Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2007 Nov;30(9):530-4
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  • [Title] [Gastrointestinal bleeding of obscure origin caused by a metastatic endometrial adenocarcinoma. Response to hormonal therapy].
  • [Transliterated title] Hemorragia digestiva de origen incierto por un adenocarcinoma endometrial metastásico. Respuesta al tratamiento hormonal.
  • BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common gynecologic malignancy.
  • A computed tomography scan showed extensive lymphatic, abdominal and pelvic recurrence of the cancer.
  • Control of bleeding and a 22-month survival were obtained after treatment with oral medroxyprogesterone acetate.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / secondary. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / etiology. Medroxyprogesterone Acetate / therapeutic use. Pelvic Neoplasms / secondary. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17980130.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-5705
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterología y hepatología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol Hepatol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; C2QI4IOI2G / Medroxyprogesterone Acetate
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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28. Kato S, Pinto M, Carvajal A, Espinoza N, Monsó C, Bravo L, Villalon M, Cuello M, Quest AF, Suenaga A, Brosens JJ, Owen GI: Tissue factor is regulated by epidermal growth factor in normal and malignant human endometrial epithelial cells. Thromb Haemost; 2005 Aug;94(2):444-53
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  • [Title] Tissue factor is regulated by epidermal growth factor in normal and malignant human endometrial epithelial cells.
  • TF is also expressed in normal human endometrium but little is known about its expression or regulation in endometrial cancer.
  • We demonstrate herein that TF is expressed in the endometrial adenocarcinoma cell line Ishikawa.
  • Furthermore, immunocytochemistry confirmed that TF is regulated by EGF in primary cultures of normal endometrial epithelial cells and malignant tumor cells.
  • Our results suggest that TF may play an integral role in endometrial carcinogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Endometrium / metabolism. Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Thromboplastin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Anticoagulants / pharmacology. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Cells, Cultured. Coagulants / metabolism. Cycloheximide / pharmacology. Dactinomycin / pharmacology. Detergents / pharmacology. Estradiol / metabolism. Female. Glycoproteins / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors / pharmacology. Octoxynol / pharmacology. Progesterone / metabolism. Promoter Regions, Genetic. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Sucrose / pharmacology. Time Factors. Transfection. Ultracentrifugation. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 16113838.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-6245
  • [Journal-full-title] Thrombosis and haemostasis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thromb. Haemost.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticoagulants; 0 / Coagulants; 0 / Detergents; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; 57-50-1 / Sucrose; 62229-50-9 / Epidermal Growth Factor; 9002-93-1 / Octoxynol; 9035-58-9 / Thromboplastin; 98600C0908 / Cycloheximide
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29. Wong OG, Huo Z, Siu MK, Zhang H, Jiang L, Wong ES, Cheung AN: Hypermethylation of SOX2 Promoter in Endometrial Carcinogenesis. Obstet Gynecol Int; 2010;2010
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  • [Title] Hypermethylation of SOX2 Promoter in Endometrial Carcinogenesis.
  • This paper aimed at investigating the expression and methylation profiles of SOX2, a gene coding for the stem cell-related transcription factor SOX2, in endometrial carcinomas.
  • By methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MS-PCR), the methylation status of SOX2 promoter region in 72 endometrial carcinomas and 12 normal endometrial samples was examined.
  • Methylated allele was found in 37.5% (27/72) of endometrial carcinomas but only in 8.3% (1/12) of normal endometrial, significantly more frequent in cancers (P = .0472).
  • SOX2 mRNA level was significantly reduced in endometrial carcinoma compared with nonneoplastic endometrium (P = .045).
  • Hypermethylation of SOX2 tended to be more frequently found in type II serous or clear cell adenocarcinoma.
  • In conclusion, epigenetic mechanisms may play a crucial role on the transcriptional regulation of SOX2 and loss of SOX2 expression may be related to endometrial carcinogenesis.

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  • (PMID = 20814443.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-9597
  • [Journal-full-title] Obstetrics and gynecology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obstet Gynecol Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2929617
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30. Shimazaki K, Lepin EJ, Wei B, Nagy AK, Coulam CP, Mareninov S, Fu M, Wu AM, Marks JD, Braun J, Gordon LK, Wadehra M: Diabodies targeting epithelial membrane protein 2 reduce tumorigenicity of human endometrial cancer cell lines. Clin Cancer Res; 2008 Nov 15;14(22):7367-77
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  • [Title] Diabodies targeting epithelial membrane protein 2 reduce tumorigenicity of human endometrial cancer cell lines.
  • PURPOSE: Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy.
  • In addition, the efficacy of EMP2 diabodies on endometrial cancer tumors was determined using mouse xenograft models.
  • RESULTS: Treatment of human endometrial adenocarcinoma cell lines with anti-EMP2 diabodies induced significant cell death and caspase-3 cleavage in vitro.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that EMP2 may be a potential pharmacologic target for human endometrial cancer.

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  • (PMID = 19010852.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / T32 AI007323; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA016042; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R03 HD048540; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA131756; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA086306; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016042; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / 2-T32-AI-07323; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009120; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA009120; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U54 CA119367; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA131756-01A1; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R03 HD048540-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA86306; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA131756-01A1; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD48540
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / EMP2 protein, human; 0 / Immunoglobulin Fragments; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS290195; NLM/ PMC3109074
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31. Balmer NN, Richer JK, Spoelstra NS, Torkko KC, Lyle PL, Singh M: Steroid receptor coactivator AIB1 in endometrial carcinoma, hyperplasia and normal endometrium: Correlation with clinicopathologic parameters and biomarkers. Mod Pathol; 2006 Dec;19(12):1593-605
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  • [Title] Steroid receptor coactivator AIB1 in endometrial carcinoma, hyperplasia and normal endometrium: Correlation with clinicopathologic parameters and biomarkers.
  • Members of the p160 steroid receptor cofactor family, including AIB1 (Amplified in Breast Cancer 1) (also known as SRC-3/RAC3/ACTR/pCIP/TRAM-1), are of interest in endometrial carcinoma as they affect the function of estrogen (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR).
  • Since it is feasible that alterations in the expression levels of coregulators can either augment ER activity or reduce the ability of PR to oppose ER action in endometrial cancers, our primary aim was to analyze expression of the AIB1 protein in endometrial carcinoma, carcinoma-associated complex atypical hyperplasia, and carcinoma-associated normal endometrium using immunohistochemistry and tissue microarrays.
  • We also tested AIB1 expression in non-carcinoma associated hyperplastic, normal secretory and proliferative endometrium to determine baseline AIB1 levels.
  • In endometrial carcinoma, there is a higher expression of AIB1 compared to carcinoma-associated complex atypical hyperplasia (0.007) or carcinoma-associated normal endometrium (<0.001).
  • AIB1 expression correlates with older age (P = 0.003), peri- or postmenopausal status (P = 0.002) and a higher grade of carcinomas (P = 0.04).
  • AIB1 levels were higher in non-carcinoma associated normal and hyperplastic endometrium compared to carcinoma-associated complex atypical hyperplasia and carcinoma-associated normal endometrium, and were the highest in normal secretory endometrium.
  • In conclusion, high AIB1 expression in endometrial carcinoma is associated with parameters of poor prognosis.
  • We propose that when AIB1 is overexpressed in endometrial carcinoma, ER action is augmented, leading to endometrial hyperplasia and progression to malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Endometrial Hyperplasia / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Endometrium / metabolism. Histone Acetyltransferases / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Trans-Activators / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16980945.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5P50 CA098258
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 0 / Trans-Activators; EC 2.3.1.48 / Histone Acetyltransferases; EC 2.3.1.48 / NCOA3 protein, human; EC 2.3.1.48 / Nuclear Receptor Coactivator 3
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32. Paul-Samojedny M, Witek A, Samojedny A, Witkowska A, Wilczok T: Human telomerase RNA as endogenous control in endometrial tissue. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2005 Mar-Apr;15(2):343-8
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  • [Title] Human telomerase RNA as endogenous control in endometrial tissue.
  • Endometrial dating was determined from the pathomorphology of the endometrium and classified into normal proliferative endometrium, endometrial hyperplasia (simple, complex, and atypical), and endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • The aim of the study was an analysis of the expression profiles of genes encoding hTR and TP1 telomerase subunits in normal endometrium, endometrial hyperplasia, and adenocarcinoma for the estimation of the possibility of once application in endogenous RNA control of gene analysis in the endometrium.
  • The nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test and analysis of variance Friedman test were used to evaluate the variation in telomerase subunit mRNA level between normal endometrium, and endometrial hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma.
  • The results confirm the hTR subunit expression as a good marker of endogenous control in quantitative analysis of gene transcription in endometrial tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carrier Proteins / biosynthesis. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Endometrial Hyperplasia / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. RNA / biosynthesis. Telomerase / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor. Cell Differentiation. Endometrium / pathology. Endometrium / physiology. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation. Humans. Middle Aged. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 15823123.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / TEP1 protein, human; 0 / telomerase RNA; 63231-63-0 / RNA; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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33. Wang Y, Liu VW, Xue WC, Tsang PC, Cheung AN, Ngan HY: The increase of mitochondrial DNA content in endometrial adenocarcinoma cells: a quantitative study using laser-captured microdissected tissues. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Jul;98(1):104-10
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  • [Title] The increase of mitochondrial DNA content in endometrial adenocarcinoma cells: a quantitative study using laser-captured microdissected tissues.
  • OBJECTIVE: Microsatellite instability (MSI) is a frequent genetic event in the D-loop region (which controls mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication) of mitochondrial genome of endometrial cancer.
  • We therefore investigated the relationship between mtMSI and mtDNA content in endometrial cancer.
  • METHODS: Tumor tissues from 65 cancer patients and normal tissues from 41 non-cancer patients were used in this study.
  • Pure endometrial adenocarcinoma cells and normal endometrial glandular epithelial cells were collected by laser capture microdissection, and analyzed for levels of mtDNA copy number by real-time quantitative PCR.
  • RESULTS: Our data show that mtDNA copy number was not related with age in both endometrial cancer and normal endometrium cells.
  • Great inter-individual variations in mtDNA copy number in endometrial cancer group were found; and mtDNA content was significantly larger than that in normal endometrium group.
  • About 2-fold increase of mtDNA copy number was found in endometrial adenocarcinoma compared with normal endometrial glandular epithelium (P = 0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate that mtDNA copy number increased during endometrial cancer development.
  • There is also a correlation between the mtDNA instability and mtDNA content in endometrial cancer cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. DNA, Mitochondrial / genetics. Endometrial Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15921730.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Mitochondrial; 9004-22-2 / Globins
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34. Bergeron C, Amant F, Ferenczy A: Pathology and physiopathology of adenomyosis. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol; 2006 Aug;20(4):511-21
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  • Adenomyosis is defined by the presence of endometrial mucosa within the myometrium.
  • This probably occurs by invagination of the basalis endometrium into the myometrium.
  • Most cases of adenomyosis are discovered in multiparous women during the 'transitional' years (40-50 years), and the condition is associated with menorrhagia, dysmenorrhoea, endometrial polyps and leiomyomata uteri.
  • Endometrioid adenocarcinoma is often associated with adenomyosis, is frequently of early stage and low histological grade, is hormone-sensitive, and has an excellent prognosis.
  • Extension of malignant growth into foci of adenomyosis has no adverse effect on prognosis.
  • Definite diagnosis and treatment of adenomyosis are obtained by hysterectomy.
  • Although adenomyotic endometrial glands are hormone-sensitive, exogenous progestogenic agents are ineffective for the treatment of adenomyosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometriosis / pathology. Uterine Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Danazol / therapeutic use. Endometrial Hyperplasia / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Estrogen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Female. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / agonists. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / therapeutic use. Humans. Hysterectomy. Leiomyoma / pathology. Middle Aged. Polyps / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16563870.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-6934
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical obstetrics & gynaecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogen Antagonists; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; N29QWW3BUO / Danazol
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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35. Topuz S, Kalelioğlu I, Iyibozkurt C, Ergun B: Conservative management of a patient with endometrial carcinoma desiring fertility: how to inform? Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2008;29(6):661-3
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  • [Title] Conservative management of a patient with endometrial carcinoma desiring fertility: how to inform?
  • Conservative management of patients with endometrial cancer who desire fertility is becoming widespread in certain circumstances.
  • A 36-year-old women desiring fertility with early-stage endometroid type adenocarcinoma of the endometrium was treated with 160 mg/d megestrol acetate for six months.
  • After confirmation of a normal endometrial biopsy she became pregnant spontaneously.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / drug therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Megestrol Acetate / therapeutic use. Patient Participation

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  • (PMID = 19115702.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; TJ2M0FR8ES / Megestrol Acetate
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36. Caquant F, Mas-Calvet M, Turbelin C, Lesoin A, Lefebvre D, Narducci F, Querleu D, Leblanc E: [Endometrial cancer by laparoscopy and vaginal approach in the obese patient]. Bull Cancer; 2006 Apr;93(4):402-6
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  • [Title] [Endometrial cancer by laparoscopy and vaginal approach in the obese patient].
  • [Transliterated title] La voie d'abord chirurgicale coeliovaginale chez les patientes obèses atteintes d'un cancer de l'endomètre.
  • To prove feasibility of laparoscopic and vaginal surgical approach in obese patients with endometrial cancer, 81 patients were included retrospectively in 2 Cancer Centres : 41 obese and 40 non obese.
  • Matching 41 obese patients treated by laparoscopy with 29 obese patients with endometrial cancer treated by laparotomy, hospital stay was shorter in the laparoscopic group (3.8 [2-8] vs 7.4 days [5-10] p < 0.001) and pelvic nodes (16.3 [3-50] vs 11.5 [2-34]), operative time (149.9 [80-300] vs 167.9 minutes [60-390]) and disease-free survival (93 vs 80 %) were similar.
  • For obese patients with stage I endometrial adenocarcinoma, laparoscopic approach should be first choice because of similar operative complications and pelvic nodes, shorter hospital stay and less abdominal wall morbidity associated with lower risk to delay adjuvant radiotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures / methods. Laparoscopy / methods. Obesity / complications

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  • (PMID = 16627243.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-6917
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin du cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Cancer
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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37. Kobayashi H, Kajiwara H, Kanayama S, Yamada Y, Furukawa N, Noguchi T, Haruta S, Yoshida S, Sakata M, Sado T, Oi H: Molecular pathogenesis of endometriosis-associated clear cell carcinoma of the ovary (review). Oncol Rep; 2009 Aug;22(2):233-40
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  • [Title] Molecular pathogenesis of endometriosis-associated clear cell carcinoma of the ovary (review).
  • Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the leading cause of death in women with gynecological malignancies.
  • Among EOC, clear cell carcinoma (CCC) and endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EAC) differ from the other histological types with respect to their clinical characteristics and carcinogenesis.
  • A histologically normal ectopic endometrium bears genetic damages caused by iron-dependent oxidative stress.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / etiology. Endometriosis / complications. Ovarian Neoplasms / etiology


38. Stewart CJ, Amanuel B, Grieu F, Carrello A, Iacopetta B: KRAS mutation and microsatellite instability in endometrial adenocarcinomas showing MELF-type myometrial invasion. J Clin Pathol; 2010 Jul;63(7):604-8
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  • [Title] KRAS mutation and microsatellite instability in endometrial adenocarcinomas showing MELF-type myometrial invasion.
  • BACKGROUND: Some uterine endometrioid adenocarcinomas exhibit a distinctive morphological phenotype characterised by the formation of microcystic, elongated and fragmented (MELF) glands.
  • AIMS: To investigate the molecular characteristics of endometrial tumours showing MELF, with particular reference to the frequencies of KRAS and BRAF mutations and of microsatellite instability (MSI).
  • METHODS: MSI, and KRAS and BRAF mutation status, were assessed in 33 low-grade endometrial adenocarcinomas showing MELF features and the results compared with 33 control cases exhibiting a 'conventional' pattern of myometrial invasion.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Mutations in KRAS and BRAF genes are not directly implicated in the development of a MELF pattern of invasion in endometrial carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Endometrial Neoplasms / genetics. Microsatellite Instability. Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. ras Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20591910.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / KRAS protein, human; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
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39. Canaani J, Ilan N, Back S, Gutman G, Vlodavsky I, Grisaru D: Heparanase expression increases throughout the endometrial hyperplasia-cancer sequence. Int J Gynaecol Obstet; 2008 May;101(2):166-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Heparanase expression increases throughout the endometrial hyperplasia-cancer sequence.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the expression of heparanase in the different stages leading to endometrial cancer.
  • METHODS: The 38 examined specimens included adenocarcinoma, hyperplasia, and normal endometrium specimens.
  • RESULTS: Secretory normal endometrium and simple hyperplasia specimens expressed the lowest mean values of expression (1.00 and 0.63, respectively); the complex hyperplasia specimens and G2 endometrioid adenocarcinoma showed the highest values of expression (2.33 and 2.71, respectively).
  • A linear trend (P=0.005) of heparanase expression was observed when comparing the normal endometrium and simple hyperplasia group with the complex hyperplasia+G1 carcinoma group and the G2+G3 carcinoma group.
  • Evaluation of atrophic and inactive endometrium compared with papillary serous carcinomas yielded no significant differences.
  • CONCLUSION: Heparanase expression was tightly regulated in endometrial tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / enzymology. Endometrial Hyperplasia / enzymology. Endometrial Hyperplasia / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / enzymology. Glucuronidase / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18221741.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7292
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Gynaecol Obstet
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 3.2.1.- / heparanase; EC 3.2.1.31 / Glucuronidase
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40. Michener CM, Peterson G, Kulp B, Webster KD, Markman M: Carboplatin plus paclitaxel in the treatment of advanced or recurrent endometrial carcinoma. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2005 Sep;131(9):581-4
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  • [Title] Carboplatin plus paclitaxel in the treatment of advanced or recurrent endometrial carcinoma.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the combination of carboplatin plus paclitaxel in patients with advanced, metastatic and recurrent endometrial cancer.
  • METHODS: Medical records were retrospectively reviewed to identify endometrial cancer patients treated in the Gynecologic Cancer Program of the Cleveland Clinic with carboplatin/paclitaxel who had both a histologic diagnosis of endometrial adenocarcinoma and either measurable (CT scan, physical examination) or evaluable (CA-125 criteria) disease.
  • With a median follow-up of 42 months, 13 patients have died of progressive cancer, while four currently have no evidence of disease at the time of last follow-up.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The combination of carboplatin plus paclitaxel demonstrates substantial biological activity in endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • The safety and efficacy of this regimen makes it an attractive option for first-line chemotherapy in patients with advanced or recurrent endometrial carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasm Metastasis / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15959825.001).
  • [ISSN] 0171-5216
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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41. Minaguchi T, Nakagawa S, Takazawa Y, Nei T, Horie K, Fujiwara T, Osuga Y, Yasugi T, Kugu K, Yano T, Yoshikawa H, Taketani Y: Combined phospho-Akt and PTEN expressions associated with post-treatment hysterectomy after conservative progestin therapy in complex atypical hyperplasia and stage Ia, G1 adenocarcinoma of the endometrium. Cancer Lett; 2007 Apr 8;248(1):112-22
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  • [Title] Combined phospho-Akt and PTEN expressions associated with post-treatment hysterectomy after conservative progestin therapy in complex atypical hyperplasia and stage Ia, G1 adenocarcinoma of the endometrium.
  • Young patients with complex atypical hyperplasia (CAH) or stage Ia, G1 adenocarcinoma (IaG1) of the endometrium, who desire to preserve fertility, can select the conservative therapy by oral progestin, medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Endometrial Hyperplasia / therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / therapy. Medroxyprogesterone Acetate / therapeutic use. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16919866.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contraceptive Agents, Female; 0 / Progestins; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; C2QI4IOI2G / Medroxyprogesterone Acetate; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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42. Kogan EA, Niziaeva NV, Demura TA, Ezhova LS, Unanian AL: [The morphological and immunohiochemical features of foci of adenomyosis: in its concurrence with endometrial adenocarcinoma]. Arkh Patol; 2010 Jul-Aug;72(4):7-12
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  • [Title] [The morphological and immunohiochemical features of foci of adenomyosis: in its concurrence with endometrial adenocarcinoma].
  • The purpose of the investigation was to study the morphological variants and molecular changes of the endothelial component of adenomyosis (AM) concurrent with endometrial adenocarcinoma (EAC).
  • The foci of AM, which corresponded to epithelial hyperplasia with atypia, were characterized by the oncomarker changes supporting its malignant potential: elevated Ki-67 and EGRF, reduced E-cadherin, changes in MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and claudins-2, -3, and -5.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma. Endometrial Neoplasms. Endometriosis. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis


43. Scudder SA, Liu PY, Wilczynski SP, Smith HO, Jiang C, Hallum AV 3rd, Smith GB, Hannigan EV, Markman M, Alberts DS, Southwest Oncology Group: Paclitaxel and carboplatin with amifostine in advanced, recurrent, or refractory endometrial adenocarcinoma: a phase II study of the Southwest Oncology Group. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Mar;96(3):610-5
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  • [Title] Paclitaxel and carboplatin with amifostine in advanced, recurrent, or refractory endometrial adenocarcinoma: a phase II study of the Southwest Oncology Group.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the response rate and progression free and overall survival of patients with advanced endometrial cancer treated with paclitaxel, carboplatin and amifostine.
  • METHODS: Forty-seven eligible patients (median age: 66; range 45-82) with bidimensionally measurable advanced, recurrent, or refractory endometrial cancer were treated with carboplatin (AUC = 6), paclitaxel (175 mg/M2) and amifostine (740 mg/M2) every 4 weeks for 6 cycles or until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity.
  • The median progression-free survival (PFS) was 7 months (95% CI, 6-9 months) and a 6-month PFS rate of 64% (95% CI, 50% to 78%).
  • The regimen demonstrated significant activity in endometrial cancer, comparable to other multi-agent chemotherapy programs in terms of response rate and survival, and with a favorable toxicity profile.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15721401.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA03096; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA04919; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA12213; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA12644; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA13612; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA14028; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA20319; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA22433; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA32102; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA35090; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA35119; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA35178; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA35261; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA35431; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA35996; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA37981; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA38926; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA42777; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA45450; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA45461; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA45560; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA46113; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA46282; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA46368; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA46441; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA58861; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA63844; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA63850; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA67575; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA68183; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA76132; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA76462
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; M487QF2F4V / Amifostine; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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44. Mulligan AM, Plotkin A, Rouzbahman M, Soslow RA, Gilks CB, Clarke BA: Endometrial giant cell carcinoma: a case series and review of the spectrum of endometrial neoplasms containing giant cells. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Aug;34(8):1132-8
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  • [Title] Endometrial giant cell carcinoma: a case series and review of the spectrum of endometrial neoplasms containing giant cells.
  • Poorly differentiated endometrial carcinomas of specific type include the rarely reported endometrial carcinoma with a malignant giant cell component [endometrial giant cell carcinoma (GCC)].
  • The patients ranged in age from 53 to 83 years, presenting with vaginal bleeding, anemia, or a pelvic mass.
  • Four of the 5 tumors contained areas of endometrial adenocarcinoma of usual type, with a variable giant cell component.
  • The conventional cell types present included 1 case with clear cell carcinoma (30% of tumor volume), 2 with high-grade endometrioid carcinoma (50% and 70% of tumor volume, respectively) and 1 with serous histology (10% of tumor volume).
  • One was composed exclusively of giant cell carcinoma.
  • One patient in whom the tumor was exclusively of the giant cell type, developed lung metastasis 4 years after diagnosis and 1 patient is disease free after 14 years.
  • As histotype supplemented by staging information is critical in selection of treatment modalities and in prognostication in uterine malignancies, accurate classification is mandated.
  • Here, we present a series of endometrial carcinomas containing a component of GCC and discuss the spectrum of giant cell-containing uterine neoplasms.
  • At this time, however, the cumulative data on endometrial GCC are limited and the prognostic significance of the presence and the extent of a giant cell component in endometrial carcinoma remains uncertain.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Carcinoma, Giant Cell / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Giant Cells / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20588176.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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45. Donoghue JF, Lederman FL, Susil BJ, Rogers PA: Lymphangiogenesis of normal endometrium and endometrial adenocarcinoma. Hum Reprod; 2007 Jun;22(6):1705-13
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  • [Title] Lymphangiogenesis of normal endometrium and endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Information about lymphatics and lymphangiogenesis in the human endometrium is limited.
  • We investigated the distribution of endometrial lymphatic vessels during the normal menstrual cycle and in association with endometrial adenocarcinoma and investigated the expression of lymphangiogenic growth factors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C, VEGF-D and VEGF receptor-3 (VEGF-R3).
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Full thickness uterine samples (n = 23 proliferative; n = 23 secretory) and endometrial adenocarcinoma samples (n = 7 grade I; n = 10 grade III) were collected for the study and analysed by immunohistochemistry and western blotting.
  • Lymphatic vessels of endometrial adenocarcinomas were located intra-tumoural and peri-tumoural with significant increases in the peri-tumoural lymphatic vessels compared with normal basalis (P = 0.02).
  • Interestingly, high-grade adenocarcinoma vessels containing tumour emboli demonstrated a mixed blood/lymphatic endothelial cell phenotype.
  • VEGF-C and VEGF-D were immunolocalized in glandular epithelium and some stromal cells with the staining intensity of this localization increasing in endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • Protein analysis identified VEGF-C (58, 41, 31 and 21 kD) and VEGF-D (56, 41, 31 and 21 kD) and VEGF-R3 (148 and 65 kD) peptides in normal endometrium, with significant increases in several of these peptides for VEGF-C and VEGF-D and no changes in protein expression for VEGF-R3 in endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Endometrial lymphatics are significantly reduced in the functionalis, and increases in endometrial adenocarcinoma peri-tumoural lymphatics are associated with increases in VEGF-C and VEGF-D peptides.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Endometrium / anatomy & histology. Lymphangiogenesis

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  • (PMID = 17347164.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-1161
  • [Journal-full-title] Human reproduction (Oxford, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Reprod.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor D; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-3
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46. García-Cao I, Duran A, Collado M, Carrascosa MJ, Martín-Caballero J, Flores JM, Diaz-Meco MT, Moscat J, Serrano M: Tumour-suppression activity of the proapoptotic regulator Par4. EMBO Rep; 2005 Jun;6(6):577-83
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  • The endometrium and prostate of Par4-null mice were particularly sensitive to the development of proliferative lesions.
  • Most (80%) Par4-null females presented endometrial hyperplasia by 9 months of age, and a significant proportion (36%) developed endometrial adenocarcinomas after 1 year of age.
  • Finally, the uterus and prostate of young Par4-null mice have increased levels of the apoptosis inhibitor XIAP (X-chromosome-linked inhibitor of apoptosis), supporting the previously proposed function of Par4 as an inhibitor of the (zeta)PKC (atypical protein kinase)-NF-(kappa)B (nuclear factor-(kappa)B)-XIAP pathway.
  • These data show that Par4 has an important role in tumour suppression, with a particular relevance in the endometrium and prostate.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / physiology. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Phenotype. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Proteins / metabolism. Receptors, Thrombin / metabolism. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15877079.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-221X
  • [Journal-full-title] EMBO reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] EMBO Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Thrombin; 0 / X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein; 0 / protease-activated receptor 4; 3817-11-6 / Butylhydroxybutylnitrosamine; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1369092
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47. Gadducci A, Cosio S, Spirito N, Cionini L: Clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium: a biological and clinical enigma. Anticancer Res; 2010 Apr;30(4):1327-34
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  • [Title] Clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium: a biological and clinical enigma.
  • Clear cell carcinoma accounts for only 1 to 5.5% of all endometrial carcinomas, and it is often associated with an aggressive clinical behavior and a poor outcome.
  • According to the FIGO Annual Report 2006, 5-year overall survival was 62.5% for patients with this histological type compared with 83.2% for those with endometrioid carcinoma of the endometrium.
  • In contrast to endometrioid carcinoma and uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC), the molecular pathways involved in the development of clear cell carcinoma are still unclear.
  • Literature data on the pattern of failures and the optimal treatment modalities of the clear cell carcinoma are not well defined, largely because most papers have assessed clear cell carcinoma and UPSC together because of their rarity.
  • Patients with clear cell carcinoma often experience relapse in the pelvis, in para-aortic nodes and at distant sites, whereas they do not seem to have a high propensity to fail in the abdomen.
  • Total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy with comprehensive surgical staging is the standard surgical treatment of patients with clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium, whereas pelvic irradiation, with or without brachytherapy and/or para-aortic irradiation, whole-abdomen irradiation, and chemotherapy have been widely employed as postoperative therapy.
  • An adequate molecular characterization of clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium is strongly warranted in order to identify new biological prognostic variables of the disease and to develop novel molecular targeted therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 20530448.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Number-of-references] 73
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48. Pan H, Sun CC, Zhou CY, Huang HF: Expression of aquaporin-1 in normal, hyperplasic, and carcinomatous endometria. Int J Gynaecol Obstet; 2008 Jun;101(3):239-44
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  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between aquaporin-1 (AQP1) and endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • METHOD: Intratumoral microvessel density (IMD) was assessed as well as AQP1 and vascular endothelial growth factor expression in samples from 117 women, 75 with endometrioid adenocarcinoma, 17 with endometrial hyperplasia, and 25 with normal proliferative endometria.
  • In samples from endometrioid adenocarcinoma, the AQP1/IMD ratio was significantly correlated with histologic grade, surgical stage, myometrial invasion, and extrauterine metastasis.
  • CONCLUSION: AQP1 may be involved in the tumorigenesis and progression of endometrioid adenocarcinoma by promoting angiogenesis, and AQP1 level may be both a tumor indicator and a new therapeutic target.
  • [MeSH-major] Aquaporin 1 / metabolism. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / blood supply. Endometrial Neoplasms / blood supply
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / blood supply. Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adult. Antigens, CD34 / analysis. Antigens, CD34 / immunology. Endometrial Hyperplasia / immunology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Medical Records. Microcirculation / pathology. Middle Aged. Neovascularization, Pathologic / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors

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  • (PMID = 18313673.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7292
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Gynaecol Obstet
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors; 146410-94-8 / Aquaporin 1
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49. Pianzola HM, Ottino A: ["Glassy - cell" like adenocarcinoma: a new variant of gastric tumor]. Acta Gastroenterol Latinoam; 2006 Dec;36(4):205-10
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  • [Title] ["Glassy - cell" like adenocarcinoma: a new variant of gastric tumor].
  • [Transliterated title] Adenocarcinoma de tipo glassy - cell: una nueva variante de tumor gástrico.
  • Most gastric malignancies correspond histologically to adenocarcinomas, either of the intestinal or diffuse type, other tumoral varieties being much less frequent.
  • We report a case of a malignant epithelial tumor, whose histological and cytological characteristics correspond to an unusual, although well defined entity, which may appear in the cervix and less frequently in the endometrium, known as adenocarcinoma of the glassy - cell variety.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Gastrectomy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17225449.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9033
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta gastroenterologica Latinoamericana
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Gastroenterol. Latinoam.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Argentina
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50. Tretheway D, Gebhardt JG, Dogra VS, Schiffhauer LM: Metastatic versus primary oncocytic papillary adenocarcinoma of the endometrium: a report of a case and review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 May;28(3):256-61
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  • [Title] Metastatic versus primary oncocytic papillary adenocarcinoma of the endometrium: a report of a case and review of the literature.
  • We report a case of an oncocytic papillary adenocarcinoma of the endometrium in an 89-year-old female with vaginal bleeding.
  • Imaging studies revealed lesions in the uterus, kidneys, pancreas, gluteus, and an enlarged portacaval lymph node.
  • Diagnostic workup included an endometrial biopsy which showed malignant, oncocytic cells in a predominantly papillary pattern.
  • The cells were negative for cytokeratin 903, CAM 5.2, progesterone receptor, CD10, RCC Marker, CA-125, c-kit, and vimentin.
  • Consultation with experts in Gynecologic and Genitourinary pathology returned a diagnosis of "adenocarcinoma compatible with metastatic renal cell carcinoma"--an intriguing possibility worthy of further exploration.
  • To our knowledge, there are no reports in the literature of metastatic oncocytic papillary renal cell carcinoma to the endometrium.
  • The clinical and pathologic features of oncocytic papillary endometrial lesions, including primary and metastatic processes, are reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19620943.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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51. Monte NM, Webster KA, Neuberg D, Dressler GR, Mutter GL: Joint loss of PAX2 and PTEN expression in endometrial precancers and cancer. Cancer Res; 2010 Aug 1;70(15):6225-32
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  • [Title] Joint loss of PAX2 and PTEN expression in endometrial precancers and cancer.
  • Latent endometrial carcinoma precancers are normal-appearing endometrial glands with sporadic loss of tumor suppressor gene function such as PTEN.
  • Progression to carcinoma is inefficient and requires additional genetic damage that creates a histologic precursor lesion called endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (EIN).
  • In this study, we examined loss of PAX2 expression, a gene required for embryonic uterine development, during endometrial carcinogenesis.
  • Normal proliferative, EIN, and malignant (endometrial adenocarcinoma) endometrial tissues were immunostained for PTEN and PAX2.
  • EIN and cancer lesions were scored by the majority pattern.
  • The prevalence of PAX2 protein loss in the sequence of normal to precancer to cancer was 36%, 71%, and 77%, respectively, and for PTEN, it was 49%, 44%, and 68%, respectively.
  • The normal endometrial prevalence of PAX2- or PTEN-deficient latent precancers was unaffected by biopsy indication, but increased significantly with age.
  • Coincident loss of PAX2 and PTEN expression in an individual normal endometrium was seen in 21% of patients, but usually involved different glands.
  • Coincident loss was more common in precancers (31%) and carcinoma (55%), in which case, both markers were protein null in an overlapping clonal distribution.
  • PAX2 and PTEN protein loss occurs independently and accumulates with increasing age in latent precancers of normal premenopausal endometrium.
  • Loss of function of both genes in an overlapping distribution characterizes the clinical emergence of a premalignant lesion which is carried forward to carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 20631067.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA100833-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100833; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100833-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA100833
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / PAX2 Transcription Factor; 0 / PAX2 protein, human; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS213891; NLM/ PMC2912978
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52. Chiesa-Vottero AG, Malpica A, Deavers MT, Broaddus R, Nuovo GJ, Silva EG: Immunohistochemical overexpression of p16 and p53 in uterine serous carcinoma and ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2007 Jul;26(3):328-33
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical overexpression of p16 and p53 in uterine serous carcinoma and ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma.
  • The immunohistochemical expression pattern of p16 in biopsy samples has been useful as part of a panel to distinguish adenocarcinomas arising from the endometrium from those arising from the endocervix.
  • However, no information is available on the expression of p16 in uterine serous carcinoma (USC) or ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma that could be used for diagnostic purposes.
  • Here, we retrospectively analyzed the immunohistochemical expression of p16 in 11 cases of USC (5 pure and 6 mixed with endometrioid adenocarcinoma) and 10 cases of ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma and compared p16 expression with that of p53 in the same samples. p16 was strongly expressed by 100% of tumor cells in all 11 uterine specimens and in 5 of the 10 ovarian specimens; of the other 5 ovarian specimens, 4 showed strong positivity in 20% to 80% of tumor cells, and 1 case showed only weak expression.
  • Positivity for p53 was strong and diffuse (100% of tumor cells) in 5 uterine tumors and in 3 ovarian tumors. p53 expression in 6 of the uterine specimens and 7 of the ovarian specimens was present in fewer tumor cells, of weak intensity, or both.
  • We also performed human papilloma virus (HPV) DNA in situ hybridization in 4 uterine pure serous carcinomas; all 4 were negative.
  • Further studies are necessary to determine whether p16 expression is useful in the differential diagnosis of ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / biosynthesis. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Papillomavirus Infections / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / biosynthesis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism


53. Golbar H, Izawa T, Kuwamura M, Ito S, Yamate J: Uterine adenocarcinoma with prominent desmoplasia in a geriatric miniature pig. J Vet Med Sci; 2010 Feb;72(2):253-6
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  • [Title] Uterine adenocarcinoma with prominent desmoplasia in a geriatric miniature pig.
  • Grossly, neoplastic enlargement of the uterus was found.
  • Based on these findings, a diagnosis of uterine adenocarcinoma with marked desmoplasia was made.
  • This case is the second report of uterine adenocarcinoma in the miniature pig.

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  • (PMID = 19942805.001).
  • [ISSN] 0916-7250
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of veterinary medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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54. Chung TK, Cheung TH, Huen NY, Wong KW, Lo KW, Yim SF, Siu NS, Wong YM, Tsang PT, Pang MW, Yu MY, To KF, Mok SC, Wang VW, Li C, Cheung AY, Doran G, Birrer MJ, Smith DI, Wong YF: Dysregulated microRNAs and their predicted targets associated with endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma in Hong Kong women. Int J Cancer; 2009 Mar 15;124(6):1358-65
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  • [Title] Dysregulated microRNAs and their predicted targets associated with endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma in Hong Kong women.
  • The objective of this study, a parallel study to global gene expression profiling, was to identify dysregulated microRNAs (miRNAs) associated with endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma (EEC), examine their correlation with clinico-pathological characteristics and identify predicted target genes of the dysregulated miRNAs.
  • After transfection of a miR-205 inhibitor, the expression of miR-205 in endometrial cancer cell line RL95-2 cells decreased whereas its predicted target gene, JPH4, showed increased protein expression.
  • JPH4 seems to be a real miR-205 target in vitro and in vivo, and a candidate tumor suppressor gene in EEC.
  • This work provides a framework on which further research into novel diagnosis and treatment of EEC can be focused.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / genetics. Endometrial Neoplasms / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. MicroRNAs / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cell Line, Tumor. Endometrium / cytology. Endometrium / pathology. Female. Hong Kong. Humans. Middle Aged. Postmenopause. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / isolation & purification. Reference Values

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  • (PMID = 19065659.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MicroRNAs; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm
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55. Koukourakis MI, Giatromanolaki A, Sivridis E, Simopoulos C, Gatter KC, Harris AL, Jackson DG: LYVE-1 immunohistochemical assessment of lymphangiogenesis in endometrial and lung cancer. J Clin Pathol; 2005 Feb;58(2):202-6
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  • [Title] LYVE-1 immunohistochemical assessment of lymphangiogenesis in endometrial and lung cancer.
  • AIMS/METHODS: Normal and malignant pulmonary and endometrial tissues were analysed for lymphatic vessels to assess the process of lymphangiogenesis and its role at these sites, using specific immunostaining for LYVE-1 and the panendothelial marker CD31.
  • RESULTS: Lymphatics were clearly demonstrated in some normal tissues (myometrium, bronchial submucosa, and intestinal submucosa), but not in others (endometrium and alveolar tissue).
  • LYVE-1 positive lymphatic vessels were detected at the tumour periphery of endometrial and lung carcinomas, but not within the main tumour mass.
  • Double staining for LYVE-1 and the MIB1 proliferation marker revealed a higher proliferation index in lymphatic endothelial cells at the invading front of endometrial carcinomas, compared with myometrial areas distal to the tumour.
  • Lung and endometrial carcinomas did not have an intratumorous lymphatic network.
  • Therefore, the dissemination of cancer cells through the lymphatics may occur by invasion of peripheral cancer cells into the adjacent normal lymphatics, or through shunts eventually produced at the invading tumour front as a consequence of active angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / physiopathology. Glycoproteins / analysis. Lung Neoplasms / physiopathology. Lymphangiogenesis / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / immunology. Adenocarcinoma / physiopathology. Antigens, CD31 / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / immunology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / physiopathology. Cell Division / physiology. Endothelial Cells / physiology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Lymphatic Vessels / immunology. Lymphatic Vessels / physiopathology. Myometrium / immunology. Myometrium / physiopathology. Vesicular Transport Proteins

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  • (PMID = 15677543.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD31; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / LYVE1 protein, human; 0 / Vesicular Transport Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1770560
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56. Maki C, Groen J, Delgado B, Piura B: Cervical metastasis as the first manifestation of ovarian papillary serous carcinoma. J Obstet Gynaecol; 2010 Apr;30(3):325-6
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  • [Title] Cervical metastasis as the first manifestation of ovarian papillary serous carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Endometrium / pathology. Fallopian Tubes / pathology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness


57. Keightley MC, Brown P, Jabbour HN, Sales KJ: F-Prostaglandin receptor regulates endothelial cell function via fibroblast growth factor-2. BMC Cell Biol; 2010 Jan 21;11:8
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  • BACKGROUND: Prostaglandin (PG) F(2alpha) is a key regulator of endometrial function and exerts its biological action after coupling with its heptahelical G protein-coupled receptor (FP receptor).
  • In endometrial adenocarcinoma the FP receptor expression is elevated.
  • We have shown previously that PGF(2alpha)-FP receptor signalling in endometrial adenocarcinoma cells can upregulate several angiogenic factors including fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2).
  • In the present study, we investigated the paracrine effect of conditioned medium produced via PGF(2alpha)-FP receptor signalling in endometrial adenocarcinoma cells stably expressing the FP receptor (Ishikawa FPS cells), on endothelial cell function.
  • These findings have relevance for pathologies where the FP receptor is aberrantly expressed, such as endometrial adenocarcinoma, and provide in vitro evidence to suggest that targeting the FP receptor could provide an anti-angiogenic approach to reducing tumour vasculature and growth.

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  • (PMID = 20092633.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2121
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cell biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cell Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U127684438; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / U.1276.00.004.00002.01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Prostaglandin; 0 / prostaglandin F2alpha receptor; 103107-01-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS2 protein, human; EC 2.7.1.1 / MTOR protein, human; EC 2.7.1.1 / TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / FGFR1 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 1; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2824741
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58. Watanabe J, Watanabe K, Jobo T, Kamata Y, Kawaguchi M, Imai M, Okayasu I, Kuramoto H: Significance of p27 as a predicting marker for medroxyprogesterone acetate therapy against endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 Jan-Feb;16 Suppl 1:452-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Significance of p27 as a predicting marker for medroxyprogesterone acetate therapy against endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
  • We reported that p27 induced by medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) may be involved in the progestin-induced growth suppression of human endometrial adenocarcinoma cells.
  • The clinical responses of 15 patients with endometrial carcinoma treated with MPA were examined. p27 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining.
  • The former was significantly higher than the latter. p27 expression could predict the effectiveness of MPA treatment for endometrial carcinoma at an early stage of the 4-month period in MPA therapy and could be a useful predicting marker for MPA.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / drug therapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16515645.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / p27 antigen; C2QI4IOI2G / Medroxyprogesterone Acetate
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59. Mihalcea D, Aursulesei D: [Myometrial invasion as a prognostic factor in endometrial adenocarcinoma]. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi; 2009 Jan-Mar;113(1):136-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Myometrial invasion as a prognostic factor in endometrial adenocarcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Invazia miometrială-factor de prognostic în adenocarcinomul endometrial.
  • Myometrial invasion is one of the most important prognostic factors in endometrial cancer.
  • MATERIAL AND METHOD: We have studied a cohort of 62 patients with endometrial cancer who underwent surgery in 4-th Gynecology Clinic of "Cuza Vodă" Hospital, Iaşi between 1997-2008.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Myometrium / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21495308.001).
  • [ISSN] 0048-7848
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista medico-chirurgicală̆ a Societă̆ţ̜ii de Medici ş̧i Naturaliş̧ti din Iaş̧i
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi
  • [Language] rum
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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60. Li A, Felix JC, Minoo P, Amezcua CA, Jain JK: Effect of mifepristone on proliferation and apoptosis of Ishikawa endometrial adenocarcinoma cells. Fertil Steril; 2005 Jul;84(1):202-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effect of mifepristone on proliferation and apoptosis of Ishikawa endometrial adenocarcinoma cells.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the mechanism by which mifepristone improves breakthrough bleeding, the effects of mifepristone on proliferation and apoptosis of Ishikawa endometrial carcinoma cells were evaluated in the presence and absence of progestin.
  • Together, these data imply that the improvement in breakthrough bleeding observed with mifepristone might be due to diminished volume of endometrial tissue similar to that seen with endometrial atrophy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Mifepristone / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 16009178.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-5653
  • [Journal-full-title] Fertility and sterility
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fertil. Steril.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R0-1 HD 43189
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 320T6RNW1F / Mifepristone
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61. Levakov SA, Zaĭrat'iants OV, Sidorova IS, Opalenov KV, Ali AG: [Detection rates of various serotypes of human papilloma virus in atypical glandular hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma of the endometrium and their immunomorphological features in virus-positive cases]. Arkh Patol; 2007 Mar-Apr;69(2):6-9
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  • [Title] [Detection rates of various serotypes of human papilloma virus in atypical glandular hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma of the endometrium and their immunomorphological features in virus-positive cases].
  • They were detectable in 35.3 -52.9% of cases of atypical glandular hyperplasia, highly and moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma of the endometrium and only in 17.6% of cases of poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas.
  • The endometrium and tumors showed an increased significant proliferative activity (Ki-67 expression) and reduced expression of receptors to progesterone and, to a lesser degree, to estrogen in 47-83% of virus-positive cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma. Endometrial Hyperplasia. Endometrial Neoplasms. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections

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  • (PMID = 17642182.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-1955
  • [Journal-full-title] Arkhiv patologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arkh. Patol.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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62. Wong YF, Cheung TH, Lo KW, Yim SF, Siu NS, Chan SC, Ho TW, Wong KW, Yu MY, Wang VW, Li C, Gardner GJ, Bonome T, Johnson WB, Smith DI, Chung TK, Birrer MJ: Identification of molecular markers and signaling pathway in endometrial cancer in Hong Kong Chinese women by genome-wide gene expression profiling. Oncogene; 2007 Mar 22;26(13):1971-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Identification of molecular markers and signaling pathway in endometrial cancer in Hong Kong Chinese women by genome-wide gene expression profiling.
  • Endometrial cancer is the third most common gynecologic malignancy and the ninth most common malignancy for females overall in Hong Kong.
  • Approximately 80% or more of these cancers are endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinomas.
  • The aim of this study was to reveal genes contributing to the development of endometrioid endometrial cancer, which may impact diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of the disease.
  • Whole-genome gene expression analysis was completed for a set of 55 microdissected sporadic endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinomas and 29 microdissected normal endometrium specimens using the Affymetrix Human U133 Plus 2.0 oligonucleotide microarray.
  • Pathway analysis was performed to reveal gene interactions involved in endometrial tumorigenesis.
  • Unsupervised hierarchical clustering displayed a distinct separation between the endometrioid adenocarcinomas and normal endometrium samples.
  • Supervised analysis identified 117 highly differentially regulated genes (>or=4.0-fold change), which distinguished the endometrial cancer specimens from normal endometrium.
  • Twelve novel genes including DKK4, ZIC1, KIF1A, SAA2, LOC16378, ALPP2, CCL20, CXCL5, BST2, OLFM1, KLRC1 and MBC45780 were deregulated in the endometrial cancer, and further validated in an independent set of 56 cancer and 29 normal samples using qRT-PCR.
  • In addition, 10 genes were differentially regulated in late-stage cancer, as compared to early-stage disease, and may be involved in tumor progression.
  • The results of this study highlight the molecular features of endometrioid endometrial cancer and provide insight into the events underlying the development and progression of endometrioid endometrial cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Gene Expression Profiling. Genome. Signal Transduction

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  • (PMID = 17043662.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-9232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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63. Wicherek L, Popiela TJ, Galazka K, Dutsch-Wicherek M, Opławski M, Basta A, Klimek M: Metallothionein and RCAS1 expression in comparison to immunological cells activity in endometriosis, endometrial adenocarcinoma and endometrium according to menstrual cycle changes. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Dec;99(3):622-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Metallothionein and RCAS1 expression in comparison to immunological cells activity in endometriosis, endometrial adenocarcinoma and endometrium according to menstrual cycle changes.
  • OBJECTIVE: Endometrium is a specialized organ in which phenomena controlling the level of cell proliferation and apoptosis are marked.
  • The aim of our study was to determine the presence of proteins involved in apoptosis and proliferation: RCAS1, MT and the number of CD56-positive cells and their activity to elucidate their possible role in the development of adenocarcinoma and endometriosis.
  • RESULTS: We found that endometrium during secretory menstrual cycle phase is characterized by significantly higher RCAS1 and higher MT expression than in proliferative phase.
  • Endometrial adenocarcinoma was characterized by significantly increased RCAS1 expression, while MT expression was comparable to the level found in the secretory phase.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The ability of endometrium to determine cytotoxic activity (RCAS1 expression changes) and high protection against DNA damage (MT expression) with concomitant changes in the number of immune cells and their activity, observed in normal endometrium during the menstrual cycle phases seems to be fundamental for pathological features of endometrial adenocarcinoma and endometriosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / immunology. Antigens, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. Endometrial Neoplasms / immunology. Endometriosis / immunology. Endometrium / immunology. Menstrual Cycle / immunology. Metallothionein / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 16112719.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / CD69 antigen; 0 / EBAG9 protein, human; 0 / Lectins, C-Type; 9038-94-2 / Metallothionein
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64. Bassarak N, Blankenstein T, Brüning A, Dian D, Bergauer F, Friese K, Mylonas I: Is lymphadenectomy a prognostic marker in endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the human endometrium? BMC Cancer; 2010;10:224
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  • [Title] Is lymphadenectomy a prognostic marker in endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the human endometrium?
  • BACKGROUND: During surgery for endometrial cancer, a pelvic lymphadenectomy with or without para-aortic lymphadenectomy is performed at least in patients with risk factors (stage I, grading 2 and/or histological subtypes with higher risk of lymphatic spread), and is hence recommended by the International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology (FIGO).
  • Although lymph node metastases are important prognostic parameters, it has been contentious whether a pelvic lymph node dissection itself has a prognostic impact in the treatment of endometrial cancer, especially in endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
  • Therefore, this study evaluated whether lymphadenectomy has a prognostic impact in patients with endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
  • METHODS: The benefits of lymphadenectomy were examined in 214 patients with a histological diagnosis of endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • RESULTS: Of the 214 patients with endometrial adenocarcinoma, 171 (79.9%) were classified as FIGO stage I, 15 (7.0%) FIGO stage II, 21 (9.8%) FIGO stage III and 7 (3.3%) FIGO stage IV.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The performance of an operative lymphadenectomy resulted in better survival of patients with endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
  • Therefore, even in endometrioid adenocarcinoma, a pelvic and/or para-aortic lymphadenectomy should be performed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / surgery. Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery. Lymph Node Excision. Lymph Nodes / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20492712.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2891635
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65. Boruban MC, Altundag K, Kilic GS, Blankstein J: From endometrial hyperplasia to endometrial cancer: insight into the biology and possible medical preventive measures. Eur J Cancer Prev; 2008 Apr;17(2):133-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] From endometrial hyperplasia to endometrial cancer: insight into the biology and possible medical preventive measures.
  • Controversies are still seen in the histological differential diagnosis of hyperplasia and well-differentiated endometrial carcinoma.
  • Prediction of endometrial cancer in patients with hyperplasia with atypia, with the available markers has not been reliable yet.
  • Endometrial hyperplasia is proliferation of endometrial glands resulting in a higher gland : stroma ratio.
  • Cytological atypia, which may progress to or co-exist with endometrial cancer and other pathological changes, result from estrogen stimulation unopposed by progesterone.
  • Biomarkers whose expression is altered in cases of endometrial hyperplasia or cancer such as progesterone receptor, insulin-like growth factor I, retinaldehyde dehydrogenase type II, and secreted frizzled-related protein 4, seem to be promising to use as early-stage tumor markers.
  • Mutation of PTEN is present in 83% of endometrial adenocarcinoma cases, making it the most frequent early molecular genetic alteration in type 1 endometrial tumors, which are generally associated with hyperplasia. p53 gene mutation is not found in endometrial hyperplasia, but researchers have detected this mutation in 20% of cases of endometrial carcinoma and 90% of cases of serous endometrial tumors.
  • Cyclooxygenase-2 expression increases significantly in cases of well-differentiated endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • The data about aromatase inhibitors are promising; in breast cancer patients, treatment with tamoxifen induces uterine abnormalities as early as 3 months after the initiation of therapy.
  • In contrast, these abnormalities are not seen in patients who receive aromatase inhibitors and switched therapy after tamoxifen withdrawal may reverse tamoxifen-associated endometrial thickening.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / prevention & control. Endometrium / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18287870.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5709
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer prevention : the official journal of the European Cancer Prevention Organisation (ECP)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 47
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66. Vorgias G, Fotiou S: The role of lymphadenectomy in uterine carcinosarcomas (malignant mixed mullerian tumours): a critical literature review. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2010 Dec;282(6):659-64
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  • [Title] The role of lymphadenectomy in uterine carcinosarcomas (malignant mixed mullerian tumours): a critical literature review.
  • BACKGROUND: Uterine carcinosarcomas are rare and highly aggressive tumours.
  • RESULTS: Carcinosarcomas have similar clinical characteristics and behaviour with grade 3 endometrioid or aggressive variants of uterine adenocarcinoma.
  • All studies have demonstrated that the FIGO stage of disease is the most important prognostic factor, followed by the depth of myometrial invasion, extra-uterine spread and positive peritoneal cytology.
  • This figure is similar to the one reported for endometrial carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinosarcoma / surgery. Lymph Node Excision. Uterine Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20721670.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0711
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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67. de Góis Speck NM, Focchi J, Alves AC, Ribalta JC, Osório CA: Relationship between angiogenesis and grade of histologic differentiation in endometrial adenocarcinoma. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2005;26(6):599-601
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  • [Title] Relationship between angiogenesis and grade of histologic differentiation in endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • The objective of the study was to quantify vessels and to relate them to the degree of histologic differentiation in endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • We studied 35 cases of which ten were G1, 13 G2 and 12 G3 adenocarcinomas.
  • Mean vessel count was 15.3 for G1; 19 for G2 and 22.7 for G3 adenocarcinomas; in the control group it was 11.6 for atrophic and 13.2 for proliferative endometria.
  • Slightly differentiated adenocarcinoma presented greater angiogenesis than normal and well-differentiated carcinoma.
  • In contrast, moderately differentiated carcinoma showed greater angiogenicity as related to normal endometrium, but did not differ from other tumoral endometria.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / blood supply. Endometrial Neoplasms / blood supply. Endometrium / blood supply. Neovascularization, Pathologic

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  • (PMID = 16398216.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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68. Norimatsu Y, Kouda H, Kobayashi TK, Moriya T, Yanoh K, Tsukayama C, Miyake Y, Ohno E: Utility of thin-layer preparations in the endometrial cytology: evaluation of benign endometrial lesions. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2008 Apr;12(2):103-11
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  • [Title] Utility of thin-layer preparations in the endometrial cytology: evaluation of benign endometrial lesions.
  • The purpose of the current study was to examine the use of thin-layer cytologic (TLC) preparation compared to conventional cytologic preparation (CCP) in the normal endometrium (proliferative, secretory, atrophic) and endometrial glandular and stromal breakdown (EGBD).
  • During a 6-month period, we compiled 158 cases by collecting a direct endometrial sample using the Uterobrush.
  • The material comprised 40 cases of proliferative endometrium, 42 cases of secretory endometrium, 46 cases of atrophic endometrium, and 30 cases of EGBD.
  • (1) number of endometrial epithelial cell clumps;.
  • (8) presence of blood vessel of length more than diameter of a field in object x20 glasses in TLC. (1) In all phases, the number of epithelial cell clumps per a unit area of a preparation of TLC is greater than in CCP. (2) Cells (condensed cluster of stromal cells and metaplastic clumps with irregular protrusion-containing condensed stromal cluster) of useful and adequate numbers for a diagnosis of EGBD were observed in TLC. (3) In all phases, TLC was significantly higher than CCP on the appearance of a clear background. (4) The proliferative endometrium and secretory endometrium were highly significant in comparison with atrophic endometrium and EGBD, respectively, in terms of the occurrence of a blood vessel of length more than diameter of a field in object x20 glasses.
  • Therefore, TLC preparation is a useful tool for the accurate and reliable diagnosis of normal endometrial phase and EGBD, because the preparation area is confined and identification of the target cell clumps is easy.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrium / pathology. Histocytological Preparation Techniques. Specimen Handling / methods. Uterine Diseases / diagnosis. Vaginal Smears / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Atrophy / pathology. Cell Proliferation. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Humans. Menstrual Cycle / physiology. Middle Aged. Reproducibility of Results

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  • (PMID = 18325470.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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69. Ozdemir S, Celik C, Gezginç K, Kıreşi D, Esen H: Evaluation of endometrial thickness with transvaginal ultrasonography and histopathology in premenopausal women with abnormal vaginal bleeding. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2010 Oct;282(4):395-9
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  • [Title] Evaluation of endometrial thickness with transvaginal ultrasonography and histopathology in premenopausal women with abnormal vaginal bleeding.
  • OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to investigate cut-off value of the endometrial thickness by transvaginal ultrasonography (TvUSG), and to detect the accuracy of preoperative Pipelle biopsy in premenopausal women with abnormal vaginal bleeding.
  • Their endometrial thickness was measured by TvUSG and then Pipelle endometrial biopsy was performed.
  • RESULTS: Of the 144 women, 113 (78.4%) had normal and 31 (21.6%) had an abnormal endometrium.
  • The abnormal endometrium was composed of 11.8% hyperplasia (simple + atypical complex), 4.2% endometrial polyp, and 5.5% adenocarcinoma.
  • An optimal sensitivity and specificity (83.6 and 56.4%, respectively) and negative predictive value with 95.6% for detection of abnormal endometrium were obtained with an endometrial thickness of 8 mm.
  • CONCLUSION: An endometrial thickness >8 mm is more likely than that of 8 mm or less to be indicated with endometrial biopsy in premenopausal uterine bleeding.
  • Pipelle endometrial biopsy is an accurate diagnostic procedure for the detection of high-grade endometrial lesions in premenopausal women.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy / methods. Endometrium / pathology. Endometrium / ultrasonography. Premenopause. Uterine Hemorrhage / pathology. Uterine Hemorrhage / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 19921229.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0711
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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70. Naciff JM, Khambatta ZS, Thomason RG, Carr GJ, Tiesman JP, Singleton DW, Khan SA, Daston GP: The genomic response of a human uterine endometrial adenocarcinoma cell line to 17alpha-ethynyl estradiol. Toxicol Sci; 2009 Jan;107(1):40-55
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  • [Title] The genomic response of a human uterine endometrial adenocarcinoma cell line to 17alpha-ethynyl estradiol.
  • We have determined the gene expression profile induced by 17 alpha-ethynyl estradiol (EE) in Ishikawa cells, a human uterine-derived estrogen-sensitive cell line, at various doses (1 pM, 100 pM, 10 nM, and 1 microM) and time points (8, 24, and 48 h).
  • All of these processes are also affected by estrogen exposure in the uterus of the rat.
  • Comparison of the response to EE in both the rat uterus and the Ishikawa cells showed that 71 genes are regulated in a similar manner in vivo as well as in vitro.
  • [MeSH-major] Ethinyl Estradiol / pharmacology. Gene Expression / drug effects. Uterus / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line. Databases, Genetic. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Genes / genetics. Genes / physiology. Humans. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Rats. Time Factors. Transforming Growth Factor alpha / genetics. Transforming Growth Factor alpha / metabolism. Uterine Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18936297.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-0929
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor alpha; 423D2T571U / Ethinyl Estradiol
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71. Simsir A, Carter W, Elgert P, Cangiarella J: Reporting endometrial cells in women 40 years and older: assessing the clinical usefulness of Bethesda 2001. Am J Clin Pathol; 2005 Apr;123(4):571-5
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  • [Title] Reporting endometrial cells in women 40 years and older: assessing the clinical usefulness of Bethesda 2001.
  • We assessed the usefulness of revised Bethesda System reporting of exfoliated benign endometrial cells (EMs) in postmenopausal women.
  • There was tissue follow-up for 130 postmenopausal women: 10 (7.7%) had significant findings (endometrial adenocarcinoma, 6 [2 (33%) in asymptomatic women]; complex atypical endometrial hyperplasia [CAH], 3; leiomyosarcoma, 1); 20 were receiving hormone replacement therapy (HRT; n = 15) or tamoxifen (n = 5); 2 (10%) had significant pathology (endometrial adenocarcinoma, 1; CAH, 1).
  • Eight not taking hormones (7.3%) had significant pathology (adenocarcinoma, 5; CAH, 2; leiomyosarcoma, 1).
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endometrium / cytology. Postmenopause. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Premenopause

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  • (PMID = 15743742.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Barwick TD, Rockall AG, Barton DP, Sohaib SA: Imaging of endometrial adenocarcinoma. Clin Radiol; 2006 Jul;61(7):545-55
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  • [Title] Imaging of endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • Endometrial cancer is the most common gynaecological malignancy and the incidence rising.
  • This is important as endometrial cancer predominately occurs in postmenopausal women with co-morbidities.
  • Modern imaging provides important tools in the accurate pre-treatment assessment of endometrial cancer and may optimize treatment planning.
  • However, there is little consensus to date on imaging in the routine preoperative assessment of endometrial carcinoma and practice varies amongst many gynaecologists.
  • Transvaginal ultrasound is often the initial imaging examination for women with uterine bleeding.
  • However, once the diagnosis of endometrial cancer has been made, contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides the best assessment of the disease.
  • The results of contrast-enhanced MRI may identify patients who need more aggressive therapy and referral to a cancer centre.
  • In this article we review the role of imaging in the diagnosis and staging/preoperative assessment of endometrial carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / standards. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16784939.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-9260
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 87
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73. Rathi V, Hyde S, Newman M: Well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma in association with endometrial carcinoma: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2010 Sep-Oct;54(5 Suppl):793-7
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  • [Title] Well-differentiated papillary mesothelioma in association with endometrial carcinoma: a case report.
  • We present a rare case of WDPM in association with high-grade endometrial carcinoma.
  • To our knowledge, there are only two previously reported cases in the English literature of WDPM in association with endometrial carcinoma.
  • CASE: A 62-year-old woman underwent pelvic surgery for a high-grade endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • Cytologic examination of peritoneal washings revealed cohesive clusters of reactive-appearing mesothelial cells, some with papillary morphology, and no evidence of adenocarcinoma.
  • The peritoneal biopsies showed no metastatic carcinoma.
  • The endometrial tumor was an endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: The cytologic diagnosis of WDPM may be difficult because it is an uncommon entity and there are overlapping features with other neoplastic and nonneoplastic lesions of the female genital tract and peritoneum.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / complications. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Endometrial Neoplasms / complications. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Mesothelioma / complications. Mesothelioma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21053542.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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74. Takeuchi K, Tsujino T, Sugimoto M, Yoshida S, Kitazawa S: Endocervical adenocarcinoma associated with lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia showing rapid reaccumulation of hydrometra. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2008 Nov-Dec;18(6):1285-8
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  • [Title] Endocervical adenocarcinoma associated with lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia showing rapid reaccumulation of hydrometra.
  • Mucinous endocervical adenocarcinoma is characterized by increased watery vaginal discharge, but the early diagnosis is sometimes difficult because biopsy specimen might only serve to sample a superficial part of the tumor.
  • Papanicolaou smear of endocervix and endometrium followed by fractional curettage was performed, but failed to confirm the diagnosis.
  • To investigate the unknown origin of hydrometra, an exploratory laparotomy with total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed, followed by pelvic lymphadenectomy because biopsy specimens during operation suggested adenocarcinoma of the cervix.
  • The final pathologic study of surgical specimens revealed mucinous adenocarcinoma, which was located on the proximal area of cervix.
  • Adjacent to carcinoma tissue, lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia (LEGH) was detected.
  • Pyloric gland mucin (HIK1083), MUC6, and MUC5AC were diffusely immunopositive in the cytoplasm of LEGH cells and the immunoreactivity became weaker in adenocarcinoma cells with tumor progression and loss of differentiation.
  • Based on histopathologic features of the present case, there seems to be a possible link between LEGH and conventional mucinous endocervical adenocarcinomas.
  • The physician should keep in mind the possible existence of endocervical adenocarcinoma in a patient showing rapid reaccumulation of hydrometra, when uterine malignancies are clinically suspected and biopsy finding fails to confirm the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18217972.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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75. Bogusiewicz M, Stryjecka-Zimmer M, Rechberger T: [Activity of matrix metalloproteinases -2 and -9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9) and content of their tissue inhibitors in endometrial cancer--a preliminary study]. Ginekol Pol; 2007 May;78(5):366-72
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  • [Title] [Activity of matrix metalloproteinases -2 and -9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9) and content of their tissue inhibitors in endometrial cancer--a preliminary study].
  • Substantial evidence indicates that MMP2 and MMP-9 play an important role in the spread of malignant tumours.
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate the activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and contents of their inhibitors: TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 in endometrial cancer and normal endometrium.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Material for the study comprised 28 samples of endometrial cancers and 15 samples of normal endmetrium.
  • RESULTS: Mean activity and activation ratio of MMP-9 was significantly higher in endometrial cancers compared with normal myometrium, whereas mean activity and activation ratio of MMP-2 did not differ significantly between investigated groups.
  • Mean content of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 did not differ between cancer and control tissues.
  • No unequivocal association between activity of investigated MMPs or contents of their inhibitors and clinicopathological features of endometrial cancers was observed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Results of the study suggest that MMP-9 may play an important role in the progression of endometrial cancer, whereas MMP-2 does not seem to be involved in this process.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Endometrium / metabolism. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / metabolism. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / metabolism. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 / metabolism. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / metabolism. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Humans. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • (PMID = 17867327.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-0011
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginekologia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginekol. Pol.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1; 127497-59-0 / Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-2; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
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76. Prat J: Ovarian carcinomas, including secondary tumors: diagnostically challenging areas. Mod Pathol; 2005 Feb;18 Suppl 2:S99-111
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  • [Title] Ovarian carcinomas, including secondary tumors: diagnostically challenging areas.
  • The differential diagnosis of ovarian carcinomas, including secondary tumors, remains a challenging task.
  • Mucinous carcinomas of the ovary are rare and can be easily confused with metastatic mucinous carcinomas that may present clinically as a primary ovarian tumor.
  • International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage is the single most important prognostic factor, and stage I carcinomas have an excellent prognosis; FIGO stage is largely related to the histologic features of the ovarian tumors.
  • Metastatic colon cancer is frequent and often simulates ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
  • Although immunostains for cytokeratins 7 and 20 can be helpful in the differential diagnosis, they should always be interpreted in the light of all clinical information.
  • Occasionally, endometrioid carcinomas may exhibit a microglandular pattern simulating sex cord-stromal tumors.
  • However, typical endometrioid glands, squamous differentiation, or an adenofibroma component are each present in 75% of these tumors whereas immunostains for calretinin and alpha-inhibin are negative.
  • Endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary is associated in 15-20% of the cases with carcinoma of the endometrium.
  • Most of these tumors have a favorable outcome and they most likely represent independent primary carcinomas arising as a result of a Mullerian field effect.
  • Although the criteria for distinguishing metastatic from independent primary carcinomas rely mainly upon conventional clinicopathologic findings, loss of heterozygosity and gene mutation analyses can be helpful.
  • Transitional cell carcinomas are distinguished from undifferentiated carcinomas by the presence of thick, undulating papillae with smooth luminal borders, microspaces, and tumor cells with distinctive 'urothelial' appearance.
  • Krukenberg tumors are metastatic adenocarcinomas traditionally perceived as composed of mucin-filled signet-ring cells associated with a striking proliferation of the ovarian stroma but many variations on this pattern occur.
  • [MeSH-minor] Base Sequence. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Cytoskeletal Proteins / genetics. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Intermediate Filament Proteins / analysis. Keratin-20. Keratin-7. Keratins / analysis. Mutation. Prognosis. Trans-Activators / genetics. beta Catenin. ras Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15492758.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / KRT20 protein, human; 0 / KRT7 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / beta Catenin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 63
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77. Tang WY, Newbold R, Mardilovich K, Jefferson W, Cheng RY, Medvedovic M, Ho SM: Persistent hypomethylation in the promoter of nucleosomal binding protein 1 (Nsbp1) correlates with overexpression of Nsbp1 in mouse uteri neonatally exposed to diethylstilbestrol or genistein. Endocrinology; 2008 Dec;149(12):5922-31
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  • Neonatal exposure of CD-1 mice to diethylstilbestrol (DES) or genistein (GEN) induces uterine adenocarcinoma in aging animals.
  • Uterine carcinogenesis in this model is ovarian dependent because its evolution is blocked by prepubertal ovariectomy.
  • This study seeks to discover novel uterine genes whose expression is altered by such early endocrine disruption via an epigenetic mechanism.
  • Neonatal mice were treated with 1 or 1000 microg/kg DES, 50 mg/kg GEN, or oil (control) on d 1-5.
  • Methylation-sensitive restriction fingerprinting was performed to identify differentially methylated sequences associated with neonatal exposure to DES/GEN.
  • In contrast, in neonatal DES/GEN-treated mice, the Nsbp1 CGI stayed anomalously hypomethylated, and the gene exhibited persistent overexpression throughout life.
  • However, if neonatal DES/GEN-treated mice were ovariectomized before puberty, the CGI remained minimally to moderately methylated, and gene expression was subdued except in the group treated with 1000 microg/kg DES.
  • Thus, the life reprogramming of uterine Nsbp1 expression by neonatal DES/GEN exposure appears to be mediated by an epigenetic mechanism that interacts with ovarian hormones in adulthood.

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  • (PMID = 18669593.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P50 ES015905; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA112532; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R01 ES015584; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES015905; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES015584; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112532; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P30 ES006096; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA015776; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA015776; United States / NHGRI NIH HHS / HG / R01 HG003749; United States / NHGRI NIH HHS / HG / HG003749; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R21 ES013071; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES013071; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES006096
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HMGN Proteins; 731DCA35BT / Diethylstilbestrol; DH2M523P0H / Genistein
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2613067
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78. Allhorn S, Böing C, Koch AA, Kimmig R, Gashaw I: TLR3 and TLR4 expression in healthy and diseased human endometrium. Reprod Biol Endocrinol; 2008;6:40
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  • [Title] TLR3 and TLR4 expression in healthy and diseased human endometrium.
  • TLRs are expressed in the human endometrium and their regulation might be crucial for the pathogenesis of endometrial diseases.
  • METHODS: TLR3 and TLR4 expression was investigated during the menstrual cycle and in postmenopausal endometrium considering peritoneal endometriosis, hyperplasia, and endometrial adenocarcinoma specimens (grade 1 to 3).
  • In addition, TLR4 was present on endometrial dendritic cells, monocytes and macrophages.
  • In patients with peritoneal endometriosis, TLR3 and TLR4 mRNA expression decreased significantly in proliferative diseased endometrium compared to controls.
  • Endometrial hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma revealed significantly reduced receptor levels when compared with postmenopausal controls.
  • The lowest TLR expression levels were determined in poor differentiated carcinoma (grade 3).
  • CONCLUSION: Our data suggest an involvement of TLR3 and TLR4 in endometrial diseases as demonstrated by altered expression levels in endometriosis and endometrial cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrium / metabolism. Toll-Like Receptor 3 / biosynthesis. Toll-Like Receptor 4 / biosynthesis. Uterine Diseases / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Endometriosis / metabolism. Female. Gene Expression Regulation. Humans. Menstrual Cycle / physiology. Middle Aged. Postmenopause. RNA, Messenger / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18775079.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7827
  • [Journal-full-title] Reproductive biology and endocrinology : RB&E
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / TLR3 protein, human; 0 / TLR4 protein, human; 0 / Toll-Like Receptor 3; 0 / Toll-Like Receptor 4
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2543020
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79. Wiater E, Harrison CA, Lewis KA, Gray PC, Vale WW: Identification of distinct inhibin and transforming growth factor beta-binding sites on betaglycan: functional separation of betaglycan co-receptor actions. J Biol Chem; 2006 Jun 23;281(25):17011-22
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  • Separating the co-receptor actions of betaglycan toward inhibin and TGFbeta will allow the clarification of the role of betaglycan in disease states such as renal cell carcinoma and endometrial adenocarcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 16621788.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9258
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of biological chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biol. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD-13527
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proteoglycans; 0 / Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta; 145170-29-2 / betaglycan; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; HG18B9YRS7 / Valine
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80. Wołuń-Cholewa M, Szymanowski K, Andrusiewicz M, Szczerba A, Warchoł JB: Trichrome Mallory's stain may indicate differential rates of RNA synthesis in eutopic and ectopic endometrium. Folia Histochem Cytobiol; 2010 Jan 1;48(1):148-52
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  • [Title] Trichrome Mallory's stain may indicate differential rates of RNA synthesis in eutopic and ectopic endometrium.
  • We have described the differences in the nuclear staining between eutopic and ectopic endometrium as well as endometrial hyperplasia and adenocarcinoma using the Mallory's method.
  • The ultrastructural differences between eutopic and ectopic endometrium have been detected.
  • In normal and hyperplastic endometrium the presence of stromal cell nuclei with an increased affinity to aniline blue has been observed.
  • Similar effects in adenocarcinoma have been noted.
  • The ultrastructural studies have shown that in normal endometrium the stroma contained cells with euchromatic and low electron density cell nuclei.
  • The results indicate that the Mallory's technique may be a useful tool for recognizing the differences between eutopic and ectopic endometrium.
  • The affinity for aniline blue in normal and hyperplastic endometrium occurs most likely due to increased RNA synthesis.
  • Based on Mallory's staining a similarity between hyperplasia and unchanged endometrium in contrast to similar results of the staining obtained in cases of adenocarcinoma and endometriosis may be suggested.

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  • (PMID = 20529831.001).
  • [ISSN] 1897-5631
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia histochemica et cytobiologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Histochem. Cytobiol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Azo Compounds; 0 / trichrome stain; 63231-63-0 / RNA; 82-94-0 / Methyl Green; TDQ283MPCW / Eosine Yellowish-(YS)
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81. Contreras CM, Gurumurthy S, Haynie JM, Shirley LJ, Akbay EA, Wingo SN, Schorge JO, Broaddus RR, Wong KK, Bardeesy N, Castrillon DH: Loss of Lkb1 provokes highly invasive endometrial adenocarcinomas. Cancer Res; 2008 Feb 1;68(3):759-66
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  • [Title] Loss of Lkb1 provokes highly invasive endometrial adenocarcinomas.
  • Mutations in the LKB1 tumor suppressor gene result in the Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, an autosomal dominant condition characterized by hamartomatous polyps of the gastrointestinal tract and a dramatically increased risk of epithelial malignancies at other sites, including the female reproductive tract.
  • Here we show that female mice heterozygous for a null Lkb1 allele spontaneously develop highly invasive endometrial adenocarcinomas.
  • To prove that these lesions were indeed due to Lkb1 inactivation, we introduced an adenoviral Cre vector into the uterine lumen of mice harboring a conditional allele of Lkb1.
  • This endometrial-specific deletion of the Lkb1 gene provoked highly invasive and sometimes metastatic endometrial adenocarcinomas closely resembling those observed in Lkb1 heterozygotes.
  • Although Lkb1 has been implicated in the establishment of cell polarity, and loss of polarity defines most endometrial cancers, Lkb1-driven endometrial cancers paradoxically exhibit (given their highly invasive phenotype) normal cell polarity and apical differentiation.
  • In human endometrial cancers, Lkb1 expression was inversely correlated with tumor grade and stage, arguing that Lkb1 inactivation or down-regulation also contributes to endometrial cancer progression in women.
  • This study shows that Lkb1 plays an important role in the malignant transformation of endometrium and that Lkb1 loss promotes a highly invasive phenotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Endometrial Neoplasms / genetics. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / deficiency

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  • (PMID = 18245476.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1P50CA098258-01; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / K26RR024196
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Multienzyme Complexes; EC 2.7.1.- / STK11 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / AMP-Activated Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
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82. Song H, Li C, Lu R, Zhang Y, Geng J: Expression of astrocyte elevated gene-1: a novel marker of the pathogenesis, progression, and poor prognosis for endometrial cancer. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2010 Oct;20(7):1188-96
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  • [Title] Expression of astrocyte elevated gene-1: a novel marker of the pathogenesis, progression, and poor prognosis for endometrial cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the expression of astrocyte elevated gene-1 (AEG-1) in different endometrial specimens and to investigate its relationship with clinicopathological features and its impact on patient outcome.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: By Western blot analysis, we investigated AEG-1 expression in paired endometrial tissues and adjacent nontumor tissues of the same patients (n = 4).
  • Immunohistochemistry analysis was used to determine the expression levels of AEG-1 protein in 35 normal endometrium, 40 atypical endometrial hyperplasia, and 174 endometrial cancers.
  • The correlation between AEG-1 expression and various clinicopathological characteristics of endometrial cancer patients was analyzed.
  • RESULTS: Western blot analysis showed that AEG-1 expression levels were up-regulated in all 4 human primary endometrial cancer tissues compared with their matched adjacent noncancerous tissues.
  • The frequent and strong expression of AEG-1 was gradually elevated in normal endometrial tissue, atypical hyperplasia, and endometrial cancers (P < 0.001).
  • Although AEG-1 staining mainly emerged in the cytoplasm, a nuclear distribution was observed in both invasive and advanced endometrial cancer cells.
  • Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression demonstrated that high AEG-1 expression was an independent prognostic factor for both the overall survival and disease-free survival of patients with endometrial cancer (P = 0.002 and P = 0.004, respectively).
  • CONCLUSION: Astrocyte elevated gene-1 overexpression may be associated with carcinogenesis and tumor progression in endometrial cancer.
  • Moreover, it may be a new prognostic marker or a target for improving the treatment efficiency of patients with endometrial cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / metabolism. Cell Adhesion Molecules / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / metabolism. Endometrial Hyperplasia / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Endometrium / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 21495225.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / MTDH protein, human
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83. Bollmann J, Ortmann O, Treeck O: Expression of differentiation-associated gene icb-1 is estrogen-responsive in ovarian and breast cancer cell lines. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol; 2008 Mar;109(1-2):16-21
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  • [Title] Expression of differentiation-associated gene icb-1 is estrogen-responsive in ovarian and breast cancer cell lines.
  • icb-1 (C1orf38) is a human gene initially described by our group to be upregulated during in vitro differentiation processes of endometrial adenocarcinoma and leukemia cells triggered by different stimuli.
  • Given that estrogens are known to regulate cellular differentiation processes of hormone-dependent tissues, we studied whether expression of icb-1 would be regulated by 17-beta (beta) estradiol in breast and ovarian cancer cells.
  • As examined by means of real time PCR, treatment with 17-beta estradiol for at least 24h resulted in a significant increase of icb-1 transcript levels in ERalpha-positive MCF-7 breast cancer and OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cells, but not in ERalpha-negative SK-BR-3 and SK-OV-3 cells.
  • Upregulation of icb-1 transcript levels was also observed after treatment with specific ERalpha-agonist PPT and was inhibited by co-treatment with pure antiestrogen ICI 182,780 in MCF-7 and OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cells.
  • The results of this study demonstrate that transcript levels of differentiation-associated gene icb-1 are estrogen-responsive in breast and ovarian cancer cells in an ERalpha-dependent manner.

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  • (PMID = 18206364.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-0760
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of steroid biochemistry and molecular biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / C1orf38 protein, human; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Estrogen Receptor beta; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol
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84. Lee JH, Kim SH, Lee ES, Kim YS: CD24 overexpression in cancer development and progression: a meta-analysis. Oncol Rep; 2009 Nov;22(5):1149-56
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  • [Title] CD24 overexpression in cancer development and progression: a meta-analysis.
  • To shed light on this controversy, we performed a meta-analysis of the relationship between CD24 expression and prognostic parameters in different carcinomas.
  • The frequency of CD24 expression by immunohistochemistry was 68% in all the carcinomas of the breast, female genital tract, gastrointestinal tract, biliary tract and pancreas, urinary system, prostate and skin.
  • Overall, CD24 was more frequently overexpressed in their carcinomas than their benign lesions (OR=4.21; 95% CI, 1.826-9.731; P=0.001) and was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (OR=2.41; CI, 1.013-5.720; P=0.047), advanced clinical stages (OR=1.59; 95% CI, 1.244-2.032; P<0.001) and shortened overall survival (HR=2.13; 95% CI, 1.656-2.730; P<0.001).
  • CD24 expression was highly associated with lymph node metastases in breast cancer (OR=3.55; 95% CI, 1.664-7.554; P=0.001), advanced clinical stages (OR=2.22; 95% CI, 1.442-3.418; P<0.001) and lymphovascular invasions (OR=2.78; 95% CI, 1.522-5.068; P=0.001) in urothelial carcinomas and with higher grades in endometrial adenocarcinomas (OR=3.88; 95% CI, 1.548-9.715; P=0.004).
  • CD24 was more frequently and strongly expressed in breast (OR=35.80; 95% CI, 8.907-143.921; P<0.001) and ovarian carcinomas (OR=35.92; CI, 7.156-180.311; P<0.001), than in their benign counterparts.
  • In particular, CD24 may promote cancer development and progression in the breast, ovary and urinary bladder.

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  • (PMID = 19787233.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD24; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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85. Karateke A, Haliloglu B, Atay V, Gurbuz A, Kir G: A case of microglandular adenocarcinoma of the endometrium. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Dec;99(3):778-81
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  • [Title] A case of microglandular adenocarcinoma of the endometrium.
  • BACKGROUND: Microglandular adenocarcinoma is a rare type of endometrium carcinoma and had some potential diagnostic problems with difficulties in discriminating from some malign and benign lesions of cervix.
  • CASE REPORT: A 70-year-old woman misdiagnosed as cervical adenocarcinoma was referred to our clinic, and the lesion was ultimately evaluated as microglandular adenocarcinoma in repeat of endometrial curettage specimen.
  • Postoperatively, histopathologic examination of specimen revealed grade 1 microglandular adenocarcinoma.
  • To our best knowledge, this is the twelfth case of uterine carcinoma simulating microglandular hyperplasia in the literature.
  • CONCLUSION: Because microglandular adenocarcinoma can be confused with benign lesions like microglandular hyperplasia and malignant lesions of cervix, we aim to discuss the clinical, demographic and immunohistochemical characteristics of the patients with microglandular adenocarcinoma useful in differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Endometrial Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Endometrial Hyperplasia / metabolism. Endometrial Hyperplasia / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16229880.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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86. Quddus MR, Zhang C, Sung CJ, Ramos D, Lawrence WD: Intraepithelial mucinous carcinoma arising in an endocervical-type mucinous polypoid adenomyoma of the uterine corpus: a case report. J Reprod Med; 2005 Aug;50(8):643-6
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  • [Title] Intraepithelial mucinous carcinoma arising in an endocervical-type mucinous polypoid adenomyoma of the uterine corpus: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Benign endocervical-type mucinous adenomyoma arising in the uterine corpus is a rare entity.
  • We report a case of intraepithelial mucinous adenocarcinoma arising in an endocervical-type mucinous adenomyoma of the uterine corpus in a previously healthy woman.
  • Uterine leiomyomas and endometrial polyps were suggested by ultrasonography.
  • Endometrial curettage showed multiple polypoid tissue fragments, each composed of glands lined with tall columnar endocervical-type mucinous epithelium lying within a background of endometrial-type stroma and smooth muscle fibers.
  • The mucinous glandular epithelium showed a spectrum of architectural and cytologic changes ranging from benign to severe atypia and occasional back-to-back cribriform glands, consistent with adenocarcinoma.
  • The surrounding smooth muscle fibers and endometrial stromal cells were benign.
  • A diagnosis was made of intraepithelial adenocarcinoma arising in a mucinous adenomyoma in the uterine corpus.
  • CONCLUSION: Endocervical-type mucinous adenomyoma, although previously reported as a benign entity, may contain areas of adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / diagnosis. Adenomyoma / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Endometrium / pathology. Epithelium / pathology. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. In Situ Hybridization. Middle Aged. Muscle, Smooth / pathology. Polyps / diagnosis. Polyps / pathology. Polyps / surgery. Treatment Outcome. Uterine Hemorrhage / diagnosis. Uterine Hemorrhage / etiology. Uterine Hemorrhage / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16220776.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-7758
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Reprod Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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87. Wallace AE, Sales KJ, Catalano RD, Anderson RA, Williams AR, Wilson MR, Schwarze J, Wang H, Rossi AG, Jabbour HN: Prostaglandin F2alpha-F-prostanoid receptor signaling promotes neutrophil chemotaxis via chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 in endometrial adenocarcinoma. Cancer Res; 2009 Jul 15;69(14):5726-33
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  • [Title] Prostaglandin F2alpha-F-prostanoid receptor signaling promotes neutrophil chemotaxis via chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 in endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • The prostaglandin F(2alpha) (PGF(2alpha)) receptor (FP) is elevated in endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • This study found that PGF(2alpha) signaling via FP regulates expression of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 1 (CXCL1) in endometrial adenocarcinoma cells.
  • Expression of CXCL1 and its receptor, CXCR2, are elevated in cancer tissue compared with normal endometrium and localized to glandular epithelium, endothelium, and stroma.
  • Similarly, CXCL1 was elevated in response to 100 nmol/L PGF(2alpha) in endometrial adenocarcinoma explant tissue.
  • The expression of CXCR2 colocalized to neutrophils in endometrial adenocarcinoma and increased neutrophils were present in endometrial adenocarcinoma compared with normal endometrium.
  • In conclusion, our results show a novel PGF(2alpha)-FP pathway that may regulate the inflammatory microenvironment in endometrial adenocarcinoma via neutrophil chemotaxis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Chemokine CXCL1 / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Neutrophils / metabolism. Receptors, Prostaglandin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement / drug effects. Chemotaxis, Leukocyte / drug effects. Dinoprost / pharmacology. Endometrium / metabolism. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mice. Mice, Nude. Microscopy, Fluorescence. Neoplasm Transplantation. Neoplasms, Experimental / genetics. Neoplasms, Experimental / metabolism. Neoplasms, Experimental / pathology. Receptors, Interleukin-8B / genetics. Receptors, Interleukin-8B / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Signal Transduction. Transplantation, Heterologous

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  • (PMID = 19549892.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0601481; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U127684438; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / U.1276.00.004.00002.01/2(61014); United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / U.1276.00.004.00002.01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chemokine CXCL1; 0 / Receptors, Interleukin-8B; 0 / Receptors, Prostaglandin; 0 / prostaglandin F2alpha receptor; B7IN85G1HY / Dinoprost
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2712458; NLM/ UKMS27211
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88. Shtilbans V, Wu M, Burstein DE: Current overview of the role of Akt in cancer studies via applied immunohistochemistry. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2008 Apr;12(2):153-60
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  • [Title] Current overview of the role of Akt in cancer studies via applied immunohistochemistry.
  • The following review summarizes the use of phospho-AKT immunohistochemistry as a potentially valuable tool in cancer prognostication in a wide spectrum of common and uncommon malignancies, including squamous carcinoma of cervix and of head and neck; adenocarcinoma of endometrium, ovarian, breast, prostate, kidney, colon, and pancreas; carcinomas of lung and thyroid; and hematopoietic, soft tissue, and central nervous system neoplasms.
  • To date, the findings overall suggest that the major use of p-AKT immunohistochemical staining lies in prognostication and possibly in individualization of therapy rather than in differential diagnosis.

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  • (PMID = 18325479.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
  • [Number-of-references] 79
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89. Azueta A, Gatius S, Matias-Guiu X: Endometrioid carcinoma of the endometrium: pathologic and molecular features. Semin Diagn Pathol; 2010 Nov;27(4):226-40
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  • [Title] Endometrioid carcinoma of the endometrium: pathologic and molecular features.
  • Endometrioid carcinoma of the endometrium is the most common type of endometrial carcinoma.
  • The microscopic appearance of the tumor resembles that of the proliferative endometrium, with a variable degree of glandular complexity and cellular pleomorphism.
  • Recently recognized subtypes are the tumors that arise in the setting of hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer syndrome, tumors with small nonvillous papillae, presence of microglandular pattern, sertoliform features, and dedifferentiated carcinomas.
  • The main differential diagnosis includes endocervical adenocarcinoma, atypical polypoid adenomyoma, malignant mixed Müllerian tumors, and metastatic tumors to the endometrium.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / genetics. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / genetics. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21309258.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-2570
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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90. Buccoliero AM, Gheri CF, Castiglione F, Garbini F, Barbetti A, Fambrini M, Bargelli G, Pappalardo S, Taddei A, Boddi V, Scarselli GF, Marchionni M, Taddei GL: Liquid-based endometrial cytology: cyto-histological correlation in a population of 917 women. Cytopathology; 2007 Aug;18(4):241-9
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  • [Title] Liquid-based endometrial cytology: cyto-histological correlation in a population of 917 women.
  • OBJECTIVE: Liquid-based cytology, because of its capacity to reduce the obscuring factors and to provide thin-layer specimens, represents an opportunity to reevaluate endometrial cytology.
  • In order to assess the utility of the liquid-based method in endometrial diagnosis, we evaluated its accuracy in comparison with histology.
  • After providing informed consent, all the women proceeded sequentially to hysteroscopy, endometrial cytology and then biopsy endometrial sampling.
  • At biopsy 25 (3%) women had adenocarcinoma, 5 (1%) had adenomatous atypical hyperplasia and 21 (2%) had simple non atypical hyperplasia.
  • At cytology two adenocarcinomas and one adenomatous atypical hyperplasia were underrated as atypical hyperplasias and as non-atypical hyperplasia; two simple non-atypical hyperplasias were reported as negative; and eight cases were false positive (non-atypical hyperplasia at cytology, negative at biopsy).
  • CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that endometrial cytology may be an efficient diagnostic method.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endometrium / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy / methods. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Cytodiagnosis / methods. Endometrial Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Endometrial Hyperplasia / pathology. Female. Humans. Hysteroscopy. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity. Specimen Handling / methods

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  • (PMID = 17559564.001).
  • [ISSN] 0956-5507
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytopathology : official journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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91. Schmidt T, Breidenbach M, Nawroth F, Mallmann P, Beyer IM, Fleisch MC, Rein DT: Hysteroscopy for asymptomatic postmenopausal women with sonographically thickened endometrium. Maturitas; 2009 Feb 20;62(2):176-8
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  • [Title] Hysteroscopy for asymptomatic postmenopausal women with sonographically thickened endometrium.
  • Endometrial carcinoma is the most common genital cancer in women.
  • Endometrial thickness (double layer) is measured by transvaginal sonography and thickening indicates an increased risk of malignancy or other pathology (hyperplasia or polyps).
  • OBJECTIVE: We sought to correlate hysteroscopic and pathological findings in asymptomatic postmenopausal women with sonographically thickened endometrium (>6mm).
  • STUDY DESIGN: A prospective observational study in a university hospital of 304 postmenopausal women referred between 1996 and 2006 because of a sonographically thickened endometrium in the absence of abnormal bleeding, who underwent continuous flow hysteroscopy (4.5mm Storz hysteroscope) and fractionated curettage of the uterine cervix and corpus (D & C) in addition to vaginal sonography (5MHz probe).
  • Average endometrial thickness measured by ultrasound was 12mm+/-6.7mm.
  • Hysteroscopy suggested the presence of endometrial polyps in 226 women (74.3%), simple endometrial hyperplasia in 34 (11.2%), atrophic endometrium in 18 (5.9%), complex endometrial hyperplasia in 2 (0.7%), atypical hyperplasia in 3 (1%) and leiomyoma in 9 (3.0%).
  • In 12 women (3.9%), the hysteroscopic appearance suggested malignancy and histology revealed endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Hysteroscopy represents an easy, safe and effective method for the investigation of asymptomatic women with a thickened endometrium found with transvaginal ultrasound.
  • The commonest pathology was endometrial polyps.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Hysteroscopy. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Atrophy / diagnosis. Endometrium / pathology. Endometrium / ultrasonography. Female. Humans. Leiomyoma / diagnosis. Middle Aged. Polyps / diagnosis. Postmenopause. Prospective Studies. Risk Factors. Uterine Diseases / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19121901.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-5122
  • [Journal-full-title] Maturitas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Maturitas
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
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92. Giralt J, Regadera JP, Verges R, Romero J, de la Fuente I, Biete A, Villoria J, Cobo JM, Guarner F: Effects of probiotic Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 in prevention of radiation-induced diarrhea: results from multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled nutritional trial. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2008 Jul 15;71(4):1213-9
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  • [Title] Effects of probiotic Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 in prevention of radiation-induced diarrhea: results from multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled nutritional trial.
  • PURPOSE: To determine whether a probiotic drink containing Lactobacillus casei DN-114 001 reduces the incidence of radiation-induced diarrhea in patients with gynecologic cancer.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Patients who were undergoing pelvic radiotherapy (45-50 Gy, conventional fractionation) for either cervical carcinoma (radiotherapy and weekly cisplatin) or endometrial adenocarcinoma (postoperative radiotherapy) were randomly assigned to a probiotic drink or placebo, in a double-blind fashion.

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  • (PMID = 18243569.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiation-Protective Agents
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93. Li X, Qi X, Zhou L, Fu W, Abdul-Karim FW, Maclennan G, Gorodeski GI: P2X(7) receptor expression is decreased in epithelial cancer cells of ectodermal, uro-genital sinus, and distal paramesonephric duct origin. Purinergic Signal; 2009 Sep;5(3):351-68
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  • [Title] P2X(7) receptor expression is decreased in epithelial cancer cells of ectodermal, uro-genital sinus, and distal paramesonephric duct origin.
  • The aim of the present study was to better understand the biological significance of P2X(7) receptor expression in normal and cancer human epithelial tissues.
  • P2X(7) receptor and messenger RNA (mRNA) levels were determined in human tissues containing epithelial dysplastic, pre- or early cancerous, and cancer cells, and the levels were compared to those in the corresponding normal epithelial cells within the same tissue of the same case.
  • P2X(7) receptor levels in cancer cells were similar (colon adenocarcinoma) or greater (thyroid papillary carcinoma) than those in the corresponding normal cells.
  • In contrast, in cancer cells of the ectocervix (squamous), endocervix and endometrium (adenocarcinoma), urinary bladder (transitional cell carcinoma), and breast (ductal and lobular adenocarcinomas), P2X(7) receptor levels were lower by about twofold than those in the corresponding normal epithelial cells.
  • Similarly, P2X(7) mRNA levels were lower in uterine, bladder, and breast cancer epithelial tissues by about fourfold than those in the corresponding normal tissues.
  • In addition, P2X(7) receptor levels were decreased already in dysplastic ectocervical cells and pre- or early cancerous endometrial and bladder cells.

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  • (PMID = 19399640.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-9538
  • [Journal-full-title] Purinergic signalling
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Purinergic Signal.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG015955
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2717318
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94. Treeck O, Kindzorra I, Pauser K, Treeck L, Ortmann O: Expression of icb-1 gene is interferon-gamma inducible in breast and ovarian cancer cell lines and affects the IFN gamma-response of SK-OV-3 ovarian cancer cells. Cytokine; 2005 Nov 3;32(3-4):137-42
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  • [Title] Expression of icb-1 gene is interferon-gamma inducible in breast and ovarian cancer cell lines and affects the IFN gamma-response of SK-OV-3 ovarian cancer cells.
  • Icb-1 (C1orf38) is a human gene initially described to be involved in in vitro differentiation processes of endometrial adenocarcinoma and leukemia cells.
  • In this study, we examined the effect of interferon-gamma on icb-1alpha and beta mRNA levels in human cell lines derived from breast cancer and gynecological malignancies.
  • Furthermore, we intended to approach icb-1 gene function by means of RNA interference (RNAi) to analyze the effect of an icb-1 knockdown on human cancer cells in vitro.
  • Three breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, SK-BR-3, MDA-MB-231), three ovarian cancer cell lines (SK-OV-3, OVCAR-3 and BG-1) and the endometrial adenocarcinoma cell line HEC-1-A were treated with interferon gamma and the transcript levels of icb-1 isoforms alpha and beta were assessed by means of semiquantitative real-time RT-PCR.
  • Our data demonstrates an interferon-gamma triggered upregulation of icb-1alpha mRNA levels in all breast cancer cell lines and an increase of icb-1beta mRNA in MDA-MB-231 cells.
  • The strongest (about 10-fold) increase of icb-1alpha and beta mRNA after treatment with interferon-gamma was observed in ovarian cancer cell line SK-OV-3.
  • In conclusion, we report identification of the novel interferon-gamma inducible gene icb-1 which is able to affect the response of ovarian cancer cells to this cytokine.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Female. Humans. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins. Protein Isoforms / biosynthesis. Protein Isoforms / genetics. Protein Isoforms / physiology. RNA Interference. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. Up-Regulation / genetics


95. Lee EJ, Kim TJ, Kim DS, Choi CH, Lee JW, Lee JH, Bae DS, Kim BG: p53 alteration independently predicts poor outcomes in patients with endometrial cancer: a clinicopathologic study of 131 cases and literature review. Gynecol Oncol; 2010 Mar;116(3):533-8
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  • [Title] p53 alteration independently predicts poor outcomes in patients with endometrial cancer: a clinicopathologic study of 131 cases and literature review.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic impact of p53 alteration in human uterine endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • METHODS: One hundred and thirty-one patients with primary endometrial adenocarcinoma were included in the study.
  • Statistically significant correlations were seen between p53 alteration and non-endometrioid histology type, high grade tumors, and the absence of progesterone receptor.
  • Multivariate analyses showed that both p53 alteration and FIGO stage at diagnosis were adverse prognostic factors.
  • CONCLUSION: p53 alteration defines a subset of endometrial adenocarcinoma with highly aggressive behavior and predicts lower survival in patients with endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Endometrial Neoplasms / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20006376.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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96. Patel S, Portelance L, Gilbert L, Tan L, Stanimir G, Duclos M, Souhami L: Analysis of prognostic factors and patterns of recurrence in patients with pathologic stage III endometrial cancer. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys; 2007 Aug 1;68(5):1438-45
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  • [Title] Analysis of prognostic factors and patterns of recurrence in patients with pathologic stage III endometrial cancer.
  • PURPOSE: To retrospectively assess prognostic factors and patterns of recurrence in patients with pathologic Stage III endometrial cancer.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: Between 1989 and 2003, 107 patients with pathologic International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics Stage III endometrial adenocarcinoma confined to the pelvis were treated at our institution.
  • Age, histology, grade, uterine serosal invasion, adnexal involvement, number of extrauterine sites, and treatment with adjuvant RT predicted for improved survival in univariate analysis.
  • Multivariate analysis revealed that grade, uterine serosal invasion, and treatment with adjuvant RT were independent predictors of survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Multiple prognostic factors predicting for the outcome of pathologic Stage III endometrial cancer patients were identified in this analysis.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 17418961.001).
  • [ISSN] 0360-3016
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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97. Wong YF, Cheung TH, Lo KW, Yim SF, Chan LK, Buhard O, Duval A, Chung TK, Hamelin R: Detection of microsatellite instability in endometrial cancer: advantages of a panel of five mononucleotide repeats over the National Cancer Institute panel of markers. Carcinogenesis; 2006 May;27(5):951-5
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  • [Title] Detection of microsatellite instability in endometrial cancer: advantages of a panel of five mononucleotide repeats over the National Cancer Institute panel of markers.
  • The aim of this study was to find the optimal set of microsatellite markers for diagnosis of the microsatellite instability (MSI) phenotype in endometrial cancers.
  • We compared the sensitivity, specificity and ease of use of a reference panel of five markers originally recommended by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) for colorectal cancer and a panel of five quasi-monomorphic mononucleotide repeat markers (pentaplex PCR system).
  • We used these panels for establishing the MSI status of a series of 80 sporadic endometrial adenocarcinomas by comparing the allelic profiles of the markers between tumor and matching germline DNA.
  • Both panels detected the same subset of 21 out of 80 (26%) endometrial MSI carcinomas.
  • As demonstrated previously in gastric and colon MSI cases, the pentaplex PCR reaction using mononucleotide repeats is thus an easier and more sensitive method than the NCI panel, for the screening of MSI status in endometrial tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] DNA / chemistry. Dinucleotide Repeats / genetics. Endometrial Neoplasms / genetics. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Female. Genomic Instability. Humans. National Institutes of Health (U.S.). Phenotype. Polymerase Chain Reaction. United States

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  • (PMID = 16490738.001).
  • [ISSN] 0143-3334
  • [Journal-full-title] Carcinogenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Carcinogenesis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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98. Hecht JL, Ince TA, Baak JP, Baker HE, Ogden MW, Mutter GL: Prediction of endometrial carcinoma by subjective endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia diagnosis. Mod Pathol; 2005 Mar;18(3):324-30
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  • [Title] Prediction of endometrial carcinoma by subjective endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia diagnosis.
  • Endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (also known as 'EIN') is a precursor to endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma characterized by monoclonal growth of mutated cells, a distinctive histopathologic appearance, and 45-fold elevated cancer risk.
  • We have applied diagnostic criteria for EIN to 97 successive endometrial biopsies classified as hyperplastic according to World Health Organization criteria and correlated results with computer-assisted morphometry (D-score) and clinical cancer outcomes.
  • Three pathologists separately reviewed all cases for presence or absence of EIN using published criteria (gland area>stromal area, cytologic change in focus of altered architecture, lesion size>1 mm, and exclusion of cancer and mimics).
  • Eight follow-up cancers were scattered between hyperplasia types (5/21 atypical, 3/63 nonatypical), but all classified as EIN (8/25) and D-score <or=1 (8/38).
  • Subjective application of criteria for diagnosis of EIN correlates well with objective morphometry and successfully segregates patients into high and low cancer risk subgroups with better reproducibility than atypical hyperplasia diagnosis.

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  • (PMID = 15529181.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA092301-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA092301; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA92301; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA092301-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA092301-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA092301-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA092301-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA092301-01A1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS3054; NLM/ PMC2573865
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99. Shutter J, Wright TC Jr: Prevalence of underlying adenocarcinoma in women with atypical endometrial hyperplasia. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2005 Oct;24(4):313-8
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  • [Title] Prevalence of underlying adenocarcinoma in women with atypical endometrial hyperplasia.
  • There is controversy regarding the prevalence of underlying endometrial adenocarcinoma among women with a diagnosis of atypical endometrial hyperplasia.
  • At our institution atypical endometrial proliferations non-diagnostic for invasive adenocarcinoma are diagnosed as either atypical endometrial hyperplasia (ATHY) or as an "atypical proliferative lesion of the endometrium, suggestive but not diagnostic of atypical endometrial hyperplasia" (APL).
  • Between 1996 and 2003, these diagnoses were made on either endometrial biopsy or endometrial curettings in 60 women who subsequently received a hysterectomy.
  • Endometrial adenocarcinoma was identified in 48% (29/60) of the hysterectomy specimens.
  • Age and sampling method had no significant impact on the prevalence of adenocarcinoma.
  • Adenocarcinoma was no more likely to be subsequently identified when a woman had a preoperative diagnosis of ATHY (24 of 52, 46%) compared to APL (5 of 8, 63%).
  • In some women with a diagnosis of ATHY a comment was made in the report that "carcinoma cannot be ruled out".
  • These cases had a significantly higher prevalence of underlying adenocarcinoma (16 of 25, 64%) compared to cases of ATHY in which such a comment was not made (8 of 27, 30%) (p = 0.025).
  • In conclusion, there is a high prevalence of underlying endometrial adenocarcinoma among women undergoing hysterectomy for any of atypical endometrial proliferation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Endometrial Hyperplasia / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 16175074.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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100. Sutton G, Axelrod JH, Bundy BN, Roy T, Homesley HD, Malfetano JH, Mychalczak BR, King ME: Whole abdominal radiotherapy in the adjuvant treatment of patients with stage III and IV endometrial cancer: a gynecologic oncology group study. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Jun;97(3):755-63
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Whole abdominal radiotherapy in the adjuvant treatment of patients with stage III and IV endometrial cancer: a gynecologic oncology group study.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate toxicity, survival, and recurrence-free interval in women with loco-regionally advanced endometrial carcinoma treated with postoperative whole abdominal radiation therapy.
  • RESULTS: Of 180 evaluable patients entered on the study with surgically staged III and IV endometrial carcinoma maximally debulked to less than 2 cm, 77 had typical endometrial adenocarcinoma and 103 had high-risk histology, either papillary serous or clear cell carcinoma.
  • Patients with typical endometrial adenocarcinoma were significantly younger and had significantly fewer poorly differentiated cancers.
  • Proportionally, there were twice as many non-Whites with high-risk histologies as non-Whites with typical endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • Forty-five percent of patients with typical endometrial adenocarcinomas had positive pelvic nodes compared to 51% of those with high-risk histologies.
  • The recurrence-free survival rates were 29% and 27% (at 3 years) for the typical endometrial adenocarcinoma and high-risk histologies, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: Whole abdominal irradiation in maximally resected advanced endometrial carcinoma has tolerable toxicity, and it is suggested that the outcome may be improved by this adjunctive treatment in patients with completely resected disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / radiotherapy. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / radiotherapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 15913742.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 27469; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 37517
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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