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1. Odashiro AN, Odashiro DN, Nguyen GK: Minimal deviation endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the cervix: report of three cases with exfoliative cytology. Diagn Cytopathol; 2006 Feb;34(2):119-23
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  • [Title] Minimal deviation endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the cervix: report of three cases with exfoliative cytology.
  • Three histologically confirmed minimal deviation endometrioid adenocarcinomas (MDEA) of the uterine cervix with cytologic evaluation by cervical scraping were reviewed.
  • The cytologic manifestations of those three cervical MDEAs overlapped, to some extents, with those of a cervical adenocarcinoma in situ and with those of a well-differentiated endometrial adenocarcinoma invading the cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


2. Zelmanowicz Ade M, Schiffman M, Herrero R, Goldstein AM, Sherman ME, Burk RD, Gravitt P, Viscidi R, Schwartz P, Barnes W, Mortel R, Silverberg SG, Buckland J, Hildesheim A: Family history as a co-factor for adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix: results from two studies conducted in Costa Rica and the United States. Int J Cancer; 2005 Sep 10;116(4):599-605
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  • [Title] Family history as a co-factor for adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix: results from two studies conducted in Costa Rica and the United States.
  • Previous work suggests that cervical cancer may aggregate in families.
  • We evaluated the association between a family history of gynecological tumors and risk of squamous cell and adenocarcinomas of the cervix in 2 studies conducted in Costa Rica and the United States.
  • The U.S. study consisted of 570 women (124 with in situ or invasive adenocarcinomas, 139 with in situ or invasive squamous cell carcinomas of the cervix and 307 community-based controls) recruited as part of a multicentric case-control study in the eastern part of the United States.
  • Information on family history of cervical and other cancers among first-degree relatives was ascertained via questionnaire.
  • Information on other risk factors for cervical cancer was obtained via questionnaire.
  • A family history of cervical cancer in a first-degree relative was associated with increased risk of squamous tumors in both studies (odds ration [OR] = 3.2 for CIN3/cancer vs. controls; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-9.4 in Costa Rica; OR = 2.6 for in situ/invasive squamous cell carcinoma cases vs. controls, 95% CI = 1.1-6.4 in the Eastern United States study).
  • No significant association was observed between a family history of cervical cancer in a first-degree relative and adenocarcinomas (OR = 1.3; 95% CI = 0.43-3.9).
  • History of gynecological tumors other than cervical cancer in a first-degree relative was not significantly associated with risk of disease in either study.
  • These results are consistent with a role of host factors in the pathogenesis of squamous cell cervical cancer, although familial aggregation due to shared environmental exposures cannot be ruled out.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / etiology. Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / etiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / genetics

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15818615.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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3. Wright TC Jr, Massad LS, Dunton CJ, Spitzer M, Wilkinson EJ, Solomon D, 2006 American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology-sponsored Consensus Conference: 2006 consensus guidelines for the management of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or adenocarcinoma in situ. J Low Genit Tract Dis; 2007 Oct;11(4):223-39
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  • [Title] 2006 consensus guidelines for the management of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • OBJECTIVE: To provide updated consensus guidelines for the management of women with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS).
  • In the new guidelines, cytological follow-up is the only recommended management option, regardless of whether the colposcopic examination is satisfactory, for women with CIN 1 who have a low-grade referral cervical cytology.
  • Moreover, management recommendations for women with biopsy-confirmed AIS are now included.
  • CONCLUSION: Updated evidenced-based guidelines have been developed for the management of women with CIN or AIS.
  • These guidelines reflect recent changes in our understanding of human papillomavirus-associated diseases of the cervix and the potential impact of treatment on future pregnancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Carcinoma in Situ / therapy. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / therapy. Electrosurgery. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy


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4. Tarkkanen J, Auvinen E, Nieminen P, Malmi R, Vartiainen J, Timonen T, Laurila P, Räisänen I, Unnerus HA, Sakki A, Mattila P, Van Den Brule AV, Tapper AM: HPV DNA testing as an adjunct in the management of patients with low grade cytological lesions in Finland. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand; 2007;86(3):367-72
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  • There were 5/97 (5.2%) high grade lesions, which were HC2-negative but pap-positive, including 1 cervical adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • One CIN3 and one AIS remained HPV negative.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. DNA, Viral / analysis. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17364315.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6349
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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5. Ben Hmid R, Mourali M, Zghal D, Mahjoub S, Naceur C, Sbai N, Zouari F: [Usefulness of colposcopy in inflammatory cervico-vaginal smears: apropos of 140 cases]. Tunis Med; 2007 Jun;85(6):500-4
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  • [Transliterated title] Apport de la colposcopie dans les frottis cervico-vaginaux inflammatoires: a propos de 140 cas.
  • BACKGROUND: The cervical cancer is the second most frequent cancer of the woman in Tunisia.
  • AIM: The purpose of our study is to proove that an inflammatory cervical smear should be considered as a positive test and must lead to other investigations.
  • METHODS: It is a prospective study over 140 cases of inflammatory cervical smears (without atypical cells) diagnosed during a year period from june 2001 to june 2002.
  • It showed benign lesions such as: ectropion in 22.85%, colpitis in 14.28%, cervical polypus in 5%, normal transformation zone in 8.57%, but also suspicious lesions such as : atypical transformations grade I (ATGI) in 25.71% and atypical transformations grade II (ATGII) in 13.57%.
  • A case of in situ carcinoma, a microinvasif epidermoid carcinoma and an invasif glandular carcinoma were diagnosed.
  • It makes a minutious study of the cervix and diminishes the rate of false negative made by the cervical smear.
  • [MeSH-major] Colposcopy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vaginal Smears
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Polyps / pathology. Prospective Studies. Sexual Behavior. Uterine Cervical Diseases / pathology. Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / pathology. Uterine Cervicitis / pathology. Vaginitis / pathology


6. van de Nieuwenhof HP, Massuger LF, de Hullu JA, van Ham MA, van Dijck JA, Siebers AG, Bekkers RL: Significant decrease of adenocarcinoma in situ not reflected in cervical adenocarcinoma incidence in the Netherlands 1989-2003. Br J Cancer; 2008 Jan 15;98(1):165-7
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  • [Title] Significant decrease of adenocarcinoma in situ not reflected in cervical adenocarcinoma incidence in the Netherlands 1989-2003.
  • Over the period 1989-2003, the incidence of cervical adenocarcinoma (n=1615) was stable whereas that of cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (n=1884) significantly decreased (P=0.008), mainly caused by adenocarcinoma in situ lesions with a concurrent squamous dysplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Carcinoma in Situ / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 18182979.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2359688
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7. Raspollini MR, Fambrini M, Marchionni M, Baroni G, Taddei GL: In situ adenocarcinoma and squamous carcinoma of uterine cervix. Pathological and immunohistochemical analysis with cytokeratin 13. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 2007 Oct;134(2):249-53
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  • [Title] In situ adenocarcinoma and squamous carcinoma of uterine cervix. Pathological and immunohistochemical analysis with cytokeratin 13.
  • OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was the pathological and immunohistochemical analysis of cytokeratin 13 (CK13) in intraepithelial cervical tumors.
  • STUDY DESIGN: We studied 415 in situ squamous carcinomas and 13 in situ mucinous cervical type adenocarcinomas of the uterine cervix.
  • All patients underwent laser cervical conization and had a follow-up ranging 12-135 months.
  • RESULTS: 3% of the squamous carcinoma patients recurred during the follow-up period, while the percentage of recurrence of in situ adenocarcinoma patients was 7.6%.
  • We observed CK13 positive staining in cervical squamous tumors and in mucinous cervical type adenocarcinomas, while there was no positive staining in non-neoplastic cervical glandular elements.
  • CONCLUSION: CK13 positive immunostaining among in situ squamous and in situ mucinous cervical type adenocarcinoma cases adds additional evidence to data supporting a common origin of the two lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Keratin-13 / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16949723.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2115
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Keratin-13
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8. Swartz RJ, West LA, Boiko I, Malpica A, Guillaud M, Macaulay C, Follen M, Atkinson EN, Cox DD: Classification using the cumulative log-odds in the quantitative pathologic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the cervix. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Dec;99(3 Suppl 1):S24-31
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  • [Title] Classification using the cumulative log-odds in the quantitative pathologic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the cervix.
  • The method was tested using data from cervical adenocarcinomas, adenocarcinoma in situ, and normal columnar tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Logistic Models. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


9. Hatami M, Del Priore G, Chudnoff SG, Goldberg GL: Preserving fertility in invasive cervical adenocarcinoma by abdominal radical trachelectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. Arch Iran Med; 2006 Oct;9(4):413-6
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  • [Title] Preserving fertility in invasive cervical adenocarcinoma by abdominal radical trachelectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy.
  • A 32-year-old female was diagnosed by loop electrosurgical excision procedure with adenocarcinoma in situ and a focus suspicious for positive lympho-vascular invasion.
  • We concluded that abdominal radical trachelectomy may be a surgical option for early stage cervical cancer treatment in young women who wish to preserve fertility.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures / methods. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cervix Uteri / surgery. Electrosurgery. Female. Fertility. Humans. Intraoperative Complications. Postoperative Complications. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17061618.001).
  • [ISSN] 1029-2977
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of Iranian medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Iran Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Iran
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10. Kawauchi S, Kusuda T, Liu XP, Suehiro Y, Kaku T, Mikami Y, Takeshita M, Nakao M, Chochi Y, Sasaki K: Is lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia a cancerous precursor of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma?: a comparative molecular-genetic and immunohistochemical study. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Dec;32(12):1807-15
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  • [Title] Is lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia a cancerous precursor of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma?: a comparative molecular-genetic and immunohistochemical study.
  • Although lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia (LEGH) was originally described as a distinct hyperplastic glandular lesion of the uterine cervix, recent studies have raised a question that LEGH may be a cancerous precursor of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) and other mucinous adenocarcinomas (MACs) of the uterine cervix.
  • Dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed a gain of chromosome 3 fragment in these cervical glandular lesions.
  • HPV in situ hybridization revealed that high-risk HPV (types 16 and 18) was positive in over 80% of MACs, but negative in all LEGHs and MDAs examined.
  • Microsatellite instability was rarely detected in these cervical glandular lesions.
  • Our present study results demonstrated a molecular-genetic link between LEGH and cervical mucinous glandular malignancies including MDA and MAC, and are thought to support the hypothesis that a proportion of LEGHs are cancerous precursors of MDA and/or MAC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Comparative Genomic Hybridization. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Microsatellite Instability. Middle Aged. Papillomavirus Infections. Polymerase Chain Reaction


11. Bull-Phelps SL, Garner EI, Walsh CS, Gehrig PA, Miller DS, Schorge JO: Fertility-sparing surgery in 101 women with adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix. Gynecol Oncol; 2007 Nov;107(2):316-9
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  • [Title] Fertility-sparing surgery in 101 women with adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix.
  • OBJECTIVES: Cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) is a precursor of invasive disease that is increasing in incidence primarily among reproductive-age women of low parity.
  • Conization is an alternative to hysterectomy that allows future pregnancy, but has an inherent risk of residual AIS.
  • METHODS: Women diagnosed with cervical AIS who underwent primary fertility-sparing surgery with either loop excision or cold knife conization between 1993 and 2001 were identified at three institutions.
  • Patients 40 years of age and older and those undergoing hysterectomy within 12 months of diagnosis were excluded.
  • No invasive cervical adenocarcinomas were observed during the study interval.
  • CONCLUSION: Fertility-sparing surgery enables women with cervical AIS to achieve pregnancy with minimal risk of developing invasive disease during surveillance.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Conization. Fertility. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures / methods. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Medical Records. Parity. Population Surveillance. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Outcome. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome


12. Vang R, Gown AM, Farinola M, Barry TS, Wheeler DT, Yemelyanova A, Seidman JD, Judson K, Ronnett BM: p16 expression in primary ovarian mucinous and endometrioid tumors and metastatic adenocarcinomas in the ovary: utility for identification of metastatic HPV-related endocervical adenocarcinomas. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 May;31(5):653-63
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  • The HPV status of the endocervical adenocarcinomas was determined by in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction (when in situ hybridization was negative).
  • Diffuse (>75% positive tumor cells) moderate to strong p16 expression is a sensitive (100%) and specific (97%) marker for identifying HPV-related endocervical adenocarcinomas metastatic to the ovary among the primary ovarian tumors and metastatic adenocarcinomas from other sites that are in the differential diagnosis of ovarian tumors having mucinous and/or endometrioid/endometrioidlike differentiation. p16 is useful as part of a panel of immunohistochemical markers for distinguishing primary ovarian tumors from metastases and, when diffusely positive, can suggest the cervix as a potential primary site for metastatic adenocarcinomas of unknown origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / metabolism. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. DNA, Viral / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. In Situ Hybridization. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Papillomavirus Infections. Polymerase Chain Reaction


13. Flannelly G: The management of women with abnormal cervical cytology in pregnancy. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol; 2010 Feb;24(1):51-60
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  • [Title] The management of women with abnormal cervical cytology in pregnancy.
  • The emphasis should be on diagnosis and confirmation of cervical precancer (Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or Adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), thus excluding invasive cancer).
  • This must include colposcopy and take into account the physiological changes of the cervix during pregnancy and the puerperium.
  • The management of women with invasive cancer diagnosed during pregnancy depends on the gestation at diagnosis and requires careful assessment and multidisciplinary planning.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / surgery. Precancerous Conditions / surgery. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / surgery. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Colposcopy. Evidence-Based Medicine. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy / methods. Pregnancy. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Vaginal Smears


14. Matsumura M, Ota T, Takeshima N, Takizawa K: Shimodaira-Taniguchi conization method: its utility and reliability. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2010 Aug;20(6):1025-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate Shimodaira-Taniguchi conization as a conservative therapy for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and microinvasive cancer of the cervix.
  • METHODS: Subjects were 455 patients who underwent Shimodaira-Taniguchi conization for CIN, carcinoma in situ, adenocarcinoma in situ, or stage IA microinvasive cervical carcinoma at our hospital from January 2005 to December 2008.
  • Cervical stenosis occurred in 15 (3.3%) patients, 3 of whom suffered cervical obstruction, including 1 with dysmenorrhea who underwent hysterectomy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: As a conservative treatment for CIN and microinvasive cervical cancer, Shimodaira-Taniguchi conization is useful.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / surgery. Conization / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20683412.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. DeSimone CP, Day ME, Tovar MM, Dietrich CS 3rd, Eastham ML, Modesitt SC: Rate of pathology from atypical glandular cell Pap tests classified by the Bethesda 2001 nomenclature. Obstet Gynecol; 2006 Jun;107(6):1285-91
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  • Seventeen women (21%) had preinvasive disease: cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or 3, adenocarcinoma in situ and endometrial hyperplasia, whereas 14 women (17%) had invasive adenocarcinomas of the endometrium, cervix, ovary, and rectum.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology. Vaginal Smears / classification
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Colposcopy. Electrosurgery / statistics & numerical data. Female. Genital Neoplasms, Female / epidemiology. Health Planning Guidelines. Humans. Middle Aged. Practice Guidelines as Topic


16. Li C, Rock KL, Woda BA, Jiang Z, Fraire AE, Dresser K: IMP3 is a novel biomarker for adenocarcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix: an immunohistochemical study in comparison with p16(INK4a) expression. Mod Pathol; 2007 Feb;20(2):242-7
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  • [Title] IMP3 is a novel biomarker for adenocarcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix: an immunohistochemical study in comparison with p16(INK4a) expression.
  • Adenocarcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix remains a diagnostic challenge in a small proportion of cases.
  • This suggests a need for biomarker that may be of help in establishing the diagnosis.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of insulin-like growth factor-II mRNA-binding protein 3 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16(INK4a) as biomarkers for adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • Forty-four samples of adenocarcinoma in situ from 40 patients and 23 control cases of benign uterine cervix were included in this study.
  • Cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for insulin-like growth factor-II mRNA-binding protein 3 was identified in 41 (93%) adenocarcinoma in situ samples, among which, 29 (71%), 10 (24%), and 2 (5%) samples showed insulin-like growth factor-II mRNA-binding protein 3 positive staining in 50% or more, >5 to <50 and <5% of adenocarcinoma in situ lesional cells, respectively.
  • Immunohistochemical reaction intensity for insulin-like growth factor-II mRNA-binding protein 3 was found to be strong in 34 adenocarcinoma in situ samples, intermediate in five, and weak in two.
  • All 23 control cases were negative for insulin-like growth factor-II mRNA-binding protein 3. p16(INK4a) expression was identified in all of the adenocarcinoma in situ samples with intermediate staining intensity seen in seven samples and strong in the remainder.
  • Our findings demonstrate significant expression of insulin-like growth factor-II mRNA-binding protein 3 and p16(INK4a) in adenocarcinoma in situ as compared to benign endocervical glands, suggesting that expression of these biomarkers may be helpful in the distinction of adenocarcinoma in situ from benign endocervical glands, particularly in difficult borderline cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. RNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cervix Uteri / metabolism. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Middle Aged


17. Sláma J, Freitag P, Cibula D, Fischerová D, Janousek M, Pavlista D, Strunová M, Zikán M, Jancárková N: [Glandular premalignant lesions of the uterine cervix]. Ceska Gynekol; 2006 Dec;71(6):446-50
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  • [Title] [Glandular premalignant lesions of the uterine cervix].
  • OBJECTIVE: Review of diagnostical and therapeutical methods in glandular premalignant lesions of the uterine cervix.
  • RESULTS: The incidence of invasive adenocarcinomas of the uterine cervix is increasing.
  • PAP-smear of AGC-NOS/-NEO or adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) in combination with typical colposcopic appearance raise a suspicion of glandular lesion.
  • Direct biopsy must be always performed to get definite diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSION: Diagnosis of glandular premalignat lesion of the uterine cervix is more complicated in comparison to spinocellular one, however it is getting more significant due to increasing incidence.


18. Smedts F, Ramaekers FC, Hopman AH: The two faces of cervical adenocarcinoma in situ. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2010 Jul;29(4):378-85
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  • [Title] The two faces of cervical adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • In order of frequency, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), combined adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS)/CIN lesions, and solitary AIS are the most prevalent premalignant lesions of the uterine cervix.
  • As the morphologic distinction of these subtypes is not always straightforward, we performed an immunophenotyping analysis to establish distinguishing profiles for each of these squamous and glandular progenitor lesions of cervical carcinoma.
  • A series of 26 premalignant cervical lesions, comprising 13 cases of AIS, of which 7 represented solitary AIS and 6 were combined with CIN (combined AIS/CIN), as well as 13 solitary high-grade CIN lesions, were immunophenotypically analyzed using antibodies directed against p16, p63, bcl-2, and cytokeratins (CK) 5, 7, 8, 13, 17, 18, and 19.
  • Combined AIS/CIN lesions also expressed the full complement of markers in both the AIS and CIN compartments.
  • However, the expression of p63, bcl-2, CK5, and CK17 was lower in AIS compared with CIN.
  • The solitary AIS lesions could be subdivided into 2 subgroups, 1 expressing the full complement of markers and a second group in which no expression of p63, bcl-2, CK5, and a sporadically CK17 expression was observed.
  • We conclude that 2 phenotypically distinct types of AIS can be identified, that is, AIS with a reserve cell marker phenotype and AIS with an endocervical glandular phenotype.
  • These observations support the view that reserve cells are capable of bidirectional premalignant transformation, that is, into CIN and reserve cell-type AIS, as well as combined AIS/CIN.
  • The endocervical type of AIS is probably a result of the unidirectional transformation of progenitor cells within the glandular cell compartment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20567153.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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19. Mikami Y, Kiyokawa T, Moriya T, Sasano H: Immunophenotypic alteration of the stromal component in minimal deviation adenocarcinoma ('adenoma malignum') and endocervical glandular hyperplasia: a study using oestrogen receptor and alpha-smooth muscle actin double immunostaining. Histopathology; 2005 Feb;46(2):130-6
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  • [Title] Immunophenotypic alteration of the stromal component in minimal deviation adenocarcinoma ('adenoma malignum') and endocervical glandular hyperplasia: a study using oestrogen receptor and alpha-smooth muscle actin double immunostaining.
  • AIMS: To define the phenotypic alteration of the stromal component in association with destructive invasion which is a crucial feature in distinguishing minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) from benign endocervical glandular lesions.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied endocervical glandular hyperplasias including non-specific-type (NEGH) (n = 3) and lobular-type (LEGH) (n = 8), and minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) (n = 11), well-differentiated endocervical adenocarcinoma of usual-type (WDA) (n = 11), and adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) (n = 6) of the cervix, by double immunostaining for oestrogen receptor (ER) and alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) using peroxidase- and alkaline phosphatase-polymer methods, respectively.
  • AIS was surrounded by ER+/alpha-SMA- stromal cells.
  • All cases of WDA, MDA, and AIS lacked nuclear staining for ER.
  • [MeSH-major] Actins / analysis. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


20. Liang J, Mittal KR, Wei JJ, Yee H, Chiriboga L, Shukla P: Utility of p16INK4a, CEA, Ki67, P53 and ER/PR in the differential diagnosis of benign, premalignant, and malignant glandular lesions of the uterine cervix and their relationship with Silverberg scoring system for endocervical glandular lesions. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2007 Jan;26(1):71-5
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  • [Title] Utility of p16INK4a, CEA, Ki67, P53 and ER/PR in the differential diagnosis of benign, premalignant, and malignant glandular lesions of the uterine cervix and their relationship with Silverberg scoring system for endocervical glandular lesions.
  • Early detection of premalignant and malignant glandular lesions of the uterine cervix and their distinction from benign mimics is crucial but sometimes difficult.
  • In this study, we investigated utility of expression of p16, CEA, Ki67, p53 and ER/PR in evaluating the benign, premalignant, and malignant glandular lesions of the uterine cervix.
  • A total of 35 cervical cone or LEEP cases were collected including 14 adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), 7 endocervical glandular dysplasia (EGD), and 14 benign mimics (BM).
  • The histological scores assigned independently by 4 pathologists were all equal or above 6 for AIS, between 3 and 5 for EGD, and equal or below 3 for BM.
  • There was increased expression of p16 and CEA in EGD compared with BM (P < 0.05), with further increase in expression of these markers in AIS compared with EGD (P < 0.05).
  • Ki67 expression was significantly increased in AIS compared to EGD (P < 0.05) as well as compared to BM (P < 0.05).
  • There was a loss of ER/PR in cervical AIS, but not in EGD.
  • Our results indicate that the Silverberg scoring system is a useful tool in differential diagnosis of cervical glandular lesions for increased diagnostic accuracy and interobserver agreement.
  • Most cervical glandular lesions can be differentiated by using a combination of histological scores with a panel of immunomarkers.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoembryonic Antigen / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism


21. Kałuzyński A, Olszak A, Smolarz B, Kowalczyk A, Kulig A: [Cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia topography and the risk of conisation]. Ginekol Pol; 2005 Oct;76(10):763-9
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  • [Title] [Cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia topography and the risk of conisation].
  • OBJECTIVES: The frequency of endocervical adenocarcinoma is increasing in comparison with squamous cell carcinoma and it presents a very difficult diagnostic and therapeutic problem.
  • 1) Evaluation of topography of the cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia (CGIN) 2) An analysis of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection rate in samples.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: 360 amputated uterine cervix samples with histologically-proven diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN-3) were evaluated.
  • RESULTS: Among 360 positive cervical intraepithelial glandular neoplasia samples (CIN-3) 71 (19.7%) showed coexisting glandular lesions (CGIN-1, 2, 3).
  • The lesions in endocervical glandular cells of CIGN-type were distributed from the distance up to 14 mm from the surface of cervix.
  • CIN-3 is associated in about 20% with cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia (CGIN).
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Conization. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Female. Humans. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Retrospective Studies


22. Nara M, Hashi A, Murata S, Kondo T, Yuminamochi T, Nakazawa K, Katoh R, Hoshi K: Lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia as a presumed precursor of cervical adenocarcinoma independent of human papillomavirus infection. Gynecol Oncol; 2007 Aug;106(2):289-98
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  • [Title] Lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia as a presumed precursor of cervical adenocarcinoma independent of human papillomavirus infection.
  • OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate differences in the process of carcinogenesis between adenocarcinoma coexistent with LEGH and conventional adenocarcinoma.
  • METHODS: Using the surgical pathology files of patients who visited the University of Yamanashi Hospital, Yamanashi Central Hospital and Kofu Municipal Hospital between 1996 and 2005, pathological diagnoses were reevaluated based on criteria for the diagnosis of LEGH by Nucci et al.
  • As for the cases including adenocarcinoma with LEGH: (a) we created a map showing position of the LEGH component and adenocarcinoma component and squamo-columnar junction (SCJ) in HE-stained specimens, (b) immunohistochemical staining was performed using antibodies to CEA, HIK1083 and p53, and (c) detection of HPV DNA was performed using PCR and in situ hybridization (ISH).
  • RESULTS: Endocervical adenocarcinoma was observed coexistent with LEGH in 5 cases (19.2%). (a) LEGH was located in a remote place from the SCJ.
  • Sizes of lesions in the 5 cases ranged from 18 to 35 mm in width and 7 to 16 mm in depth. (b) HIK1083 was diffusely immunopositive in the cytoplasm of LEGH component and focal immunopositive in 4 cases with adenocarcinoma component.
  • Immunopositivity for CEA was seen in the cytoplasm of adenocarcinoma component in 4 cases.
  • Immunopositivity for p53 was seen in adenocarcinoma component nuclei in 2 cases. (c) HPV DNA was not detected using PCR and ISH in either LEGH or adenocarcinoma components.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that clear differences exist in the process of carcinogenesis between adenocarcinoma associated with LEGH and conventional adenocarcinoma.
  • LEGH may represent a precursor of cervical adenocarcinoma independent of HPV infection.
  • As LEGH displays characteristics of precancerous mucinous adenocarcinoma, surgical treatment should be considered for LEGH growing beyond a certain size.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


23. Moreira MA, Longato-Filho A, Taromaru E, Queiroz G, Jubé LF, Pinto SA, Schmitt FC: Investigation of human papillomavirus by hybrid capture II in cervical carcinomas including 113 adenocarcinomas and related lesions. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 Mar-Apr;16(2):586-90
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  • [Title] Investigation of human papillomavirus by hybrid capture II in cervical carcinomas including 113 adenocarcinomas and related lesions.
  • Hybrid capture is an easy and highly sensitive technique for screening population due to its capacity to detect malignant and premalignant lesions of the cervix.
  • We also investigated the frequency of HPV in squamous malignant lesions, 65 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and 66 in situ squamous cell carcinomas (ISSCC), to compare the occurrence of HPV for these lesions.
  • The 113 glandular lesions comprised 62 invasive adenocarcinomas (IAC), 8 in situ adenocarcinomas (ISAC), 26 IAC plus SCC, and 17 adenosquamous cells carcinomas (ASCC).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / virology. DNA, Viral / analysis. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / virology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Female. Humans. Mass Screening. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16681730.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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24. Rabban JT, McAlhany S, Lerwill MF, Grenert JP, Zaloudek CJ: PAX2 distinguishes benign mesonephric and mullerian glandular lesions of the cervix from endocervical adenocarcinoma, including minimal deviation adenocarcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Feb;34(2):137-46
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  • [Title] PAX2 distinguishes benign mesonephric and mullerian glandular lesions of the cervix from endocervical adenocarcinoma, including minimal deviation adenocarcinoma.
  • Mesonephric remnants of the cervix are vestiges of the embryonic mesonephric system which typically regresses during female development.
  • The differential diagnosis of exuberant mesonephric hyperplasia includes minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the cervix, a tumor with deceptively bland morphology for which no reliable diagnostic biomarkers currently exist.
  • We hypothesized that PAX2 may also be expressed in mesonephric lesions of the cervix and may distinguish mesonephric hyperplasia from minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the cervix.
  • We demonstrated that PAX2 was strongly and diffusely expressed in mesonephric remnants (6 of 6) and in mesonephric hyperplasia (18 of 18); however, no expression was noted in mesonephric adenocarcinoma (0 of 1).
  • PAX2 was expressed in normal endocervical glands (including tunnel clusters and Nabothian cysts) (86 of 86), lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia (5 of 5), tubal/tuboendometrioid metaplasia (8 of 8), and cervical endometriosis (13 of 14).
  • In contrast, only 2 cases of endocervical adenocarcinoma were positive for PAX2 [invasive adenocarcinoma of the minimal deviation type (0 of 5), usual type (1 of 22), and endometrioid type (1 of 1)].
  • Adjacent adenocarcinoma in situ, as well as cases of pure adenocarcinoma in situ (0 of 6), were also PAX2 negative.
  • These results suggest that PAX2 immunoreactivity may be useful to (1) distinguish mesonephric hyperplasia from minimal deviation adenocarcinoma, (2) to distinguish lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia from minimal deviation adenocarcinoma, and (3) to distinguish endocervical tubal metaplasia or cervical endometriosis from endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • Overall, a strong, diffuse nuclear PAX2 expression pattern in a cervical glandular proliferation predicts a benign diagnosis (positive predictive value 90%, negative predictive value 98%; P<0.001); however, PAX2 should not be interpreted in isolation from the architectural and cytologic features of the lesion as it may be expressed in some stage II endometrial adenocarcinomas involving the cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Mesonephros / pathology. Mullerian Ducts / pathology. PAX2 Transcription Factor / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Hyperplasia / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Neoplasm Staging. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis


25. van der Aa MA, Helmerhorst TJ, Siesling S, Riemersma S, Coebergh JW: Vaginal and (uncommon) cervical cancers in the Netherlands, 1989-2003. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2010 May;20(4):638-45
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  • [Title] Vaginal and (uncommon) cervical cancers in the Netherlands, 1989-2003.
  • BACKGROUND: The clinical and prognostic evaluation of cervical and vaginal tumors other than squamous cell and adenocarcinomas is hampered by the low incidence, and clinical and epidemiological studies on these uncommon tumors are scarce.
  • Having close affinity with the pathology laboratories, the Netherlands Cancer Registry offers a great opportunity to study frequency, stage, treatment, and survival of uncommon tumors in the cervix and vagina and separately, the clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina and cervix.
  • METHODS: All invasive cervical tumors (n = 10,570) and all in situ and invasive vaginal tumors (n = 778) diagnosed in the Netherlands during 1989-2003 were selected from the Netherlands Cancer Registry.
  • Age, stage at diagnosis, and treatment were described for each histological subgroup to find differences between common and uncommon tumors, including 5-year relative survival rates.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-five patients (3%) with cervical cancer subsequently developed a vaginal tumor (during 1989-2003), and 19 of these patients underwent hysterectomy for their cervical cancer.
  • A significantly worse prognosis was found for patients with small cell neuroendocrine cervical tumors and for patients with vaginal melanomas.
  • Patients with clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina and cervix were found across all age categories.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The less common histological types of cervical and vaginal cancers were clearly different from squamous cell carcinomas, especially with respect to age at diagnosis and survival rates.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / mortality. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / mortality. Vaginal Neoplasms / mortality


26. Miller B, Dunn J, Dalrymple J, Krivak TC: Pelvic sidewall adenocarcinoma after definitive therapy for cervical adenocarcinoma in situ. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Nov;99(2):489-92
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  • [Title] Pelvic sidewall adenocarcinoma after definitive therapy for cervical adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • BACKGROUND: Traditionally, hysterectomy is considered definitive therapy for cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) in women beyond childbearing.
  • CASE: A 45-year-old gravida 2, para 2 patient presented with cervical dysplasia and on pathology review of the large loop excision procedure cervical adenocarcinoma in situ was diagnosed.
  • Final pathology revealed adenocarcinoma in situ with negative margins.
  • A CT-guided biopsy of the mass was consistent with invasive adenocarcinoma of the endocervical type.
  • CONCLUSION: This case depicts another example of the unpredictable nature of cervical AIS.
  • Despite undergoing definitive surgery, a residual focus of disease may remain leading to invasive adenocarcinoma.
  • Close follow-up is required of all patients diagnosed with AIS because the disease is poorly understood.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Pelvic Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery


27. Dunton CJ: Management of atypical glandular cells and adenocarcinoma in situ. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am; 2008 Dec;35(4):623-32; ix
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  • [Title] Management of atypical glandular cells and adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • Glandular abnormalities of the cervix remain a difficult clinical problem.
  • It also discusses the diagnosis of associated endometrial lesions and the use of human papillomavirus DNA testing in the management of glandular lesions of the lower genital tract.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / therapy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Cervix Uteri / cytology. Cervix Uteri / pathology. DNA, Viral / analysis. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Papillomavirus Infections / therapy. Postmenopause. Pregnancy. Vaginal Smears. Young Adult


28. Sidoruk AA, Novik VI, Urmancheeva AF: [Clinico-morphological diagnosis of adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix uteri]. Vopr Onkol; 2009;55(6):733-9
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  • [Title] [Clinico-morphological diagnosis of adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix uteri].
  • Clinical and morphological investigation involved 57 patients with adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix uteri (poorly-differentiated (precancerous) cell carcinoma in situ (PAIS)--30; adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS)--27).
  • Predictions for PAIS histotype were confirmed in 83%, cytological findings--78%; AIS--52% and 58%, respectively.
  • Accuracy for PAIS and AIS biopsy was 52% and 32%, respectively.
  • However, our procedure failed to detect malignant process in 17.5% (PAIS--6 cases and AIS--4) which was established by use of smears (Feulgen).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Vaginal Smears


29. Zafar N, Balazs L, Benstein BD: Synchronous high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and adenocarcinoma in situ of cervix in a young woman presenting with hyperchromatic crowded groups in the cervical cytology specimen: report of a case. Diagn Cytopathol; 2008 Nov;36(11):823-6
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  • [Title] Synchronous high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and adenocarcinoma in situ of cervix in a young woman presenting with hyperchromatic crowded groups in the cervical cytology specimen: report of a case.
  • We report a 29-year-old woman who underwent routine gynecologic evaluation at a community clinic and had a cervical sample drawn for liquid-based cytologic evaluation.
  • At biopsy, the cervix contained synchronous squamous cell carcinoma in situ, secondarily involving endocervical glands, and neighboring adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • This case re-emphasizes the challenge associated with accurate evaluation of HCG at cytology, the significance of ancillary testing for surrogate markers of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) infection, the need for adjunct testing for HPV-DNA in the setting of HCG at cervical cytology, and a recommendation to set up studies to evaluate the role of surrogate markers of HR-HPV infection in cytologic samples with HCG.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


30. Akiba Y, Kubushiro K, Fukuchi T, Fujii T, Tsukazaki K, Mukai M, Nozawa S: Is laser conization adequate for therapeutic excision of adenocarcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix? J Obstet Gynaecol Res; 2005 Jun;31(3):252-6
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  • [Title] Is laser conization adequate for therapeutic excision of adenocarcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix?
  • AIMS: To determine the safety of uterine-preserving operations for adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix.
  • METHODS: Fifteen cases of adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) were diagnosed using neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser conization.
  • The accuracy of preconization histology or cytology was evaluated in 15 AIS cases.
  • In these AIS cases, we investigated how far the tumor was located from the squamocolumnar junction (SCJ) and the endocervix.
  • Fourteen cases of the 15 AIS-affected patients were treated using laser conization alone.
  • RESULTS: Precise agreement between preconization diagnosis and conization histology was seen in 46.7% (7/15) of the AIS cases.
  • In 14 of the 15 cases of AIS (93.3%), the tumor was adjacent to the transitional zone, within 3 mm of the SCJ, and in the other case (6.7%), the tumor was between 0 and 5 mm away from the SCJ.
  • None of the 15 patients showed any recurrence of AIS during follow up ranging from 15 to 75 months (43.1 months on average).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Women with AIS who want to preserve their fecundity might be treated with laser conization alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Cervix Uteri / surgery. Conization / methods. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery


31. Sanati S, Huettner P, Ylagan LR: Role of ProExC: a novel immunoperoxidase marker in the evaluation of dysplastic squamous and glandular lesions in cervical specimens. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2010 Jan;29(1):79-87
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  • [Title] Role of ProExC: a novel immunoperoxidase marker in the evaluation of dysplastic squamous and glandular lesions in cervical specimens.
  • Our purpose was to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of ProExC in dysplastic squamous and glandular lesions of the cervix.
  • Nine low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 35 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 23 squamous metaplasia, and 14 adenocarcinoma in situ specimens were retrieved from our hospital files.
  • ProExC had sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value of 89%, 100%, 100%, and 82%, respectively, for distinguishing high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion from squamous metaplasia, and 93%, 100%, 100%, and 98%, respectively, for distinguishing adenocarcinoma in situ from reactive benign endocervix.
  • ProExC is a valuable marker for distinguishing dysplastic squamous and endocervical lesions of the cervix from squamous metaplasia in histologic sections.
  • ProExC may eventually be used in conjunction with morphologic and human papillomavirus evaluation for better classification of indeterminate cervical lesions in Papanicolaou smears.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19952938.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM2 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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32. Aximu D, Azad A, Ni R, Colgan T, Nanji S: A pilot evaluation of a novel immunohistochemical assay for topoisomerase II-alpha and minichromosome maintenance protein 2 expression (ProEx C) in cervical adenocarcinoma in situ, adenocarcinoma, and benign glandular mimics. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 Mar;28(2):114-9
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  • [Title] A pilot evaluation of a novel immunohistochemical assay for topoisomerase II-alpha and minichromosome maintenance protein 2 expression (ProEx C) in cervical adenocarcinoma in situ, adenocarcinoma, and benign glandular mimics.
  • The histopathologic distinction of cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and invasive adenocarcinoma (AC) from some benign endocervical lesions can be challenging.
  • In this immunohistochemical study the utility of the ProEx C reagent in distinguishing AIS and AC from a variety of non-neoplastic glandular lesions was examined.
  • ProEx C immunohistochemical staining was performed on sections from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue of 65 cervical tissues including 48 non-neoplastic cervices (normal [n=10], microglandular hyperplasia [n=10], tubal metaplasia [n=11], cervical endometriosis [n=7], reactive endocervix [n=10]) and 17 cervices with glandular malignancy (AIS [n=12] and AC [n=5]).
  • The median and distribution of scores for both prevalence and intensity was compared for AIS versus each of the 5 benign cervical lesions using a Mann-Whitney U test.
  • The median and distribution of prevalence of immunohistochemical staining for AIS was different from all benign mimics, but the intensity of staining for AIS did overlap with some mimics as it was not significantly different from endometriosis, microglandular hyperplasia, and reactive endocervix.
  • ProEx C reagent has potential as an adjunctive testing tool in the histopathologic diagnosis of both AIS and AC, particularly in difficult cases with small biopsies or foci of disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Antigens, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. Cell Cycle Proteins / biosynthesis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / biosynthesis. DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Nuclear Proteins / biosynthesis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Hyperplasia / metabolism. Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2. Pilot Projects. Reagent Kits, Diagnostic

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  • (PMID = 19188825.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Reagent Kits, Diagnostic; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM2 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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33. Salani R, Puri I, Bristow RE: Adenocarcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix: a metaanalysis of 1278 patients evaluating the predictive value of conization margin status. Am J Obstet Gynecol; 2009 Feb;200(2):182.e1-5
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  • [Title] Adenocarcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix: a metaanalysis of 1278 patients evaluating the predictive value of conization margin status.
  • OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the value of conization margin status in predicting residual and recurrent adenocarcinoma in situ (ACIS) of the cervix.
  • Invasive adenocarcinoma was more commonly associated with positive margins (5.2%) compared with negative margins (0.1%).
  • CONCLUSION: After conization for ACIS, patients with positive margins are significantly more likely to have residual or recurrent disease, whereas those with negative margins may be treated conservatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Conization. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm, Residual / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Female. Humans. Predictive Value of Tests. Reoperation


34. Quint KD, de Koning MN, Geraets DT, Quint WG, Pirog EC: Comprehensive analysis of Human Papillomavirus and Chlamydia trachomatis in in-situ and invasive cervical adenocarcinoma. Gynecol Oncol; 2009 Sep;114(3):390-4
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  • [Title] Comprehensive analysis of Human Papillomavirus and Chlamydia trachomatis in in-situ and invasive cervical adenocarcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) has been implicated as a co-factor in cervical carcinogenesis.
  • The goal of the current study was to investigate if Ct may play a role in pathogenesis of cervical adenocarcinoma and, specifically, if there is a co-infection between Ct and Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical adenocarcinomas.
  • The second goal of the study was to determine the distribution of HPV genotypes in most recent cases of in-situ and invasive cervical adenocarcinomas.
  • METHODS: Biopsies of 71 cervical adenocarcinomas (31 in-situ and 40 invasive) were tested for the presence of Ct using two novel PCR assays.
  • All lesions, however, were positive for HPV with the exception of a case of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated lack of co-infection between Human Papillomavirus and C. trachomatis in in-situ and invasive adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix.
  • The role of Ct as a carcinogenetic co-factor may be restricted to cervical squamous cell carcinomas.
  • Accounting for type cross-protection, currently available HPV vaccines are likely to prevent close to 100% of HPV-positive cervical adenocarcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / microbiology. Chlamydia Infections / pathology. Chlamydia trachomatis / isolation & purification. Human papillomavirus 16 / isolation & purification. Human papillomavirus 18 / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / microbiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / microbiology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / virology. DNA, Viral / genetics. Female. Genotype. Humans. Polymerase Chain Reaction


35. Dekker AH: Fostering acceptance of human papillomavirus vaccines. J Am Osteopath Assoc; 2006 Mar;106(3 Suppl 1):S14-8
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  • Multivalent prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines currently in the late stages of clinical testing are safe, immunogenic, and efficacious; and phase 3 tests of a quadrivalent vaccine show that it is 100% effective at preventing HPV types 16 and 18-associated cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2 and 3, adenocarcinoma in situ, and cervical cancer through 2 years of postvaccination follow-up.

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  • (PMID = 16729556.001).
  • [ISSN] 0098-6151
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Am Osteopath Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines; 0 / Viral Vaccines
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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36. McCluggage WG: Immunohistochemistry as a diagnostic aid in cervical pathology. Pathology; 2007 Feb;39(1):97-111
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemistry as a diagnostic aid in cervical pathology.
  • As with biopsies from other sites in the female genital tract, immunohistochemistry is now being increasingly used in cervical pathology as an aid to diagnosis.
  • In this review, I discuss applications of immunohistochemistry in diagnostic cervical pathology with a particular focus on recent developments.
  • Although much of this review focuses on glandular lesions, the value of markers, such as MIB1 and p16, in the assessment of pre-invasive cervical squamous lesions is discussed.
  • In the broad field of cervical glandular lesions, topics covered include: the value of markers such as MIB1, p16 and bcl-2 in distinguishing adenocarcinoma in situ and glandular dysplasia from benign mimics; markers of mesonephric lesions, including CD10; markers of value in the diagnosis of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma, such as HIK1083; markers of value in distinguishing metastatic cervical adenocarcinoma in the ovary from primary ovarian endometrioid or mucinous adenocarcinoma.
  • Rarely ectopic prostatic tissue occurs in the cervix, which can be confirmed by positive staining with prostatic markers.
  • A panel of markers, comprising oestrogen receptor, vimentin, monoclonal carcinoembryonic antigen and p16, is of value in distinguishing between a cervical adenocarcinoma and an endometrial adenocarcinoma of endometrioid type.
  • Markers of use in the diagnosis of cervical neuroendocrine neoplasms, including small cell and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, are discussed.
  • It is stressed that small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas may be negative with most of the commonly used neuroendocrine markers and this does not preclude the diagnosis. p63, a useful marker of squamous neoplasms within the cervix, is of value in distinguishing small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (p63 negative) from small cell squamous carcinoma (p63 positive) and in confirming that a poorly differentiated carcinoma is squamous in type.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 17365826.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 104
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37. Liao SY, Rodgers WH, Kauderer J, Bonfiglio TA, Walker JL, Darcy KM, Carter R, Hatae M, Levine L, Spirtos NM, Stanbridge EJ: Carbonic anhydrase IX and human papillomavirus as diagnostic biomarkers of cervical dysplasia/neoplasia in women with a cytologic diagnosis of atypical glandular cells: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study in United States. Int J Cancer; 2009 Nov 15;125(10):2434-40
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  • [Title] Carbonic anhydrase IX and human papillomavirus as diagnostic biomarkers of cervical dysplasia/neoplasia in women with a cytologic diagnosis of atypical glandular cells: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study in United States.
  • High-risk human papillomavirus (H-HPV) infection is strongly linked to cervical neoplasia, but its role in detecting glandular lesions (GLs) is unclear.
  • In the cervix, carbonic anhydrase IX (CA-IX) is expressed in cervical neoplasia, but rarely in the benign cervix.
  • The diagnostic utility of these biomarkers was evaluated in women with a cytologic diagnosis of atypical glandular cells (AGC).
  • Of 403 patients, 111 (28%) were positive for significant cervical lesions (SCLs) including CIN2, CIN3, adenocarcinoma in situ or invasive carcinoma.
  • The combination of CA-IX with H-HPV testing does not improve the diagnostic accuracy for cervical neoplasia in women with AGC diagnosis over that of H-HPV testing alone.

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  • (PMID = 19670419.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA037517-25; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA027469-29; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 11479; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 27469; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA027469; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA037517; None / None / / U10 CA037517-25; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 37517; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA027469-29
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Viral; EC 4.2.1.1 / CA9 protein, human; EC 4.2.1.1 / Carbonic Anhydrases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS137629; NLM/ PMC2779726
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38. Seo SS, Kim WH, Song YS, Kim SH, Kim JW, Park NH, Kang SB, Lee HP: Epstein-Barr virus plays little role in cervical carcinogenesis in Korean women. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2005 Mar-Apr;15(2):312-8
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  • [Title] Epstein-Barr virus plays little role in cervical carcinogenesis in Korean women.
  • We examined whether Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection plays a role in cervical carcinogenesis in Korean women.
  • EBV infection was examined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with two different primer pairs flanking the BamHI "W" fragment of EBV and by EBV-encoded small RNAs (EBER) in situ hybridization in various histologic types of cervical cancer, including 17 cases of squamous cell carcinoma, 36 cases of adenocarcinoma, and 3 cases of small-cell carcinoma.
  • We also evaluated 20 cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 20 cases of normal uterine cervix.
  • One case of squamous cell carcinoma and three cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia were positive for EBV DNA using PCR, but EBER in situ hybridization analysis showed that none of the PCR-positive cases expressed EBER.
  • EBV DNA was not found using PCR in any of the 20 normal uterine cervices.
  • From our results, EBV infection does not seem to play a role in cervical carcinogenesis in Korean women.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / etiology. Adenocarcinoma / virology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / etiology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / virology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / complications. Herpesvirus 4, Human / pathogenicity. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / etiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] DNA Primers. DNA, Viral. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization. Korea / ethnology. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 15823118.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / DNA, Viral
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39. O'Neill CJ, McCluggage WG: p16 expression in the female genital tract and its value in diagnosis. Adv Anat Pathol; 2006 Jan;13(1):8-15
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  • [Title] p16 expression in the female genital tract and its value in diagnosis.
  • Diffuse (as opposed to focal) positivity with p16 in the cervix can be regarded as a surrogate marker of the presence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV).
  • In cervical squamous lesions, p16 is positive in most high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and in some cases of low-grade CIN, usually those associated with high-risk HPV. p16 may be useful to identify small focal high-grade CIN lesions, to distinguish some cases of CIN involving immature metaplastic squamous epithelium from immature metaplastic squamous epithelium not involved by CIN and to distinguish high-grade CIN from benign mimics.
  • Most cervical carcinomas of squamous, glandular, and small cell type are p16-positive.
  • In cervical glandular lesions, p16 is useful, as part of a panel, in the distinction between adenocarcinoma in situ (diffusely positive) and benign mimics, including tuboendometrial metaplasia and endometriosis, which are usually p16-negative or focally positive. p16 may be used, in combination with other markers, to distinguish between a cervical adenocarcinoma (diffuse positivity) and an endometrioid-type endometrial adenocarcinoma (negative or focally positive).
  • Some uterine serous carcinomas are diffusely positive.
  • In the uterus, p16 positivity is more common and widespread in leiomyosarcomas than leiomyomas, and this may be a useful aid to diagnosis, although problematic uterine smooth muscle neoplasms have not been extensively studied.
  • Metastatic cervical adenocarcinomas in the ovary are usually diffusely p16-positive, and because these may closely mimic a primary ovarian endometrioid or mucinous adenocarcinoma, this may be a valuable diagnostic aid, although p16 expression in primary ovarian adenocarcinomas of these morphologic subtypes has not been widely investigated.
  • Some ovarian serous carcinomas, similar to their uterine counterparts, are p16-positive.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / analysis. Genital Neoplasms, Female / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / chemistry. Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Carcinoma, Small Cell / chemistry. Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / genetics. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / chemistry. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / diagnosis. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / genetics. Diagnosis, Differential. Endometrial Neoplasms / chemistry. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / genetics. Female. Genes, p16. Genitalia, Female / chemistry. Genitalia, Female / physiopathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ovarian Neoplasms / chemistry. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / chemistry. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / genetics. Uterine Neoplasms / chemistry. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / genetics. Vulvar Neoplasms / chemistry. Vulvar Neoplasms / classification. Vulvar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vulvar Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16462152.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-4109
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 65
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40. Yu KJ, Bashirova A, Madeleine MM, Cheng J, Johnson LG, Schwartz SM, Carrington M, Hildesheim A: Evaluation of the association with cervical cancer of polymorphisms in syndecan-1, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan involved with viral cell entry. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2007 Nov;16(11):2504-8
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  • [Title] Evaluation of the association with cervical cancer of polymorphisms in syndecan-1, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan involved with viral cell entry.
  • Infection with 1 of approximately 15 oncogenic human papillomaviruses is known to be linked to the development of all histologic forms of cervical cancer.
  • We evaluated whether polymorphisms in syndecan-1 (SDC-1), a gene whose protein product is believed to be involved in human papillomavirus entry into epithelial cells, were associated with histologic subtypes of cervical cancer.
  • A total of 293 in situ/invasive adenocarcinoma cases, 260 in situ/invasive squamous cell carcinoma cases, and 478 controls from two studies conducted in the Eastern United States and Seattle area were evaluated.
  • Polymorphisms of SDC-1 were not associated with risk of squamous cell carcinomas of the cervix.
  • Similarly, there was no evidence for an association between SDC-1 exon 3 polymorphisms and risk of cervical adenocarcinomas.
  • A marginally significant increase in risk of cervical adenocarcinoma was associated with the presence of the Pro-27 polymorphism (pooled odds ratios, 1.6; 95% confidence intervals, 0.99-2.6), an effect that was restricted to the Eastern U.S. Study.
  • Our results indicate a lack of association between SDC-1 polymorphisms and risk of squamous cell carcinomas of the cervix.
  • An association between SDC-1 Pro-27 polymorphism and cervical adenocarcinoma cannot be ruled out.

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  • (PMID = 18006945.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA112512-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA112512; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112512-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01CA042792; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA112512-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA112512-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112512-01; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA 13324; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112512-03; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112512-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA112512-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA112512-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112512-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112512; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CO / N01-CO-12400
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Syndecan-1
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41. Luyten A, Scherbring S, Reinecke-Lüthge A, Braun BE, Pietralla M, Theiler K, Petry KU: Risk-adapted primary HPV cervical cancer screening project in Wolfsburg, Germany--experience over 3 years. J Clin Virol; 2009 Nov;46 Suppl 3:S5-10
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  • [Title] Risk-adapted primary HPV cervical cancer screening project in Wolfsburg, Germany--experience over 3 years.
  • BACKGROUND: Currently, the German cervical cancer screening program encompasses an annual cytological Papanicolaou (Pap) smear.
  • However, primary screening for cervical cancer using human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing detects cervical pre-cancerous lesions with a significantly higher sensitivity than the Pap smear-based cytology.
  • OBJECTIVES: In order to develop viable modalities for primary cervical screening incorporating DNA testing for high-risk (HR) types of HPV, we started a pilot project in the city of Wolfsburg, Germany, in February 2006.
  • There were 417 (2.48%) women referred for colposcopy, 104 of whom were diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 3 or worse, including 8 invasive cancers and 8 adenocarcinoma in situ (ACIS).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The presented risk-adapted Wolfsburg Cervical Cancer Prevention Project ("Wolfsburg Model") has been shown to be effective and feasible in identifying women at risk and for avoiding unnecessary procedures for those who are double negative, thus allowing longer screening intervals and cost savings.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Mass Screening / methods. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Alphapapillomavirus / genetics. Alphapapillomavirus / isolation & purification. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Cervix Uteri / virology. Colposcopy. DNA, Viral / genetics. DNA, Viral / isolation & purification. Early Detection of Cancer / economics. Early Detection of Cancer / methods. Female. Germany. Humans. Middle Aged. Papanicolaou Test. Pilot Projects. Risk. Time Factors. Vaginal Smears


42. Daniel A, Barreth D, Schepansky A, Johnson G, Capstick V, Faught W: Histologic and clinical significance of atypical glandular cells on pap smears. Int J Gynaecol Obstet; 2005 Dec;91(3):238-42
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  • 197(45.2%) patients had a clinically significant diagnosis including 40 with adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) of the cervix and 48 with endometrial cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: AGC on a Pap smear is frequently associated with a clinically significant diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Genital Diseases, Female / pathology. Papanicolaou Test. Vaginal Smears


43. Saglam A, Bozdag G, Kuzey GM, Kuçukali T, Ayhan A: Four synchronous female genital malignancies: the ovary, cervix, endometrium and fallopian tube. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2008 Jun;277(6):557-62
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  • [Title] Four synchronous female genital malignancies: the ovary, cervix, endometrium and fallopian tube.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present a unique case of a 63 year-old woman with coexistent adenocarcinoma of the ovary, endometrium, cervix and fallopian tube.
  • Furthermore, the focal endometrial irregularity at the left uterine cornus turned out to be a well differentiated endometrial carcinoma of the endometrioid type with <1/3 myometrial invasion.
  • The pale infiltrative lesion in the cervix also turned out to be an adenocarcinoma of the endocervical type with deep stromal invasion and areas of diffuse glandular dysplasia and in-situ glandular neoplasia at the periphery.
  • Besides, several sections from the left fallopian tube uncovered diffuse dysplasia in the lining epithelium and a focus of adenocarcinoma with papillary and cribriform pattern.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Fallopian Tube Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


44. Griffin D, Manuck TA, Hoffman MS: Adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix in pregnancy. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 May;97(2):662-4
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  • [Title] Adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix in pregnancy.
  • INTRODUCTION: The number of patients diagnosed with adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix has increased in the last decade.
  • CASES: In this report, we describe three patients diagnosed with adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix during pregnancy.
  • DISCUSSION: The management of adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix may include procedures which present substantial risks to an ongoing pregnancy and more conservative management may be warranted in many instances.
  • [MeSH-major] Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / surgery. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adult. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Female. Humans. Pregnancy


45. de Oliveira ER, Derchain SF, Sarian LO, Rabelo-Santos SH, Gontijo RC, Yoshida A, Andrade LA, Zeferino LC: Prediction of high-grade cervical disease with human papillomavirus detection in women with glandular and squamous cytologic abnormalities. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 May-Jun;16(3):1055-62
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  • [Title] Prediction of high-grade cervical disease with human papillomavirus detection in women with glandular and squamous cytologic abnormalities.
  • The objective of this study was to assess whether human papillomavirus (HPV) detection with hybrid capture II (HC II) can help predict the presence and the nature, glandular or squamous, of histologic cervical lesions in women referred due to atypical glandular cells (AGC) or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL).
  • Referral Pap smears comprised AGC (51 cases), AGC plus HSIL (28 cases), adenocarcinoma in situ (10 cases), and HSIL (158 cases).
  • All patients were tested for high-risk HPV with HC II and had a histologic assessment of their cervix.
  • Almost 70% of AGC-HPV-negative patients did not have a pathologically proven cervical neoplasia, whereas 76% of women with AGC-HPV-positive result were diagnosed with a squamous or glandular neoplasia.
  • We conclude that in women with AGC, HPV positivity strongly correlated with the presence of glandular or squamous cervical lesion but did not help distinguishing women with squamous from those with glandular neoplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Mass Screening / methods. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Uterine Cervical Diseases / virology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / epidemiology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / epidemiology. DNA Probes, HPV. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / virology. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / virology. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / epidemiology. Precancerous Conditions / virology. Predictive Value of Tests. Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / virology

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  • (PMID = 16803485.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Probes, HPV
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46. Austin RM, Onisko A, Druzdzel MJ: The Pittsburgh Cervical Cancer Screening Model: a risk assessment tool. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 May;134(5):744-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The Pittsburgh Cervical Cancer Screening Model: a risk assessment tool.
  • CONTEXT: Evaluation of cervical cancer screening has grown increasingly complex with the introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and newer screening technologies approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.
  • OBJECTIVE: To create a unique Pittsburgh Cervical Cancer Screening Model (PCCSM) that quantifies risk for histopathologic cervical precancer (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN] 2, CIN3, and adenocarcinoma in situ) and cervical cancer in an environment predominantly using newer screening technologies.
  • RESULTS: The PCCSM compares risk quantitatively over time for histopathologically verifiable CIN2, CIN3, adenocarcinoma in situ, and cervical cancer in screened patients for each current cytology result category and for each HPV result.
  • Prior history also alters the CIN2, CIN3, adenocarcinoma in situ, and cervical cancer risk for patients with common current cytology and HPV test results.
  • The PCCSM can also generate negative risk projections, estimating the likelihood of the absence of histopathologic CIN2, CIN3, adenocarcinoma in situ, and cervical cancer in screened patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The PCCSM is a dynamic Bayesian network that computes quantitative cervical disease risk estimates for patients undergoing cervical screening.
  • Continuously updatable with current system data, the PCCSM provides a new tool to monitor cervical disease risk in the evolving postvaccination era.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Early Detection of Cancer / methods. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Papanicolaou Test. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. Vaginal Smears


47. Xu JY, Hashi A, Kondo T, Yuminamochi T, Nara M, Hashi K, Murata S, Katoh R, Hoshi K: Absence of human papillomavirus infection in minimal deviation adenocarcinoma and lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2005 Jul;24(3):296-302
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  • [Title] Absence of human papillomavirus infection in minimal deviation adenocarcinoma and lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia.
  • The human papillomavirus (HPV) is basically always detected in squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix and its precursors; a high incidence of HPV also has been reported in adenocarcinoma and adenocarcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix.
  • It is difficult to differentiate minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) from LEGH preoperatively or postoperatively by clinical and pathologic features.
  • As the control, HPV DNA was detected in all cases of squamous cell carcinoma and three of five cases of adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / virology. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / virology. Papillomaviridae / growth & development. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Tumor Virus Infections / virology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 15968208.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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48. McCluggage WG, Shah R, Connolly LE, McBride HA: Intestinal-type cervical adenocarcinoma in situ and adenocarcinoma exhibit a partial enteric immunophenotype with consistent expression of CDX2. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Jan;27(1):92-100
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  • [Title] Intestinal-type cervical adenocarcinoma in situ and adenocarcinoma exhibit a partial enteric immunophenotype with consistent expression of CDX2.
  • Most cases of cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and adenocarcinoma are of the usual or endocervical type.
  • However, intestinal types of AIS and adenocarcinoma exist.
  • With an intestinal-type adenocarcinoma in the cervix, the question may arise as to whether one is dealing with a primary cervical neoplasm or direct or secondary spread from an intestinal adenocarcinoma.
  • In organs such as the ovary, urinary bladder, esophagus, and gallbladder, intestinal-type glandular epithelium often expresses enteric markers, but this has hardly been studied in the cervix.
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate whether intestinal-type AIS and adenocarcinoma in the cervix express enteric markers and to ascertain whether these antibodies are of value in the distinction from a metastatic intestinal adenocarcinoma.
  • We compared the immunophenotype of these lesions with that of usual-type AIS and adenocarcinomain the cervix.
  • Cases included were AIS of usual type (n = 6), primary cervical adenocarcinoma of usual type (n = 6), AIS of intestinal type (n = 21), primary cervical adenocarcinoma of intestinal type (n = 3), primary cervical adenocarcinoma with signet ring cells (n = 2), and colorectal adenocarcinoma involving the cervix (n = 5).
  • Usual-type AIS was always diffusely CK7 positive, typically diffusely CEA and p16 positive, and always CK20 negative.
  • All usual cervical adenocarcinomas were diffusely CK7 and p16 positive, and all were immunoreactive with CEA.
  • Intestinal-type AIS was diffusely CK7 positive (all cases) and typically CK20 negative and diffusely CEA and p16 positive.
  • In addition, usual-type AIS adjacent to intestinal type was CDX2 positive in 13 of 21 cases.
  • The 3 cases of primary cervical intestinal-type adenocarcinoma were diffusely CK7 positive, focally or diffusely positive with CK20 and CDX2, and focally positive with CEA.
  • The foci of signet ring cells in the 2 primary cervical adenocarcinomas were diffusely CK7 and p16 positive and negative with CK20 and CDX2.
  • Colorectal adenocarcinomas involving the cervix were typically diffusely positive with CK20, CEA, and CDX2; negative with CK7; and negative or focally positive with p16.
  • Intestinal types of cervical AIS and adenocarcinoma exhibit a partial enteric immunophenotype, usually with diffuse expression of CDX2 and, in some cases, staining with CK20.
  • Although there is immunophenotypic overlap, focal staining with CK20 together with diffuse CK7 and sometimes p16 positivity helps to distinguish intestinal types of cervical adenocarcinoma from involvement by a colorectal adenocarcinoma; CEA and CDX2 are of no value in this regard.
  • CDX2 positivity in usual-type AIS adjacent to intestinal type and in occasional cases of pure usual-type AIS may be a reflection of early intestinal differentiation before this is morphologically apparent.
  • Using a set of cases of AIS diagnosed in a single institution over a 7-year period (77 usual type; 13 intestinal type), intestinal type was more likely to be associated with early invasive adenocarcinoma than usual type (31% vs 17%), suggesting that intestinal differentiation may be a risk factor for invasion in premalignant cervical glandular lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Homeodomain Proteins / biosynthesis. Intestinal Neoplasms / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / biosynthesis. Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / biosynthesis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Immunophenotyping. Keratin-20 / biosynthesis. Keratin-7 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 18156982.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDX2 protein, human; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / Keratin-7
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49. Baydar DE, Himmetoglu C: Test and Teach. Abnormal glands in the uterine cervix Part 1. Diagnosis: Ectopic prostate tissue in the uterine cervix. Pathology; 2008 Jun;40(4):407-8
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  • [Title] Test and Teach. Abnormal glands in the uterine cervix Part 1. Diagnosis: Ectopic prostate tissue in the uterine cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervix Uteri / pathology. Choristoma / pathology. Prostate. Uterine Cervical Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acid Phosphatase. Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prostate-Specific Antigen / metabolism. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis


50. Kondo T, Hashi A, Murata S, Nakazawa T, Yuminamochi T, Nara M, Hoshi K, Katoh R: Endocervical adenocarcinomas associated with lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia: a report of four cases with histochemical and immunohistochemical analyses. Mod Pathol; 2005 Sep;18(9):1199-210
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  • We report on four cases of endocervical adenocarcinoma associated with lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia using histochemical and immunohistochemical analyses.
  • Cytological examinations of the cervical smears revealed adenocarcinoma cells and benign-looking glandular cells with intracytoplasmic golden-yellow mucin in all cases.
  • From surgical specimens, three tumors were diagnosed as mucinous adenocarcinoma and one was adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • All adenocarcinomas were located proximally on the cervix, and did not involve the transformation zone.
  • Adjacent to carcinoma tissues in the cervix, lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia was detected.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Hyperplasia / complications. Hyperplasia / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gastric Mucosa / metabolism. Gastric Mucosa / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Mucins / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / pathology


51. Fambrini M, Pieralli A, Taddei GL, Penna C: Laser cylindrical excision for cervical adenocarcinoma in situ. Int J Gynaecol Obstet; 2006 Dec;95(3):292-3
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  • [Title] Laser cylindrical excision for cervical adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Conization / methods. Laser Therapy / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16999959.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7292
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Gynaecol Obstet
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 142M471B3J / Carbon Dioxide
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52. Hajek RA, King DW, Hernández-Valero MA, Kaufman RH, Liang JC, Chilton JA, Edwards CL, Wharton JT, Jones LA: Detection of chromosomal aberrations by fluorescence in situ hybridization in cervicovaginal biopsies from women exposed to diethylstilbestrol in utero. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 Jan-Feb;16(1):318-24
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  • [Title] Detection of chromosomal aberrations by fluorescence in situ hybridization in cervicovaginal biopsies from women exposed to diethylstilbestrol in utero.
  • Epidemiologic studies have associated estrogens with human neoplasms such as those in the endometrium, cervix, vagina, breast, and liver.
  • In order to determine whether this effect was associated with chromosomal changes in humans, the frequencies of trisomy of chromosomes 1, 7, 11, and 17 were evaluated by the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique in cervicovaginal tissue from 19 DES-exposed and 19 control women.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / chemically induced. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Case-Control Studies. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Incidence. Probability. Reference Values. Risk Assessment. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tissue Culture Techniques. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / chemically induced. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Vaginal Neoplasms / chemically induced. Vaginal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16445652.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA 16672; United States / NIMHD NIH HHS / MD / P60 MD 00503; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 44591; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 69375A-05S4; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / T32 HD 07324; United States / ODCDC CDC HHS / CC / U48 CCU 619515-01
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 731DCA35BT / Diethylstilbestrol
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53. Dalrymple C, Valmadre S, Cook A, Atkinson K, Carter J, Houghton CR, Russell P: Cold knife versus laser cone biopsy for adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix--a comparison of management and outcome. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2008 Jan-Feb;18(1):116-20
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  • [Title] Cold knife versus laser cone biopsy for adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix--a comparison of management and outcome.
  • Eighty-two patients with adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix managed at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital were reviewed and data were collected on those treated by cold knife cone biopsy (n= 38) and laser cone biopsy (n= 44).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Conization / methods. Laser Therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17506846.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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54. Maley SN, Schwartz SM, Johnson LG, Malkki M, Du Q, Daling JR, Li SS, Zhao LP, Petersdorf EW, Madeleine MM: Genetic variation in CXCL12 and risk of cervical carcinoma: a population-based case-control study. Int J Immunogenet; 2009 Dec;36(6):367-75
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  • [Title] Genetic variation in CXCL12 and risk of cervical carcinoma: a population-based case-control study.
  • We conducted a population-based case-control study to test the hypothesis that common genetic variation in CXCL12 individual single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alleles and haplotypes] is associated with the risk of cervical carcinoma.
  • Cases (n = 917) were residents of western Washington State diagnosed with invasive squamous cell cervical carcinoma (SCC), invasive adenocarcinoma or adenosquamous carcinoma, or adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix.
  • The minor allele of intronic SNP rs266085 was inversely associated with cervical cancer under a recessive genetic effects model (OR = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.56-0.98).
  • A stepwise procedure identified rs17885289, rs266085 and 3'-untranslated region (UTR) SNP rs266093 as the most parsimonious subset of SNPs necessary to define the haplotype inversely associated with cervical cancer risk in our study.
  • A 3'-UTR SNP, rs1801157, previously found to be related to HIV pathogenesis, was not associated with cervical cancer risk.
  • Further population-based studies are warranted to confirm these associations between genetic variation in CXCL12 and cervical cancer risk.

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  • (PMID = 19788587.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-313X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of immunogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Immunogenet.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NHGRI NIH HHS / HG / T32HG00035; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA112512-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA112512; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112512-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA042792-219003; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01CA04279; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R25 CA094880; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA112512-01; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P30ES07033; United States / NHGRI NIH HHS / HG / T32 HG000035; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA112512-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112512-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112512-03; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P30 ES007033; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112512-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R25CA094880; United States / NCI NIH HHS / PC / N01-PC-35412; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA042792-219003; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA042792; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA112512-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA112512-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112512-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112512
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 3' Untranslated Regions; 0 / CXCL12 protein, human; 0 / Chemokine CXCL12
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS144226; NLM/ PMC2784202
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55. Wheeler DT, Kurman RJ: The relationship of glands to thick-wall blood vessels as a marker of invasion in endocervical adenocarcinoma. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2005 Apr;24(2):125-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The relationship of glands to thick-wall blood vessels as a marker of invasion in endocervical adenocarcinoma.
  • Routinely stained slides were examined from 50 invasive endocervical adenocarcinomas (37 of usual type and 13 of minimal deviation type), 26 noninvasive lesions (14 cases of adenocarcinoma in situ, 7 cases of hyperplasia, 4 cases of tunnel clusters, 1 adenomyoma), and 20 normal cervices, including 7 with deep nabothian cysts.
  • In conclusion, close proximity of glands to thick-wall blood vessels (distance from the closest gland to a thick-wall vessel less than or equal to the thickness of the vessel wall) seems to be a useful feature in the diagnosis of invasive endocervical adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor. Cervix Uteri / blood supply. Neoplasm Invasiveness / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Predictive Value of Tests. Sensitivity and Specificity


56. Roberts JM, Thurloe JK, Biro C, Hyne SG, Williams KE, Bowditch RC: Follow-up of cytologic predictions of endocervical glandular abnormalities: histologic outcomes in 123 cases. J Low Genit Tract Dis; 2005 Apr;9(2):71-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We obtained histologic follow-up for 100% of 67 cytologic predictions of adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and 82% of 39 predictions of possible AIS (?AIS) made over a 4-year period (1999-2002) and for 25% of 105 atypical endocervical cells (AEC) predictions over a 12-month period (2000).
  • RESULTS: PPVs for predictions of AIS and ?AIS for high-grade lesions overall were 91% and 75% (p = .032), respectively, and those for high-grade glandular lesions were 88% and 72% (p = .046), respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: Cytology can accurately predict AIS.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Cytodiagnosis / methods. Cytodiagnosis / standards. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Vaginal Smears


57. Dedecker F, Graesslin O, Bonneau S, Quéreux C: [Persistence and recurrence of in situ cervical adenocarcinoma after primary treatment. About 121 cases]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil; 2008 Jun;36(6):616-22
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  • [Title] [Persistence and recurrence of in situ cervical adenocarcinoma after primary treatment. About 121 cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Persistance et récidive des adénocarcinomes in situ après traitement: à propos d'une série rétrospective multicentrique de 121 cas.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to assess the results of conservative management of adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) of the uterine cervix.
  • Patients with cervical invasive lesions were excluded.
  • General characteristics of population, diagnosis circumstances, treatment, histology and evolution were studied.
  • DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Conservative surgery for patients with AIS could be considered in young patients but several conditions should be respected: careful follow-up after conservative treatment; cold knife conization; length of cone specimen greater than 25 mm and negative margins.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Papillomavirus Infections / surgery. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery


58. Maneo A, Chiari S, Bonazzi C, Mangioni C: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and conservative surgery for stage IB1 cervical cancer. Gynecol Oncol; 2008 Dec;111(3):438-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and conservative surgery for stage IB1 cervical cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of chemo-surgical conservative therapy for stage IB1 cervical tumors in patients desiring to preserve fertility.
  • METHODS: From 1995 to April 2007 51 nulliparous patients with tumor <or=3 cm, aged <or=40 years with no uterine and lymphnode neoplastic involvement were evaluated.
  • Three courses with cisplatin 75 mg/m(2), paclitaxel 175 mg/m(2) and ifosfamide 5 g/m(2) (epirubicin 80 mg/m(2) in adenocarcinoma) were followed by cold-knife conization and pelvic lymphadenectomy.
  • When intraoperative frozen section revealed massive neoplastic cervical persistence a radical total hysterectomy was performed.
  • Adenocarcinoma was present in 12 cases (57%) and indifferentiated neoplasia in 10 (48%).
  • Following neoadjuvant treatment, pathological complete response was observed in 5 cases, in situ or microinvasive residue in 12 and stromal invasion >3 mm in 4.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The high rate of pathological response confirms the effectiveness of the preoperative treatment for reducing the tumor volume allowing the removal only of a cervical cone instead of the entire cervix with cardinal ligaments as needed by radical trachelectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adult. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Conization. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Epirubicin / adverse effects. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Ifosfamide / adverse effects. Lymph Node Excision. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Paclitaxel / adverse effects. Young Adult


59. Massad LS, Xie X, Darragh TM, Minkoff H, Levine AM, D'Souza G, Cajigas A, Colie C, Watts DH, Strickler HD: Histologic correlates of glandular abnormalities in cervical cytology among women with human immunodeficiency virus. Obstet Gynecol; 2009 Nov;114(5):1063-8
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  • [Title] Histologic correlates of glandular abnormalities in cervical cytology among women with human immunodeficiency virus.
  • OBJECTIVE: To estimate the frequency and histologic correlates of glandular abnormalities in cervical cytology among women with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and to compare findings with those of women without HIV.
  • Glandular abnormalities, including atypical glandular cells (AGC), adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), and adenocarcinoma, were identified and correlated with biopsy histology.
  • After index abnormal tests, endocervical curettings were obtained from 106 (43%) women, cervical biopsies from 76 (38%), and endometrial biopsies from 19 (8%).

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - HIV/AIDS.
  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - HIV/AIDS in Women.
  • COS Scholar Universe. author profiles.
  • HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .
  • International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .
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  • (PMID = 20168108.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-233X
  • [Journal-full-title] Obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / UO1-HD-32632; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-34994; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-34989; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI031834; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035004; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024131; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI034989; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-35004; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-34993; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI034994; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035004-08S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA-085178; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI035004-08S1; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-42590; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA085178; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI034993; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-31834; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / U01 HD032632; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI042590
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS257741; NLM/ PMC3032588
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60. Kietpeerakool C, Srisomboon J, Khunamornpong S, Siriaunkgul S, Sukkawattananon W: How can the overtreatment rate of "see and treat" approach be reduced in women with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion on cervical cytology? Asian Pac J Cancer Prev; 2007 Apr-Jun;8(2):206-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] How can the overtreatment rate of "see and treat" approach be reduced in women with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion on cervical cytology?
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence and predictors of overtreatment in "see and treat" approach using loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) in women with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) on cervical cytology.
  • The overtreatment was considered when LEEP specimens contained no cervical pathology.
  • Of 446 women, histologically-confirmed HSIL, invasive cancer, low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and adenocarcinoma in situ were detected in 330 (74.0%), 76 (17.0%), 9 (2.0%), and 5 (1.1%), respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervix Uteri / pathology. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / pathology. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / therapy

  • International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .
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  • (PMID = 17696732.001).
  • [ISSN] 1513-7368
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
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61. Bhurgri Y, Nazir K, Shaheen Y, Usman A, Faridi N, Bhurgri H, Malik J, Bashir I, Bhurgri A, Kayani N, Pervez S, Hasan SH, Setna F, Zaidi SM: Patho-epidemiology of Cancer Cervix in Karachi South. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev; 2007 Jul-Sep;8(3):357-62
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  • [Title] Patho-epidemiology of Cancer Cervix in Karachi South.
  • INTRODUCTION: The present study was conducted with the objective of examining descriptive epidemiological and pathological characteristics of cancer cervix in Karachi South, an all urban district population of Karachi, Pakistan.
  • METHODOLOGY: A total of 74 cases of cancer cervix, ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision) category C53 were registered at the Karachi Cancer Registry, for Karachi South, during a 3 year period, 1st January, 1995 to 31st December 1997.
  • Cancer cervix accounted for approximately 3.6% of all cancers in females and was the sixth malignancy in hierarchy.
  • The morphological categorization was squamous cell carcinoma (86.5%), adenocarcinoma (10.9%) and adenosquamous carcinoma (2.6%).
  • There were no in-situ cases.
  • Approximately half the cancers (58.1%) had spread regionally and 8.1% to a distant site at the time of diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSION: The incidence of cervical cancer in Karachi South (1995-97) reflects a low risk population with a late presentation and a high stage disease at presentation.
  • It is suggested that cervical screening if implemented should focus on once a life time methodology involving 36-45 year old women.
  • A regular cervical screening program would require mobilization of considerable financial, structural and human resources along with training for personnel.
  • [MeSH-major] Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


62. Alphandery C, Dagrada G, Frattini M, Perrone F, Pilotti S: Neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma of the cervix associated with endocervical adenocarcinoma: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2007 Jul-Aug;51(4):589-93
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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma of the cervix associated with endocervical adenocarcinoma: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Small-cell carcinoma (SCC) of the cervix is an uncommon member of the neuroendocrine group of cervical carcinomas that is frequently intermixed with a non-SCC component in the form of an adenocarcinoma (ADC) or squamous carcinoma.
  • CASE: Colposcopy revealed a cervical mass in a 41-year-old woman and a Pap smear the presence of some tumor cells from SCC, which was confirmed by subsequent biopsy.
  • The cervical samples showed areas of endocervical ADC adjacent to and intermixed with the SCC.
  • On subsequent molecular investigation to assess clonality by microsatellite analysis, the presence of HR-HPV DNA18 on real-time polymerase chain reaction, p16(INK4a) fluorescence in situ hybridization status and the corresponding immunohistochemical expression supported the hypothesis that the two components of the tumor shared the same cell origin.
  • CONCLUSION: SCC of the cervix is a rare but distinct HR-HPV-18-related cervical carcinoma often intermixed with a clonally related non-small cell component consisting of an ADC or squamous carcinoma.
  • The presence of SCC tumor cells in a cervical smear should prompt a search for malignant glandular or squamous tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antigens, CD56 / metabolism. Biopsy. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Chromogranin A / metabolism. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18 / genetics. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Microsatellite Repeats / genetics. Papanicolaou Test. Synaptophysin / metabolism. Vaginal Smears


63. Medeiros F, Bell DA: Pseudoneoplastic lesions of the female genital tract. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 Mar;134(3):393-403
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  • Several of the more common pseudoneoplastic lesions are discussed in this article, including microglandular hyperplasia of the cervix mimicking well-differentiated endometrial adenocarcinoma, reactive epithelial changes in the fallopian tubes mimicking adenocarcinoma or carcinoma in situ, and pregnancy changes in the ovary including pregnancy luteoma and large solitary luteinized follicular cyst of pregnancy and puerperium that may mimic ovarian neoplasms.
  • Awareness of the features of such lesions will aid in their correct diagnosis and prevent overtreatment of benign processes.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Diseases, Female / diagnosis. Granuloma, Plasma Cell / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Genital Neoplasms, Female / classification. Genital Neoplasms, Female / diagnosis. Humans. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 20196667.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 76
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64. Yemelyanova A, Vang R, Seidman JD, Gravitt PE, Ronnett BM: Endocervical adenocarcinomas with prominent endometrial or endomyometrial involvement simulating primary endometrial carcinomas: utility of HPV DNA detection and immunohistochemical expression of p16 and hormone receptors to confirm the cervical origin of the corpus tumor. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Jun;33(6):914-24
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Endocervical adenocarcinomas with prominent endometrial or endomyometrial involvement simulating primary endometrial carcinomas: utility of HPV DNA detection and immunohistochemical expression of p16 and hormone receptors to confirm the cervical origin of the corpus tumor.
  • Determining the primary site of a uterine adenocarcinoma can be problematic in hysterectomy specimens due to the overlapping morphology of endocervical adenocarcinomas and endometrial carcinomas, particularly when both the corpus (usually lower uterine segment) and endocervix are involved and precursor lesions are lacking or difficult to distinguish from intramucosal spread of carcinoma from one site to the other.
  • Both preferential extension of endocervical adenocarcinomas into the endometrium (rather than deep cervical stroma) and myometrial invasion derived from the endometrial component are rarely encountered; to our knowledge, these unusual patterns of spread have not been detailed in prior reports.
  • Six cases had limited amounts of tumor in the cervix proper, with depths of invasion no greater than 5 mm in 4 and only adenocarcinoma in situ in 2.
  • Four cases had cervical stromal invasion of more than 5 mm but all of these had greater amounts of horizontal extension into endometrium or endomyometrium.
  • Five tumors were originally diagnosed as primary endometrial carcinoma with either cervical extension or concurrent endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • HPV DNA was detected in both the cervical and corpus components in all tumors and all exhibited diffuse/strong p16 expression and decreased or absent expression of hormone receptors.
  • These ancillary techniques are useful for clarifying the origin of uterine adenocarcinomas when morphologic features and tumor location are equivocal.
  • These cases illustrate that dominant uterine corpus involvement (endometrial or endomyometrial) by primary endocervical adenocarcinoma can lead to misclassification as primary endometrial adenocarcinoma with cervical extension (Fédération Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique stage II), especially when endometrial extension of endocervical adenocarcinoma simulates complex atypical hyperplasia.
  • A subset of misclassified endocervical adenocarcinomas may account for some HPV-positive uterine carcinomas reported as primary endometrial carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / biosynthesis. DNA, Viral / analysis. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Receptors, Steroid / biosynthesis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Endometrium / metabolism. Endometrium / pathology. Endometrium / virology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Middle Aged. Papillomaviridae. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Papillomavirus Infections / metabolism. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Receptors, Estrogen / biosynthesis. Receptors, Progesterone / biosynthesis


65. Wang QX, Wang SZ, Liu J: [Clinical significance on atypical cervical glandular cytology]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2009 Oct 27;89(39):2779-82
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  • [Title] [Clinical significance on atypical cervical glandular cytology].
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the pathological features and clinical implications of atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGC) in cervical cytological results.
  • METHODS: All 87 cases of cervical cytological examinations with AGC were identified by a computerized database in our patient population.
  • The authors analyzed the cervical histopathological results by colposcopic biopsy, dilatation and curettage (D&C), cervical loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP)and follow-ups. RESULTS:.
  • (1) Thirty-five cases (40.23%) had cervical and endometrial neoplasic findings: ten glandular lesions (11.49%) and squamous lesion was present in 25 patients (28.74%). (2) Among 61 patients with Pap smears subclassified as "AGC-not otherwise specified", there were 18 pathological abnormalities.
  • Ten patients with AGC as "adenocarcinoma in situ" or "adenocarcinoma" were of 6 pathological abnormalities. (3) 100% of patients with AGC had both of colposcopic and cytologic follow-ups: 1 case CIN1, 1 case CIN2 and 1 case CIN3. (4) One of 10 patients was younger than 35 years old with CGIN1 and the other 9 patient aged over 35 years old had a greater diversity of glandular lesions.
  • Women aged over 35 years old has a greater diversity of glandular lesions and account for most cases of cervical and endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Cervix Uteri / cytology. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


66. Hurrell DP, Jamison J, Dobbs SP, McCluggage WG: Cervical adenocarcinoma in situ recurring as vaginal adenocarcinoma 16 years after hysterectomy. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 May;28(3):296-300
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  • [Title] Cervical adenocarcinoma in situ recurring as vaginal adenocarcinoma 16 years after hysterectomy.
  • We report a case in which a vaginal adenocarcinoma was discovered in a 67-year-old woman 16 years after hysterectomy for cervical adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • Both the vaginal and cervical lesions exhibited morphologic and immunohistochemical (CDX2-positive) features of intestinal differentiation.
  • Linear array human papillomavirus genotyping demonstrated the vaginal adenocarcinoma to contain human papillomavirus 45.
  • We believe the vaginal adenocarcinoma to be related to the cervical adenocarcinoma in situ and to represent recurrence of this.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology


67. Eichhorn JH, Brauns TA, Gelfand JA, Crothers BA, Wilbur DC: A novel automated screening and interpretation process for cervical cytology using the internet transmission of low-resolution images: a feasibility study. Cancer; 2005 Aug 25;105(4):199-206
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  • [Title] A novel automated screening and interpretation process for cervical cytology using the internet transmission of low-resolution images: a feasibility study.
  • BACKGROUND: Transmission over the Internet of low-resolution images acquired by automated screening of cervical cytology specimens has the potential to provide remote interpretation and, hence, centralization of a cytology workforce.
  • METHODS: Liquid-based cervical cytology slides were scanned using the FocalPoint(R) System.
  • Ten black-and-white images that had the greatest probability of containing abnormality were acquired from each of 32 reference slides (16 negative samples, 3 samples of atypical squamous cells of uncertain significance, 5 samples of low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions [LSIL], 5 samples of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions [HSIL], 1 adenocarcinoma in situ sample, and 2 carcinoma samples) and were transmitted as e-mail attachments in JPEG format to remote reading stations.
  • The procedure may represent an effective way to centralize cervical cytology services and to allow the provision of services to previously unscreened populations that lack an effective cytology infrastructure.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Telepathology / methods. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vaginal Smears
  • [MeSH-minor] Automation. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Feasibility Studies. Female. Humans. Internet. Papillomaviridae. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Reproducibility of Results. Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted


68. Vermeil V, D'Amore L, Ceci F, Dassatti MR, Negro A, Gossetti F, Negro P: [Familial polyposis coli associated with carcinoma of the uterine cervix]. Chir Ital; 2008 May-Jun;60(3):355-9
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  • [Title] [Familial polyposis coli associated with carcinoma of the uterine cervix].
  • The patient later developed a tumour of the uterine cervix.
  • Polyposis coli was identified late in the second patient who showed an evolution towards colonic adenocarcinoma with multiple hepatic metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli. Carcinoma in Situ. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms


69. Connolly TP, Evans AC: Atypical Papanicolaou smear in pregnancy. Clin Med Res; 2005 Feb;3(1):13-8
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  • Atypical glandular cells (AGC) in Papanicolaou (Pap) smears can be associated with premalignant and malignant cervical and endometrial lesions.
  • Positive diagnosis of endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ resulted in a risk-informed decision to proceed with a cold knife conization of the cervix.
  • Final pathology showed complete resection of the lesion with negative margins and an additional area of squamous dysplasia (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, grade II to III).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Papanicolaou Test. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vaginal Smears
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / surgery


70. Lindeque BG: Management of cervical premalignant lesions. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol; 2005 Aug;19(4):545-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of cervical premalignant lesions.
  • Management of cervical preneoplasia starts with an abnormal smear result.
  • While patients with ASCUS can be followed with cytology or colposcopy, the risk of having cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN) is higher in patients with ASCH.
  • Such patients, as well as those with low-grade squamous intra-epithelial lesions on cytology, should be referred for colposcopy to ensure that diagnosis and treatment in CIN is detected.
  • Conservative excisional management of adenocarcinoma in situ by LLETZ or cold knife cone biopsy is not reported to be as effective as that of CIN, with high risk of residual and recurrent disease at follow-up.
  • The ability to detect and treat premalignant lesions on the cervix reversed the natural history of cervical cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / surgery. Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / surgery. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy / methods. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Colposcopy / methods. Female. HIV Infections / complications. Humans. Hysterectomy / methods. Laser Therapy / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Postoperative Complications. Pregnancy. Vaginal Smears / methods


71. Lai HC, Lin YW, Huang RL, Chung MT, Wang HC, Liao YP, Su PH, Liu YL, Yu MH: Quantitative DNA methylation analysis detects cervical intraepithelial neoplasms type 3 and worse. Cancer; 2010 Sep 15;116(18):4266-74
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  • [Title] Quantitative DNA methylation analysis detects cervical intraepithelial neoplasms type 3 and worse.
  • BACKGROUND: DNA methylation may be used a potential biomarker for detecting cervical cancer.
  • The authors of this report used quantitative methylation analysis of 4 genes in a full spectrum of cervical lesions to test its potential clinical application.
  • METHODS: This hospital-based, retrospective, case-control study was conducted in 185 patients and included patients who had a normal uterine cervix (n = 53), cervical intraepithelial neoplasm type 1 (CIN1) (n = 37), CIN2 (n = 22), CIN3 (n = 24), carcinoma in situ (CIS) (n = 22), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, n = 20), and adenocarcinoma (AC) (n = 7).
  • RESULTS: The PMRs of the 4 genes were significantly higher in CIN3 and worse (CIN3+) lesions than the PMRs in specimens of normal cervix and CIN1 or CIN2 (P < .001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The current results indicated that quantitative PCR-based testing for DNA methylation of 4 genes holds great promise for cervical cancer screening and warrants further population-based studies using standardized DNA methylation testing.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers / analysis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / genetics. DNA Methylation. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 20564139.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers
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72. Confortini M, Di Bonito L, Carozzi F, Ghiringhello B, Montanari G, Parisio F, Prandi S, GISCi Working Group for Cervical Cytology: Interlaboratory reproducibility of atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance: a national survey. Cytopathology; 2006 Dec;17(6):353-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: A set of 35 selected slides were circulated among 167 laboratories involved in local population-based cervical screening programmes.
  • Each laboratory provided one single diagnosis per smear.
  • The smears were read blind to the original diagnosis and to the diagnoses provided by other laboratories.
  • A 'majority' diagnosis was defined for each case and assumed as the reference standard.
  • The diagnosis provided from each laboratory was compared with the majority diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: According to the majority report the 35 slides in the set were classified as negative in nine cases, AGC in eight, adenocarcinoma in eight, and squamous lesion or squamous + glandular lesion in 10.
  • K-values were 0.46, 0.21, 0.34, 0.36 and 0.32 for negative, AGC/AIS (adenocarcinoma in situ of endocervix), AdenoCa, Sq/Sq + Gl and all reporting categories respectively.
  • The data confirmed the importance, in a screening scenario, of AGC/AIS diagnoses, but also presented difficulties in differentiating between the two diagnoses.
  • In addition to the results obtained from the circulation of the slides, laboratories which had annually a low number of cervical smears were able to gain experience focused on particular morphological pictures.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervix Uteri / cytology. Mass Screening / methods. Vaginal Smears / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Female. Humans. Reproducibility of Results. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


73. Cohn DE, Morrison CD, Zanagnolo VL, Goist MM, Copeland LJ: Invasive cervical adenocarcinoma immediately following a cone biopsy for adenocarcinoma in situ with negative margins. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Jul;98(1):158-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Invasive cervical adenocarcinoma immediately following a cone biopsy for adenocarcinoma in situ with negative margins.
  • BACKGROUND: Cervical adenocarcinoma in situ is often diagnosed in younger women who may wish to preserve the potential for fertility.
  • Given that the rate of recurrent adenocarcinoma in situ is relatively low and the risk of invasive adenocarcinoma is extremely rare, conservative management in this population after a cone biopsy demonstrates negative margins has been accepted as an appropriate management strategy.
  • This case challenges the concept of conservative management of cervical adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • CASE: A 42-year-old G2P2002 with previously normal annual cervical cytology had a Pap smear demonstrating atypical glandular cells of uncertain significance.
  • A 1.5-cm lesion was noted at the endocervix, and a punch biopsy revealed adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • A large cold knife cone biopsy confirmed cervical adenocarcinoma in situ with negative margins.
  • Definitive therapy for in situ disease with an extrafascial hysterectomy was performed 12 days after conization, and demonstrated stage IB1 cervical adenocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Conservative management of cervical adenocarcinoma in situ after a cone biopsy with negative margins does not exclude the possibility of concurrent invasive cervical adenocarcinoma.
  • This case challenges the current balance between risk and benefit associated with the conservative management of cervical adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Conization. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


74. Schnatz PF, Guile M, O'Sullivan DM, Sorosky JI: Clinical significance of atypical glandular cells on cervical cytology. Obstet Gynecol; 2006 Mar;107(3):701-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical significance of atypical glandular cells on cervical cytology.
  • These data showed the following rates of pathology: 8.5% low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (LSIL), 11.1% high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), 2.9% adenocarcinoma in situ, 1.4% endometrial hyperplasia, and 5.2% malignancy.
  • The most common malignancies were endometrial adenocarcinoma (57.6%), cervical adenocarcinoma (23.6%), ovarian and fallopian tube carcinoma (6.4%), squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix (5.4%), and other (6.9%).
  • CONCLUSION: Histologic diagnosis showed that 29.0% of these Pap tests had findings requiring follow-up or therapeutic intervention, including a 5.2% rate of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Endometrial Hyperplasia / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


75. Kennedy CM, Peterson LB, Galask RP: Erosive vulvar lichen planus: a cohort at risk for cancer? J Reprod Med; 2008 Oct;53(10):781-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the occurrence of cancer, including vulvovaginal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), among women after diagnosis of erosive vulvar lichen planus (LP).
  • RESULTS: A diagnosis of cancer was made in 5 women after diagnosis of erosive vulvar LP.
  • Of these, 1 had stage II vulvar SCC after treatment for stage IIB cervical cancer, and 2 with oral LP had subsequent diagnoses of oral or esophageal SCC.
  • The remaining 2 cancer diagnoses included cervical adenocarcinoma in situ and rectal adenocarcinoma.
  • Estimating the risk of SCC among women with vulvar LP is difficult because of the low prevalence of each disorder.


76. Puebla-Mora AG, Heras A, Cano-Valdez AM, Domínguez-Malagón H: Human telomerase and alpha-methylacyl-coenzyme A racemase in prostatic carcinoma. A comparative immunohistochemical study. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2006 Aug;10(4):205-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Human telomerase detected by in situ hybridization has been demonstrated to be a useful tool for the diagnosis of malignancy and has also been tested by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in several tumors such as hepatic cell carcinoma, melanoma, colonic carcinoma, gastric carcinoma, biliary carcinoma, breast carcinoma, mesothelioma, lung carcinoma, female tract carcinoma, and prostatic carcinoma.
  • Carcinomas of cervix, endometrium, and breast have been studied by this method, but its value in prostatic carcinoma has not been explored; for that reason, we studied benign and malignant prostatic lesions by immunohistochemistry using paraffin embedded tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / enzymology. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Immunoenzyme Techniques / methods. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / enzymology. Prostatic Neoplasms / enzymology. Racemases and Epimerases / metabolism. Telomerase / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16844561.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase; EC 5.1.- / Racemases and Epimerases; EC 5.1.99.4 / alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase
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77. Adhya AK, Mahesha V, Srinivasan R, Nijhawan R, Rajwanshi A, Suri V, Dhaliwal LK: Atypical glandular cells in cervical smears: histological correlation and a suggested plan of management based on age of the patient in a low-resource setting. Cytopathology; 2009 Dec;20(6):375-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Atypical glandular cells in cervical smears: histological correlation and a suggested plan of management based on age of the patient in a low-resource setting.
  • METHODS: A total of 18 376 cervical smears were screened from January 2005 to June 2007, of which 65 cases were reported as AGC.
  • Squamous abnormalities included one case each of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)1, CIN2 and CIN3 and five cases of squamous cell carcinoma.
  • All glandular epithelial abnormalities were endometrial in origin and included two endometrial adenocarcinomas and one uterine serous carcinoma.
  • Neither in situ nor invasive adenocarcinoma of the endocervix was observed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. Cervix Uteri. Health Care Costs. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial. Papanicolaou Test. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms. Vaginal Smears


78. Lacour RA, Garner EI, Molpus KL, Ashfaq R, Schorge JO: Management of cervical adenocarcinoma in situ during pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol; 2005 May;192(5):1449-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of cervical adenocarcinoma in situ during pregnancy.
  • OBJECTIVE: Adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) is a precursor of invasive disease that is being more frequently diagnosed during the reproductive years.
  • The purpose of this study was to review our collective experience managing cervical AIS during pregnancy.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective medical record review of all women diagnosed with AIS during pregnancy from 1995 to 2004 at 3 academic institutions.
  • Five who received a diagnosis in the early second trimester underwent uncomplicated cold knife conization (CKC) at 14 to 19 weeks' gestation.
  • One patient undergoing postpartum CKC required radical hysterectomy for stage IB1 cervical adenocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Management of cervical AIS during pregnancy by early second trimester CKC is safe for mother and fetus.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Conization. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / surgery. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery


79. Zhao XL, Cheng SX, Kong XD: [Expression and significance of P16INK4A and PTEN in high-risk human papillomavirus-related cervical cancer]. Ai Zheng; 2007 May;26(5):480-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Expression and significance of P16INK4A and PTEN in high-risk human papillomavirus-related cervical cancer].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is the most important etiologic factor for cervical cancer.
  • Recent studies have revealed that abnormal expression of tumor suppressor gene P16INK4A is closely associated with HR-HPV infection during carcinogenesis of cervical epithelium.
  • Tumor suppressor gene PTEN is also involved in cervical tumorigenesis.
  • This study was to investigate the correlations of HR-HPV infection to P16INK4A and PTEN expression and its clinical significance in the carcinogenesis of cervical epithelium.
  • METHODS: The expression of P16INK4A and PTEN in 30 specimens of normal cervical tissues, 11 specimens of cancer in situ (CIS), and 24 specimens of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC) was detected by SP immunohistochemistry; 13 types of HR-HPV DNA in these cases were detected by Hybrid Capture 2 (HC-2) assay.
  • Both HR-HPV DNA and P16INK4A overexpression (moderate or strong expression) were observed simultaneously in 21 specimens of ICC and 9 specimens of CIS; they were simultaneously negative in 20 specimens of normal cervical tissues and 1 specimen of CIS and 2 specimens of ICC.
  • Overexpression of P16INK4A was positively correlated to HR-HPV infection in cervical cancer (rs = 0.690, P<0.001).
  • PTEN was moderately or strongly expressed in 26 specimens of normal cervical tissues.
  • The positive rate of PTEN was significantly lower in ICC and CIS than in normal cervical tissues (37.5% and 36.4% vs. 83.3%, P<0.01).
  • CONCLUSIONS: P16INK4A is overexpressed in HR-HPV-infected cervical cancer, but its tumor suppressor action might be inhibited.
  • In contrast, the functional down-regulation of PTEN contributes to cervical tumorigenesis through HR-HPV-independent mechanism.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / metabolism. Papillomavirus Infections / genetics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / virology. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Cervix Uteri / metabolism. Cervix Uteri / virology. DNA, Viral / metabolism. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Middle Aged. Papillomaviridae. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 17672936.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / DNA, Viral; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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80. Miyashita M, Agdamag DM, Sasagawa T, Matsushita K, Salud LM, Salud CO, Saikawa K, Leano PS, Pagcaliwagan T, Acuna J, Ishizaki A, Kageyama S, Ichimura H: High-risk HPV types in lesions of the uterine cervix of female commercial sex workers in the Philippines. J Med Virol; 2009 Mar;81(3):545-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] High-risk HPV types in lesions of the uterine cervix of female commercial sex workers in the Philippines.
  • In order to prevent cervical cancer, vaccines against human papilloma virus types 16 (HPV-16) and 18 (HPV-18) have been implemented worldwide.
  • Therefore, the prevalence of HPV infection and cervical abnormalities among 369 female commercial sex workers in the Philippines were examined.
  • Among 56 women with abnormal cervical cytology (low- and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and adenocarcinoma in situ), HPV-52 was most common (23.2%), followed by HPV-16 (19.6%), -58 (10.7%), and -67 (10.7%).
  • Repeated analysis of HPV-52 single-positive samples using the original GP5+/6+ PCR primers produced negative results in 57% of cases, suggesting that the prevalence of HPV-52 infection may have been underestimated in previous studies, and the current vaccines may not be sufficient for preventing infection and the development of premalignant lesions of the cervix in women in the Philippines.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervix Uteri / virology. Papillomaviridae / classification. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Papillomavirus Infections / virology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19152419.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9071
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
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  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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81. Wilting SM, Snijders PJ, Meijer GA, Ylstra B, van den Ijssel PR, Snijders AM, Albertson DG, Coffa J, Schouten JP, van de Wiel MA, Meijer CJ, Steenbergen RD: Increased gene copy numbers at chromosome 20q are frequent in both squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas of the cervix. J Pathol; 2006 Jun;209(2):220-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Increased gene copy numbers at chromosome 20q are frequent in both squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas of the cervix.
  • Genome-wide microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) was used to identify common chromosomal alterations involved in cervical carcinogenesis as a first step towards the discovery of novel biomarkers.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 20 / genetics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cell Line, Tumor. Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosome Mapping / methods. Chromosomes, Human / genetics. DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferase / genetics. Female. Genome, Human / genetics. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence / methods. Middle Aged. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / methods. Papillomaviridae. RNA, Messenger / analysis. RNA, Neoplasm / analysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2006 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.
  • [CommentIn] J Pathol. 2006 Oct;210(2):258-9; author reply 260 [16841301.001]
  • (PMID = 16538612.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3417
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 90421
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.1.1.37 / DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferase; EC 2.1.1.37 / DNA methyltransferase 3B
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82. Kalir T, Simsir A, Demopoulos HB, Demopoulos RI: Obstacles to the early detection of endocervical adenocarcinoma. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2005 Oct;24(4):399-403
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Obstacles to the early detection of endocervical adenocarcinoma.
  • We observed that the ratio of in situ to invasive carcinomas of the cervix is significantly greater for squamous than for glandular lesions.
  • We wondered whether Pap smears were less effective for the identification of in situ glandular lesions.
  • Ten patients had in situ disease, seven (70%) of which involved the transformation zone (TZ); all seven of these were identified by Pap smears.
  • Among the 23 patients with invasive disease that spared the TZ, 6 (26%) had a documented history of negative Pap smears at New York University within 3 years of diagnosis.
  • Noteworthy was the finding that two of these six lesions extended from the endocervix upward, through the stroma, and into the endomyometrium of the lower uterine segment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis


83. Biscotti CV, Ray N: Papanicolaou tests associated with cervical mucosal endometriosis: an analysis of cellular features and comparison to endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Aug;38(8):551-4
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  • [Title] Papanicolaou tests associated with cervical mucosal endometriosis: an analysis of cellular features and comparison to endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • Endometrium directly sampled from endocervical mucosal endometriosis can mimic endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) in Papanicolaou (Pap) tests.
  • We analyzed a series of Pap tests to investigate the cellular features of mucosal endometriosis and to assess the utility of stroma and apoptotic bodies in the differential diagnosis with AIS.
  • Pap test samples from patients known to have endocervical mucosal endometriosis were compared with samples containing AIS.
  • By comparison, only one (8%) AIS case had endometrial-type stroma.
  • Seven (58%) AIS cases had apoptotic bodies and three (25%) had mitotic figures.
  • These lesional cells almost always include stroma, which is useful in the differential diagnosis with AIS.
  • We identified stroma significantly more often in endometriosis cases (92%) than in AIS cases (8%).
  • In the absence of stroma, AIS should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Endometriosis / pathology. Mucous Membrane / pathology. Papanicolaou Test. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Vaginal Smears / methods


84. Chen L, Yang B: Assessment of reflex human papillomavirus DNA testing in patients with atypical endocervical cells on cervical cytology. Cancer; 2008 Aug 25;114(4):236-41
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  • [Title] Assessment of reflex human papillomavirus DNA testing in patients with atypical endocervical cells on cervical cytology.
  • BACKGROUND: Reflex human papillomavirus (HPV) testing for atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASC-US) has improved the sensitivity and specificity in detecting high-grade squamous dysplasia (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN]2+).
  • This report is of a 5-year experience with reflex HPV testing in women with AEC and assessment of the potential role of reflex HPV testing in guiding subsequent colposcopy-directed cervical biopsy/curettage in a large tertiary care hospital setting.
  • The most severe histopathologic diagnosis was recorded.
  • Histopathologic examination of the 64 HPV-positive AEC cases revealed 18 cases of endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ/adenocarcinoma (AIS+) and 22 cases of CIN2+.
  • Among 253 of the HPV-negative AEC women, AIS+ was found in only 3 cases and CIN2+ in 1 case.
  • Cervical AIS+ was found in 28% of the HPV-positive AEC patients and in only 0.9% of the HPV-negative patients (P<.0001).
  • When the significant glandular (AIS+) and squamous (CIN2+) lesions were combined, 62.5% of the lesions were detected in HPV-positive AEC cases compared with 1.6% in the HPV-negative AEC cases (P<.0001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Because of a high sensitivity (91.0%) and high specificity (91.2%) in detecting significant cervical lesions, reflex HPV testing for cytologic diagnosis of AEC appears to be a useful ancillary tool in the selection of high-risk patients for colposcopy.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervix Uteri / pathology. DNA, Viral / analysis. Papanicolaou Test. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vaginal Smears
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity


85. Kumar N, Bongiovanni M, Molliet MJ, Pelte MF, Egger JF, Pache JC: Diverse glandular pathologies coexist with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion in cyto-histological review of atypical glandular cells on ThinPrep specimens. Cytopathology; 2009 Dec;20(6):351-8
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  • OBJECTIVE: To identify in cytology, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions with endocervical glandular extension in cases previously diagnosed as atypical glandular cells (AGC), analyse possible reasons for the diagnostic pitfall and document the frequency of glandular pathology coexisting with high-grade cervical intraepithelial lesion in histology.
  • METHODS: Thirty-nine ThinPrep cervical smear (Pap) tests reported as AGC of undetermined significance and showing high-grade lesions on histology [cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2 or 3, endometrial or extrauterine adenocarcinoma] were reviewed retrospectively to identify the cases of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion with endocervical glandular extension, using the Bethesda 2001 system.
  • RESULTS: A high frequency of diverse glandular pathologies coexisted with high-grade cervical intraepithelial lesions on histology.
  • This included endocervical glandular extension in 63%, benign glandular pathology in 33% and pre-neoplastic or malignant glandular pathology (endocervical glandular dysplasia, adenocarcinoma in situ and metastatic breast carcinoma) in 17% cases.
  • The identification of endocervical glandular extension on cervical cytology would alert the gynaecologist to perform a thorough assessment of the endocervix during colposcopy.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Cytological Techniques. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult


86. Veras E, Srodon M, Neijstrom ES, Ronnett BM: Metastatic HPV-related cervical adenocarcinomas presenting with thromboembolic events (Trousseau Syndrome): clinicopathologic characteristics of 2 cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 Mar;28(2):134-9
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  • [Title] Metastatic HPV-related cervical adenocarcinomas presenting with thromboembolic events (Trousseau Syndrome): clinicopathologic characteristics of 2 cases.
  • The first patient, age 36, presented with bilateral lower extremity deep vein thromboses, pulmonary embolism, and supraclavicular and cervical lymphadenopathy.
  • Lymph node biopsy revealed metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma with focal signet ring cell differentiation.
  • Autopsy examination revealed widespread metastatic adenocarcinoma with a 2 cm cervical adenocarcinoma.
  • Diagnostic laparoscopy with biopsies and left oophorectomy revealed metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma with signet ring cell differentiation involving peritoneum, ovary, cervix, and bladder without a defined primary site.
  • HPV DNA was detected by in situ hybridization in the lymph node metastasis in the first case and in the cervical and ovarian tumor specimens in the second case.
  • These features more commonly suggest metastatic adenocarcinoma of upper gastrointestinal tract origin but the presence of HPV DNA within the tumors establishes them as cervical in origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Thromboembolism / etiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization

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  • (PMID = 19188822.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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87. Sharpless KE, Schnatz PF, Mandavilli S, Greene JF, Sorosky JI: Dysplasia associated with atypical glandular cells on cervical cytology. Obstet Gynecol; 2005 Mar;105(3):494-500
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Dysplasia associated with atypical glandular cells on cervical cytology.
  • Most women aged younger than 35 years had a squamous abnormality, whereas women aged 35 years or older had a greater diversity of squamous and glandular lesions and accounted for all cases of endometrial cancer, adenocarcinoma in situ, and cervical adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervix Uteri / pathology. Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Vaginal Smears


88. Frank JE: The colposcopic examination. J Midwifery Womens Health; 2008 Sep-Oct;53(5):447-52
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  • Colposcopy is used to evaluate women with genital tract abnormalities and abnormal cervical cytology.
  • It is an office-based procedure during which the cervix is examined under illumination and magnification before and after application of dilute acetic acid.
  • Endocervical sampling may accompany colposcopy, particularly in the evaluation of nonpregnant women with cytology results of atypical glandular cells and adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervix Uteri / pathology. Colposcopy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Midwifery. Physical Examination. Postmenopause. Pregnancy. Uterine Cervical Diseases / diagnosis. Vaginal Diseases / diagnosis


89. Ronnett BM, Yemelyanova AV, Vang R, Gilks CB, Miller D, Gravitt PE, Kurman RJ: Endocervical adenocarcinomas with ovarian metastases: analysis of 29 cases with emphasis on minimally invasive cervical tumors and the ability of the metastases to simulate primary ovarian neoplasms. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Dec;32(12):1835-53
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  • [Title] Endocervical adenocarcinomas with ovarian metastases: analysis of 29 cases with emphasis on minimally invasive cervical tumors and the ability of the metastases to simulate primary ovarian neoplasms.
  • In 18 cases, the cervical tumors were clearly invasive; these included 5 clinically evident tumors diagnosed before the ovarian metastases (immediately preoperatively to 7 y), 11 clinically unsuspected tumors diagnosed concurrently in specimens obtained for evaluation of ovarian/pelvic masses, 1 case with concurrent clinically evident cervical and ovarian masses, and 1 clinically occult tumor diagnosed subsequent to the ovarian metastasis.
  • In 11 cases, the cervical tumors were more limited; these included 5 tumors comprised predominantly of adenocarcinoma in situ with small foci of superficial invasion ("microinvasive carcinomas") diagnosed before the ovarian metastases (3 mo to 7 y) and 6 tumors comprised of extensive adenocarcinoma in situ lacking unequivocally recognizable stromal invasion diagnosed before (9 mo to 7 y, n=4), concurrently with (n=1), or subsequent to (n=1) the ovarian metastases.
  • Fifteen cervical tumors involved lower uterine segment corpus endometrium or endomyometrium, including 4 tumors that were minimally invasive or not recognizably invasive in the cervix.
  • Endocervical adenocarcinomas, including microinvasive forms and some not recognizably invasive, have the potential to metastasize to the ovaries; extension into the lower uterine segment/corpus endometrium may be a risk factor, with retrograde uterine/transtubal spread as a possible mechanism.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. DNA, Viral / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Middle Aged. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism


90. Bhurgri Y, Pervez S, Kayani N, Afif M, Tahir I, Nazir K, Usman A, Faridi N, Bhurgri H, Malik J, Bashir I, Bhurgri A, Ahmed R, Hasan SH, Khurshed M, Zaidi SM: Time trends in the incidence of cancer cervix in Karachi South, 1995-2002. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev; 2008 Jul-Sep;9(3):533-6
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  • [Title] Time trends in the incidence of cancer cervix in Karachi South, 1995-2002.
  • INTRODUCTION: The objective of the study was to determine the trends of cancer cervix in Karachi South during an eight (1995-2002) year period.
  • METHODOLOGY: Cancer cervix cases recorded at Karachi Cancer Registry during 1st January 1995 to 31st December 2002 were analyzed.
  • RESULTS: Cancer cervix ranked sixth in the 1995-97 period the age standardized incidence rate (ASR) world and crude incidence rate (CIR) per 100,000 were 6.81 and 3.22.
  • Thus between 1995 and 2002, the incidence of cervical cancer registered an approximate 10% increase.
  • The morphological components of squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma remained stable during this period, though a marginally higher component and increasing incidence of adenocarcinoma was observed throughout.
  • Localized malignancy was observed in 30.8% in period 2 as compared to 25.7% in period 1 and the component of carcinoma in situ increased from 0% percent in period 1 to 1.3% in the second period.
  • CONCLUSION: Pakistan at present falls into a low risk cancer cervix region.
  • The cause of concern is the steadily increasing incidence especially in the younger birth cohorts, the advanced disease at presentation; insignificant in-situ cancers and no preventive intervention or awareness practices in place.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


91. Srisomboon J, Kietpeerakool C, Suprasert P, Siriaunkgul S, Khunamornpong S, Prompittayarat W: Factors affecting residual lesion in women with cervical adenocarcinoma in situ after cone excisional biopsy. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev; 2007 Apr-Jun;8(2):225-8
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  • [Title] Factors affecting residual lesion in women with cervical adenocarcinoma in situ after cone excisional biopsy.
  • The objective of this study was undertaken to evaluate the factors affecting residual lesion in women with adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) on cervical conization specimens.
  • The medical records of women with AIS who had no associated invasive carcinoma after cervical conization and underwent subsequent hysterectomy at Chiang Mai University Hospital were reviewed.
  • Thirteen (28.9%) women presented with AIS on Pap smear.
  • Twenty (44.4%) women had mixed lesions of AIS and squamous intraepithelial lesion on cervical specimens.
  • In conclusion, approximately one-third of women with AIS on cervical conization have residual lesion on subsequent hysterectomy specimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Neoplasm, Residual / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Carcinoma in Situ / epidemiology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Incidence. Neoplasms, Second Primary / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Predictive Value of Tests


92. Jiang L, Malpica A, Deavers MT, Guo M, Villa LL, Nuovo G, Merino MJ, Silva EG: Endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterine corpus involving the cervix: some cases probably represent independent primaries. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2010 Mar;29(2):146-56
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  • [Title] Endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterine corpus involving the cervix: some cases probably represent independent primaries.
  • The majority of endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinomas involving the cervix have tumor morphology that is similar in the endometrium and the endocervix.
  • The goal of this study was to investigate whether tumors involving the endometrium and the endocervix are similar or 2 independent primaries by hematoxylin and eosin stain, immunohistochemistry (IHC), human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in situ hybridization, RNA reverse transcriptase in situ polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses to reveal HPV, and DNA clonality studies.
  • We selected 14 cases of endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinomas involving the cervix with complete pathology material available from the years between 1968 and 2004.
  • Histologic features varied between the tumors in the endometrium and the endocervix in 8 cases, and 5 of these cases had uniform, dilated glands having a microcystic appearance in the cervix.
  • Clonality studies showed differences between the adenocarcinoma in the endometrium and the endocervix in 7 cases, including 5 cases with different histologic appearances; 2 cases had similar loss of heterozygosity patterns.
  • However, endometrial tumors involving the cervix and endocervical tumors unrelated to HPV are both negative for high-risk HPV.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / virology. Endometrial Neoplasms / virology. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] DNA, Viral / analysis. DNA, Viral / genetics. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. RNA, Viral / analysis. RNA, Viral / genetics. Retrospective Studies. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 20173500.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / RNA, Viral
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93. Fujii T, Nakamura M, Kameyama K, Saito M, Nishio H, Ohno A, Hirao N, Iwata T, Tsukazaki K, Aoki D: Digital colposcopy for the diagnosis of cervical adenocarcinoma using a narrow band imaging system. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2010 May;20(4):605-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Digital colposcopy for the diagnosis of cervical adenocarcinoma using a narrow band imaging system.
  • INTRODUCTION: Although the colposcopic features of cervical glandular disease and cervical adenocarcinoma are not widely well known, unique microvascular patterns are reportedly useful for identifying such diseases.
  • METHODS: Twenty-one patients with adenocarcinoma in situ or early invasive adenocarcinomas were examined using digital NBI colposcopy, and the photo records were compared with those of conventional colposcopy.
  • RESULTS: Digital NBI colposcopy depicted the fine vascular texture on the surface of the cervix more clearly than conventional colposcopy.
  • The characteristic fine vascular patterns were critical for identifying cervical glandular diseases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Digital NBI colposcopy was useful for identifying early cervical adenocarcinoma as well as adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • This system yields cervical glandular disease-related colposcopic findings that may be useful for both clinical and educational purposes.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / diagnosis. Colposcopy. Diagnostic Imaging. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis


94. Apgar BS, Kittendorf AL, Bettcher CM, Wong J, Kaufman AJ: Update on ASCCP consensus guidelines for abnormal cervical screening tests and cervical histology. Am Fam Physician; 2009 Jul 15;80(2):147-55
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  • [Title] Update on ASCCP consensus guidelines for abnormal cervical screening tests and cervical histology.
  • New data have emerged since publication of the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology's 2001 consensus guidelines for management of abnormal cervical cytology and histology.
  • Human papillomavirus testing is now included for management of atypical glandular cytology, for follow-up after treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, and in combination with cytologic screening in women 30 years and older.
  • Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, grade 1 can be managed conservatively in adult women, but treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, grades 2 and 3 is recommended.
  • Conservative management of adolescents with any cytologic or histologic diagnosis except specified cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, grade 3 and adenocarcinoma in situ is recommended.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vaginal Smears
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Alphapapillomavirus / genetics. Colposcopy. DNA, Viral / analysis. Female. Humans. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Young Adult


95. Poynor EA, Marshall D, Sonoda Y, Slomovitz BM, Barakat RR, Soslow RA: Clinicopathologic features of early adenocarcinoma of the cervix initially managed with cervical conization. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 Dec;103(3):960-5
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  • [Title] Clinicopathologic features of early adenocarcinoma of the cervix initially managed with cervical conization.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinicopathologic features of microinvasive adenocarcinoma of the cervix in order to guide the management of patients with this disease.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of patients diagnosed with early invasive, <or=5 mm stromal invasion, adenocarcinoma of the cervix by a cervical conization between 1992 and 1999 at our institution.
  • Ten patients had positive conization margins for invasive cancer, 3 patients had margins positive for adenocarcinoma in situ, 14 patients had negative margins, and in 6 patients the margin status could not be evaluated.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Historically, the standard management of early invasive adenocarcinoma of the cervix has been controversial, and some clinicians continue to favor radical treatments.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Conization / utilization. Outcome Assessment (Health Care). Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery


96. Stewart CJ, Little L: Diagnostic value and implications of vimentin expression in normal, reactive and neoplastic endocervical epithelium. Pathology; 2010 Apr;42(3):217-23
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  • METHODS: Sixty-two cervical biopsy specimens including normal endocervical epithelium, tubo-endometrioid metaplasia, adenocarcinoma in situ, stratified mucin producing intraepithelial lesions (SMILE), and invasive adenocarcinomas were stained immunohistochemically for vimentin and for p16 protein, Ki-67 and bcl-2.
  • Twelve cases also included areas of high grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN).
  • Usually adenocarcinoma in situ was completely negative and therefore vimentin staining sharply distinguished the benign and neoplastic epithelial elements.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Normal endocervical cells often exhibit vimentin staining, and this is increased in reactive and metaplastic situations, whereas adenocarcinoma in situ is usually completely negative.
  • Therefore vimentin is a useful additional diagnostic marker in the assessment of problematic cervical glandular lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism. Vimentin / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / metabolism. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Cervix Uteri / metabolism. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / biosynthesis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 20350213.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3931
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Vimentin
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97. El-Ghobashy AA, Shaaban AM, Innes J, Prime W, Herrington CS: Differential expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors and apoptosis-related proteins in endocervical lesions. Eur J Cancer; 2007 Sep;43(13):2011-8
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  • In this study, a panel of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (CDKIs) and apoptosis-related proteins (p16, p21, p53, Bcl2 and hsp27) was analysed by immunohistochemistry in 91 glandular cervical lesions.
  • A significant increase in p21 and p53 expression occurred from normal cervix (n=11) through endometriosis/tubo-endometrioid metaplasia (TEM) (n=19) and cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia (CGIN)/adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) (n=33) to invasive adenocarcinoma (n=28).
  • p16 showed diffuse strong expression in CGIN/AIS and invasive adenocarcinoma compared with focal expression in some TEM/endometriosis lesions and no expression in normal cervix.
  • Bcl2 was highly expressed in TEM/endometriosis compared with CGIN/AIS and adenocarcinoma. p16 immunostaining discriminated accurately between neoplastic and non-neoplastic cervical lesions, provided that diffuse strong positivity was present.
  • Similarly, diffuse expression of Bcl2 distinguished endometriosis/TEM from CGIN/AIS.
  • These data demonstrate that analysis of CDKIs and apoptosis-related proteins provides useful information in the diagnostic assessment of glandular lesions of the cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / metabolism. Cervix Uteri / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor Proteins / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism


98. Little L, Stewart CJ: Cyclin D1 immunoreactivity in normal endocervix and diagnostic value in reactive and neoplastic endocervical lesions. Mod Pathol; 2010 Apr;23(4):611-8
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  • It may be difficult to distinguish reactive glandular lesions from adenocarcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix, and although several immunohistochemical markers have established value in this diagnostic setting, none is completely reliable.
  • Therefore, we investigated cyclin D1 staining in a series of 64 cervical biopsy specimens including examples of normal and reactive endocervical epithelium, adenocarcinoma in situ, stratified mucin-producing intraepithelial lesions, and invasive adenocarcinoma.
  • Thirteen specimens also included a component of high-grade cervical squamous intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • In contrast, most cases of adenocarcinoma in situ were completely negative and, therefore, cyclin D1 staining distinguished benign from neoplastic epithelial cells.
  • Although focal cyclin D1 expression was observed in 5/19 cases of adenocarcinoma in situ, the staining was associated with more marked cytological atypia precluding confusion with a reactive process.
  • In conclusion, cyclin D1 can be included within an immunohistochemical panel to aid in the distinction between reactive cervical glandular lesions and adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / metabolism. Cervix Uteri / metabolism. Cyclin D1 / biosynthesis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20062011.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
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99. Quint KD, de Koning MN, van Doorn LJ, Quint WG, Pirog EC: HPV genotyping and HPV16 variant analysis in glandular and squamous neoplastic lesions of the uterine cervix. Gynecol Oncol; 2010 May;117(2):297-301
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  • [Title] HPV genotyping and HPV16 variant analysis in glandular and squamous neoplastic lesions of the uterine cervix.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to compare the distribution of HPV genotypes and HPV16 variants in glandular and squamous cervical neoplasia.
  • METHODS: Cases of endocervical adenocarcinoma in-situ (AIS, n=33) invasive adenocarcinoma (ADCA, n=55), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia-3 (CIN3, n=130) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, n=60) were collected at the New York Hospital and tested for HPV using SPF(10)PCR-LIPA(25) (version 1) assays and for HPV16 variants using a multiplex PCR and reverse hybridization assay.
  • RESULTS: There was a difference between the spectrum of HPV genotypes detected in glandular and squamous neoplasia: 13 different HPV genotypes were detected in CIN3 as single infections and 11 in SCC, while only 4 single genotypes were detected in AIS and 3 in ADCA.
  • In AIS, HPV16, 18, 45 and 35 accounted for 69.7%, 27.2%, 3%, 3% of cases.
  • European variants of HPV16 were the most common in CIN3 (83.8%), SCC (71.4%) and AIS (73.9%).
  • AA variant was also detected in 17.4%, 4.1%, and 2.4% of HPV16 positive AIS, CIN3 and SCC, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: Asian American variant of HPV16, HPV18 and HPV45 are preferentially associated with cervical adenocarcinoma as compared to squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / virology. Human papillomavirus 16 / genetics. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Papillomavirus Infections / virology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology


100. El-Mansi MT, Williams AR: Evaluation of PTEN expression in cervical adenocarcinoma by tissue microarray. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 May-Jun;16(3):1254-60
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  • [Title] Evaluation of PTEN expression in cervical adenocarcinoma by tissue microarray.
  • We examined expression of PTEN in a series of cervical adenocarcinomas and precursors, using tissue microarray (TMA) technology.
  • TMA blocks were constructed using paraffin-embedded, formalin-fixed tissues from 273 samples derived from 16 normal cervical biopsies, 119 cases of invasive adenocarcinoma, and 20 high-grade cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia (CGIN).
  • Fresh 3-mum sections were cut and immunostained with PTEN, and expression was correlated with clinicopathologic variables, including histologic subtypes of adenocarcinoma.
  • There were no significant differences in distribution or intensity of PTEN expression between adenocarcinoma in situ and subtypes of invasive adenocarcinoma.
  • Our findings show that unlike the case in most endometrial carcinomas, PTEN expression is retained during the process of carcinogenesis in the glandular cervix.
  • There is, however, evidence of altered distribution and intensity of PTEN expression in cervical adenocarcinoma cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / methods. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / analysis. Tissue Array Analysis / methods. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / metabolism. Statistics as Topic

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  • (PMID = 16803514.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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