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1. Cambruzzi E, Zettler CG, Alexandre CO: Expression of Ki-67 and squamous intraepithelial lesions are related with HPV in endocervical adenocarcinoma. Pathol Oncol Res; 2005;11(2):114-20
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  • [Title] Expression of Ki-67 and squamous intraepithelial lesions are related with HPV in endocervical adenocarcinoma.
  • To estimate the association between human papillomavirus (HPV) status and the expression of p53, Ki-67 and bcl-2 in cases of endocervical adenocarcinoma, and the relation with squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) and age, 229 cases were selected, treated between 1995 and 2003 in the Hospital Nossa Senhora da Conceiçao.
  • The joint occurrence of endocervical adenocarcinoma and SIL were estimated too.
  • The presence of HPV, especially type 18 in endocervical adenocarcinoma suggests that this agent can be an important cofactor in the development and progression of glandular neoplasms of the uterine cervix.
  • The joint occurrence of endocervical adenocarcinoma and SIL may support this hypothesis.
  • HPV may promote an increased proliferation index in endocervical adenocarcinoma, shown by the expression of Ki-67.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / virology. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Papillomaviridae / pathogenicity. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Cell Proliferation. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / metabolism. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / virology. Cervix Uteri / metabolism. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Cervix Uteri / virology. DNA, Viral / analysis. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15999157.001).
  • [ISSN] 1219-4956
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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2. Huang YD, Hung YC, Yeh LS, Chiang IP, Zeng GC, Chang WC: Synchronous ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma and endocervical mucinous adenocarcinoma. Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol; 2006 Sep;45(3):264-7
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  • [Title] Synchronous ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma and endocervical mucinous adenocarcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report a rare case of synchronous cancer consisting of ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma and endocervical mucinous adenocarcinoma.
  • Histology showed moderately to poorly differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the right ovary with extensive lymphovascular permeation, as well as paraaortic and bilateral pelvic lymph node metastases.
  • Endocervical adenocarcinoma, < 3 mm in depth, was also identified on the cervix.
  • The final surgical-pathologic stage of ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma was stage IIIc and of endocervical mucinous adenocarcinoma was stage IA1.
  • CONCLUSION: The coexistence of primary neoplasms in the ovary and cervix is rare.
  • Diagnosis should be based on histologic examination and requires appropriate treatment for both tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 17175478.001).
  • [ISSN] 1875-6263
  • [Journal-full-title] Taiwanese journal of obstetrics & gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Taiwan J Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen
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3. Kusanagi Y, Kojima A, Mikami Y, Kiyokawa T, Sudo T, Yamaguchi S, Nishimura R: Absence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) detection in endocervical adenocarcinoma with gastric morphology and phenotype. Am J Pathol; 2010 Nov;177(5):2169-75
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  • [Title] Absence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) detection in endocervical adenocarcinoma with gastric morphology and phenotype.
  • A subset of endocervical-type mucinous adenocarcinomas (ACs) of the uterine cervix exhibit a gastric phenotype and morphology, as reported in cases of minimal deviation AC in which the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) has been rarely detected.
  • To investigate the HPV-independent pathway of carcinogenesis in cases of gastric-type AC, we investigated the common high-risk HPV (hr-HPV) status in 52 nonsquamous cell carcinomas, using a PCR-based typing method and immunohistochemistry of p16INK4a (a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that is overexpressed in both cancerous and precancerous cervical tissue, making it an ideal biomarker for cervical cancer cases).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / virology. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 20829441.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-2191
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / DNA, Viral
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2966776
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4. Nieuwenhuizen L, Khalil MK, Naik VR, Othman NH: Prevalence of goblet cell metaplasia in endocervical and endometrial adenocarcinoma : a histochemical study. Malays J Med Sci; 2007 Jan;14(1):56-61
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  • [Title] Prevalence of goblet cell metaplasia in endocervical and endometrial adenocarcinoma : a histochemical study.
  • To determine the prevalence of goblet cell metaplasia in endocervical and endometrial adenocarcinomas by histochemial staining and to investigate the most sensitive histochemical staining method to detect this metaplasia, a total of 90 tissue blocks representing 30 non-neoplastic cervix, 30 non-neoplastic endometrium, 30 endocervical and endometrial adenocarcinoma cases were obtained for histochemical staining with Toluidine Blue (TB), Methylene Blue (MB), Mucicarmine (MUC), Periodic Acid Schiff before and after Diastase digestion (PAS, PAS-D), Alcian Blue pH 2.5 (AB), and Periodic Acid Schiff after Alcian Blue pH 2.5 (PAB).
  • Goblet cell metaplasia was present in 2 out of 30 cases in non-neoplastic cervix, 0 out of 30 cases in non-neoplastic endometrium, 7 out of 15 cases in endocervical adenocarcinoma and in 2 out of 15 cases in endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • Relatively few goblet cells were seen in endometrial adenocarcinoma, few to moderate amounts were seen in endocervical adenocarcinoma and relatively more goblet cells were seen in non-neoplastic cervix.
  • The differentiation of the goblet cells with its surrounding glandular epithelium was moderate to strong in non-neoplastic cervix and endocervical adenocarcinoma, while the differentiation in endometrial adenocarcinoma was weak to moderate.
  • The must optimum staining methods for staining goblet cells in non-neoplastic cervix, endocervical adenocarcinoma and endometrial adenocarcinoma were PAS, PASD and AB.

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  • (PMID = 22593653.001).
  • [ISSN] 1394-195X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Malaysian journal of medical sciences : MJMS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Malays J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Malaysia
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3351219
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; endocervical adenocarinoma / endometrial adenocarcinoma / goblet cell metaplasia / histochemical staining / intestinal metaplasia / prevalence
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5. Meng ZL, Guo LN, Luo YF, Cao JL, Wan JW, Liu TH: [Role of HPV DNA detection and p16(INK4A) protein expression in diagnosis of endocervical adenocarcinoma]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2007 Dec;36(12):810-3
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  • [Title] [Role of HPV DNA detection and p16(INK4A) protein expression in diagnosis of endocervical adenocarcinoma].
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the significance of p16(INK4A) protein expression and positivity for HPV DNA in distinguishing between endocervical and endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • METHODS: Expression of p16(INK4A) protein in 30 cases of endocervical adenocarcinoma and 10 cases of endometrial adenocarcinoma was assessed by immunohistochemistry.
  • In-situ hybridization for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA was also performed in 20 cases of endocervical adenocarcinoma and 10 cases of endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • RESULTS: The positive rate for p16(INK4A) in endocervical adenocarcinoma was 70% (21/30), as compared with 30% (3/10) in endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • The tumor cells in endocervical adenocarcinoma showed diffuse and strong expression of p16(INK4A) protein with both cytoplasmic and nuclear staining.
  • In contrast, the endometrial adenocarcinoma cells showed patchy and weak expression of p16(INK4A).
  • On the other hand, HPV DNA (type 16 or 18) was detected by in-situ hybridization in 9 (45%) of the 20 cases of endocervical adenocarcinoma and none of the 10 cases of endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The expression of p16(INK4A) protein is significantly higher in endocervical adenocarcinoma than in endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • This expression pattern can serve as a useful immunohistochemical marker in the differential diagnosis. p16(INK4A) protein immunohistochemistry appears to be more sensitive than HPV DNA testing in distinguishing between endocervical and endometrial adenocarcinoma, especially in biopsy or curettage specimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / genetics. DNA, Viral / analysis. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Human papillomavirus 16 / genetics. Human papillomavirus 18 / genetics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / genetics. Endometrial Neoplasms / virology. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization

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  • (PMID = 18346352.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / DNA, Viral
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6. Rabban JT, McAlhany S, Lerwill MF, Grenert JP, Zaloudek CJ: PAX2 distinguishes benign mesonephric and mullerian glandular lesions of the cervix from endocervical adenocarcinoma, including minimal deviation adenocarcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Feb;34(2):137-46
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  • [Title] PAX2 distinguishes benign mesonephric and mullerian glandular lesions of the cervix from endocervical adenocarcinoma, including minimal deviation adenocarcinoma.
  • Mesonephric remnants of the cervix are vestiges of the embryonic mesonephric system which typically regresses during female development.
  • The differential diagnosis of exuberant mesonephric hyperplasia includes minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the cervix, a tumor with deceptively bland morphology for which no reliable diagnostic biomarkers currently exist.
  • We hypothesized that PAX2 may also be expressed in mesonephric lesions of the cervix and may distinguish mesonephric hyperplasia from minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the cervix.
  • We demonstrated that PAX2 was strongly and diffusely expressed in mesonephric remnants (6 of 6) and in mesonephric hyperplasia (18 of 18); however, no expression was noted in mesonephric adenocarcinoma (0 of 1).
  • PAX2 was expressed in normal endocervical glands (including tunnel clusters and Nabothian cysts) (86 of 86), lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia (5 of 5), tubal/tuboendometrioid metaplasia (8 of 8), and cervical endometriosis (13 of 14).
  • In contrast, only 2 cases of endocervical adenocarcinoma were positive for PAX2 [invasive adenocarcinoma of the minimal deviation type (0 of 5), usual type (1 of 22), and endometrioid type (1 of 1)].
  • Adjacent adenocarcinoma in situ, as well as cases of pure adenocarcinoma in situ (0 of 6), were also PAX2 negative.
  • PAX2 expression in the 2 positive endocervical adenocarcinomas was patchy and weak.
  • These results suggest that PAX2 immunoreactivity may be useful to (1) distinguish mesonephric hyperplasia from minimal deviation adenocarcinoma, (2) to distinguish lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia from minimal deviation adenocarcinoma, and (3) to distinguish endocervical tubal metaplasia or cervical endometriosis from endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • Overall, a strong, diffuse nuclear PAX2 expression pattern in a cervical glandular proliferation predicts a benign diagnosis (positive predictive value 90%, negative predictive value 98%; P<0.001); however, PAX2 should not be interpreted in isolation from the architectural and cytologic features of the lesion as it may be expressed in some stage II endometrial adenocarcinomas involving the cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Mesonephros / pathology. Mullerian Ducts / pathology. PAX2 Transcription Factor / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Hyperplasia / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Neoplasm Staging. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20061933.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / PAX2 Transcription Factor; 0 / PAX2 protein, human
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7. Carico E, Fulciniti F, Giovagnoli MR, Losito NS, Botti G, Benincasa G, Farnetano MG, Vecchione A: Adhesion molecules and p16 expression in endocervical adenocarcinoma. Virchows Arch; 2009 Sep;455(3):245-51
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  • [Title] Adhesion molecules and p16 expression in endocervical adenocarcinoma.
  • An immunohistochemical (IHC) study has been conducted on 34 cases of untreated endocervical adenocarcinomas collected among three institutions (Ospedale S.
  • Endocervical adenocarcinomas as a group were uniformly expressing p16INK4a except for two cases, and all lesions displayed downregulation of the cadherin-catenin complex, without demonstrating statistically significant differences among the different histotypes.
  • The lack of nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin found in this group of lesions probably implies that no alteration of the beta-catenin/Wnt metabolic pathway is present in endocervical adenocarcinoma, as opposed to what is found in the literature for squamous carcinoma of the cervix.
  • The diffuse expression of p16INK4a protein in this group of neoplasms stresses the important role of high-risk human papillomavirus infection in neoplastic causation possibly via the viral E7-mediated inactivation of pRB tumor-suppressor protein and also underlines the useful role of p16INK4a immunostaining in the diagnostic algorithm of endocervical adenocarcinomas.
  • In consideration of these findings, investigation of downstream beta-catenin genes c-myc and cyclin D1 is sought as possibly contributive in the molecular pathogenesis of endocervical adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / chemistry. Cadherins / analysis. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / analysis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / chemistry. alpha Catenin / analysis. beta Catenin / analysis


8. Westin SN, Lacour RA, Urbauer DL, Luthra R, Bodurka DC, Lu KH, Broaddus RR: Carcinoma of the lower uterine segment: a newly described association with Lynch syndrome. J Clin Oncol; 2008 Dec 20;26(36):5965-71
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  • PURPOSE: Endometrial carcinoma in the lower uterine segment (LUS) is a poorly described cancer that can be clinically confused with endocervical carcinoma.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The clinical records and pathology reports from women who underwent hysterectomy at our institution for endometrial or endocervical adenocarcinoma over an 11-year interval were reviewed.
  • The LUS group consisted of women with endometrial tumors that clearly originated between the lower uterine corpus and the upper endocervix.
  • Preoperative diagnosis of the LUS tumors more frequently included the possibility of endocervical adenocarcinoma.
  • Seventy-three percent of the LUS tumors had an immunohistochemical expression pattern typical of conventional endometrioid adenocarcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 19001318.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5T32 CA101642 02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA098258
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2645115
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9. Zardo LM, Thuler LC, Zeferino LC, Horta NM, Fonseca Rde C: Performance of the cytologic examination for the diagnosis of endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ: cytologic-histologic correlation in 60 cases. Acta Cytol; 2009 Sep-Oct;53(5):558-64
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Performance of the cytologic examination for the diagnosis of endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ: cytologic-histologic correlation in 60 cases.
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the performance of cytologic examinations for the diagnosis of adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) through the correlation between the cytologic and histologic findings.
  • STUDY DESIGN: This study included 60 patients followed at the Brazilian National Cancer Institute from November 1998 to December 2007, with the cytopathologic diagnosis of AIS.
  • RESULTS: Histologic study confirmed AIS in 28.3% (17/60) and invasive endocervical adenocarcinoma in 38.3% (23/60) of the cases.
  • In 21.7% (13/60) of the patients, the histologic examination revealed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2/3 and in 5.0% (3/60) squamous invasive carcinoma; in the remaining 5.0% (3/60) the diagnosis pointed to other neoplasms, and 1.7% (1/60) showed exclusively benign squamous cell lesions.
  • CONCLUSION: Although cytomorphologic criteria for diagnosis of AIS have been published, there was significant difficulty in interpreting glandular lesions.
  • As knowledge of this diagnosis increases, better performance is expected.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Vaginal Smears

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  • (PMID = 19798884.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Stewart J 3rd, Bevans-Wilkins K, Ye C, Kurtycz DF: Clear-cell endocervical adenocarcinoma in a 19-year-old woman. Diagn Cytopathol; 2006 Dec;34(12):839-42
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clear-cell endocervical adenocarcinoma in a 19-year-old woman.
  • The incidence of adenocarcinoma of the cervix is increasing within the US, but this diagnostic category is not typically associated with teenaged patients.
  • A report on a case of a 19-year-old woman, with no history of diethylbestrol exposure in uteri, diagnosed with clear-cell endocervical adenocarcinoma is made.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


11. Wagner DG, Weisensel J, Mentrikoski MJ, Leo SD, Bonfiglio TA, Hoda RS: ThinPrep Pap test of endocervical adenocarcinoma with lymph node metastasis: report of a case in a 17-year-old woman. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Sep;38(9):633-8
NCI CPTAC Assay Portal. NCI CPTAC Assay Portal .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] ThinPrep Pap test of endocervical adenocarcinoma with lymph node metastasis: report of a case in a 17-year-old woman.
  • Endocervical adenocarcinoma is an uncommon malignancy that is composed of multiple subtypes and accounts for approximately 15% of all cervical cancers.
  • In this article, we describe the cytomorphology and differential diagnosis of an AJCC clinical stage IIIb, FIGO IB2 endocervical adenocarcinoma in a 17-year-old woman in a ThinPrep Pap test.The patient was a 17-year-old G0P0 white woman with no significant past medical history and no prior history of cervical dysplasia.
  • A sample was sent to cytology that was interpreted as atypical endocervical cells, favor neoplasia.
  • A subsequent cervical biopsy was diagnosed as endocervical adenocarcinoma with villoglandular features and ultimately, a hysterectomy with lymph node dissection was performed.
  • The final diagnosis was endocervical adenocarcinoma with metastasis to three pelvic lymph nodes.The cytomorphology of endocervical adenocarcinoma on ThinPrep Pap test is similar to that described for conventionally-processed Pap smears.
  • This difficult diagnosis should be considered on a ThinPrep Pap test, regardless of age when the characteristic cytomorphology is observed.
  • On a cytology sample, it is advisable to state atypical endocervical cells, adenocarcinoma in situ, or endocervical adenocarcinoma without providing a specific subtype even if there is a predominance of features for a particular subtype.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Papanicolaou Test. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vaginal Smears / methods


12. Takeuchi K, Tsujino T, Sugimoto M, Yoshida S, Kitazawa S: Endocervical adenocarcinoma associated with lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia showing rapid reaccumulation of hydrometra. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2008 Nov-Dec;18(6):1285-8
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Endocervical adenocarcinoma associated with lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia showing rapid reaccumulation of hydrometra.
  • Mucinous endocervical adenocarcinoma is characterized by increased watery vaginal discharge, but the early diagnosis is sometimes difficult because biopsy specimen might only serve to sample a superficial part of the tumor.
  • Papanicolaou smear of endocervix and endometrium followed by fractional curettage was performed, but failed to confirm the diagnosis.
  • To investigate the unknown origin of hydrometra, an exploratory laparotomy with total hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed, followed by pelvic lymphadenectomy because biopsy specimens during operation suggested adenocarcinoma of the cervix.
  • The final pathologic study of surgical specimens revealed mucinous adenocarcinoma, which was located on the proximal area of cervix.
  • Adjacent to carcinoma tissue, lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia (LEGH) was detected.
  • Pyloric gland mucin (HIK1083), MUC6, and MUC5AC were diffusely immunopositive in the cytoplasm of LEGH cells and the immunoreactivity became weaker in adenocarcinoma cells with tumor progression and loss of differentiation.
  • Based on histopathologic features of the present case, there seems to be a possible link between LEGH and conventional mucinous endocervical adenocarcinomas.
  • The physician should keep in mind the possible existence of endocervical adenocarcinoma in a patient showing rapid reaccumulation of hydrometra, when uterine malignancies are clinically suspected and biopsy finding fails to confirm the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18217972.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Biscotti CV, Ray N: Papanicolaou tests associated with cervical mucosal endometriosis: an analysis of cellular features and comparison to endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Aug;38(8):551-4
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Papanicolaou tests associated with cervical mucosal endometriosis: an analysis of cellular features and comparison to endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • Endometrium directly sampled from endocervical mucosal endometriosis can mimic endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) in Papanicolaou (Pap) tests.
  • We analyzed a series of Pap tests to investigate the cellular features of mucosal endometriosis and to assess the utility of stroma and apoptotic bodies in the differential diagnosis with AIS.
  • Pap test samples from patients known to have endocervical mucosal endometriosis were compared with samples containing AIS.
  • These lesional cells almost always include stroma, which is useful in the differential diagnosis with AIS.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Endometriosis / pathology. Mucous Membrane / pathology. Papanicolaou Test. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Vaginal Smears / methods


14. Witkiewicz A, Lee KR, Brodsky G, Cviko A, Brodsky J, Crum CP: Superficial (early) endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ: a study of 12 cases and comparison to conventional AIS. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Dec;29(12):1609-14
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Superficial (early) endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ: a study of 12 cases and comparison to conventional AIS.
  • Although established histologic criteria for the diagnosis of endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) have been published, some lesions are not readily classified or present with more subtle degrees of epithelial atypia.
  • Five coexisted with CIN, four arose in endocervical papillae, and two arose in endocervical polyps.
  • Superficial AIS should be suspected in endocervical columnar epithelium with segmental nuclear hyperchromasia with mitotic activity, and confirmed by biomarker staining (p16 and Mib-1) if the pathologist is uncertain of the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Apoptosis. Biopsy. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / metabolism. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / virology. Conization. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / analysis. DNA Probes, HPV. DNA, Neoplasm / metabolism. DNA, Viral / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Mitosis. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16327433.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / DNA Probes, HPV; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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15. Kalir T, Simsir A, Demopoulos HB, Demopoulos RI: Obstacles to the early detection of endocervical adenocarcinoma. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2005 Oct;24(4):399-403
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Obstacles to the early detection of endocervical adenocarcinoma.
  • We observed that the ratio of in situ to invasive carcinomas of the cervix is significantly greater for squamous than for glandular lesions.
  • The purpose of this study was to determine if the location, extent of disease, and growth patterns of endocervical adenocarcinomas influence the ability to detect malignant cells by Pap smears.
  • Medical records, doctor's office records, and all pathology materials (reports and slides) including Pap smears, biopsies, LEEP/cone biopsies, and hysterectomy specimens from 53 consecutive patients diagnosed with endocervical adenocarcinomas were examined at New York University Medical Center (a total of 654 pathology slides and 51 Pap smears were reviewed).
  • In contrast, of the other three cases that did not involve the TZ but were confined to the endocervix, only one was identified by Pap smear.
  • Twenty involved the TZ, and 23 involved the endocervix but spared the TZ.
  • Among the 23 patients with invasive disease that spared the TZ, 6 (26%) had a documented history of negative Pap smears at New York University within 3 years of diagnosis.
  • Noteworthy was the finding that two of these six lesions extended from the endocervix upward, through the stroma, and into the endomyometrium of the lower uterine segment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16175089.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Schroeter L, Louw M, Michelow P, Wright C: Application of cytomorphologic features and immunocytochemistry to cervicovaginal smears. A scoring system to distinguish between endometrial and endocervical adenocarcinoma. Acta Cytol; 2009 Nov-Dec;53(6):630-6
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Application of cytomorphologic features and immunocytochemistry to cervicovaginal smears. A scoring system to distinguish between endometrial and endocervical adenocarcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To apply cytomorphologic features and a limited panel of immunocytochemistry to cervicovaginal smears to distinguish between primary endocervical adenocarcinoma (ECA) and primary endometrial adenocarcinoma (EMC).
  • STUDY DESIGN: The study was a retrospective analysis of 35 cases, of which 21 were of primary endometrial origin and 14 were of primary endocervical origin.
  • In all cases included in the study, the site of origin of adenocarcinoma was confirmed by examination of the surgical specimen.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Research Design. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Vaginal Smears / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoembryonic Antigen / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. ROC Curve


17. Van Calsteren K, Hanssens M, Moerman P, Orye G, Bielen D, Vergote I, Amant F: Successful conservative treatment of endocervical adenocarcinoma stage Ib1 diagnosed early in pregnancy. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand; 2008;87(2):250-3
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Successful conservative treatment of endocervical adenocarcinoma stage Ib1 diagnosed early in pregnancy.
  • Traditionally when cervical cancer is diagnosed during the first trimester of pregnancy, oncological treatment is given priority despite the pregnant state.
  • A 32-year-old primigravida was diagnosed with invasive endocervical adenocarcinoma stage Ib1 at 8 weeks' gestation.
  • As the patient wanted to preserve the pregnancy, an amputation of the anterior cervix and retroperitoneal pelvic lymphadenectomy were performed.
  • In the absence of poor prognostic markers, we decided to adopt a conservative approach for cervical adenocarcinoma in a pregnant patient at 8 weeks' gestation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Early Diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / surgery. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cervix Uteri / surgery. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Trimester, First

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  • (PMID = 18231896.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0412
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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18. Wheeler DT, Kurman RJ: The relationship of glands to thick-wall blood vessels as a marker of invasion in endocervical adenocarcinoma. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2005 Apr;24(2):125-30
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The relationship of glands to thick-wall blood vessels as a marker of invasion in endocervical adenocarcinoma.
  • The recognition of early invasion in endocervical adenocarcinomas can be difficult.
  • We evaluated the proximity of endocervical glands and their pattern of infiltration in relation to thick-wall blood vessels as potential markers of invasion in a series of invasive endocervical adenocarcinomas removed by cone biopsy or hysterectomy.
  • Routinely stained slides were examined from 50 invasive endocervical adenocarcinomas (37 of usual type and 13 of minimal deviation type), 26 noninvasive lesions (14 cases of adenocarcinoma in situ, 7 cases of hyperplasia, 4 cases of tunnel clusters, 1 adenomyoma), and 20 normal cervices, including 7 with deep nabothian cysts.
  • In conclusion, close proximity of glands to thick-wall blood vessels (distance from the closest gland to a thick-wall vessel less than or equal to the thickness of the vessel wall) seems to be a useful feature in the diagnosis of invasive endocervical adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor. Cervix Uteri / blood supply. Neoplasm Invasiveness / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 15782068.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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19. Chang MC, Nevadunsky NS, Viswanathan AN, Crum CP, Feltmate CM: Endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ with ovarian metastases: a unique variant with potential for long-term survival. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2010 Jan;29(1):88-92
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ with ovarian metastases: a unique variant with potential for long-term survival.
  • Adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) of the endocervix is typically confined to the cervix, but may be extensive.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2010 May;29(3):298-300; author reply 300-1; discussion 300-2 [20407334.001]
  • [CommentIn] Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2011 Jan;30(1):62-3 [21131831.001]
  • (PMID = 19952931.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Saad RS, Ismiil N, Ghorab Z, Nofech-Mozes S, Dubé V, Covens A, Khalifa MA: Lymphatic vessel density as a prognostic marker in clinical stage I endocervical adenocarcinoma. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2010 Jul;29(4):386-93
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Lymphatic vessel density as a prognostic marker in clinical stage I endocervical adenocarcinoma.
  • There are limited data evaluating the significance of lymphatic vessel density (LVD) as a prognostic marker in cervical adenocarcinoma.
  • In this study, we investigated intratumoral and peritumoral LVD, using the lymphatic marker D2-40, as a prognostic marker in endocervical adenocarcinoma.
  • Surgical specimens from 50 consecutive patients with endocervical adenocarcinoma treated with complete staging surgical procedures were reviewed.
  • Our study showed that both angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis play an important role in the progression of endocervical adenocarcinoma, and that peritumoral D2-40 LVD is an independent predictor of lymph node metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Lymphangiogenesis / physiology. Lymphatic Vessels / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20567154.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antigens, CD31; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / monoclonal antibody D2-40
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21. Tantbirojn P, Triratanachat S, Trivijitsilp P, Niruthisard S: Comparison between adenocarcinoma in both endocervical and endometrial specimens from fractional curettage and pathologic findings in subsequent hysterectomy specimens. J Med Assoc Thai; 2008 Sep;91(9):1313-7
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparison between adenocarcinoma in both endocervical and endometrial specimens from fractional curettage and pathologic findings in subsequent hysterectomy specimens.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the hysterectomy specimen findings in the patients who underwent fractional curettage (F&C) with presence of adenocarcinoma in both endocervical and endometrial specimens.
  • MATERIAL AND METHOD: Forty-one patients who had adenocarcinoma in both endocervical and endometrial specimens from F&C and underwent subsequent hysterectomy for surgical staging without pre-operative radiotherapy or chemotherapy at King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital between 1999 and 2007 were evaluated Histologic slides from both F&C and hysterectomy specimens were reviewed and assessed All cases of endometrial adenocarcinoma with cervical involvement (stage 2) in hysterectomy specimens were also assessed and compared to the results in F&C specimens.
  • RESULTS: Fifteen patients (36.6%) with both positive endocervical and endometrial specimens from F&C were diagnosed as endometrial adenocarcinoma within uterine cavity with lower uterine segment involvement.
  • Only 34.1% of cases were endometrial carcinomas with cervical involvement.
  • In the 35 cases with endometrial carcinoma stage 2, 60% had adenocarcinoma in both endocervical and endometrial specimens from F&C.
  • CONCLUSION: In the patients who had adenocarcinoma in both endocervical and endometrial specimens from fractional curettage, the most common final pathological diagnosis from hysterectomy specimens was endometrial adenocarcinoma within uterine cavity with lower uterine segment involvement.
  • Therefore, only 60% of endometrial carcinoma stage 2 revealed positive adenocarcinoma in both endocervical and endometrial specimens from fractional curettage.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Dilatation and Curettage. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Endometrium / pathology. Hysterectomy

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  • (PMID = 18843857.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-2208
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Assoc Thai
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
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22. Gurney EP, Blank SV: Fortuitous detection of endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ: a report of 2 cases. J Reprod Med; 2009 Jul;54(7):451-3
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fortuitous detection of endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ: a report of 2 cases.
  • BACKGROUND: The Pap smear and oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) testing are highly effective in screening for cervical cancer precursors.
  • Cervical glandular abnormalities, however, are more difficult to detect and monitor than are squamous lesions.
  • Biopsies revealed adenocarcinoma in situ, and cold-knife conization was performed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Papanicolaou Test. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Vaginal Smears / methods

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  • (PMID = 19691263.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-7758
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Reprod Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Alphandery C, Dagrada G, Frattini M, Perrone F, Pilotti S: Neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma of the cervix associated with endocervical adenocarcinoma: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2007 Jul-Aug;51(4):589-93
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma of the cervix associated with endocervical adenocarcinoma: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Small-cell carcinoma (SCC) of the cervix is an uncommon member of the neuroendocrine group of cervical carcinomas that is frequently intermixed with a non-SCC component in the form of an adenocarcinoma (ADC) or squamous carcinoma.
  • CASE: Colposcopy revealed a cervical mass in a 41-year-old woman and a Pap smear the presence of some tumor cells from SCC, which was confirmed by subsequent biopsy.
  • The cervical samples showed areas of endocervical ADC adjacent to and intermixed with the SCC.
  • CONCLUSION: SCC of the cervix is a rare but distinct HR-HPV-18-related cervical carcinoma often intermixed with a clonally related non-small cell component consisting of an ADC or squamous carcinoma.
  • The presence of SCC tumor cells in a cervical smear should prompt a search for malignant glandular or squamous tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antigens, CD56 / metabolism. Biopsy. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Chromogranin A / metabolism. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18 / genetics. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Microsatellite Repeats / genetics. Papanicolaou Test. Synaptophysin / metabolism. Vaginal Smears

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  • (PMID = 17718130.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / Chromogranin A; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Synaptophysin
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24. Chew K, Rooney PH, Cruickshank ME, Murray GI: Laser capture microdissection and PCR for analysis of human papilloma virus infection. Methods Mol Biol; 2005;293:295-300
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  • Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is considered one of the main factors involved in the pathogenesis of endocervical adenocarcinoma.
  • We have developed a method to determine the presence of HPV type 16 in endocervical cancer cells using laser capture microdissection followed by DNA extraction and qualitative polymerase chain reaction.
  • Our results show that HPV type 16 is present in endocervical adenocarcinoma cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / virology. Lasers. Microdissection / methods. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Papillomavirus Infections / virology. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 16028428.001).
  • [ISSN] 1064-3745
  • [Journal-full-title] Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Methods Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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25. Nieuwenhuizen L, Khalil MK, Venkatesh N, Othman NH: Endometrial and endocervical secretion: the search for histochemical differentiation. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2006 Apr;28(2):87-96
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  • [Title] Endometrial and endocervical secretion: the search for histochemical differentiation.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the ideal histochemical stain to differentiate between non-neoplastic and neoplastic endocervix and endometrium.
  • STUDY DESIGN: A total of 90 cases representing nonneoplastic cervix, non-neoplastic endometrium, endocervical adenocarcinoma and endometrial adenocarcinoma were stained with toluidine blue (TB); methylene blue (MB); mucicarmine (MUC); periodic acid-Schiff before and after diastase digestion (PAS, PAS-D); Alcian blue, pH 2.5 (AB); and periodic acid-Schiff after Alcian blue, pH 2.5 (PAB).
  • RESULTS: The majority of non-neoplastic endocervix samples stained blue with MB (57%), fuchsia with MUC (70%), magenta with PAS (77%) and PAS-D (73%) and dark turquoise with AB (70%).
  • There is statistical difference (p < 0.05) in the color of the epithelium and secretions between the non-neoplastic cervix and endometrium.
  • The malignant glands of endocervical origin could be differentiated significantly (p = 0.043) from non-neoplastic endocervical epithelium by MUC.
  • Endocervical carcinoma could be significantly differentiated from endometrial carcinoma by MB.
  • The staining in endocervical adenocarcinoma and endometrial carcinoma was predominantly present in both apical and cytoplasmic locations compared to their non-neoplastic counterparts (endocervix, p = 0.003; endometrium, p = 0.049).
  • CONCLUSION: This study showed that a panel of histochemical stains could differentiate glandular cells of endocervical epithelium from endometrium.


26. Rooker D, Baalbergen A, Helmerhorst TJ: [A falsely reassuring cervical smear in adenocarcinoma of the external os]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2008 Apr 26;152(17):977-80
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  • [Title] [A falsely reassuring cervical smear in adenocarcinoma of the external os].
  • 3 women with only mild changes in cervical smears were later found to be suffering from cervical adenocarcinoma.
  • After 3 colposcopic examinations with biopsies and 2 loop electrosurgical excision procedures of the cervix which showed no histological signs of malignancy, diagnostic conization revealed an adenocarcinoma of the endocervix.
  • The second patient was 30 years old and had persistent vaginal discharge and an enlarged cervix, but no cytological abnormalities.
  • Adenocarcinoma was diagnosed after conization.
  • A severe abnormal smear with glandular atypia was followed by colposcopical biopsies and conization, which revealed an endocervical adenocarcinoma.
  • Adenocarcinoma is a rare type of cervical cancer: III cases out of 584 patients with cervical cancer in 2003 in the Netherlands.
  • This neoplasm is more difficult to detect than cervical squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Cervical cytology is not an effective tool for screening and diagnosis.
  • If cervical cytology shows persistent atypical glandular cells with no conclusive histological result, then due to the endocervical localisation of the lesions adenocarcinoma can only be excluded by conization.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Cervix Uteri / cytology. Papanicolaou Test. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vaginal Smears / methods


27. Onuma K, Dabbs DJ, Bhargava R: Mammaglobin expression in the female genital tract: immunohistochemical analysis in benign and neoplastic endocervix and endometrium. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Jul;27(3):418-25
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  • [Title] Mammaglobin expression in the female genital tract: immunohistochemical analysis in benign and neoplastic endocervix and endometrium.
  • To investigate the potential use of MGB in gynecologic pathology practice, we tested MGB expression by immunohistochemistry on 47 endocervical adenocarcinomas (whole tissue sections of 13 invasive and 35 in situ) and 55 endometrial carcinomas (39 endometrioid and 16 nonendometrioid represented on a single tissue microarray).
  • Nonneoplastic endocervical and endometrial tissues were also evaluated for MGB expression.
  • MGB expression was detected in thirty (77%) of 39 of endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinomas compared with 4 (31%) of 13 endocervical adenocarcinomas.
  • Endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) showed either weak (predominantly) or moderate (occasionally) expression in about 40% of the cases in comparison with strong positivity in benign endocervical glandular epithelium.
  • These results confirm that MGB is not specific for breast carcinoma, but is also variably expressed in nonneoplastic and neoplastic endocervical and endometrial tissues.
  • Frequent MGB expression in endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma is significantly different from nonendometrioid carcinoma.
  • Most endocervical adenocarcinomas are negative for MGB, in contrast to mostly positive endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinomas, however, MGB expression alone is not specific enough to distinguish these 2 tumor types.
  • MGB expression is altered in neoplastic endocervical epithelium compared with normal, and may indicate its decreased expression in the process of early carcinogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Uterine Neoplasms / metabolism. Uteroglobin / biosynthesis. Uterus / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cervix Uteri / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Endometrium / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mammaglobin A. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18580321.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Mammaglobin A; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / SCGB2A2 protein, human; 9060-09-7 / Uteroglobin
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28. Hirschowitz L, Sen C, Murdoch J: Primary endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the cervix with widespread squamous metaplasia--a potential diagnostic pitfall. Diagn Pathol; 2007;2:40

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the cervix with widespread squamous metaplasia--a potential diagnostic pitfall.
  • BACKGROUND: Uterine or endocervical biopsies that contain endometrioid adenocarcinoma with widespread squamous metaplasia are usually of endometrial origin.
  • The presence of squamous metaplasia is said to be helpful in distinguishing endocervical from endometrial adenocarcinomas in small biopsy samples.
  • Biopsy of a friable lesion in the proximal endocervical canal revealed an endocervical adenocarcinoma of endometrioid type with widespread squamous metaplasia.
  • The latter feature initially raised the possible diagnosis of a primary endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • However, immunohistochemical marker studies indicated a diagnosis of primary endocervical adenocarcinoma of endometrioid type and this was confirmed at hysterectomy.
  • CONCLUSION: Squamous differentiation is not well documented in endocervical adenocarcinomas of endometrioid type and, when widespread, may represent a diagnostic pitfall for pathologists.
  • Interpretation of small biopsies from the endocervical canal on the basis of morphology alone may lead to misdiagnosis and inappropriate surgical management.

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  • [Cites] Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2002 Oct;21(4):360-7 [12352184.001]
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  • (PMID = 17961245.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2116996
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29. Missaoui N, Hmissa S, Frappart L, Trabelsi A, Ben Abdelkader A, Traore C, Mokni M, Yaacoubi MT, Korbi S: p16INK4A overexpression and HPV infection in uterine cervix adenocarcinoma. Virchows Arch; 2006 May;448(5):597-603
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  • [Title] p16INK4A overexpression and HPV infection in uterine cervix adenocarcinoma.
  • Human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are causally involved in the genesis of cervical carcinomas and their precursors, and there is a strong relationship between the cyclin-dependant kinase inhibitor p16INK4A and HPV infection.
  • This study was carried out to assess the correlations between p16INK4A expression as an early biomarker of the endocervical adenocarcinoma and HPV infection. p16INK4A expression and HPV typing were performed on 46 samples including 5 normal endocervix, 9 benign lesions of the endocervix, 25 endocervical adenocarcinomas, and 7 endometrioid adenocarcinomas of the uterine corpus.
  • All of the 25 endocervical adenocarcinomas overexpressed p16INK4A; the adjacent epithelium and the connective tissue were strictly negative.
  • No p16INK4A was detected in nine benign endocervical lesions and in five normal endocervix.
  • Few endometrioid adenocarcinomas of the uterine corpus that infiltrate the endocervix exhibited a low immunoreactivity (score 0/15 or 1/15).
  • Our results suggest that p16INK4A is a putative molecular biomarker that consistently discriminates uterine cervix adenocarcinomas from benign lesions and from endometrioid adenocarcinomas of the uterine corpus.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / virology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / biosynthesis. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Tumor Virus Infections / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 16496173.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16
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30. Morelva Tde M, Antonio LB: Immunohistochemical expression of ubiquitin and telomerase in cervical cancer. Virchows Arch; 2009 Sep;455(3):235-43
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical expression of ubiquitin and telomerase in cervical cancer.
  • Ubiquitin and telomerase immunohistochemical expression patterns in cervical cancer were compared with normal cervical tissue samples.
  • Eighty-one cervical cancer cases and 22 normal exo-endocervical tissue were examined with polyclonal antibody for ubiquitin and 44G12 clone for telomerase using tissue microarrays.
  • The most frequent histological types were moderately differentiated epidermoid carcinoma (43.5%), according to the degree of differentiation, and endocervical adenocarcinoma (42.1%).
  • Immunohistochemical findings were as follows: 98.7% of cervical cancers showed immunoexpression for ubiquitin and 52.6% for telomerase.
  • There was no significant difference in biomarker expression at different histological types of tumors, although telomerase was less expressed in endocervical adenocarcinoma.
  • Our findings confirm that abnormal immunoexpression pattern of ubiquitin and telomerase is common in HPV-positive cervical cancer, indicating the existence of an intense degradation of proteins, subsequent cellular immortalization and maintenance of the malignant phenotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Telomerase / analysis. Ubiquitin / analysis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cervix Uteri / chemistry. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 19680685.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2307
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ubiquitin; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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31. Romero FR, Fucs M, Castro MG, Garcia CR, Fernandes Rde C, Perez MD: Adenocarcinoma of persistent müllerian duct remnants: case report and differential diagnosis. Urology; 2005 Jul;66(1):194-5

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  • [Title] Adenocarcinoma of persistent müllerian duct remnants: case report and differential diagnosis.
  • Persistent müllerian duct syndrome is an unusual disorder characterized by cryptorchidism and retention of müllerian derivatives (uterus, fallopian tubes, and upper vagina).
  • We report the case of a 39-year-old man with this syndrome in association with adenocarcinoma from the retained müllerian remnants of probable endocervical origin.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report of an endocervical adenocarcinoma associated with persistent müllerian duct syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Cryptorchidism / complications. Mullerian Ducts / abnormalities
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 16009404.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Yemelyanova A, Vang R, Seidman JD, Gravitt PE, Ronnett BM: Endocervical adenocarcinomas with prominent endometrial or endomyometrial involvement simulating primary endometrial carcinomas: utility of HPV DNA detection and immunohistochemical expression of p16 and hormone receptors to confirm the cervical origin of the corpus tumor. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Jun;33(6):914-24
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  • [Title] Endocervical adenocarcinomas with prominent endometrial or endomyometrial involvement simulating primary endometrial carcinomas: utility of HPV DNA detection and immunohistochemical expression of p16 and hormone receptors to confirm the cervical origin of the corpus tumor.
  • Determining the primary site of a uterine adenocarcinoma can be problematic in hysterectomy specimens due to the overlapping morphology of endocervical adenocarcinomas and endometrial carcinomas, particularly when both the corpus (usually lower uterine segment) and endocervix are involved and precursor lesions are lacking or difficult to distinguish from intramucosal spread of carcinoma from one site to the other.
  • Both preferential extension of endocervical adenocarcinomas into the endometrium (rather than deep cervical stroma) and myometrial invasion derived from the endometrial component are rarely encountered; to our knowledge, these unusual patterns of spread have not been detailed in prior reports.
  • Clinicopathologic features of 10 endocervical adenocarcinomas (9 pure, 1 adenosquamous) with prominent endometrial or endomyometrial involvement were evaluated.
  • Six cases had limited amounts of tumor in the cervix proper, with depths of invasion no greater than 5 mm in 4 and only adenocarcinoma in situ in 2.
  • Four cases had cervical stromal invasion of more than 5 mm but all of these had greater amounts of horizontal extension into endometrium or endomyometrium.
  • Five tumors were originally diagnosed as primary endometrial carcinoma with either cervical extension or concurrent endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • HPV DNA was detected in both the cervical and corpus components in all tumors and all exhibited diffuse/strong p16 expression and decreased or absent expression of hormone receptors.
  • These cases illustrate that dominant uterine corpus involvement (endometrial or endomyometrial) by primary endocervical adenocarcinoma can lead to misclassification as primary endometrial adenocarcinoma with cervical extension (Fédération Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique stage II), especially when endometrial extension of endocervical adenocarcinoma simulates complex atypical hyperplasia.
  • A subset of misclassified endocervical adenocarcinomas may account for some HPV-positive uterine carcinomas reported as primary endometrial carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / biosynthesis. DNA, Viral / analysis. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Receptors, Steroid / biosynthesis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Endometrium / metabolism. Endometrium / pathology. Endometrium / virology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Middle Aged. Papillomaviridae. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Papillomavirus Infections / metabolism. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Receptors, Estrogen / biosynthesis. Receptors, Progesterone / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19295407.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 0 / Receptors, Steroid
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33. Fruscalzo A, Damante G, Calcagno A, Di Loreto C, Marchesoni D: Four primary malignancies successively occurred in a BRCA2 mutation carrier: a case report. Cancer Invest; 2006 Oct;24(6):611-4
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  • We described a case of a 67-year-old BRCA2 mutation carrier of Caucasian, non-Jewish, ethnic origin who successively developed 4 primary malignancies in 30 months: breast ductal carcinoma, chronic lymphatic leukemia, ovarian serous papillary carcinoma, and endocervical adenocarcinoma.
  • Chronic lymphatic leukemia and endocervical adenocarcinoma have not been yet associated to BRCA2 germline mutation.
  • [MeSH-major] BRCA2 Protein / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Germ-Line Mutation. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / genetics. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / genetics. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / therapy. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / therapy. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / genetics. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / therapy. Female. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pedigree

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  • (PMID = 16982466.001).
  • [ISSN] 0735-7907
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BRCA2 Protein
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34. Baker AC, Eltoum I, Curry RO, Stockard CR, Manne U, Grizzle WE, Chhieng D: Mucinous expression in benign and neoplastic glandular lesions of the uterine cervix. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2006 Oct;130(10):1510-5
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  • [Title] Mucinous expression in benign and neoplastic glandular lesions of the uterine cervix.
  • CONTEXT: Mucins are glycoproteins produced by both normal and neoplastic glandular epithelial cells including endocervix.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the expression of mucins in uterine cervical glandular lesions and whether mucin expression correlates with the nature and origin of the glandular lesions.
  • DESIGN: Antibodies to MUC1, MUC2, MUC4, and MUC5AC were applied on 52 cases including 14 endocervical adenocarcinomas (including 4 adenosquamous carcinomas), 9 endometrial carcinomas (8 endometrioid adenocarcinomas and 1 adenosquamous carcinoma), 8 adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), 2 glandular dysplasias, 6 tubal metaplasias, 10 microglandular hyperplasias, and 3 normal endocervix.
  • RESULTS: All benign endocervical epithelia, including tubal metaplasia and microglandular hyperplasia, expressed MUC1, MUC4, and MUC5AC but not MUC2.
  • Almost all endocervical AIS and carcinomas and all endometrial adenocarcinomas expressed MUC1; the exceptions were 2 cases of endocervical adenocarcinoma and 1 case of adenosquamous carcinoma of the endocervix.
  • MUC2 staining was noted in 25%, 40%, and 22% of AIS, endocervical adenocarcinomas, and endometrial adenocarcinomas, respectively.
  • About 38% of AIS, 75% of endocervical adenocarcinomas, and 44% of endometrial adenocarcinomas expressed MUC4.
  • Half of AIS, most of endocervical adenocarcinomas, and 22% of endometrial adenocarcinomas expressed MUC5AC.
  • The difference in MUC4 and MUC5AC expression between benign endocervical lesions and AIS and the difference in MUC5AC expression between endocervical and endometrial neoplasms were statistically significant.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Mucin expressions differed among benign endocervical lesions and AIS and among endocervical and endometrial malignancies.
  • These results suggest that mucin staining may potentially be helpful in differentiating various uterine cervical glandular lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Mucins / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Diseases / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17090193.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MUC2 protein, human; 0 / MUC4 protein, human; 0 / MUC5AC protein, human; 0 / Mucin 5AC; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Mucin-2; 0 / Mucin-4; 0 / Mucins
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35. Park KJ, Soslow RA, Sonoda Y, Barakat RR, Abu-Rustum NR: Frozen-section evaluation of cervical adenocarcinoma at time of radical trachelectomy: pathologic pitfalls and the application of an objective scoring system. Gynecol Oncol; 2008 Sep;110(3):316-23
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Frozen-section evaluation of cervical adenocarcinoma at time of radical trachelectomy: pathologic pitfalls and the application of an objective scoring system.
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the incidence of diagnostic discrepancy between frozen-section and final diagnosis of the endocervical margin at time of radical trachelectomy and to apply an objective scoring system to non-invasive endocervical glandular atypia to determine its utility in distinguishing benign from malignant lesions.
  • METHODS: Histologic slides from 19 cases of radical trachelectomy performed for invasive endocervical adenocarcinoma were evaluated for correlation between the frozen and permanent sections of the endocervical margin.
  • An objective scoring system for grading non-invasive endocervical glandular lesions proposed by Ioffe et al. was also applied to the frozen and permanent section slides and compared to the final diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: There was 84% concordance between the frozen-section and final diagnosis using histology alone, vs. 95% concordance using the Ioffe scoring system.
  • One trachelectomy was converted to completion hysterectomy for what was presumed to be adenocarcinoma in situ at the margin, which in retrospect, was a benign lesion and was correctly classified using the Ioffe system.
  • Most of the discrepancies were due to misinterpretation of tubal metaplasia, tubo-endometrioid metaplasia, and atypical tubal metaplasia as adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • CONCLUSION: Benign mimics of endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ can be difficult to distinguish from malignant lesions, especially during frozen-section evaluation of the trachelectomy.
  • Correctly diagnosing the margin status intraoperatively has great clinical impact and the application of an objective scoring system, like that proposed by Ioffe et al., can increase diagnostic accuracy when applied to frozen-section slides and better correlates with final diagnosis when compared to histology alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18635252.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA008748
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS809092; NLM/ PMC4996344
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36. Ferchichi L, Rammeh-Rommani S, Ben Hammouda S, Sfar R, Farah F, Ben Jilani S, Zermani R: [Endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix associated with mucinous ovarian cystadenocarcinoma]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil; 2006 May;34(5):410-2
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

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  • [Title] [Endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix associated with mucinous ovarian cystadenocarcinoma].
  • The pathologic findings of the hysterectomy specimen with bilateral salpingoophorectomy showed an ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinoma associated with an endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix.
  • In the literature, this tumor had been found in association with endocervical adenocarcinoma or with minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (adenoma malignum) of the uterine cervix.
  • However, its association with an endometrioid adenocarcinoma, to our knowledge, has not been reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy


37. Hashi A, Yuminamochi T, Xu JY, Kondo T, Katoh R, Hoshi K: Intranuclear cytoplasmic inclusion is a significant diagnostic feature for the differentiation of lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia from minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the cervix. Diagn Cytopathol; 2008 Aug;36(8):535-44
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

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  • [Title] Intranuclear cytoplasmic inclusion is a significant diagnostic feature for the differentiation of lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia from minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the cervix.
  • Lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia (LEGH) is a cervical lesion with pyloric gland metaplasia.
  • Minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) is an extremely well differentiated form of endocervical adenocarcinoma (AC).
  • We reviewed 24 cases of LEGH (18 pure and six mixed forms) and four MDA cases of the cervix.
  • Abundant yellow mucin was frequently present in both LEGH and MDA; however, an INCI was found in 22 of the 24 LEGH cases and it was not found in either MDA or adenocarcinoma cells associated with LEGH.
  • The presence of an INCI is a good parameter for the diagnosis of LEGH.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Cytoplasm / pathology. Intranuclear Inclusion Bodies / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cervix Uteri. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Middle Aged


38. Kondo T, Hashi A, Murata S, Nakazawa T, Yuminamochi T, Nara M, Hoshi K, Katoh R: Endocervical adenocarcinomas associated with lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia: a report of four cases with histochemical and immunohistochemical analyses. Mod Pathol; 2005 Sep;18(9):1199-210
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  • [Title] Endocervical adenocarcinomas associated with lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia: a report of four cases with histochemical and immunohistochemical analyses.
  • We report on four cases of endocervical adenocarcinoma associated with lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia using histochemical and immunohistochemical analyses.
  • Cytological examinations of the cervical smears revealed adenocarcinoma cells and benign-looking glandular cells with intracytoplasmic golden-yellow mucin in all cases.
  • From surgical specimens, three tumors were diagnosed as mucinous adenocarcinoma and one was adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • All adenocarcinomas were located proximally on the cervix, and did not involve the transformation zone.
  • Adjacent to carcinoma tissues in the cervix, lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia was detected.
  • The cells of lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia were dominantly positive with neutral mucin, and immunohistochemistry revealed that these cells had prominent pyloric gland mucin (HIK1083).
  • Either CEA or p53 were immunopositive in all adenocarcinomas and negative in the tissues of lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia.
  • Histopathological features of the present cases suggest that some endocervical adenocarcinomas may originate from lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Hyperplasia / complications. Hyperplasia / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gastric Mucosa / metabolism. Gastric Mucosa / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Mucins / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15761489.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mucins
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39. Fruscalzo A, Lellé RJ, Calcagno A, Driul L, Damante G, Marchesoni D: [Management of gynecological tumors associated with BRCA1 and BRCA2 germline mutations. Case report and literature review]. Minerva Ginecol; 2006 Apr;58(2):171-5
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  • Most involved are breast and ovarian cancers, but, less frequently, other gynecological cancers like cervical, corpus uteri and Fallopian tubes cancers and also other non gynecological malignancies.
  • We report the case of a 67-year-old patient with strong familiarity for breast cancer, with a BRCA2 germline mutation, who developed in 30 months 4 primary malignancies: in chronological order, breast cancer, chronic lymphatic leukemia, and synchronous ovarian and endocervical adenocarcinoma.
  • An adequate counselling can help in the management of these cancers in the prevention and early diagnosis taking also into consideration the possibility of a prophylactic surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. BRCA1 Protein / genetics. BRCA2 Protein / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / genetics. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16582871.001).
  • [ISSN] 0026-4784
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva ginecologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Ginecol
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BRCA1 Protein; 0 / BRCA2 Protein
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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40. Nikolova M, Marinov E, Stoĭkov S, Gorchev G, Tomov S: [Microglandular endocervical hyperplasia and endocervical adenocacinoma in pregnant--description of two cases]. Akush Ginekol (Sofiia); 2005;44(2):41-3
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Microglandular endocervical hyperplasia and endocervical adenocacinoma in pregnant--description of two cases].
  • In the first case histological examination reveals microglandular endocervical hyperplasia.
  • In the second case, an endocervical adenocarcinoma is diagnosed and after a successful delivery by caesarian section, a laparohysterectomy with bilateral adnexectomy and lymph node dissection is performed.
  • Detailed histological examination of the endocervical neoplasm discloses a well differentiated papillary villoglandular adenocarcinoma, containing minor elements of more aggressive serous carcinoma, which may adversely affect the outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Endometrial Hyperplasia / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cesarean Section. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hysterectomy. Lymph Node Excision. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Pregnancy. Time Factors


41. Belsley NA, Tambouret RH, Misdraji J, Muzikansky A, Russell DK, Wilbur DC: Cytologic features of endocervical glandular lesions: comparison of SurePath, ThinPrep, and conventional smear specimen preparations. Diagn Cytopathol; 2008 Apr;36(4):232-7
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cytologic features of endocervical glandular lesions: comparison of SurePath, ThinPrep, and conventional smear specimen preparations.
  • The cytologic features of endocervical neoplasia have been well-described for conventional and ThinPrep, but not for SurePath, methods.
  • Conventional, ThinPrep and SurePath specimens with either endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ or invasive endocervical adenocarcinoma were evaluated for architectural and cytological features previously described for endocervical neoplasia.
  • The architectural and cytologic features of endocervical glandular neoplasia in liquid-based specimens show only subtle architectural differences when compared with conventional smears.
  • Keeping these differences in mind, virtually the same criteria can be used to identify endocervical glandular lesions in all three specimen types.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18335553.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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42. Nofech-Mozes S, Rasty G, Ismiil N, Covens A, Khalifa MA: Immunohistochemical characterization of endocervical papillary serous carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 Jan-Feb;16 Suppl 1:286-92
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical characterization of endocervical papillary serous carcinoma.
  • Endocervical adenocarcinomas are rare and aggressive neoplasms.
  • Papillary serous endocervical adenocarcinomas are the rarest form of endocervical adenocarcinomas.
  • In this study, we included ten cases of papillary serous carcinomas arising from the uterine cervix (PSCC) diagnosed in the absence of a primary endometrial malignancy.
  • We studied their immunohistochemical profile, using a panel of antibodies against Ki67, bcl-2, p53, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and CD10, and compared them to 20 consecutive cases of cervical adenocarcinoma of conventional cell subtypes (CAC) (15 mucinous, 3 adenosquamous, and 2 endometrioid).
  • PSCC is a distinctive immunophenotypic subtype of endocervical adenocarcinoma with significantly higher p53 and lower CEA reactivity than other more common histologic subtypes.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16515605.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / WT1 Proteins; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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43. Li X, Zhou L, Feng YH, Abdul-Karim FW, Gorodeski GI: The P2X7 receptor: a novel biomarker of uterine epithelial cancers. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2006 Oct;15(10):1906-13
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  • RESULTS: (a) In normal uteri, P2X(7) mRNA and protein were expressed predominantly in the epithelial (endometrial, endocervical, and ectocervical) cells. (b) Expression of the P2X(7) mRNA and protein was absent from endometrial and endocervical adenocarcinoma tissues and from cervical squamous cell carcinoma tissues. (c) In cervical dysplasia, P2X(7) protein was absent in the dysplastic lesions. (d) Semiquantitative analysis using P2X(7) mRNA (normalized in each tissue to the constitutive glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) and P2X(7) protein levels (normalized in each tissue to the constitutive tubulin) revealed that P2X(7) mRNA and/or protein levels can distinguish uterine normal from cancer tissues at high degrees of sensitivity (92%, 100%) and specificity (100%, 90%).

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  • (PMID = 17035398.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL065492; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD29924; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG015955-09; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL65492; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG15955; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG015955; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG015955-09
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / P2RX7 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Purinergic P2; 0 / Receptors, Purinergic P2X7
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS47302; NLM/ PMC2376759
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44. Mikami Y, Kiyokawa T, Moriya T, Sasano H: Immunophenotypic alteration of the stromal component in minimal deviation adenocarcinoma ('adenoma malignum') and endocervical glandular hyperplasia: a study using oestrogen receptor and alpha-smooth muscle actin double immunostaining. Histopathology; 2005 Feb;46(2):130-6
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

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  • [Title] Immunophenotypic alteration of the stromal component in minimal deviation adenocarcinoma ('adenoma malignum') and endocervical glandular hyperplasia: a study using oestrogen receptor and alpha-smooth muscle actin double immunostaining.
  • AIMS: To define the phenotypic alteration of the stromal component in association with destructive invasion which is a crucial feature in distinguishing minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) from benign endocervical glandular lesions.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied endocervical glandular hyperplasias including non-specific-type (NEGH) (n = 3) and lobular-type (LEGH) (n = 8), and minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) (n = 11), well-differentiated endocervical adenocarcinoma of usual-type (WDA) (n = 11), and adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) (n = 6) of the cervix, by double immunostaining for oestrogen receptor (ER) and alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) using peroxidase- and alkaline phosphatase-polymer methods, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Actins / analysis. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15693884.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen
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45. Miyamoto H, Jones CE, Raymond DP, Wandtke JC, Strang JG, Bourne PA, Bonfiglio TA, Xu H: Pulmonary metastases from uterine neoplasms after long tumour-free interval: four cases and review of the literature. Pathology; 2009;41(3):234-41
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  • Case 3 was a 77-year-old woman who had a large lung mass with satellite nodules 17 years after hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and subsequent radiotherapy for endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EEA).
  • Case 4 was a 51-year-old woman who underwent total hysterectomy and subsequent radiotherapy for endocervical adenocarcinoma 12 years ago and lung lobectomy for metastatic disease 8 years ago.
  • She then developed two pulmonary lesions 14 months ago, and these resected after radiotherapy were metastatic endocervical adenocarcinoma.
  • Immunohistochemical studies and molecular tests, together with detailed clinical information and imaging findings, are important for rendering a diagnosis.

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  • (PMID = 19291535.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3931
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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46. Lai CR, Hsu CY, Tsay SH, Li AF: Clinical significance of atypical glandular cells by the 2001 Bethesda System in cytohistologic correlation. Acta Cytol; 2008 Sep-Oct;52(5):563-7
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

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  • Final pathology results revealed 14 endometrial adenocarcinomas, 5 endocervical adenocarcinomas, 1 cervical squamous cell carcinoma, 1 endometrial stromal sarcoma, 6 other malignancies, 4 endocervical adenocarcinomas in situ, 4 cases ofendometrial complex byperplasia, 1 case of endocervical glandular dysplasia and 2 cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 3 with glandular involvement.
  • Some characteristic background cytologic findings were also noticed in most cases of endometrial, fallopian tube and endocervical adenocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: A diagnosis of AGC is more clinically significant by the 2001 Bethesda System, especially the "AGC, favor neoplastic" category.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Fallopian Tube Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Rectal Neoplasms / pathology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Papanicolaou Test. Retrospective Studies. Sarcoma, Endometrial Stromal / pathology. Vaginal Smears / methods

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  • [ErratumIn] Acta Cytol. 2009 Jan-Feb;53(1):121
  • (PMID = 18833818.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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47. Khoury T, Tan D, Wang J, Intengan M, Yang J, Alrawi S, Yan P, Byrd JC: Inclusion of MUC1 (Ma695) in a panel of immunohistochemical markers is useful for distinguishing between endocervical and endometrial mucinous adenocarcinoma. BMC Clin Pathol; 2006;6:1
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Inclusion of MUC1 (Ma695) in a panel of immunohistochemical markers is useful for distinguishing between endocervical and endometrial mucinous adenocarcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Distinguishing endocervical adenocarcinoma (ECA) from endometrial mucinous adenocarcinoma (EMMA) is clinically significant in view of the differences in their management and prognosis.
  • In this study, we used a panel of tumor markers to determine their ability to distinguish between primary endocervical adenocarcinoma and primary endometrial mucinous adenocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: A panel of immunohistochemical markers including MUC1, p16, ER, PR, and vimentin is recommended, when there is morphological and clinical doubt as to the primary site of endocervical or endometrial origin.

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  • (PMID = 16409624.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-6890
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Clin Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1382242
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48. Connolly TP, Evans AC: Atypical Papanicolaou smear in pregnancy. Clin Med Res; 2005 Feb;3(1):13-8
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

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  • Atypical glandular cells (AGC) in Papanicolaou (Pap) smears can be associated with premalignant and malignant cervical and endometrial lesions.
  • Satisfactory colposcopic exam was performed with cytobrush sampling of the endocervical canal, in addition to 2 exocervical biopsies at 11 weeks gestation.
  • Positive diagnosis of endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ resulted in a risk-informed decision to proceed with a cold knife conization of the cervix.
  • Final pathology showed complete resection of the lesion with negative margins and an additional area of squamous dysplasia (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, grade II to III).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Papanicolaou Test. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vaginal Smears
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / surgery


49. Chen L, Yang B: Assessment of reflex human papillomavirus DNA testing in patients with atypical endocervical cells on cervical cytology. Cancer; 2008 Aug 25;114(4):236-41
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Assessment of reflex human papillomavirus DNA testing in patients with atypical endocervical cells on cervical cytology.
  • BACKGROUND: Reflex human papillomavirus (HPV) testing for atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) has improved the sensitivity and specificity in detecting high-grade squamous dysplasia (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN]2+).
  • However, to the authors' knowledge there are no guidelines for performing reflex HPV testing in women with atypical endocervical cells (AEC) before colposcopy.
  • This report is of a 5-year experience with reflex HPV testing in women with AEC and assessment of the potential role of reflex HPV testing in guiding subsequent colposcopy-directed cervical biopsy/curettage in a large tertiary care hospital setting.
  • The most severe histopathologic diagnosis was recorded.
  • Histopathologic examination of the 64 HPV-positive AEC cases revealed 18 cases of endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ/adenocarcinoma (AIS+) and 22 cases of CIN2+.
  • Cervical AIS+ was found in 28% of the HPV-positive AEC patients and in only 0.9% of the HPV-negative patients (P<.0001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Because of a high sensitivity (91.0%) and high specificity (91.2%) in detecting significant cervical lesions, reflex HPV testing for cytologic diagnosis of AEC appears to be a useful ancillary tool in the selection of high-risk patients for colposcopy.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervix Uteri / pathology. DNA, Viral / analysis. Papanicolaou Test. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vaginal Smears
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity


50. Sauder K, Wilbur DC, Duska L, Tambouret RH: An approach to post-radical trachelectomy vaginal-isthmus cytology. Diagn Cytopathol; 2009 Jun;37(6):437-42
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

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  • Radical trachelectomy (RT) is the surgical amputation of the uterine cervix with paracervical lymphadenectomy, performed in reproductive age women to treat invasive squamous-cell carcinoma or endocervical adenocarcinoma while preserving the uterine corpus for potential child bearing.
  • Fifty-four post-RT vaginal-isthmic cytology specimens were reviewed from nine patients, seven with adenocarcinoma, and two with squamous-cell carcinoma.
  • In particular, a primary diagnosis of adenocarcinoma makes differentiating benign reactive glandular cells from recurrence a critical issue.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervix Uteri / surgery. Cytological Techniques / methods. Vagina / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19217064.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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51. Nofech-Mozes S, Khalifa MM, Ismiil N, Dubé V, Saad RS, Sun P, Seth A, Ghorab Z: Detection of HPV-DNA by a PCR-based method in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue from rare endocervical carcinoma types. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2010 Jan;18(1):80-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Detection of HPV-DNA by a PCR-based method in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue from rare endocervical carcinoma types.
  • High-risk human papilloma virus (HPV) seems to play a role in the pathogenesis of cervical squamous neoplasia and adenocarcinomas of the mucinous and endometrioid cell types.
  • Cervical serous, clear cell, and small cell carcinomas differ from the conventional endocervical adenocarcinoma in their clinical characteristics.
  • In this study, we examined the presence of high-risk HPV-DNA in rare types of cervical carcinoma using polymerase chain reaction-based test.
  • In-house cervical serous, clear cell, and small cell carcinoma cases accessioned between 2000 and 2008 were tested for HPV by polymerase chain reaction amplification of DNA extracted from deparaffinized sections using Roche AMPLICOR HPV Amplification Detection and Control Kits.
  • High-risk HPV-DNA tested positive in 3 out of 4 serous carcinomas, 2 out of 3 cervical clear cell carcinomas, and all 5 cases of small cell carcinoma and the mixed cell type.
  • Our report documents HPV status in a series of archival unusual types of adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix.
  • Our observation is particularly significant in cervical cancer prevention as we enter the HPV vaccination era.

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  • (PMID = 19625948.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4058
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Fixatives; 0 / Reagent Kits, Diagnostic; 1HG84L3525 / Formaldehyde
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52. Quint KD, de Koning MN, van Doorn LJ, Quint WG, Pirog EC: HPV genotyping and HPV16 variant analysis in glandular and squamous neoplastic lesions of the uterine cervix. Gynecol Oncol; 2010 May;117(2):297-301
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] HPV genotyping and HPV16 variant analysis in glandular and squamous neoplastic lesions of the uterine cervix.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to compare the distribution of HPV genotypes and HPV16 variants in glandular and squamous cervical neoplasia.
  • METHODS: Cases of endocervical adenocarcinoma in-situ (AIS, n=33) invasive adenocarcinoma (ADCA, n=55), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia-3 (CIN3, n=130) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, n=60) were collected at the New York Hospital and tested for HPV using SPF(10)PCR-LIPA(25) (version 1) assays and for HPV16 variants using a multiplex PCR and reverse hybridization assay.
  • CONCLUSION: Asian American variant of HPV16, HPV18 and HPV45 are preferentially associated with cervical adenocarcinoma as compared to squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / virology. Human papillomavirus 16 / genetics. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Papillomavirus Infections / virology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology


53. Nara M, Hashi A, Murata S, Kondo T, Yuminamochi T, Nakazawa K, Katoh R, Hoshi K: Lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia as a presumed precursor of cervical adenocarcinoma independent of human papillomavirus infection. Gynecol Oncol; 2007 Aug;106(2):289-98
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  • [Title] Lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia as a presumed precursor of cervical adenocarcinoma independent of human papillomavirus infection.
  • OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate differences in the process of carcinogenesis between adenocarcinoma coexistent with LEGH and conventional adenocarcinoma.
  • METHODS: Using the surgical pathology files of patients who visited the University of Yamanashi Hospital, Yamanashi Central Hospital and Kofu Municipal Hospital between 1996 and 2005, pathological diagnoses were reevaluated based on criteria for the diagnosis of LEGH by Nucci et al.
  • As for the cases including adenocarcinoma with LEGH: (a) we created a map showing position of the LEGH component and adenocarcinoma component and squamo-columnar junction (SCJ) in HE-stained specimens, (b) immunohistochemical staining was performed using antibodies to CEA, HIK1083 and p53, and (c) detection of HPV DNA was performed using PCR and in situ hybridization (ISH).
  • RESULTS: Endocervical adenocarcinoma was observed coexistent with LEGH in 5 cases (19.2%). (a) LEGH was located in a remote place from the SCJ.
  • Sizes of lesions in the 5 cases ranged from 18 to 35 mm in width and 7 to 16 mm in depth. (b) HIK1083 was diffusely immunopositive in the cytoplasm of LEGH component and focal immunopositive in 4 cases with adenocarcinoma component.
  • Immunopositivity for CEA was seen in the cytoplasm of adenocarcinoma component in 4 cases.
  • Immunopositivity for p53 was seen in adenocarcinoma component nuclei in 2 cases. (c) HPV DNA was not detected using PCR and ISH in either LEGH or adenocarcinoma components.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that clear differences exist in the process of carcinogenesis between adenocarcinoma associated with LEGH and conventional adenocarcinoma.
  • LEGH may represent a precursor of cervical adenocarcinoma independent of HPV infection.
  • As LEGH displays characteristics of precancerous mucinous adenocarcinoma, surgical treatment should be considered for LEGH growing beyond a certain size.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


54. Kos M, Sarkanj-Golub R, Cupić H, Balicević D: [The correlation of inflammation and epithelial changes in the Pap smears of cervix uteri]. Acta Med Croatica; 2005;59(4):297-302
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

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  • [Title] [The correlation of inflammation and epithelial changes in the Pap smears of cervix uteri].
  • A modification of The Bethesda System classification of cytologic findings of uterine cervix named Zagreb 1990 has been accepted in Croatia as a unique classification, the use of which has begun after the publication and printing of the new, uniform method of cytologic examination.
  • AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the number and type of cytologic abnormalities of uterine cervix classified according to Zagreb 1990, on routinely examined Pap smears during the 6-year period, and to investigate the connection of these abnormalities with lower genital tract infections.
  • A total of 59901 Pap smears (patients aged 17-79) were routinely examined: the cytopathologic diagnosis of CIN I or higher recorded in 3664 (6.12%) of them.
  • Endocervical adenocarcinoma was cytologically diagnosed in only 0.0055% of all Pap smears examined.
  • It is concluded that inflammation very likely contributes to the development of precancerous lesions of the cervix, HPV and Chlamydia showing strongest correlation, at least in a part of our population.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervix Uteri / pathology. Papanicolaou Test. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vaginal Smears
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Epithelium / pathology. Female. Humans. Infection / complications. Infection / diagnosis. Inflammation. Middle Aged. Uterine Cervical Diseases / complications. Uterine Cervical Diseases / microbiology


55. Kałuzyński A, Olszak A, Smolarz B, Kowalczyk A, Kulig A: [Cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia topography and the risk of conisation]. Ginekol Pol; 2005 Oct;76(10):763-9
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia topography and the risk of conisation].
  • OBJECTIVES: The frequency of endocervical adenocarcinoma is increasing in comparison with squamous cell carcinoma and it presents a very difficult diagnostic and therapeutic problem.
  • 1) Evaluation of topography of the cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia (CGIN) 2) An analysis of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection rate in samples.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: 360 amputated uterine cervix samples with histologically-proven diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN-3) were evaluated.
  • The coexistence of pre-invasive lesions in squamous epithelium and endocervical columnar cell were investigated.
  • RESULTS: Among 360 positive cervical intraepithelial glandular neoplasia samples (CIN-3) 71 (19.7%) showed coexisting glandular lesions (CGIN-1, 2, 3).
  • The lesions in endocervical glandular cells of CIGN-type were distributed from the distance up to 14 mm from the surface of cervix.
  • CIN-3 is associated in about 20% with cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia (CGIN).
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Conization. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


56. Sullivan LM, Smolkin ME, Frierson HF Jr, Galgano MT: Comprehensive evaluation of CDX2 in invasive cervical adenocarcinomas: immunopositivity in the absence of overt colorectal morphology. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Nov;32(11):1608-12
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comprehensive evaluation of CDX2 in invasive cervical adenocarcinomas: immunopositivity in the absence of overt colorectal morphology.
  • However, CDX2 immunostaining in cervical adenocarcinomas has not been examined in detail with comparison to important clinicopathologic characteristics including histopathologic subtype, tumor stage, and patient follow-up.
  • In this study of 81 invasive cervical adenocarcinomas, 24 of the cases (30%) demonstrated nuclear positivity.
  • Ten of the 15 (67%) endometrioid tumors had positive nuclear staining, compared with 7 of the 33 (21%) endocervical "usual-type" carcinomas, and 7 of the 33 (21%) remaining subtypes (adenosquamous, glassy cell, clear cell, serous, villoglandular, enteric).
  • The frequency of nuclear staining for the endometrioid subtype was significantly different compared with that for the endocervical and other subtypes (P=0.003).
  • Our results indicate that cervical adenocarcinomas can show nuclear immunopositivity for CDX2 even in the absence of overt morphologic features of colorectal differentiation.
  • The frequency and pattern of CDX2 staining in the more common histologic subtypes of cervical adenocarcinoma (endocervical usual-type and endometrioid) is parallel to that which is seen for adenocarcinomas of the upper gastrointestinal tract and pancreaticobiliary system.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Intestine, Large / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18753946.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDX2 protein, human; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins
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57. Jenkins D: A review of cross-protection against oncogenic HPV by an HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted cervical cancer vaccine: importance of virological and clinical endpoints and implications for mass vaccination in cervical cancer prevention. Gynecol Oncol; 2008 Sep;110(3 Suppl 1):S18-25
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Planning and Implementing Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Programs: A Manual for Managers .

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  • [Title] A review of cross-protection against oncogenic HPV by an HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted cervical cancer vaccine: importance of virological and clinical endpoints and implications for mass vaccination in cervical cancer prevention.
  • Human papilloma virus (HPV)-16 and -18 are responsible for approximately 70% of invasive cervical cancers worldwide.
  • HPV-18 and -45, along with HPV-16, are found in over 90% of endocervical adenocarcinomas.
  • HPV-45 is the third most frequent HPV type in cervical carcinoma and adenocarcinoma.
  • The AS04-adjuvanted vaccine Cervarix was developed against HPV-16 and -18 focusing on preventing cervical cancer by inducing durable protection against new infection.
  • Both of these factors complicate the interpretation of type-specific, vaccine-induced protection against cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) lesions, in which other HPV DNA types are found along with HPV-16 and -18.
  • Together with sustained protection against HPV-16 and -18, protection against HPV-45 could offer an additional effect on invasive cervical cancer and may have an important impact on endocervical adenocarcinoma, which is not effectively prevented by screening and is becoming increasingly important in young women.
  • [MeSH-major] Cancer Vaccines / therapeutic use. Human papillomavirus 16 / immunology. Human papillomavirus 18 / immunology. Papillomavirus Infections / prevention & control. Papillomavirus Vaccines / therapeutic use. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 18653221.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cancer Vaccines; 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines; 0 / human papillomavirus vaccine, L1 type 16, 18
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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58. Saad RS, Ismiil N, Dubé V, Nofech-Mozes S, Khalifa MA: CDX-2 expression is a common event in primary intestinal-type endocervical adenocarcinoma. Am J Clin Pathol; 2009 Oct;132(4):531-8
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  • [Title] CDX-2 expression is a common event in primary intestinal-type endocervical adenocarcinoma.
  • We studied the expression of cytokeratin (CK) 7, CK20, CDX-2, and p16 in 119 cervical adenocarcinomas (65 usual type [50 invasive; 15 in situ], 37 intestinal type [21 invasive; 16 in situ], 10 endometrioid, 5 adenosquamous, and 2 signet-ring carcinomas) in comparison with 55 cases of rectal adenocarcinomas.
  • CK7 was expressed in all cervical cases and in 12 rectal adenocarcinomas (22%).
  • CK20 was expressed in 17 cervical adenocarcinomas (14.3%) and in 48 rectal adenocarcinomas (87%).
  • CK20 immunostaining was diffuse in the majority of rectal tumors but focal in most cervical tumors.
  • CDX-2 was expressed in all cases of rectal adenocarcinoma and in 46 cervical adenocarcinomas (38.7%): usual type, 10 (15%); intestinal type, 31 (84%); endometrioid type, 5 (50%); adenosquamous and signet-ring types, 0 (0%).
  • CDX-2 is a marker for intestinal differentiation irrespective of a rectal or cervical origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / physiopathology. Homeodomain Proteins / biosynthesis. Trans-Activators / biosynthesis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 19762530.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-7722
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / Trans-Activators; 156560-97-3 / Cdx-2-3 protein
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59. Simionescu C, Georgescu CV, Mărgăritescu C, Niculescu M: Diagnosis problems in a case of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the cervix. Rom J Morphol Embryol; 2006;47(3):245-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnosis problems in a case of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the cervix.
  • We present the diagnostic problems in a case of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the cervix.
  • Histopathologic exam of the tumor, made on serial sections, revealed a dense and profound proliferation of the glandular structures that were lined by endocervical type epithelia with minimal cellular and nuclear atypia.
  • The aspect suggested the diagnosis of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma endocervical type; in order to confirm the diagnosis we immunohistochemical investigate the tumor for CEA, CA125, Ki67, ER and PR.
  • We can conclude that all these markers are useful in the diagnosis, excluding the benign endocervical lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis


60. Kong CS, Beck AH, Longacre TA: A panel of 3 markers including p16, ProExC, or HPV ISH is optimal for distinguishing between primary endometrial and endocervical adenocarcinomas. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Jul;34(7):915-26
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A panel of 3 markers including p16, ProExC, or HPV ISH is optimal for distinguishing between primary endometrial and endocervical adenocarcinomas.
  • Endometrial and endocervical adenocarcinomas may seem histologically identical and it can be difficult to determine primary site of origin based on morphology alone.
  • The TMA consisted of 214 endometrial carcinomas, 33 endocervical adenocarcinomas, and 36 problematic cases.
  • The endometrial and endocervical carcinomas represented usual endometrioid and mucinous types, and special variants (uterine serous carcinoma, uterine clear cell carcinoma, minimal deviation endocervical adenocarcinoma, cervical small cell carcinoma, adenoid basal cell carcinoma, mesonephric carcinoma).
  • Univariate analysis showed that 6 markers (vimentin, ER, PR, p16, ProExC, and HPV ISH) performed well in distinguishing between endocervical and endometrial origin for the usual endometrioid and mucinous types.
  • Using a script written in R, the diagnostic accuracy of all possible combinations of markers was evaluated and it was shown that a 3 marker panel including vimentin, ER, or PR, and an HPV marker (p16, ProExC, or HPV ISH) is optimal for determining site of origin for usual endometrial and endocervical adenocarcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / analysis. DNA, Viral / analysis. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. In Situ Hybridization. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Reproducibility of Results. Tissue Array Analysis. Vimentin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20534993.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NLM NIH HHS / LM / T15 LM007033
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Vimentin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS775595; NLM/ PMC4847142
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61. Barroeta JE, Pasha TL, Acs G, Zhang PJ: Immunoprofile of endocervical and endometrial stromal cells and its potential application in localization of tumor involvement. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2007 Jan;26(1):76-82
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  • [Title] Immunoprofile of endocervical and endometrial stromal cells and its potential application in localization of tumor involvement.
  • To evaluate and compare the immunophenotype of endocervical and endometrial stromal cells and to asses its potential application in tumor localization.
  • Paraffin sections of benign endocervix (n = 24), benign endometrium (n = 33), endocervical adenocarcinoma (n = 9), endometrial carcinoma (n = 13), and endometrial hyperplasia (n = 16) were stained with antibodies to CD10, Wilms Tumor-1, CD34, smooth muscle actin, and factor XIIIa by immunohistochemistry.
  • Endocervical stromal cells (ECSC) in either benign or malignant cervical epithelial lesions were predominantly CD34/CD10 (CD34 dominant immunophenotype).
  • The pattern of CD34 and CD10 immunostaining in stromal cells might be helpful in determining tumor involvement in uterine and cervical sites.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Stromal Cells / metabolism. Stromal Cells / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17197901.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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62. Miller B, Dunn J, Dalrymple J, Krivak TC: Pelvic sidewall adenocarcinoma after definitive therapy for cervical adenocarcinoma in situ. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Nov;99(2):489-92
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  • [Title] Pelvic sidewall adenocarcinoma after definitive therapy for cervical adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • BACKGROUND: Traditionally, hysterectomy is considered definitive therapy for cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) in women beyond childbearing.
  • CASE: A 45-year-old gravida 2, para 2 patient presented with cervical dysplasia and on pathology review of the large loop excision procedure cervical adenocarcinoma in situ was diagnosed.
  • Final pathology revealed adenocarcinoma in situ with negative margins.
  • A CT-guided biopsy of the mass was consistent with invasive adenocarcinoma of the endocervical type.
  • CONCLUSION: This case depicts another example of the unpredictable nature of cervical AIS.
  • Despite undergoing definitive surgery, a residual focus of disease may remain leading to invasive adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Pelvic Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16054200.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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63. Saitoh M, Hayasaka T, Ohmichi M, Kurachi H, Motoyama T: Primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the vagina: possibility of differentiating from metastatic adenocarcinomas. Pathol Int; 2005 Jun;55(6):372-5
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  • [Title] Primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the vagina: possibility of differentiating from metastatic adenocarcinomas.
  • Herein is reported a case of primary vaginal mucinous adenocarcinoma with an interesting mucin profile, presumably arising from a lesion of adenosis in a patient without in utero exposure to diethylstilbesterol (DES).
  • The histological features of the vaginal intramural tumor found in this patient resembled those of mucinous adenocarcinoma of the endocervical type.
  • Therefore, it was necessary to determine whether or not the tumor was metastatic from an occult cervical adenocarcinoma.
  • However, the adenocarcinoma cells of the present case did not contain sulfomucin at all, being different from most mucinous adenocarcinoma cells of the endocervical type.
  • Moreover, there were foci of adenosis adjacent to the adenocarcinoma foci, which also did not contain sulfomucin.
  • These findings indicate that the mucinous adenocarcinoma arose from vaginal adenosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mucin 5AC. Mucin-1 / analysis. Mucin-2. Mucin-6. Mucins / analysis. Neoplasm Metastasis. Vagina / chemistry. Vagina / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15943796.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MUC2 protein, human; 0 / MUC5AC protein, human; 0 / MUC6 protein, human; 0 / Mucin 5AC; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Mucin-2; 0 / Mucin-6; 0 / Mucins
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64. Park KJ, Bramlage MP, Ellenson LH, Pirog EC: Immunoprofile of adenocarcinomas of the endometrium, endocervix, and ovary with mucinous differentiation. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2009 Jan;17(1):8-11
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  • [Title] Immunoprofile of adenocarcinomas of the endometrium, endocervix, and ovary with mucinous differentiation.
  • A total of 64 cases were collected, including adenocarcinomas of the ovary (n=13), endocervix (n=16), endometrium (n=34), and vagina (n=1), all of which showed predominant mucinous differentiation.
  • Intestinal mucinous differentiation was present in 11 of the cases (6 endocervical, 4 ovarian, and 1 vaginal adenocarcinoma).
  • However, 25% of endocervical, 24% of ovarian, and 3% of endometrial adenocarcinomas were positive for CDX2, CK20, or both.

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  • (PMID = 18776815.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4058
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA008748
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDX2 protein, human; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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65. Togami S, Nomoto M, Higashi M, Goto M, Yonezawa S, Tsuji T, Batra SK, Douchi T: Expression of mucin antigens (MUC1 and MUC16) as a prognostic factor for mucinous adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. J Obstet Gynaecol Res; 2010 Jun;36(3):588-97
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  • [Title] Expression of mucin antigens (MUC1 and MUC16) as a prognostic factor for mucinous adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix.
  • AIM: Only limited data are available regarding mucin antigen expression in adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix.
  • METHODS: Fifty-two patients with mucinous adenocarcinoma of the endocervical type were enrolled for making clear implication of the mucin antigens.
  • RESULTS: The majority of mucinous adenocarcinoma showed overexpression of MUC1 and MUC16.
  • In cases classified as FIGO stage Ib (n = 35), after adjusting for patient age at diagnosis and stratifying by histological grade, MUC1 and/or MUC 16 overexpression was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] = 6.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01-118.5, P < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: The expressions of MUC1 and/or MUC16 may be available as independent prognostic factors for the endocervical type of mucinous adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. CA-125 Antigen / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Mucin-1 / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


66. Saglam A, Bozdag G, Kuzey GM, Kuçukali T, Ayhan A: Four synchronous female genital malignancies: the ovary, cervix, endometrium and fallopian tube. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2008 Jun;277(6):557-62
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

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  • [Title] Four synchronous female genital malignancies: the ovary, cervix, endometrium and fallopian tube.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present a unique case of a 63 year-old woman with coexistent adenocarcinoma of the ovary, endometrium, cervix and fallopian tube.
  • The pale infiltrative lesion in the cervix also turned out to be an adenocarcinoma of the endocervical type with deep stromal invasion and areas of diffuse glandular dysplasia and in-situ glandular neoplasia at the periphery.
  • Besides, several sections from the left fallopian tube uncovered diffuse dysplasia in the lining epithelium and a focus of adenocarcinoma with papillary and cribriform pattern.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Fallopian Tube Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18066567.001).
  • [ISSN] 0932-0067
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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67. El-Ghobashy AA, Shaaban AM, Innes J, Prime W, Herrington CS: Upregulation of heat shock protein 27 in metaplastic and neoplastic lesions of the endocervix. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2005 May-Jun;15(3):503-9
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  • [Title] Upregulation of heat shock protein 27 in metaplastic and neoplastic lesions of the endocervix.
  • Included in the study were 80 cervical glandular lesions of various histologic types, representing tuboendometrial metaplasia/endometriosis (n = 19), cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia (n = 33), and invasive adenocarcinoma (n = 28).
  • Normal cervical glands showed minimal expression of hsp27 (median: 10%, interquartile ranges [IQ]: 5-15).
  • Expression was significantly more widespread in tuboendometrial metaplasia/endometriosis (median: 35%, IQ: 15-80), cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia (median: 60%, IQ: 32-80), and invasive adenocarcinoma (median: 40%, IQ: 25-80) when compared with normal endocervix (P = 0.007, < 0.001, and 0.001, respectively).
  • However, no significant difference in hsp27 protein expression was found between cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive adenocarcinoma.
  • In invasive adenocarcinoma, hsp27 showed no correlation with tumor grade, lymph node involvement, and lymphovascular space invasion.
  • Our data highlight early dysregulation of hsp27 expression in both metaplastic and neoplastic lesions of the cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Heat-Shock Proteins / biosynthesis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cervix Uteri / physiology. Cross-Sectional Studies. Endometriosis. Female. Humans. Metaplasia. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 15882177.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Heat-Shock Proteins
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68. Phupong V, Khemapech N, Triratanachat S: Triple synchronous primary cervical, endometrial and ovarian cancer with four different histologic patterns. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2007 Dec;276(6):655-8
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  • [Title] Triple synchronous primary cervical, endometrial and ovarian cancer with four different histologic patterns.
  • The preoperative evaluation and diagnosis was myoma uteri with bilateral ovarian tumor.
  • The postoperative and pathologic findings were adenosquamous carcinoma of the endocervix, adenocarcinoma of the endometrium, low malignant potential of the right ovary and mucinous cystadenocarcinoma of the left ovary.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenofibroma / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / pathology. Cystadenoma, Mucinous / pathology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged


69. Petersson F, Michal M: Minute alveolar soft part sarcoma of the endocervix: the smallest ever published case. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2009 Dec;17(6):553-6
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

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  • [Title] Minute alveolar soft part sarcoma of the endocervix: the smallest ever published case.
  • Alveolar soft part sarcoma (ASPS) is a distinctive mesenchymal tumor of uncertain histogenesis, which is exceedingly rare in the uterine cervix.
  • We herein report the smallest (1.6 mm) ever published case of ASPS of the endocervix with the characteristic histomorphology and immunohistochemical findings.
  • Because of its seemingly much better prognosis, it is important in routine practice to distinguish ASPS from adenocarcinoma of the cervix.
  • This is facilitated by the awareness that ASPS can occur in this location and if there is doubt about the diagnosis on routinely stained sections, the appropriate immunohistochemical study should be performed.
  • Owing to the small number of published ASPSs in the cervix, the optimal treatment strategy has yet to be determined.

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  • (PMID = 19620840.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4058
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors; 0 / MyoD Protein; 0 / MyoD1 myogenic differentiation protein; 0 / TFE3 protein, human
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70. Hao H, Tsujimoto M, Tsubamoto H, Komori S, Hirota S: Immunohistochemical phenotype of the urinary bladder endocervicosis: comparison with normal endocervix and well-differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma of uterine cervix. Pathol Int; 2010 Jul;60(7):528-32
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical phenotype of the urinary bladder endocervicosis: comparison with normal endocervix and well-differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma of uterine cervix.
  • The mass was removed and histology revealed a haphazard proliferation of endocervical-type mucinous glands scattered through the muscularis propria of bladder wall.
  • Immunohistochemical phenotype of these glands was compared with three normal uterine endocervices and two cases of well-differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix.
  • On the other hand, only glands of well-differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma expressed human gastric mucin and showed high proliferative index of Ki-67.
  • Furthermore, diffuse distribution of estrogen and progesterone receptors, lack of human gastric mucin and low proliferative activity were distinct features for endocervicosis compared to well-differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervix Uteri. Choristoma / pathology. Urinary Bladder Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Adult. Cesarean Section. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Phenotype. Pregnancy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


71. Risse EK, Ouwerkerk-Noordam E, Meijer-Marres EM, Boon ME: Exploiting the residual of cervical thin layer brush samples through cytohistology in cases with invasive carcinoma with application of antibodies. Acta Cytol; 2010 Mar-Apr;54(2):175-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Exploiting the residual of cervical thin layer brush samples through cytohistology in cases with invasive carcinoma with application of antibodies.
  • OBJECTIVE: To exploit cervical thin layer brush samples through cytohistology in cases with invasive carcinoma with application of antibodies.
  • From these 14 cases liquid-based cervical cytology material was available to prepare cytohistology.
  • Eight women had squamous cell carcinoma, 4 endocervical adenocarcinoma, 1 endometrial adenocarcinoma and 1 ovarian adenocarcinoma.
  • In 5 of the 6 adenocarcinomas, the glandular architecture diagnostic of adenocarcinoma was visible in the cytohistology, which was highlighted in the biomarker stainings, particularly so in the Ki-67 sections.
  • With the exception of endometrial adenocarcinoma, all p16(INK4a) stainings were positive, as they were in the ovarian adenocarcinoma case.
  • CONCLUSION: Cytohistology is an adjunct to routine cervical cytologic examination of thin layer samples, allowing an unequivocal and refined diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cytodiagnosis / methods. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Neoplasm, Residual / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antibodies / immunology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / immunology. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / analysis. Cervix Uteri / chemistry. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Female. Humans. Keratin-20 / analysis. Keratin-7 / analysis. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 20391974.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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72. Azueta A, Gatius S, Matias-Guiu X: Endometrioid carcinoma of the endometrium: pathologic and molecular features. Semin Diagn Pathol; 2010 Nov;27(4):226-40
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  • The main differential diagnosis includes endocervical adenocarcinoma, atypical polypoid adenomyoma, malignant mixed Müllerian tumors, and metastatic tumors to the endometrium.
  • The main prognostic factors are stage, histologic grade, myometrial, cervical and vascular invasion.
  • There are several pathologic features that should be recognized to avoid underestimation of these prognostic factors, such as presence of MELF pattern of myometrial invasion, and invasion of the cervical stroma with a deceptive pattern of spread.

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  • (PMID = 21309258.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-2570
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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73. Robinson BL, Liao JB, Adams SF, Randall TC: Vaginal cuff dehiscence after robotic total laparoscopic hysterectomy. Obstet Gynecol; 2009 Aug;114(2 Pt 1):369-71
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  • CASES: Two women underwent robotic total laparoscopic hysterectomy for menorrhagia and stage I endocervical adenocarcinoma, respectively.

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  • [Cites] Gynecol Oncol. 2002 Jun;85(3):543-4 [12051889.001]
  • [Cites] Obstet Gynecol Surv. 2002 Jul;57(7):462-7 [12172223.001]
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  • (PMID = 19622999.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-7844
  • [Journal-full-title] Obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA142304-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K12 CA076931-12; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / L30 CA142304-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA076931-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K12 CA076931-10
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS209333; NLM/ PMC2896382
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74. Little L, Stewart CJ: Cyclin D1 immunoreactivity in normal endocervix and diagnostic value in reactive and neoplastic endocervical lesions. Mod Pathol; 2010 Apr;23(4):611-8
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  • [Title] Cyclin D1 immunoreactivity in normal endocervix and diagnostic value in reactive and neoplastic endocervical lesions.
  • It may be difficult to distinguish reactive glandular lesions from adenocarcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix, and although several immunohistochemical markers have established value in this diagnostic setting, none is completely reliable.
  • We have noted that neoplastic endocervical lesions often show loss of nuclear cyclin D1 expression in contrast to benign glandular cells.
  • Therefore, we investigated cyclin D1 staining in a series of 64 cervical biopsy specimens including examples of normal and reactive endocervical epithelium, adenocarcinoma in situ, stratified mucin-producing intraepithelial lesions, and invasive adenocarcinoma.
  • Thirteen specimens also included a component of high-grade cervical squamous intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • Normal endocervical epithelium usually expressed cyclin D1, although staining was typically focal, and there was increased immunoreactivity in reactive and metaplastic glandular cells including tubo-endometrioid metaplasia.
  • In contrast, most cases of adenocarcinoma in situ were completely negative and, therefore, cyclin D1 staining distinguished benign from neoplastic epithelial cells.
  • Although focal cyclin D1 expression was observed in 5/19 cases of adenocarcinoma in situ, the staining was associated with more marked cytological atypia precluding confusion with a reactive process.
  • In conclusion, cyclin D1 can be included within an immunohistochemical panel to aid in the distinction between reactive cervical glandular lesions and adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • The localized distribution of staining within invasive lesions suggests that cyclin D1 up-regulation has a specific role during the progression of some endocervical adenocarcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / metabolism. Cervix Uteri / metabolism. Cyclin D1 / biosynthesis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20062011.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
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75. Vang R, Vinh TN, Burks RT, Barner R, Kurman RJ, Ronnett BM: Pseudoinfiltrative tubal metaplasia of the endocervix: a potential form of in utero diethylstilbestrol exposure-related adenosis simulating minimal deviation adenocarcinoma. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2005 Oct;24(4):391-8
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  • [Title] Pseudoinfiltrative tubal metaplasia of the endocervix: a potential form of in utero diethylstilbestrol exposure-related adenosis simulating minimal deviation adenocarcinoma.
  • We report three cases of unusual tubal-type endocervical glandular proliferations simulating minimal deviation adenocarcinoma in women with a history of in utero diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure.
  • The lesions were characterized by haphazard glandular proliferations extending from 3.4 to 6.1 mm into the endocervical stroma and to the margins of excision in all cases.
  • The proliferations lacked features of mucinous and tubo-endometrioid types of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Diethylstilbestrol / adverse effects. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Metaplasia. Middle Aged. Mitosis. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Receptors, Progesterone / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16175088.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 731DCA35BT / Diethylstilbestrol
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76. Goto K, Takeuchi Y, Yakihara A, Kotsuji F: Synchronous invasive squamous cell carcinoma and clear cell adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix: a different human papillomavirus status. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Jun;97(3):976-9
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Synchronous invasive squamous cell carcinoma and clear cell adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix: a different human papillomavirus status.
  • BACKGROUND: A multiple primary invasive carcinoma of the cervix is a rare condition and is seldom composed of squamous cell carcinoma and clear cell adenocarcinoma.
  • The anterior lip of the cervix revealed a 2.0-cm protruded mass.
  • Radical hysterectomy was performed on the diagnosis of stage 1B cervical cancer.
  • Histological examination of the specimen manifested a coexisting invasive clear cell adenocarcinoma in the endocervix.
  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) 18 was detected in the squamous cell carcinoma; however, no HPV was detected in the clear cell adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / virology. Papillomaviridae. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 15896829.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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77. Cohn DE, Morrison CD, Zanagnolo VL, Goist MM, Copeland LJ: Invasive cervical adenocarcinoma immediately following a cone biopsy for adenocarcinoma in situ with negative margins. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Jul;98(1):158-60
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Invasive cervical adenocarcinoma immediately following a cone biopsy for adenocarcinoma in situ with negative margins.
  • BACKGROUND: Cervical adenocarcinoma in situ is often diagnosed in younger women who may wish to preserve the potential for fertility.
  • Given that the rate of recurrent adenocarcinoma in situ is relatively low and the risk of invasive adenocarcinoma is extremely rare, conservative management in this population after a cone biopsy demonstrates negative margins has been accepted as an appropriate management strategy.
  • This case challenges the concept of conservative management of cervical adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • CASE: A 42-year-old G2P2002 with previously normal annual cervical cytology had a Pap smear demonstrating atypical glandular cells of uncertain significance.
  • A 1.5-cm lesion was noted at the endocervix, and a punch biopsy revealed adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • A large cold knife cone biopsy confirmed cervical adenocarcinoma in situ with negative margins.
  • Definitive therapy for in situ disease with an extrafascial hysterectomy was performed 12 days after conization, and demonstrated stage IB1 cervical adenocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Conservative management of cervical adenocarcinoma in situ after a cone biopsy with negative margins does not exclude the possibility of concurrent invasive cervical adenocarcinoma.
  • This case challenges the current balance between risk and benefit associated with the conservative management of cervical adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Conization. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15913738.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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78. Geldenhuys L, Murray ML: Sensitivity and specificity of the Pap smear for glandular lesions of the cervix and endometrium. Acta Cytol; 2007 Jan-Feb;51(1):47-50
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

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  • [Title] Sensitivity and specificity of the Pap smear for glandular lesions of the cervix and endometrium.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the sensitivity and specificity of the Pap smear for detection of adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix (AIS), endocervical adenocarcinoma (ECAC) and endometrial adenocarcinoma (EAC) as well as the overall specificity of the smear for detection of glandular lesions in general.
  • Computer records were also searched for patients who had a Pap smear result consisting of suspicious or positive for AIS or adenocarcinoma (AC) with subsequent tissue diagnosis during the same time.
  • RESULTS: One hundred percent of patients with AIS, 80% with ECAC and 22% with EAC on histology had positive findings on a Pap smear performed within a year of the histologic diagnosis.
  • It also confirmed the good sensitivity for glandular lesions of the cervix and the poor sensitivity for glandular lesions of the endometrium.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Papanicolaou Test. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vaginal Smears
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma in Situ. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Sensitivity and Specificity. Uterine Hemorrhage / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17328495.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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79. Jiang L, Malpica A, Deavers MT, Guo M, Villa LL, Nuovo G, Merino MJ, Silva EG: Endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterine corpus involving the cervix: some cases probably represent independent primaries. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2010 Mar;29(2):146-56
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterine corpus involving the cervix: some cases probably represent independent primaries.
  • The majority of endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinomas involving the cervix have tumor morphology that is similar in the endometrium and the endocervix.
  • There are, however, some cases in which the morphology of the tumor in the endocervix is different from the endometrial carcinoma, in which it is more invasive than the endometrial carcinoma, or in which invasion only occurs in the endocervix while there is no or only minimal myometrial invasion.
  • The goal of this study was to investigate whether tumors involving the endometrium and the endocervix are similar or 2 independent primaries by hematoxylin and eosin stain, immunohistochemistry (IHC), human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in situ hybridization, RNA reverse transcriptase in situ polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses to reveal HPV, and DNA clonality studies.
  • We selected 14 cases of endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinomas involving the cervix with complete pathology material available from the years between 1968 and 2004.
  • Histologic features varied between the tumors in the endometrium and the endocervix in 8 cases, and 5 of these cases had uniform, dilated glands having a microcystic appearance in the cervix.
  • In 6 cases, the tumors in the endometrium and the endocervix had similar histologic features.
  • The immunohistochemical studies showed some differences between the endometrial and endocervical adenocarcinomas in 8 of the 12 cases, independent of differing or similar histologic features.
  • HPV testing in 4 of the cases (3 with similar and 1 with different histology) yielded similar results in the endometrium and endocervix: 2 cases were negative, 1 was positive and 1 was equivocal for HPV DNA/RNA analyses.
  • Clonality studies showed differences between the adenocarcinoma in the endometrium and the endocervix in 7 cases, including 5 cases with different histologic appearances; 2 cases had similar loss of heterozygosity patterns.
  • In conclusion, as suggested by clonality studies, coexisting endometrial and endocervical carcinomas with different histologic features are most likely independent neoplasms.
  • Endometrial and endocervical carcinomas that have similar appearances can represent either the same neoplasm or independent primaries.
  • IHC studies may not be helpful for synchronous endometrial and endocervical tumors, especially those of endometrioid type.
  • HPV studies are important to identify endocervical tumors associated with high-risk HPV.
  • However, endometrial tumors involving the cervix and endocervical tumors unrelated to HPV are both negative for high-risk HPV.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / virology. Endometrial Neoplasms / virology. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 20173500.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / RNA, Viral
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80. Akiba Y, Kubushiro K, Fukuchi T, Fujii T, Tsukazaki K, Mukai M, Nozawa S: Is laser conization adequate for therapeutic excision of adenocarcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix? J Obstet Gynaecol Res; 2005 Jun;31(3):252-6
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Is laser conization adequate for therapeutic excision of adenocarcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix?
  • AIMS: To determine the safety of uterine-preserving operations for adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix.
  • METHODS: Fifteen cases of adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) were diagnosed using neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser conization.
  • In these AIS cases, we investigated how far the tumor was located from the squamocolumnar junction (SCJ) and the endocervix.
  • RESULTS: Precise agreement between preconization diagnosis and conization histology was seen in 46.7% (7/15) of the AIS cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Cervix Uteri / surgery. Conization / methods. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15916663.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-8076
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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81. Li H, Gou HY, Han JS, Li SM, Yang R, Qiao J: [Analysis of the diagnosis and treatment of cervical minimal deviation adenocarcinoma]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2008 Oct;30(10):772-4
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  • [Title] [Analysis of the diagnosis and treatment of cervical minimal deviation adenocarcinoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the characteristics of cervical minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) and the methods of diagnosis and treatment.
  • Preoperative Pap smears showed adenocarcinoma in 3 cases (27.3%).
  • The diagnosis of MDA was confirmed in 8 cases by cervical punch biopsies (53.3%) and 2 cases by conization.
  • Several cysts were noted in sections of the endocervix.
  • CONCLUSION: Cervical minimal deviation adenocarcinoma is rare, with minimal deviation of cell shape from the normal cervical cells and difficult in diagnosis.
  • A deep biopsy or conization is necessary when punch biopsy is not sufficient for diagnosis.
  • Immunohistochemistry is helpful to make an accurate diagnosis.
  • Surgery is the first choice for cervical minimal deviation adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Hysterectomy / methods. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms


82. Aximu D, Azad A, Ni R, Colgan T, Nanji S: A pilot evaluation of a novel immunohistochemical assay for topoisomerase II-alpha and minichromosome maintenance protein 2 expression (ProEx C) in cervical adenocarcinoma in situ, adenocarcinoma, and benign glandular mimics. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 Mar;28(2):114-9
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A pilot evaluation of a novel immunohistochemical assay for topoisomerase II-alpha and minichromosome maintenance protein 2 expression (ProEx C) in cervical adenocarcinoma in situ, adenocarcinoma, and benign glandular mimics.
  • The histopathologic distinction of cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and invasive adenocarcinoma (AC) from some benign endocervical lesions can be challenging.
  • ProEx C immunohistochemical staining was performed on sections from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue of 65 cervical tissues including 48 non-neoplastic cervices (normal [n=10], microglandular hyperplasia [n=10], tubal metaplasia [n=11], cervical endometriosis [n=7], reactive endocervix [n=10]) and 17 cervices with glandular malignancy (AIS [n=12] and AC [n=5]).
  • The median and distribution of scores for both prevalence and intensity was compared for AIS versus each of the 5 benign cervical lesions using a Mann-Whitney U test.
  • The median and distribution of prevalence of immunohistochemical staining for AIS was different from all benign mimics, but the intensity of staining for AIS did overlap with some mimics as it was not significantly different from endometriosis, microglandular hyperplasia, and reactive endocervix.
  • ProEx C reagent has potential as an adjunctive testing tool in the histopathologic diagnosis of both AIS and AC, particularly in difficult cases with small biopsies or foci of disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Antigens, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. Cell Cycle Proteins / biosynthesis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / biosynthesis. DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Nuclear Proteins / biosynthesis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Hyperplasia / metabolism. Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2. Pilot Projects. Reagent Kits, Diagnostic

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  • (PMID = 19188825.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Reagent Kits, Diagnostic; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM2 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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83. Confortini M, Di Bonito L, Carozzi F, Ghiringhello B, Montanari G, Parisio F, Prandi S, GISCi Working Group for Cervical Cytology: Interlaboratory reproducibility of atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance: a national survey. Cytopathology; 2006 Dec;17(6):353-60
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: A set of 35 selected slides were circulated among 167 laboratories involved in local population-based cervical screening programmes.
  • Each laboratory provided one single diagnosis per smear.
  • The smears were read blind to the original diagnosis and to the diagnoses provided by other laboratories.
  • A 'majority' diagnosis was defined for each case and assumed as the reference standard.
  • The diagnosis provided from each laboratory was compared with the majority diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: According to the majority report the 35 slides in the set were classified as negative in nine cases, AGC in eight, adenocarcinoma in eight, and squamous lesion or squamous + glandular lesion in 10.
  • K-values were 0.46, 0.21, 0.34, 0.36 and 0.32 for negative, AGC/AIS (adenocarcinoma in situ of endocervix), AdenoCa, Sq/Sq + Gl and all reporting categories respectively.
  • In addition to the results obtained from the circulation of the slides, laboratories which had annually a low number of cervical smears were able to gain experience focused on particular morphological pictures.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervix Uteri / cytology. Mass Screening / methods. Vaginal Smears / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Female. Humans. Reproducibility of Results. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


84. Errington CA, Mansour D: Do women with glandular abnormalities require colposcopy follow-up? Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2009;30(6):650-1
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Colposcopy and Treatment of Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A Beginner's Manual .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE: To determine whether cervical glandular abnormalities can be safely followed up by community cytology.
  • METHODS: A retrospective database review was conducted identifying women with a histological report of cervical glandular abnormalities over a three-year period.
  • Thirty women with cytological squamous abnormalities were later found to have cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia (CGIN) at histological assessment.
  • Two women had invasive adenocarcinoma and all others with endocervical dyskaryosis or CGIN were treated using large loop excision of the transformation zone (LLETZ).
  • At follow-up 43 women had negative cytology, one woman defaulted further appointments, one had moved out of the area, seven were successfully treated by a repeat LLETZ following incomplete excision of CGIN at the endocervix, and five had negative cytology in the community.
  • CONCLUSION: Women with endocervical dyskaryosis or CGIN should be treated by LLETZ.
  • Provided LLETZ is repeated in cases of incomplete endocervical CGIN excision cytological follow-up can take place in the community.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / surgery. Colposcopy. Electrosurgery. Uterine Neoplasms / surgery. Vaginal Smears

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  • (PMID = 20099496.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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85. Manfredi R, Gui B, Giovanzana A, Marini S, Di Stefano M, Zannoni G, Scambia G, Bonomo L: Localized cervical cancer (stage &lt;IIB): accuracy of MR imaging in planning less extensive surgery. Radiol Med; 2009 Sep;114(6):960-75
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

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  • [Title] Localized cervical cancer (stage <IIB): accuracy of MR imaging in planning less extensive surgery.
  • PURPOSE: This study was undertaken to determine the accuracy of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in the preoperative staging of patients with clinically localised cervical cancer eligible for less extensive surgery.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-three patients with biopsy-proven carcinoma of the uterine cervix and eligible for conservative surgery prospectively underwent MR imaging.
  • Images were assessed for tumour site and size, infiltration of the cervical stroma, infiltration of vaginal fornices and relationship between the tumour and the internal os of the endocervical canal and the presence and dimensions of pelvic and lumboaortic lymph nodes (cutoff values 1 cm and 0.5 cm minimum axial diameter).
  • RESULTS: The endocervix was the site of origin of 25% (13/53) of the cervical tumours and the exocervix the site of origin of 75% (40/53).
  • In the assessment of cervical stroma infiltration, there was agreement between MR imaging and histopathology in 75% of cases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: MR imaging had a high level of accuracy in the preoperative assessment of the extent of cervical tumour in patients eligible for conservative surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


86. Kúdelová M, Krivos V, Raslová H, Valovicová M, Belvoncíková P, Matis J: Occurrence of human papillomavirus 16 and 18 in smears from the two cervix regions of onco-gynecological patients in Slovakia. Acta Virol; 2008;52(1):17-22
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

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  • [Title] Occurrence of human papillomavirus 16 and 18 in smears from the two cervix regions of onco-gynecological patients in Slovakia.
  • We evaluated the relevance of tests for Human papillomavirus 16 and 18 (HPV-16, HPV-18) in two cervix regions (exocervical and endocervical) separately.
  • The total of 142 cervical smears obtained from 91 women in Slovakia attending onco-gynecological outpatient care were examined for the presence of HPVs by PCR with the general primers GP5 and GP6 (GP5/6).
  • In 73 HPV-positive smears, the number of cases with detected HPV-16 was about three times higher in exocervix and about two times higher in endocervix in comparison with number of cases with detected HPV-18.
  • In the smears considered as normal by cytology, two times higher occurrence of HPV-18 in endocervical smears was found in comparison with exocervical ones.
  • Eight patients were double-infected with HPV-16 and HPV-18, but no patient was infected with these HPVs in both cervical regions.
  • This finding emphasized the importance of examination of both cervical regions separately.
  • Overlooking of the endocervical canal for the close examination by cytology and PCR might increase the failure to detect HPVs associated with adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervix Uteri / virology. Human papillomavirus 16 / isolation & purification. Human papillomavirus 18 / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / virology

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  • (PMID = 18459831.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-723X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta virologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
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87. Zhou M, McFarland-Mancini MM, Funk HM, Husseinzadeh N, Mounajjed T, Drew AF: Toll-like receptor expression in normal ovary and ovarian tumors. Cancer Immunol Immunother; 2009 Sep;58(9):1375-85
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

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  • In contrast to previous studies of uterus and endocervix, we found no cyclic variation in TLR expression occurred in murine ovaries.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / metabolism. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Ovary / metabolism. Toll-Like Receptors / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19184006.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0851
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer immunology, immunotherapy : CII
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Immunol. Immunother.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Toll-Like Receptors
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88. Samet I, Cormier B, Mowlawi H, Philippe A, Arbion F, Fétissof F: [Endometrial and endocervical lesions associated with pseudomyxoma peritonei: a case report]. Ann Pathol; 2009 Jun;29(3):233-7
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Endometrial and endocervical lesions associated with pseudomyxoma peritonei: a case report].
  • However, in this context, endometrial or endocervical lesions remain exceptional.
  • The systematic sampling of endometrium and endocervix showed small segments of intestinal epithelium admixed with native epithelium.
  • The endocervical and endometrial lesions might represent an implantation of mucinous epithelium from appendix, emphasizing the capacity of this epithelium to implant at a distance from the original lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / complications. Appendiceal Neoplasms / complications. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Endometrium / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / complications. Pseudomyxoma Peritonei / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Appendectomy. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Metaplasia. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Ovariectomy


89. Vang R, Gown AM, Farinola M, Barry TS, Wheeler DT, Yemelyanova A, Seidman JD, Judson K, Ronnett BM: p16 expression in primary ovarian mucinous and endometrioid tumors and metastatic adenocarcinomas in the ovary: utility for identification of metastatic HPV-related endocervical adenocarcinomas. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 May;31(5):653-63
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

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  • [Title] p16 expression in primary ovarian mucinous and endometrioid tumors and metastatic adenocarcinomas in the ovary: utility for identification of metastatic HPV-related endocervical adenocarcinomas.
  • Most endocervical adenocarcinomas exhibit mucinous and/or endometrioid differentiation; they infrequently metastasize to the ovaries but may simulate primary ovarian tumors [both atypical proliferative (borderline) and carcinoma].
  • The performance of this expression pattern for identifying metastatic endocervical adenocarcinomas in the ovaries among primary ovarian tumors and other metastatic adenocarcinomas having mucinous and/or endometrioid/endometrioidlike differentiation has not been evaluated.
  • Immunohistochemical expression of p16 was assessed in 195 tumors, including 98 primary ovarian tumors (51 mucinous, 47 endometrioid, and 4 mixed mucinous-endometrioid tumors), 93 metastatic adenocarcinomas of known primary sites (colorectum: 34, endocervix: 19, pancreaticobiliary tract: 17, appendix: 7, stomach: 5), 11 metastatic adenocarcinomas of unknown origin (7 established as noncervical), and 4 adenocarcinomas of uncertain (primary ovarian vs. metastatic) origin.
  • The HPV status of the endocervical adenocarcinomas was determined by in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction (when in situ hybridization was negative).
  • Mean and median expression values for HPV-positive endocervical adenocarcinomas (99%, 100%; range 90% to 100%) were substantially higher than those for primary ovarian mucinous (5%, 0%; range 0% to 70%) and endometrioid (20%, 10%; range 0% to 100%) tumors, HPV-unrelated endocervical adenocarcinomas (0%, 0%; range 0% to 60%), metastatic adenocarcinomas of unknown origin (11%, 0%; range 0% to 30%), and adenocarcinomas of uncertain (primary ovarian vs. metastatic) origin (40%, 35%; range 0% to 90%); only the 15 HPV-positive endocervical adenocarcinomas and 6 other tumors had values of 80% or greater.
  • Diffuse (>75% positive tumor cells) moderate to strong p16 expression is a sensitive (100%) and specific (97%) marker for identifying HPV-related endocervical adenocarcinomas metastatic to the ovary among the primary ovarian tumors and metastatic adenocarcinomas from other sites that are in the differential diagnosis of ovarian tumors having mucinous and/or endometrioid/endometrioidlike differentiation. p16 is useful as part of a panel of immunohistochemical markers for distinguishing primary ovarian tumors from metastases and, when diffusely positive, can suggest the cervix as a potential primary site for metastatic adenocarcinomas of unknown origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / metabolism. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. DNA, Viral / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. In Situ Hybridization. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Papillomavirus Infections. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 17460447.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / DNA, Viral
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90. Vang R, Gown AM, Barry TS, Wheeler DT, Ronnett BM: Immunohistochemistry for estrogen and progesterone receptors in the distinction of primary and metastatic mucinous tumors in the ovary: an analysis of 124 cases. Mod Pathol; 2006 Jan;19(1):97-105
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  • Immunohistochemical studies were performed on 124 mucinous tumors, including 52 primary ovarian tumors (30 atypical proliferative (borderline) mucinous tumors of gastrointestinal type, 11 atypical proliferative (borderline) mucinous tumors of seromucinous (endocervical-like) type, and 11 invasive mucinous carcinomas of usual (gastrointestinal) type) and 72 metastatic mucinous carcinomas in the ovary (primary sites: colorectum (24), pancreas (13), endocervix (eight), stomach (four), gallbladder/bile duct (four), appendix (four), and unknown (15)).
  • All atypical proliferative mucinous tumors of gastrointestinal type, primary ovarian mucinous carcinomas, and metastatic mucinous carcinomas were negative for ER and PR with the exception of three metastatic endocervical adenocarcinomas which exhibited only weak expression of ER without PR.
  • The above observations on hormone receptor expression in primary ovarian mucinous tumors support the concept that atypical proliferative (borderline) mucinous tumors of gastrointestinal and seromucinous (endocervical-like) types are distinctive tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Receptors, Progesterone / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Appendiceal Neoplasms / metabolism. Appendiceal Neoplasms / pathology. Colorectal Neoplasms / metabolism. Colorectal Neoplasms / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gallbladder Neoplasms / metabolism. Gallbladder Neoplasms / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / metabolism. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology. Ovary / chemistry. Ovary / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / metabolism. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16294196.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone
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91. Chekmareva M, Ellenson LH, Pirog EC: Immunohistochemical differences between mucinous and microglandular adenocarcinomas of the endometrium and benign endocervical epithelium. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Oct;27(4):547-54
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical differences between mucinous and microglandular adenocarcinomas of the endometrium and benign endocervical epithelium.
  • When present in endometrial biopsy or curettage, these tumors may display a unique microglandular architectural pattern mimicking benign microglandular hyperplasia (MGH) of the endocervix.
  • We compared the immunoprofile of MUC-AD and MIGL-AD with that of MGH and benign endocervical glands to identify the markers that would reliably separate these malignancies from benign endocervical tissue.
  • Fifteen consecutive cases of benign endocervical glands and MGH were used as a control group.
  • All but 1 MUC-AD and MIGL-AD cases were positive for p16, whereas none of the cases of benign mucinous endocervical epithelium and MGH showed p16 positivity.
  • Furthermore, the stromal cells of endocervix demonstrated weak to moderate positivity for CD10 and strong positivity for CD34, whereas endometrial tumors showed a reverse pattern, with strong stromal positivity for CD10 and either no, or only weak, staining for CD34.
  • In conclusion, epithelial p16 and stromal CD10/CD34 immunostaining can be useful in distinguishing MUC-AD and MIGL-AD from benign endocervical epithelium in endometrial sampling.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Endometrial Hyperplasia / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • [CommentIn] Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2009 Sep;28(5):479 [19696620.001]
  • [CommentIn] Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2010 Jul;29(4):402-3 [20567157.001]
  • (PMID = 18753965.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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92. Adhya AK, Mahesha V, Srinivasan R, Nijhawan R, Rajwanshi A, Suri V, Dhaliwal LK: Atypical glandular cells in cervical smears: histological correlation and a suggested plan of management based on age of the patient in a low-resource setting. Cytopathology; 2009 Dec;20(6):375-9
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

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  • [Title] Atypical glandular cells in cervical smears: histological correlation and a suggested plan of management based on age of the patient in a low-resource setting.
  • METHODS: A total of 18 376 cervical smears were screened from January 2005 to June 2007, of which 65 cases were reported as AGC.
  • Squamous abnormalities included one case each of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)1, CIN2 and CIN3 and five cases of squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Neither in situ nor invasive adenocarcinoma of the endocervix was observed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. Cervix Uteri. Health Care Costs. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial. Papanicolaou Test. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms. Vaginal Smears


93. Sanati S, Huettner P, Ylagan LR: Role of ProExC: a novel immunoperoxidase marker in the evaluation of dysplastic squamous and glandular lesions in cervical specimens. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2010 Jan;29(1):79-87
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

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  • [Title] Role of ProExC: a novel immunoperoxidase marker in the evaluation of dysplastic squamous and glandular lesions in cervical specimens.
  • Our purpose was to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of ProExC in dysplastic squamous and glandular lesions of the cervix.
  • Nine low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 35 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 23 squamous metaplasia, and 14 adenocarcinoma in situ specimens were retrieved from our hospital files.
  • ProExC had sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value of 89%, 100%, 100%, and 82%, respectively, for distinguishing high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion from squamous metaplasia, and 93%, 100%, 100%, and 98%, respectively, for distinguishing adenocarcinoma in situ from reactive benign endocervix.
  • ProExC is a valuable marker for distinguishing dysplastic squamous and endocervical lesions of the cervix from squamous metaplasia in histologic sections.
  • ProExC may eventually be used in conjunction with morphologic and human papillomavirus evaluation for better classification of indeterminate cervical lesions in Papanicolaou smears.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19952938.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM2 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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94. Kumar N, Bongiovanni M, Molliet MJ, Pelte MF, Egger JF, Pache JC: Diverse glandular pathologies coexist with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion in cyto-histological review of atypical glandular cells on ThinPrep specimens. Cytopathology; 2009 Dec;20(6):351-8
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

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  • OBJECTIVE: To identify in cytology, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions with endocervical glandular extension in cases previously diagnosed as atypical glandular cells (AGC), analyse possible reasons for the diagnostic pitfall and document the frequency of glandular pathology coexisting with high-grade cervical intraepithelial lesion in histology.
  • METHODS: Thirty-nine ThinPrep cervical smear (Pap) tests reported as AGC of undetermined significance and showing high-grade lesions on histology [cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2 or 3, endometrial or extrauterine adenocarcinoma] were reviewed retrospectively to identify the cases of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion with endocervical glandular extension, using the Bethesda 2001 system.
  • RESULTS: A high frequency of diverse glandular pathologies coexisted with high-grade cervical intraepithelial lesions on histology.
  • This included endocervical glandular extension in 63%, benign glandular pathology in 33% and pre-neoplastic or malignant glandular pathology (endocervical glandular dysplasia, adenocarcinoma in situ and metastatic breast carcinoma) in 17% cases.
  • On cytology, the sensitivity was 40%, specificity was 80% and positive predictive value was 86% for endocervical gland extension in high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Special efforts to recognize endocervical glandular extension in high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and glandular neoplasia coexisting with squamous intraepithelial lesions from the heterogeneous category of AGC can contribute to increasing the diagnostic accuracy.
  • The identification of endocervical glandular extension on cervical cytology would alert the gynaecologist to perform a thorough assessment of the endocervix during colposcopy.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Cytological Techniques. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult


95. Chiesa-Vottero AG, Malpica A, Deavers MT, Broaddus R, Nuovo GJ, Silva EG: Immunohistochemical overexpression of p16 and p53 in uterine serous carcinoma and ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2007 Jul;26(3):328-33
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  • The immunohistochemical expression pattern of p16 in biopsy samples has been useful as part of a panel to distinguish adenocarcinomas arising from the endometrium from those arising from the endocervix.
  • Here, we retrospectively analyzed the immunohistochemical expression of p16 in 11 cases of USC (5 pure and 6 mixed with endometrioid adenocarcinoma) and 10 cases of ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma and compared p16 expression with that of p53 in the same samples. p16 was strongly expressed by 100% of tumor cells in all 11 uterine specimens and in 5 of the 10 ovarian specimens; of the other 5 ovarian specimens, 4 showed strong positivity in 20% to 80% of tumor cells, and 1 case showed only weak expression.
  • We conclude that p16, owing to its diffuse expression in USC, should not be interpreted as indicating cervical origin or HPV-induced carcinogenesis; however, p16 may be a better marker (albeit unspecific) than p53 for identifying USC.
  • Further studies are necessary to determine whether p16 expression is useful in the differential diagnosis of ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / biosynthesis. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Papillomavirus Infections / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / biosynthesis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17581420.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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96. Yemelyanova AV, Vang R, Judson K, Wu LS, Ronnett BM: Distinction of primary and metastatic mucinous tumors involving the ovary: analysis of size and laterality data by primary site with reevaluation of an algorithm for tumor classification. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Jan;32(1):128-38
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  • Distinction of primary ovarian mucinous tumors from metastatic/secondary mucinous tumors involving the ovaries is often challenging, not only at the time of intraoperative assessment when requested for surgical management (staging decisions) but also for final pathologic diagnosis.
  • To assess the general utility of this algorithm for distinction of primary and secondary mucinous tumors in the ovary and address the occurrence of exceptions (large unilateral metastases), analysis of tumor size and laterality data was performed using 194 tumors (52 primary tumors and 142 metastases), with metastases subclassified by primary site [colorectum (46), appendix (28 low-grade tumors, 20 carcinomas), pancreaticobiliary tract (20), small intestine (3), stomach (5), and endocervix (20)].
  • The original algorithm correctly classified 84% of tumors overall, including 100% of primary ovarian tumors and 77% of all metastases (colorectal: 74%; appendiceal: 79% of low-grade tumors, 100% of carcinomas; pancreaticobiliary: 95%; small intestinal: 33%; gastric: 80%; endocervical: 55%).
  • Performance was optimized at 13 cm, with correct classification of 87% of tumors overall, including 98% of primary tumors and 82% of metastases (colorectal: 80%; appendiceal: 79% of low-grade tumors, 100% of carcinomas; pancreaticobiliary: 100%; small intestinal: 33%; gastric: 100%; endocervical: 70%).
  • Of the more common metastases, metastatic colorectal and endocervical carcinomas provided the greatest number of exceptions, even when analyzed with the optimized size criterion.
  • Recognition that metastatic colorectal carcinomas represent the most common metastases and have a greater tendency to violate the algorithm should prompt lowering of the threshold for suggesting the possibility of metastatic colorectal carcinoma for tumors displaying any microscopic features suggestive of that diagnosis, even when a history of primary colorectal carcinoma is lacking.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / classification. Algorithms. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / classification

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  • (PMID = 18162780.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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97. Fulciniti F, Losito S, Botti G, Di Mattia D, La Mura A, Pisano C, Pignata S: Metastases to the breast: role of fine needle cytology samples. Our experience with nine cases in 2 years. Ann Oncol; 2008 Apr;19(4):682-7
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  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: This report describes nine consecutive cases in which a cytopathological diagnosis of metastasis to the breast was carried out on FNC samples.
  • RESULTS: Primary sites were identified on cytomorphological and immunocytochemical bases and were represented by the ovary (three cases), melanoma (two cases), endocervix (one case), endometrium (one case), lung (one case) and prostate (one case).
  • CONCLUSION: The cytopathological diagnosis of metastatic neoplasms to the breast is not always straightforward, especially in the absence of a clinical history of cancer.

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  • (PMID = 18048381.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-8041
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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98. Li X, Qi X, Zhou L, Fu W, Abdul-Karim FW, Maclennan G, Gorodeski GI: P2X(7) receptor expression is decreased in epithelial cancer cells of ectodermal, uro-genital sinus, and distal paramesonephric duct origin. Purinergic Signal; 2009 Sep;5(3):351-68
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  • P2X(7) receptor levels in cancer cells were similar (colon adenocarcinoma) or greater (thyroid papillary carcinoma) than those in the corresponding normal cells.
  • In contrast, in cancer cells of the ectocervix (squamous), endocervix and endometrium (adenocarcinoma), urinary bladder (transitional cell carcinoma), and breast (ductal and lobular adenocarcinomas), P2X(7) receptor levels were lower by about twofold than those in the corresponding normal epithelial cells.

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  • (PMID = 19399640.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-9538
  • [Journal-full-title] Purinergic signalling
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Purinergic Signal.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG015955
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2717318
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99. Nofech-Mozes S, Khalifa MA: Endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ, serous type. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 Mar;28(2):140-1
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ, serous type.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Cervical Cancer.
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  • (PMID = 19188821.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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