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1. Kaufman DS, Shipley WU, Feldman AS: Bladder cancer. Lancet; 2009 Jul 18;374(9685):239-49
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  • [Title] Bladder cancer.
  • Bladder cancer is a heterogeneous disease, with 70% of patients presenting with superficial tumours, which tend to recur but are generally not life threatening, and 30% presenting as muscle-invasive disease associated with a high risk of death from distant metastases.
  • The main presenting symptom of all bladder cancers is painless haematuria, and the diagnosis is established by urinary cytology and transurethral tumour resection.
  • Intravesical treatment is used for carcinoma in situ and other high grade non-muscle-invasive tumours.
  • Bladder preservation with transurethral tumour resection, radiation, and chemotherapy can in some cases be equally curative.
  • Several chemotherapeutic agents have proven to be useful as neoadjuvant or adjuvant treatment and in patients with metastatic disease.
  • We discuss bladder preserving approaches, combination chemotherapy including new agents, targeted therapies, and advances in molecular biology.
  • [MeSH-major] Urinary Bladder Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / epidemiology. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Cystectomy. Cystoscopy. Diagnosis, Differential. Hematuria / etiology. Humans. Molecular Biology. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Prostatectomy. Risk Factors. Sensitivity and Specificity. Survival Rate. United States / epidemiology. Urinary Diversion


2. Quek ML, Nichols PW, Yamzon J, Daneshmand S, Miranda G, Cai J, Groshen S, Stein JP, Skinner DG: Radical cystectomy for primary neuroendocrine tumors of the bladder: the university of southern california experience. J Urol; 2005 Jul;174(1):93-6
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  • [Title] Radical cystectomy for primary neuroendocrine tumors of the bladder: the university of southern california experience.
  • PURPOSE: Primary neuroendocrine tumors of the bladder are rare and they include small and large cell variants.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: From August 1971 to June 2004, 2,005 patients underwent radical cystectomy for primary bladder cancer at our institution, of whom 25 (1.2%) had neuroendocrine tumors of the bladder, including small cell carcinoma in 20 and large cell carcinoma in 5.
  • Pure neuroendocrine-type histology was identified in 16 cases, including 1 with small and large cell features, while the remaining 9 had mixed histology, that is transitional cell carcinoma in 8 and adenocarcinoma in 1.
  • Multi-agent chemotherapy was administered to 14 patients.
  • These tumors tended to have a flat, ulcerative gross appearance with lymphovascular invasion, carcinoma in situ and necrosis present microscopically.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Neuroendocrine tumors of the bladder usually present with advanced pathological stage and portend a poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystectomy / methods. Neuroendocrine Tumors / surgery. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15947585.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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3. Falkensammer C, Gozzi C, Hager M, Maier H, Bartsch G, Höltl L, Rehder P: Late occurrence of bilateral tuberculous-like epididymo-orchitis after intravesical bacille Calmette-Guérin therapy for superficial bladder carcinoma. Urology; 2005 Jan;65(1):175
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Late occurrence of bilateral tuberculous-like epididymo-orchitis after intravesical bacille Calmette-Guérin therapy for superficial bladder carcinoma.
  • We report a case of bilateral tuberculous-like epididymo-orchitis occurring 3 years after intravesical bacille Calmette-Guérin instillation therapy in an 83-year-old patient with proven superficial bladder carcinoma.
  • The patient had no previous history of tuberculosis.
  • [MeSH-major] BCG Vaccine / adverse effects. Epididymitis / etiology. Mycobacterium bovis / isolation & purification. Orchitis / etiology. Tuberculosis, Male Genital / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Administration, Intravesical. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma in Situ / therapy. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / therapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Instillation, Drug. Male. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Orchiectomy. Prostatic Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / surgery. Time Factors. Transurethral Resection of Prostate. Tuberculoma / etiology. Tuberculoma / surgery. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15667898.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BCG Vaccine
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5. Cohen SM, Shirai T, Steineck G: Epidemiology and etiology of premalignant and malignant urothelial changes. Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl; 2000;(205):105-15
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Bladder neoplasms are common around the world.
  • However, elsewhere, most bladder tumors are of the urothelial (transitional) cell type.
  • Urothelial carcinomas comprise two distinct diseases both biologically and molecularly: a low-grade papillary tumor which frequently recurs; and a high-grade malignancy which can present as dysplasia or carcinoma in situ, but frequently presents as invasive disease.
  • In addition, numerous specific chemicals have been identified as bladder carcinogens in humans, some relating to specific occupational exposures.
  • Bladder carcinogens include aromatic amines and amides, such as 4-aminobiphenyl, benzidine, 2-naphthylamine and phenacetin-containing analgesics, and certain cancer chemotherapeutic agents, such as phosphoramide mustards.
  • More recently, occupational exposure to various combustion gases, such as diesel exhaust, has been related to an increased risk of developing bladder neoplasms.
  • Also, exposure to chlorination by-products in drinking water and to arsenic has been suggested as increasing the risk of bladder neoplasia.
  • As numerous specific chemicals appear to be related to the development of bladder tumors, various polymorphisms of enzymes involved in their metabolism have been suggested as affecting the susceptibility to their carcinogenicity.
  • Dietary influences have also been suggested as affecting bladder neoplasia susceptibility.
  • Various heterocyclic amines generated by pyrolysis of food have been suggested as potential dietary factors increasing the risk of bladder cancer, particularly in relation to the ingestion of red meat.
  • Despite the existence of several identifiable factors that increase or decrease the risk of bladder cancer, many patients have no known carcinogens or risk factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Precancerous Conditions / epidemiology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / etiology. Cross-Cultural Comparison. Cross-Sectional Studies. Humans. Incidence. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 11144890.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8886
  • [Journal-full-title] Scandinavian journal of urology and nephrology. Supplementum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Scand J Urol Nephrol Suppl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Number-of-references] 77
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6. Lin X, Gingrich JR, Bao W, Li J, Haroon ZA, Demark-Wahnefried W: Effect of flaxseed supplementation on prostatic carcinoma in transgenic mice. Urology; 2002 Nov;60(5):919-24
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of flaxseed supplementation on prostatic neoplasia in the transgenic adenocarcinoma mouse prostate (TRAMP) model.
  • METHODS: A total of 135 male TRAMP mice 5 to 6 weeks old were randomized to a control group (AIN-76A diet) or an experimental group (AIN-76A diet plus 5% flaxseed by weight).
  • At autopsy, urogenital tissues (four prostatic lobes, seminal vesicles, and emptied bladder), lungs, lymph nodes, and grossly abnormal tissues were collected for histologic evaluation.

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  • (PMID = 12429338.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA085740; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1R01-CA85740; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K07-CA62215; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / T32-AG00029
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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