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1. Hirschowitz L, Sen C, Murdoch J: Primary endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the cervix with widespread squamous metaplasia--a potential diagnostic pitfall. Diagn Pathol; 2007;2:40

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the cervix with widespread squamous metaplasia--a potential diagnostic pitfall.
  • BACKGROUND: Uterine or endocervical biopsies that contain endometrioid adenocarcinoma with widespread squamous metaplasia are usually of endometrial origin.
  • The presence of squamous metaplasia is said to be helpful in distinguishing endocervical from endometrial adenocarcinomas in small biopsy samples.
  • Biopsy of a friable lesion in the proximal endocervical canal revealed an endocervical adenocarcinoma of endometrioid type with widespread squamous metaplasia.
  • The latter feature initially raised the possible diagnosis of a primary endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • However, immunohistochemical marker studies indicated a diagnosis of primary endocervical adenocarcinoma of endometrioid type and this was confirmed at hysterectomy.

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  • (PMID = 17961245.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2116996
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2. Nieuwenhuizen L, Khalil MK, Naik VR, Othman NH: Prevalence of goblet cell metaplasia in endocervical and endometrial adenocarcinoma : a histochemical study. Malays J Med Sci; 2007 Jan;14(1):56-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prevalence of goblet cell metaplasia in endocervical and endometrial adenocarcinoma : a histochemical study.
  • To determine the prevalence of goblet cell metaplasia in endocervical and endometrial adenocarcinomas by histochemial staining and to investigate the most sensitive histochemical staining method to detect this metaplasia, a total of 90 tissue blocks representing 30 non-neoplastic cervix, 30 non-neoplastic endometrium, 30 endocervical and endometrial adenocarcinoma cases were obtained for histochemical staining with Toluidine Blue (TB), Methylene Blue (MB), Mucicarmine (MUC), Periodic Acid Schiff before and after Diastase digestion (PAS, PAS-D), Alcian Blue pH 2.5 (AB), and Periodic Acid Schiff after Alcian Blue pH 2.5 (PAB).
  • The cases were blinded and evaluated by a pathologist [NHO] for the presence of goblet cell metaplasia, the amount of goblet cells present and the histochemical differentiation of the goblet cells compared with its surrounding glandular epithelium.
  • Goblet cell metaplasia was present in 2 out of 30 cases in non-neoplastic cervix, 0 out of 30 cases in non-neoplastic endometrium, 7 out of 15 cases in endocervical adenocarcinoma and in 2 out of 15 cases in endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • Relatively few goblet cells were seen in endometrial adenocarcinoma, few to moderate amounts were seen in endocervical adenocarcinoma and relatively more goblet cells were seen in non-neoplastic cervix.
  • The differentiation of the goblet cells with its surrounding glandular epithelium was moderate to strong in non-neoplastic cervix and endocervical adenocarcinoma, while the differentiation in endometrial adenocarcinoma was weak to moderate.
  • Goblet cell metaplasia of the reproductive organs is not as rare as previously reported.
  • The must optimum staining methods for staining goblet cells in non-neoplastic cervix, endocervical adenocarcinoma and endometrial adenocarcinoma were PAS, PASD and AB.

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  • (PMID = 22593653.001).
  • [ISSN] 1394-195X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Malaysian journal of medical sciences : MJMS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Malays J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Malaysia
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3351219
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; endocervical adenocarinoma / endometrial adenocarcinoma / goblet cell metaplasia / histochemical staining / intestinal metaplasia / prevalence
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3. Li C, Rock KL, Woda BA, Jiang Z, Fraire AE, Dresser K: IMP3 is a novel biomarker for adenocarcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix: an immunohistochemical study in comparison with p16(INK4a) expression. Mod Pathol; 2007 Feb;20(2):242-7
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  • [Title] IMP3 is a novel biomarker for adenocarcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix: an immunohistochemical study in comparison with p16(INK4a) expression.
  • Adenocarcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix remains a diagnostic challenge in a small proportion of cases.
  • This suggests a need for biomarker that may be of help in establishing the diagnosis.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of insulin-like growth factor-II mRNA-binding protein 3 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16(INK4a) as biomarkers for adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • Forty-four samples of adenocarcinoma in situ from 40 patients and 23 control cases of benign uterine cervix were included in this study.
  • In addition to benign endocervical epithelium, 19 of these 23 control cases also showed focal tubal metaplasia.
  • Cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for insulin-like growth factor-II mRNA-binding protein 3 was identified in 41 (93%) adenocarcinoma in situ samples, among which, 29 (71%), 10 (24%), and 2 (5%) samples showed insulin-like growth factor-II mRNA-binding protein 3 positive staining in 50% or more, >5 to <50 and <5% of adenocarcinoma in situ lesional cells, respectively.
  • Immunohistochemical reaction intensity for insulin-like growth factor-II mRNA-binding protein 3 was found to be strong in 34 adenocarcinoma in situ samples, intermediate in five, and weak in two.
  • All 23 control cases were negative for insulin-like growth factor-II mRNA-binding protein 3. p16(INK4a) expression was identified in all of the adenocarcinoma in situ samples with intermediate staining intensity seen in seven samples and strong in the remainder.
  • Fourteen of 19 (74%) tubal metaplasia cases showed p16(INK4a) immunoreactivity in >50% of the tubal metaplastic epithelium with staining intensity ranging from weak to strong.
  • Our findings demonstrate significant expression of insulin-like growth factor-II mRNA-binding protein 3 and p16(INK4a) in adenocarcinoma in situ as compared to benign endocervical glands, suggesting that expression of these biomarkers may be helpful in the distinction of adenocarcinoma in situ from benign endocervical glands, particularly in difficult borderline cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. RNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cervix Uteri / metabolism. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17192788.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / IMP3 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins
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4. Cantu de Leon D, Perez Montiel D, Tabarez A, Martinez RM, Cetina L: Serous adenocarcinoma of the fallopian tube, associated with verrucous carcinoma of the uterine cervix: a case report of synchronic rare gynecological tumors. World J Surg Oncol; 2009;7:20
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

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  • [Title] Serous adenocarcinoma of the fallopian tube, associated with verrucous carcinoma of the uterine cervix: a case report of synchronic rare gynecological tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Synchronous gynecological tumors are rare; it is even rarer to find the rarest of gynecological tumors that of the fallopian tube, together with a histological sub-type as rare as verrucous cervix.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report a synchronic fallopian tube adenocarcinoma and a verrucous cervical cancer.
  • A 85-year-old woman with postmenopausal genital hemorrhage, endometrial biopsy was reported as squamous metaplasia, an exploratory laparotomy was performed finding a tubal tumor diagnosed as adenocarcinoma, a staging procedure was performed.
  • Final staging revealed IB1 cervical carcinoma and IA G3 fallopian tube carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Verrucous / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / pathology. Fallopian Tube Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19222847.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2649116
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5. Mikami Y, Kiyokawa T, Sasajima Y, Teramoto N, Wakasa T, Wakasa K, Hata S: Reappraisal of synchronous and multifocal mucinous lesions of the female genital tract: a close association with gastric metaplasia. Histopathology; 2009 Jan;54(2):184-91
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  • [Title] Reappraisal of synchronous and multifocal mucinous lesions of the female genital tract: a close association with gastric metaplasia.
  • AIMS: To describe the gastric phenotype of synchronous mucinous metaplasia and neoplasms of the female genital tract (SMMN-FGT).
  • All six patients had mucinous metaplasia of endometrium, which showed features of lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia (LEGH)/pyloric gland metaplasia (PGM) in five and was associated with mucinous adenocarcinoma in three.
  • Five patients had mucinous metaplasia of the fallopian tubes, of which three showed borderline features.
  • Five patients had cervical lesions including LEGH/PGM associated with either adenocarcinoma in situ or minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the cervix.
  • One patient with minimal deviation adenocarcinoma involving the vagina died of her disease, whereas five patients, including three with microinvasion and three with positive peritoneal cytology or mucinous ascites, were alive without recurrence after a mean follow-up of 46 months (range 13-102 months).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Gastric Mucosa / pathology. Genital Neoplasms, Female / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Metaplasia. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19207943.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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6. Song SH, Lee JK, Saw HS, Choi SY, Koo BH, Kim A, Yeom BW, Kim I: Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome with multiple genital tract tumors and breast cancer: a case report with a review of literatures. J Korean Med Sci; 2006 Aug;21(4):752-7
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  • An ovarian sex cord tumor with annular tubules was incidentally diagnosed together with a minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix and mucinous metaplasia of both the Fallopian tubal mucosa and the endometrium.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / complications. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Endometrium / pathology. Fallopian Tubes / pathology. Female. Humans. Korea. Metaplasia. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / complications. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology


7. Rabban JT, McAlhany S, Lerwill MF, Grenert JP, Zaloudek CJ: PAX2 distinguishes benign mesonephric and mullerian glandular lesions of the cervix from endocervical adenocarcinoma, including minimal deviation adenocarcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Feb;34(2):137-46
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

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  • [Title] PAX2 distinguishes benign mesonephric and mullerian glandular lesions of the cervix from endocervical adenocarcinoma, including minimal deviation adenocarcinoma.
  • Mesonephric remnants of the cervix are vestiges of the embryonic mesonephric system which typically regresses during female development.
  • The differential diagnosis of exuberant mesonephric hyperplasia includes minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the cervix, a tumor with deceptively bland morphology for which no reliable diagnostic biomarkers currently exist.
  • We hypothesized that PAX2 may also be expressed in mesonephric lesions of the cervix and may distinguish mesonephric hyperplasia from minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the cervix.
  • We demonstrated that PAX2 was strongly and diffusely expressed in mesonephric remnants (6 of 6) and in mesonephric hyperplasia (18 of 18); however, no expression was noted in mesonephric adenocarcinoma (0 of 1).
  • PAX2 was expressed in normal endocervical glands (including tunnel clusters and Nabothian cysts) (86 of 86), lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia (5 of 5), tubal/tuboendometrioid metaplasia (8 of 8), and cervical endometriosis (13 of 14).
  • In contrast, only 2 cases of endocervical adenocarcinoma were positive for PAX2 [invasive adenocarcinoma of the minimal deviation type (0 of 5), usual type (1 of 22), and endometrioid type (1 of 1)].
  • Adjacent adenocarcinoma in situ, as well as cases of pure adenocarcinoma in situ (0 of 6), were also PAX2 negative.
  • These results suggest that PAX2 immunoreactivity may be useful to (1) distinguish mesonephric hyperplasia from minimal deviation adenocarcinoma, (2) to distinguish lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia from minimal deviation adenocarcinoma, and (3) to distinguish endocervical tubal metaplasia or cervical endometriosis from endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • Overall, a strong, diffuse nuclear PAX2 expression pattern in a cervical glandular proliferation predicts a benign diagnosis (positive predictive value 90%, negative predictive value 98%; P<0.001); however, PAX2 should not be interpreted in isolation from the architectural and cytologic features of the lesion as it may be expressed in some stage II endometrial adenocarcinomas involving the cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Mesonephros / pathology. Mullerian Ducts / pathology. PAX2 Transcription Factor / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Hyperplasia / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Neoplasm Staging. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20061933.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / PAX2 Transcription Factor; 0 / PAX2 protein, human
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8. Yao T, Utsunomiya T, Oya M, Nishiyama K, Tsuneyoshi M: Extremely well-differentiated adenocarcinoma of the stomach: clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features. World J Gastroenterol; 2006 Apr 28;12(16):2510-6
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  • [Title] Extremely well-differentiated adenocarcinoma of the stomach: clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features.
  • AIM: Minimal deviation carcinoma of the uterine cervix, otherwise known as extremely well-differentiated adenocarcinoma (EWDA), is characterized by its benign microscopic appearance in contrast to its aggressive behavior.
  • METHODS: Clinicopathological features, including pre-operative biopsy diagnosis, were reviewed.
  • The latter resembled intestinal metaplasia with minimal nuclear atypia and irregular glands; two of these lesions demonstrated complete intestinal phenotype, while two demonstrated incomplete intestinal phenotype.
  • CONCLUSION: Unlike minimal deviation carcinoma of the cervix, these findings suggest that EWDA of the stomach is a lesion of low-grade malignancy.
  • Because of its resemblance to normal gastric mucosa or mucosa with intestinal metaplasia, EWDA is often misdiagnosed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16688795.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / MUC6 protein, human; 0 / Mucin-6; 0 / Mucins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4087982
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9. O'Connell F, Cibas ES: Cytologic features of ciliated adenocarcinoma of the cervix: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2005 Mar-Apr;49(2):187-90
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. DIETHYLSTILBESTROL .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cytologic features of ciliated adenocarcinoma of the cervix: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Ciliation is a normal finding in the endometrium, fallopian tubes and cervix.
  • Because cilia are characteristically lost when malignant tumors arise at these sites, the detection of cilia on light microscopy is frequently used to support a benign diagnosis.
  • CASE: A woman with a histologically confirmed ciliated adenocarcinoma of the cervix had prior liquid-based cervical cytology showing atypical, ciliated glandular cells that initially raised the diagnostic consideration of tubal metaplasia.
  • A concurrent biopsy, however, revealed focally ciliated adenocarcinoma of the cervix.
  • CONCLUSION: Awareness of the ciliated variant of adenocarcinoma of the cervix is important to avoid overreliance on ciliation as a definitive feature of benignity in cervical cytologic specimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Mullerian Ducts / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cilia / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Diethylstilbestrol / adverse effects. Female. Humans. Pregnancy. Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects. Vaginal Smears


10. Hashi A, Yuminamochi T, Xu JY, Kondo T, Katoh R, Hoshi K: Intranuclear cytoplasmic inclusion is a significant diagnostic feature for the differentiation of lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia from minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the cervix. Diagn Cytopathol; 2008 Aug;36(8):535-44
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

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  • [Title] Intranuclear cytoplasmic inclusion is a significant diagnostic feature for the differentiation of lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia from minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the cervix.
  • Lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia (LEGH) is a cervical lesion with pyloric gland metaplasia.
  • Minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) is an extremely well differentiated form of endocervical adenocarcinoma (AC).
  • We reviewed 24 cases of LEGH (18 pure and six mixed forms) and four MDA cases of the cervix.
  • Abundant yellow mucin was frequently present in both LEGH and MDA; however, an INCI was found in 22 of the 24 LEGH cases and it was not found in either MDA or adenocarcinoma cells associated with LEGH.
  • The presence of an INCI is a good parameter for the diagnosis of LEGH.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Cytoplasm / pathology. Intranuclear Inclusion Bodies / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cervix Uteri. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Middle Aged


11. Vang R, Vinh TN, Burks RT, Barner R, Kurman RJ, Ronnett BM: Pseudoinfiltrative tubal metaplasia of the endocervix: a potential form of in utero diethylstilbestrol exposure-related adenosis simulating minimal deviation adenocarcinoma. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2005 Oct;24(4):391-8
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. DIETHYLSTILBESTROL .

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  • [Title] Pseudoinfiltrative tubal metaplasia of the endocervix: a potential form of in utero diethylstilbestrol exposure-related adenosis simulating minimal deviation adenocarcinoma.
  • We report three cases of unusual tubal-type endocervical glandular proliferations simulating minimal deviation adenocarcinoma in women with a history of in utero diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure.
  • The proliferations lacked features of mucinous and tubo-endometrioid types of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Diethylstilbestrol / adverse effects. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Metaplasia. Middle Aged. Mitosis. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Receptors, Progesterone / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16175088.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 731DCA35BT / Diethylstilbestrol
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12. Abiko K, Baba T, Ogawa M, Mikami Y, Koyama T, Mandai M, Konishi I: Minimal deviation mucinous adenocarcinoma ('adenoma malignum') of the uterine corpus. Pathol Int; 2010 Jan;60(1):42-7
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

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  • [Title] Minimal deviation mucinous adenocarcinoma ('adenoma malignum') of the uterine corpus.
  • Primary mucinous adenocarcinomas of the uterine corpus are typically low grade and frequently associated with endometrial hyperplasia and/or ordinary endometrioid adenocarcinoma, but may appear as a heterogeneous group of neoplasms.
  • Microscopic examination of hysterectomy specimens indicated highly differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma diffusely infiltrating the portion of adenomyosis of the corpus.
  • In some areas endometrial glands of adenomyosis were replaced by benign-looking mucinous metaplasia.
  • The uterine cervix showed no abnormalities.
  • HIK1083 and MUC6 immunohistochemistry indicated a gastric phenotype of the tumor, as seen in cases of prototypical minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) of the cervix.
  • In summary, mucinous endometrial adenocarcinoma rarely shows features similar to MDA of the cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20055951.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers
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13. Kamaté B, Traoré CB, Diallo D, Sacko R, Toure M, Keita B, Teguete B, Traore Y, Diarra MH, Ouattara AT, Traoré AC, Mariko H, Dembele Y, Togola B, Tall K, Sanogo A, Diané M, Kaloga I, Traoré M, Dolo AI, Bayo S: [Extension of cervix cancer screening by visual methods to the community health centres in the district of Bamako]. Mali Med; 2008;23(4):29-33
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  • [Title] [Extension of cervix cancer screening by visual methods to the community health centres in the district of Bamako].
  • Cervix cancer remains a public health problem in developing countries.
  • These results are an assessment for multicentric study based on visual inspection of the cervix after application of acetiq acid (VIA) and lugol's iodine (VILI).
  • At all 177 biopsies were done, and histological diagnosis were: 67 dysplasias, 3 early invasive carcinomas, 69 invasive carcinomas and 38 inflammatory metaplasic lesions or nonconclusives aspects.
  • This study showed that screening of cervical cancer by visual inspection is workable at CSCOM level.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Community Health Centers / organization & administration. Mass Screening / organization & administration. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Acetic Acid. Adult. Biopsy. Coloring Agents. Female. Health Services Accessibility. Hospitals, University / organization & administration. Hospitals, University / statistics & numerical data. Humans. Iodides. Mali / epidemiology. Metaplasia. Middle Aged. Physical Examination. Prospective Studies. Staining and Labeling. Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / epidemiology. Uterine Cervicitis / diagnosis. Uterine Cervicitis / epidemiology


14. Mikami Y, Kiyokawa T, Moriya T, Sasano H: Immunophenotypic alteration of the stromal component in minimal deviation adenocarcinoma ('adenoma malignum') and endocervical glandular hyperplasia: a study using oestrogen receptor and alpha-smooth muscle actin double immunostaining. Histopathology; 2005 Feb;46(2):130-6
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

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  • [Title] Immunophenotypic alteration of the stromal component in minimal deviation adenocarcinoma ('adenoma malignum') and endocervical glandular hyperplasia: a study using oestrogen receptor and alpha-smooth muscle actin double immunostaining.
  • AIMS: To define the phenotypic alteration of the stromal component in association with destructive invasion which is a crucial feature in distinguishing minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) from benign endocervical glandular lesions.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied endocervical glandular hyperplasias including non-specific-type (NEGH) (n = 3) and lobular-type (LEGH) (n = 8), and minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) (n = 11), well-differentiated endocervical adenocarcinoma of usual-type (WDA) (n = 11), and adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) (n = 6) of the cervix, by double immunostaining for oestrogen receptor (ER) and alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) using peroxidase- and alkaline phosphatase-polymer methods, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Actins / analysis. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Metaplasia. Muscle, Smooth / chemistry. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 15693884.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen
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15. Baker AC, Eltoum I, Curry RO, Stockard CR, Manne U, Grizzle WE, Chhieng D: Mucinous expression in benign and neoplastic glandular lesions of the uterine cervix. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2006 Oct;130(10):1510-5
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  • [Title] Mucinous expression in benign and neoplastic glandular lesions of the uterine cervix.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the expression of mucins in uterine cervical glandular lesions and whether mucin expression correlates with the nature and origin of the glandular lesions.
  • DESIGN: Antibodies to MUC1, MUC2, MUC4, and MUC5AC were applied on 52 cases including 14 endocervical adenocarcinomas (including 4 adenosquamous carcinomas), 9 endometrial carcinomas (8 endometrioid adenocarcinomas and 1 adenosquamous carcinoma), 8 adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), 2 glandular dysplasias, 6 tubal metaplasias, 10 microglandular hyperplasias, and 3 normal endocervix.
  • RESULTS: All benign endocervical epithelia, including tubal metaplasia and microglandular hyperplasia, expressed MUC1, MUC4, and MUC5AC but not MUC2.
  • Almost all endocervical AIS and carcinomas and all endometrial adenocarcinomas expressed MUC1; the exceptions were 2 cases of endocervical adenocarcinoma and 1 case of adenosquamous carcinoma of the endocervix.
  • These results suggest that mucin staining may potentially be helpful in differentiating various uterine cervical glandular lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Mucins / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Diseases / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17090193.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MUC2 protein, human; 0 / MUC4 protein, human; 0 / MUC5AC protein, human; 0 / Mucin 5AC; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Mucin-2; 0 / Mucin-4; 0 / Mucins
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16. El-Ghobashy AA, Shaaban AM, Innes J, Prime W, Herrington CS: Upregulation of heat shock protein 27 in metaplastic and neoplastic lesions of the endocervix. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2005 May-Jun;15(3):503-9
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  • Included in the study were 80 cervical glandular lesions of various histologic types, representing tuboendometrial metaplasia/endometriosis (n = 19), cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia (n = 33), and invasive adenocarcinoma (n = 28).
  • Normal cervical glands showed minimal expression of hsp27 (median: 10%, interquartile ranges [IQ]: 5-15).
  • Expression was significantly more widespread in tuboendometrial metaplasia/endometriosis (median: 35%, IQ: 15-80), cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia (median: 60%, IQ: 32-80), and invasive adenocarcinoma (median: 40%, IQ: 25-80) when compared with normal endocervix (P = 0.007, < 0.001, and 0.001, respectively).
  • However, no significant difference in hsp27 protein expression was found between cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive adenocarcinoma.
  • In invasive adenocarcinoma, hsp27 showed no correlation with tumor grade, lymph node involvement, and lymphovascular space invasion.
  • Our data highlight early dysregulation of hsp27 expression in both metaplastic and neoplastic lesions of the cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Heat-Shock Proteins / biosynthesis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cervix Uteri / physiology. Cross-Sectional Studies. Endometriosis. Female. Humans. Metaplasia. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 15882177.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Heat-Shock Proteins
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17. El-Ghobashy AA, Shaaban AM, Innes J, Prime W, Herrington CS: Differential expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors and apoptosis-related proteins in endocervical lesions. Eur J Cancer; 2007 Sep;43(13):2011-8
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  • In this study, a panel of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) and apoptosis-related proteins (p16, p21, p53, Bcl2 and hsp27) was analysed by immunohistochemistry in 91 glandular cervical lesions.
  • A significant increase in p21 and p53 expression occurred from normal cervix (n=11) through endometriosis/tubo-endometrioid metaplasia (TEM) (n=19) and cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia (CGIN)/adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) (n=33) to invasive adenocarcinoma (n=28).
  • p16 showed diffuse strong expression in CGIN/AIS and invasive adenocarcinoma compared with focal expression in some TEM/endometriosis lesions and no expression in normal cervix.
  • Bcl2 was highly expressed in TEM/endometriosis compared with CGIN/AIS and adenocarcinoma. p16 immunostaining discriminated accurately between neoplastic and non-neoplastic cervical lesions, provided that diffuse strong positivity was present.
  • These data demonstrate that analysis of CDKIs and apoptosis-related proteins provides useful information in the diagnostic assessment of glandular lesions of the cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / metabolism. Cervix Uteri / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Proteins / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17693084.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-8049
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cancer (Oxford, England : 1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Proteins
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18. Little L, Stewart CJ: Cyclin D1 immunoreactivity in normal endocervix and diagnostic value in reactive and neoplastic endocervical lesions. Mod Pathol; 2010 Apr;23(4):611-8
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  • It may be difficult to distinguish reactive glandular lesions from adenocarcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix, and although several immunohistochemical markers have established value in this diagnostic setting, none is completely reliable.
  • Therefore, we investigated cyclin D1 staining in a series of 64 cervical biopsy specimens including examples of normal and reactive endocervical epithelium, adenocarcinoma in situ, stratified mucin-producing intraepithelial lesions, and invasive adenocarcinoma.
  • Thirteen specimens also included a component of high-grade cervical squamous intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • Normal endocervical epithelium usually expressed cyclin D1, although staining was typically focal, and there was increased immunoreactivity in reactive and metaplastic glandular cells including tubo-endometrioid metaplasia.
  • In contrast, most cases of adenocarcinoma in situ were completely negative and, therefore, cyclin D1 staining distinguished benign from neoplastic epithelial cells.
  • Although focal cyclin D1 expression was observed in 5/19 cases of adenocarcinoma in situ, the staining was associated with more marked cytological atypia precluding confusion with a reactive process.
  • In conclusion, cyclin D1 can be included within an immunohistochemical panel to aid in the distinction between reactive cervical glandular lesions and adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / metabolism. Cervix Uteri / metabolism. Cyclin D1 / biosynthesis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20062011.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
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19. Samet I, Cormier B, Mowlawi H, Philippe A, Arbion F, Fétissof F: [Endometrial and endocervical lesions associated with pseudomyxoma peritonei: a case report]. Ann Pathol; 2009 Jun;29(3):233-7
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / complications. Appendiceal Neoplasms / complications. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Endometrium / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / complications. Pseudomyxoma Peritonei / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Appendectomy. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / diagnosis. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Metaplasia. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Ovariectomy


20. Stewart CJ, Little L: Diagnostic value and implications of vimentin expression in normal, reactive and neoplastic endocervical epithelium. Pathology; 2010 Apr;42(3):217-23
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

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  • METHODS: Sixty-two cervical biopsy specimens including normal endocervical epithelium, tubo-endometrioid metaplasia, adenocarcinoma in situ, stratified mucin producing intraepithelial lesions (SMILE), and invasive adenocarcinomas were stained immunohistochemically for vimentin and for p16 protein, Ki-67 and bcl-2.
  • Twelve cases also included areas of high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN).
  • RESULTS: Normal endocervical epithelium usually showed subtle but distinct sub-nuclear and delicate lateral cell border vimentin expression while tubo-endometrioid metaplasia exhibited more diffuse cytoplasmic immunoreactivity.
  • Usually adenocarcinoma in situ was completely negative and therefore vimentin staining sharply distinguished the benign and neoplastic epithelial elements.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Normal endocervical cells often exhibit vimentin staining, and this is increased in reactive and metaplastic situations, whereas adenocarcinoma in situ is usually completely negative.
  • Therefore vimentin is a useful additional diagnostic marker in the assessment of problematic cervical glandular lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism. Vimentin / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / metabolism. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Cervix Uteri / metabolism. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / biosynthesis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 20350213.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3931
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Vimentin
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21. Kalyanasundaram K, Ganesan R, Perunovic B, McCluggage WG: Diffusely infiltrating endometrial carcinomas with no stromal response: report of a series, including cases with cervical and ovarian involvement and emphasis on the potential for misdiagnosis. Int J Surg Pathol; 2010 Apr;18(2):138-43
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Planning and Implementing Cervical Cancer Prevention and Control Programs: A Manual for Managers .

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  • [Title] Diffusely infiltrating endometrial carcinomas with no stromal response: report of a series, including cases with cervical and ovarian involvement and emphasis on the potential for misdiagnosis.
  • Endometrial carcinomas, particularly of endometrioid type, can invade the myometrium or cervix without eliciting a stromal desmoplastic or inflammatory response and have been referred to as diffusely infiltrating endometrial carcinomas.
  • Seven cases exhibited cervical stromal involvement and in 2 there was involvement of both ovaries in a similar pattern.
  • Several of the cases were seen in consultation and the pattern of infiltration raised a number of differential diagnoses, both benign and malignant, depending on the site of tumor involvement, including adenomyosis, adenomyoma, primary endocervical glandular lesions, cervical mesonephric remnants, endometriosis or tuboendometrioid metaplasia, and ovarian cortical inclusion cysts.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


22. Tantipalakorn C, Khunamornpong S, Lertprasertsuke N, Tongsong T: Female genital tract tumors and gastrointestinal lesions in the Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. J Med Assoc Thai; 2009 Dec;92(12):1686-90
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  • An ovarian microscopic cystadenoma was diagnosed together with a minimal deviation mucinous adenocarcinoma (MDA) of the uterine cervix and mucinous metaplasia in tubal mucosa and endometrium.
  • Pathological findings warranted a search for evidence of PJS Typical pigmentation at the hard palate and colonoscopic finding of hamartomatous polyps established the diagnosis of PJS.
  • The presented case suggests MDA and mucinous metaplasia warrant a search for PJS.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gastrointestinal Tract / pathology. Genital Neoplasms, Female / pathology. Genitalia, Female / pathology. Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / surgery. Cystadenoma / pathology. Cystadenoma / surgery. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Middle Aged. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Ovariectomy. Risk Factors. Salpingectomy

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  • (PMID = 20043574.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-2208
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Assoc Thai
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
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23. O'Neill CJ, McCluggage WG: p16 expression in the female genital tract and its value in diagnosis. Adv Anat Pathol; 2006 Jan;13(1):8-15
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  • [Title] p16 expression in the female genital tract and its value in diagnosis.
  • Diffuse (as opposed to focal) positivity with p16 in the cervix can be regarded as a surrogate marker of the presence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV).
  • In cervical squamous lesions, p16 is positive in most high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and in some cases of low-grade CIN, usually those associated with high-risk HPV. p16 may be useful to identify small focal high-grade CIN lesions, to distinguish some cases of CIN involving immature metaplastic squamous epithelium from immature metaplastic squamous epithelium not involved by CIN and to distinguish high-grade CIN from benign mimics.
  • Most cervical carcinomas of squamous, glandular, and small cell type are p16-positive.
  • In cervical glandular lesions, p16 is useful, as part of a panel, in the distinction between adenocarcinoma in situ (diffusely positive) and benign mimics, including tuboendometrial metaplasia and endometriosis, which are usually p16-negative or focally positive. p16 may be used, in combination with other markers, to distinguish between a cervical adenocarcinoma (diffuse positivity) and an endometrioid-type endometrial adenocarcinoma (negative or focally positive).
  • In the uterus, p16 positivity is more common and widespread in leiomyosarcomas than leiomyomas, and this may be a useful aid to diagnosis, although problematic uterine smooth muscle neoplasms have not been extensively studied.
  • Metastatic cervical adenocarcinomas in the ovary are usually diffusely p16-positive, and because these may closely mimic a primary ovarian endometrioid or mucinous adenocarcinoma, this may be a valuable diagnostic aid, although p16 expression in primary ovarian adenocarcinomas of these morphologic subtypes has not been widely investigated.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / analysis. Genital Neoplasms, Female / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / chemistry. Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Carcinoma, Small Cell / chemistry. Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / genetics. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / chemistry. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / diagnosis. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / genetics. Diagnosis, Differential. Endometrial Neoplasms / chemistry. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / genetics. Female. Genes, p16. Genitalia, Female / chemistry. Genitalia, Female / physiopathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ovarian Neoplasms / chemistry. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / chemistry. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / genetics. Uterine Neoplasms / chemistry. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / genetics. Vulvar Neoplasms / chemistry. Vulvar Neoplasms / classification. Vulvar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vulvar Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16462152.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-4109
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 65
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24. Sosnovski V, Barenboim R, Cohen HI, Bornstein J: Complex Nabothian cysts: a diagnostic dilemma. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2009 May;279(5):759-61
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Multiple and large cysts, located in the cervical stroma, can cause significant enlargement of the cervix.
  • CONCLUSION: In rare cases in which the intracervical cysts assume very large dimensions, ultrasound and MRI can aid diagnosis, but may not always prevent the need for excision or hysterectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / diagnosis. Cysts / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Diseases / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Colposcopy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Frozen Sections. Humans. Hysterectomy. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Metaplasia


25. Sanati S, Huettner P, Ylagan LR: Role of ProExC: a novel immunoperoxidase marker in the evaluation of dysplastic squamous and glandular lesions in cervical specimens. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2010 Jan;29(1):79-87
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Role of ProExC: a novel immunoperoxidase marker in the evaluation of dysplastic squamous and glandular lesions in cervical specimens.
  • Our purpose was to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of ProExC in dysplastic squamous and glandular lesions of the cervix.
  • Nine low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 35 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 23 squamous metaplasia, and 14 adenocarcinoma in situ specimens were retrieved from our hospital files.
  • ProExC had sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value of 89%, 100%, 100%, and 82%, respectively, for distinguishing high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion from squamous metaplasia, and 93%, 100%, 100%, and 98%, respectively, for distinguishing adenocarcinoma in situ from reactive benign endocervix.
  • ProExC is a valuable marker for distinguishing dysplastic squamous and endocervical lesions of the cervix from squamous metaplasia in histologic sections.
  • ProExC may eventually be used in conjunction with morphologic and human papillomavirus evaluation for better classification of indeterminate cervical lesions in Papanicolaou smears.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19952938.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM2 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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26. Kurshumliu F, Thorns C, Gashi-Luci L: p16INK4A in routine practice as a marker of cervical epithelial neoplasia. Gynecol Oncol; 2009 Oct;115(1):127-31
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] p16INK4A in routine practice as a marker of cervical epithelial neoplasia.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to validate the role of p16(INK4a) immunocytochemistry as a marker of cervical epithelial neoplasia in cytology and biopsy samples.
  • Additionally, a selection of paraffin blocks from cases diagnosed previously with squamous intraepithelial lesion and cervical cancer were immunostained.
  • A relatively low number (24%) of cases with squamous metaplasia revealed focal and/or sporadic staining in the superficial layers of the epithelium.
  • All the cases of cervical adenocarcinoma and mesonephric carcinoma were positive for p16(INK4a).
  • CONCLUSION: p16(INK4a) is a useful additional marker for interpretation of problematic Pap smears and reduces the variability during evaluation of suspicious biopsies of the uterine cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / biosynthesis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19596140.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16
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27. Wu Q, Li Z, Lin H, Han L, Liu S, Lin Z: DEK overexpression in uterine cervical cancers. Pathol Int; 2008 Jun;58(6):378-82
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] DEK overexpression in uterine cervical cancers.
  • The purpose of the present paper was to investigate the significance of DEK protein expression in uterine cervical lesions and its relationship with HPV infection status.
  • DEK protein expression was studied in 253 cervical lesions, including 30 non-neoplastic cervix with or without squamous metaplasia, 64 cervical intra-epithelial neoplasias (CIN; CIN-1, n = 28; CIN-2, n = 17; CIN-3, n = 19), 102 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC), 51 adenocarcinomas, and six adenosquamous cell carcinomas (adenoSCC) on immunohistochemistry.
  • For comparison, HPV-positive and -negative cervical cancer cell lines were also included.
  • On immunohistochemistry DEK was found to be negative in all 30 non-neoplastic cervical epithelia, but it was positive in 96.1% of SCC (98/102), 92.2% of adenocarcinomas (47/51), 100% of adenoSCC (6/6), 85.7% of CIN-1 (24/28), 94.1% of CIN-2 (16/17), and 89.5% of CIN-3 (17/19).
  • There was no significant difference between HPV-positive and -negative cervical lesions.
  • Also, strongly positive staining was observed in all aforementioned cervical cancer cell lines regardless of HPV infection, according to immunocytochemistry.
  • In summary, DEK plays an important role in the carcinogenesis of cervical cancers, and can be helpful for early diagnosis, and is a potential therapeutic target.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / metabolism. Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone / metabolism. Oncogene Proteins / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .
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  • (PMID = 18477217.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Dek protein, human; 0 / Oncogene Proteins
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28. Amălinei C, Balan R, Stolnicu S, Rădulescu D, Boeru C, Cotuţiu C: Adenosquamous cervical carcinoma morphological characteristics. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi; 2005 Apr-Jun;109(2):343-6
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adenosquamous cervical carcinoma morphological characteristics.
  • Adenosquamous carcinomas range between 5-25% of cervical cancers and are composed by an admixture of malignant squamous and glandular elements.
  • Differential diagnosis with endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the cervix with squamous metaplasia was made.
  • Our study concluded the occurrence of adenosquamous cervical carcinomas at a similar age with squamous cervical carcinomas in the investigated group of patients.
  • As adenosquamous cervical carcinomas are considered expressions of a biphasic differentiation of a single pluripotential sub-columnar reserve cell, a similar degree of differentiation of the two components would be expected.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16607797.001).
  • [ISSN] 0048-7848
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista medico-chirurgicală̆ a Societă̆ţ̜ii de Medici ş̧i Naturaliş̧ti din Iaş̧i
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Romania
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29. Newbold RR, Jefferson WN, Padilla-Banks E: Prenatal exposure to bisphenol a at environmentally relevant doses adversely affects the murine female reproductive tract later in life. Environ Health Perspect; 2009 Jun;117(6):879-85
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. BISPHENOL A .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Further, although not statistically different from the controls, prominent mesonephric (Wolffian) remnants and squamous metaplasia of the uterus, as well as vaginal adenosis, were present in BPA-treated mice, similar to lesions reported following DES treatment.
  • More severe pathologies observed in some BPA-treated animals included atypical hyperplasia and stromal polyps of the uterus; sarcoma of the uterine cervix; and mammary adenocarcinoma.

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. DIETHYLSTILBESTROL .
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  • (PMID = 19590677.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-9924
  • [Journal-full-title] Environmental health perspectives
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Environ. Health Perspect.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzhydryl Compounds; 0 / Endocrine Disruptors; 0 / Phenols; 0 / Water Pollutants, Chemical; 731DCA35BT / Diethylstilbestrol; MLT3645I99 / bisphenol A
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2702400
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; BPA / DES / carcinogenesis / development / diethylstilbestrol / endocrine disruptors / ovary / reproduction / toxicology / uterus
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