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1. Vermeil V, D'Amore L, Ceci F, Dassatti MR, Negro A, Gossetti F, Negro P: [Familial polyposis coli associated with carcinoma of the uterine cervix]. Chir Ital; 2008 May-Jun;60(3):355-9
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  • [Title] [Familial polyposis coli associated with carcinoma of the uterine cervix].
  • The patient later developed a tumour of the uterine cervix.
  • Polyposis coli was identified late in the second patient who showed an evolution towards colonic adenocarcinoma with multiple hepatic metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli. Carcinoma in Situ. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms


2. de Oliveira ER, Derchain SF, Sarian LO, Rabelo-Santos SH, Gontijo RC, Yoshida A, Andrade LA, Zeferino LC: Prediction of high-grade cervical disease with human papillomavirus detection in women with glandular and squamous cytologic abnormalities. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 May-Jun;16(3):1055-62
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  • [Title] Prediction of high-grade cervical disease with human papillomavirus detection in women with glandular and squamous cytologic abnormalities.
  • The objective of this study was to assess whether human papillomavirus (HPV) detection with hybrid capture II (HC II) can help predict the presence and the nature, glandular or squamous, of histologic cervical lesions in women referred due to atypical glandular cells (AGC) or high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL).
  • Referral Pap smears comprised AGC (51 cases), AGC plus HSIL (28 cases), adenocarcinoma in situ (10 cases), and HSIL (158 cases).
  • All patients were tested for high-risk HPV with HC II and had a histologic assessment of their cervix.
  • Almost 70% of AGC-HPV-negative patients did not have a pathologically proven cervical neoplasia, whereas 76% of women with AGC-HPV-positive result were diagnosed with a squamous or glandular neoplasia.
  • We conclude that in women with AGC, HPV positivity strongly correlated with the presence of glandular or squamous cervical lesion but did not help distinguishing women with squamous from those with glandular neoplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Mass Screening / methods. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Uterine Cervical Diseases / virology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / epidemiology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / epidemiology. DNA Probes, HPV. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / virology. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / virology. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / epidemiology. Precancerous Conditions / virology. Predictive Value of Tests. Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / virology

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  • (PMID = 16803485.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Probes, HPV
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3. Boyadzhieva M, Atanassova I, Dimitrova V, Zaharieva S, Tankova T, Grozeva G, Todorova K, Stoykova V, Kedikova S: [Our and foreign experience in surgical treatment of CIN III-cold knife conisation versus LLETZ]. Akush Ginekol (Sofiia); 2010;49(3):9-11
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  • Invasive disease and recurrence were observed in 150 patients--50 of them having adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / surgery. Conization / methods. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Cervix Uteri / surgery. Female. Humans. Laser Therapy / instrumentation. Laser Therapy / methods. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery


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4. Matsumura M, Ota T, Takeshima N, Takizawa K: Shimodaira-Taniguchi conization method: its utility and reliability. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2010 Aug;20(6):1025-30
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  • We conducted a retrospective study to evaluate Shimodaira-Taniguchi conization as a conservative therapy for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and microinvasive cancer of the cervix.
  • METHODS: Subjects were 455 patients who underwent Shimodaira-Taniguchi conization for CIN, carcinoma in situ, adenocarcinoma in situ, or stage IA microinvasive cervical carcinoma at our hospital from January 2005 to December 2008.
  • Cervical stenosis occurred in 15 (3.3%) patients, 3 of whom suffered cervical obstruction, including 1 with dysmenorrhea who underwent hysterectomy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: As a conservative treatment for CIN and microinvasive cervical cancer, Shimodaira-Taniguchi conization is useful.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / surgery. Conization / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20683412.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Salani R, Puri I, Bristow RE: Adenocarcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix: a metaanalysis of 1278 patients evaluating the predictive value of conization margin status. Am J Obstet Gynecol; 2009 Feb;200(2):182.e1-5
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  • [Title] Adenocarcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix: a metaanalysis of 1278 patients evaluating the predictive value of conization margin status.
  • OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the value of conization margin status in predicting residual and recurrent adenocarcinoma in situ (ACIS) of the cervix.
  • Invasive adenocarcinoma was more commonly associated with positive margins (5.2%) compared with negative margins (0.1%).
  • CONCLUSION: After conization for ACIS, patients with positive margins are significantly more likely to have residual or recurrent disease, whereas those with negative margins may be treated conservatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Conization. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm, Residual / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Female. Humans. Predictive Value of Tests. Reoperation


6. Graesslin O, Dedecker F, Collinet P, Jouve E, Urbaniack D, Leroy JL, Boulanger JC, Quéreux C: [Management of in situ cervical adenocarcinoma]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil; 2006 Dec;34(12):1178-84
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  • [Title] [Management of in situ cervical adenocarcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Prise en charge de l'adénocarcinome in situ du col utérin.
  • The management of adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix (ACIS) is difficult because it is often diagnosed in younger women who may wish to preserve their potential of fertility.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Colposcopy / methods. Reproduction. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery


7. Tarkkanen J, Auvinen E, Nieminen P, Malmi R, Vartiainen J, Timonen T, Laurila P, Räisänen I, Unnerus HA, Sakki A, Mattila P, Van Den Brule AV, Tapper AM: HPV DNA testing as an adjunct in the management of patients with low grade cytological lesions in Finland. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand; 2007;86(3):367-72
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  • There were 5/97 (5.2%) high grade lesions, which were HC2-negative but pap-positive, including 1 cervical adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • One CIN3 and one AIS remained HPV negative.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. DNA, Viral / analysis. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17364315.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6349
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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8. Bulk S, Berkhof J, Bulkmans NW, Zielinski GD, Rozendaal L, van Kemenade FJ, Snijders PJ, Meijer CJ: Preferential risk of HPV16 for squamous cell carcinoma and of HPV18 for adenocarcinoma of the cervix compared to women with normal cytology in The Netherlands. Br J Cancer; 2006 Jan 16;94(1):171-5
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  • [Title] Preferential risk of HPV16 for squamous cell carcinoma and of HPV18 for adenocarcinoma of the cervix compared to women with normal cytology in The Netherlands.
  • We present the type-distribution of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types in women with normal cytology (n=1467), adenocarcinoma in situ (ACIS) (n=61), adenocarcinoma (n=70), and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) (n=83).
  • Cervical adenocarcinoma and ACIS were significantly more frequently associated with HPV18 (OR(MH) 15.0; 95% CI 8.6-26.1 and 21.8; 95% CI 11.9-39.8, respectively) than normal cytology.
  • Human papillomavirus16 was only associated with adenocarcinoma and ACIS after exclusion of HPV18-positive cases (OR(MH) 6.6; 95% CI 2.8-16.0 and 9.4; 95% CI 2.8-31.2, respectively).
  • These results suggest that HPV18 is mainly a risk factor for the development of adenocarcinoma whereas HPV16 is associated with both SCC and adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / etiology. Adenocarcinoma / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / etiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 16404371.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2361088
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9. Gurbuz A, Karateke A, Kabaca C, Kir G: Atypical glandular cells: improvement in cytohistologic correlation by the 2001 Bethesda system. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2005 Sep-Oct;15(5):903-10
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  • Cytology files of 18,955 patients were reviewed for diagnosis of atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGUS), and histopathology files were searched.
  • Cervical smears of these patients were reclassified according to TBS 2001.
  • In reevaluation according to TBS 2001, 31 specimens were reevaluated as atypical glandular cells (AGC) and 3 were reevaluated as adenocarcinoma in situ, 8 as AGC with concomitant squamous cell abnormalities, 1 as atypical squamous cells that cannot exclude high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions, and 33 as negative.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervix Uteri / pathology. Papanicolaou Test. Uterine Cervical Diseases / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Diseases / pathology. Vaginal Smears / methods


10. van de Nieuwenhof HP, Massuger LF, de Hullu JA, van Ham MA, van Dijck JA, Siebers AG, Bekkers RL: Significant decrease of adenocarcinoma in situ not reflected in cervical adenocarcinoma incidence in the Netherlands 1989-2003. Br J Cancer; 2008 Jan 15;98(1):165-7
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  • [Title] Significant decrease of adenocarcinoma in situ not reflected in cervical adenocarcinoma incidence in the Netherlands 1989-2003.
  • Over the period 1989-2003, the incidence of cervical adenocarcinoma (n=1615) was stable whereas that of cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (n=1884) significantly decreased (P=0.008), mainly caused by adenocarcinoma in situ lesions with a concurrent squamous dysplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Carcinoma in Situ / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 18182979.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2359688
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11. Baker AC, Eltoum I, Curry RO, Stockard CR, Manne U, Grizzle WE, Chhieng D: Mucinous expression in benign and neoplastic glandular lesions of the uterine cervix. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2006 Oct;130(10):1510-5
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  • [Title] Mucinous expression in benign and neoplastic glandular lesions of the uterine cervix.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the expression of mucins in uterine cervical glandular lesions and whether mucin expression correlates with the nature and origin of the glandular lesions.
  • DESIGN: Antibodies to MUC1, MUC2, MUC4, and MUC5AC were applied on 52 cases including 14 endocervical adenocarcinomas (including 4 adenosquamous carcinomas), 9 endometrial carcinomas (8 endometrioid adenocarcinomas and 1 adenosquamous carcinoma), 8 adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), 2 glandular dysplasias, 6 tubal metaplasias, 10 microglandular hyperplasias, and 3 normal endocervix.
  • Almost all endocervical AIS and carcinomas and all endometrial adenocarcinomas expressed MUC1; the exceptions were 2 cases of endocervical adenocarcinoma and 1 case of adenosquamous carcinoma of the endocervix.
  • MUC2 staining was noted in 25%, 40%, and 22% of AIS, endocervical adenocarcinomas, and endometrial adenocarcinomas, respectively.
  • About 38% of AIS, 75% of endocervical adenocarcinomas, and 44% of endometrial adenocarcinomas expressed MUC4.
  • Half of AIS, most of endocervical adenocarcinomas, and 22% of endometrial adenocarcinomas expressed MUC5AC.
  • The difference in MUC4 and MUC5AC expression between benign endocervical lesions and AIS and the difference in MUC5AC expression between endocervical and endometrial neoplasms were statistically significant.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Mucin expressions differed among benign endocervical lesions and AIS and among endocervical and endometrial malignancies.
  • These results suggest that mucin staining may potentially be helpful in differentiating various uterine cervical glandular lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Mucins / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Diseases / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17090193.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MUC2 protein, human; 0 / MUC4 protein, human; 0 / MUC5AC protein, human; 0 / Mucin 5AC; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Mucin-2; 0 / Mucin-4; 0 / Mucins
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12. McCluggage WG, Shah R, Connolly LE, McBride HA: Intestinal-type cervical adenocarcinoma in situ and adenocarcinoma exhibit a partial enteric immunophenotype with consistent expression of CDX2. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Jan;27(1):92-100
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  • [Title] Intestinal-type cervical adenocarcinoma in situ and adenocarcinoma exhibit a partial enteric immunophenotype with consistent expression of CDX2.
  • Most cases of cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and adenocarcinoma are of the usual or endocervical type.
  • However, intestinal types of AIS and adenocarcinoma exist.
  • With an intestinal-type adenocarcinoma in the cervix, the question may arise as to whether one is dealing with a primary cervical neoplasm or direct or secondary spread from an intestinal adenocarcinoma.
  • In organs such as the ovary, urinary bladder, esophagus, and gallbladder, intestinal-type glandular epithelium often expresses enteric markers, but this has hardly been studied in the cervix.
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate whether intestinal-type AIS and adenocarcinoma in the cervix express enteric markers and to ascertain whether these antibodies are of value in the distinction from a metastatic intestinal adenocarcinoma.
  • We compared the immunophenotype of these lesions with that of usual-type AIS and adenocarcinomain the cervix.
  • Cases included were AIS of usual type (n = 6), primary cervical adenocarcinoma of usual type (n = 6), AIS of intestinal type (n = 21), primary cervical adenocarcinoma of intestinal type (n = 3), primary cervical adenocarcinoma with signet ring cells (n = 2), and colorectal adenocarcinoma involving the cervix (n = 5).
  • Usual-type AIS was always diffusely CK7 positive, typically diffusely CEA and p16 positive, and always CK20 negative.
  • All usual cervical adenocarcinomas were diffusely CK7 and p16 positive, and all were immunoreactive with CEA.
  • Intestinal-type AIS was diffusely CK7 positive (all cases) and typically CK20 negative and diffusely CEA and p16 positive.
  • In addition, usual-type AIS adjacent to intestinal type was CDX2 positive in 13 of 21 cases.
  • The 3 cases of primary cervical intestinal-type adenocarcinoma were diffusely CK7 positive, focally or diffusely positive with CK20 and CDX2, and focally positive with CEA.
  • The foci of signet ring cells in the 2 primary cervical adenocarcinomas were diffusely CK7 and p16 positive and negative with CK20 and CDX2.
  • Colorectal adenocarcinomas involving the cervix were typically diffusely positive with CK20, CEA, and CDX2; negative with CK7; and negative or focally positive with p16.
  • Intestinal types of cervical AIS and adenocarcinoma exhibit a partial enteric immunophenotype, usually with diffuse expression of CDX2 and, in some cases, staining with CK20.
  • Although there is immunophenotypic overlap, focal staining with CK20 together with diffuse CK7 and sometimes p16 positivity helps to distinguish intestinal types of cervical adenocarcinoma from involvement by a colorectal adenocarcinoma; CEA and CDX2 are of no value in this regard.
  • CDX2 positivity in usual-type AIS adjacent to intestinal type and in occasional cases of pure usual-type AIS may be a reflection of early intestinal differentiation before this is morphologically apparent.
  • Using a set of cases of AIS diagnosed in a single institution over a 7-year period (77 usual type; 13 intestinal type), intestinal type was more likely to be associated with early invasive adenocarcinoma than usual type (31% vs 17%), suggesting that intestinal differentiation may be a risk factor for invasion in premalignant cervical glandular lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Homeodomain Proteins / biosynthesis. Intestinal Neoplasms / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / biosynthesis. Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / biosynthesis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Immunophenotyping. Keratin-20 / biosynthesis. Keratin-7 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 18156982.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDX2 protein, human; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / Keratin-7
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13. Calleja-Macias IE, Kalantari M, Bernard HU: Cholinergic signaling through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors stimulates the proliferation of cervical cancer cells: an explanation for the molecular role of tobacco smoking in cervical carcinogenesis? Int J Cancer; 2009 Mar 1;124(5):1090-6
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  • [Title] Cholinergic signaling through nicotinic acetylcholine receptors stimulates the proliferation of cervical cancer cells: an explanation for the molecular role of tobacco smoking in cervical carcinogenesis?
  • We have analyzed the expression of mRNAs encoding nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in CaSki, SiHa and HeLa cell lines, which are derived from two squamous and one adenocarcinoma of the cervix, respectively.
  • The beta-1 subunit was detected membrane-associated in normal and neoplastic squamous epithelia of the cervix in situ, but appeared to be absent from the underlying mesenchyme and even from adjacent columnar epithelia.
  • These observations suggest that normal and neoplastic cervical squamous epithelial cells express several combinations of the pentameric nAChRs.
  • This indicates that cholinergic signaling under normal physiological conditions and stimulated by nicotine in tobacco users affects epithelial homeostasis and neoplastic progression at the cervix in a way similar to the known effects on epithelia of the mouth, the airways and the lung.
  • Since tobacco smoking is established as a risk factor in cervical carcinogenesis, and since nicotine and its derivatives become concentrated in cervical mucus, nAChR-dependent signaling is apparently an important molecular cofactor of human papillomavirus-dependent cervical carcinogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Receptors, Nicotinic / physiology. Signal Transduction / physiology. Smoking / adverse effects. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19048619.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA062203
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Subunits; 0 / Receptors, Nicotinic; 6M3C89ZY6R / Nicotine
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14. Confortini M, Di Bonito L, Carozzi F, Ghiringhello B, Montanari G, Parisio F, Prandi S, GISCi Working Group for Cervical Cytology: Interlaboratory reproducibility of atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance: a national survey. Cytopathology; 2006 Dec;17(6):353-60
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  • METHODS: A set of 35 selected slides were circulated among 167 laboratories involved in local population-based cervical screening programmes.
  • Each laboratory provided one single diagnosis per smear.
  • The smears were read blind to the original diagnosis and to the diagnoses provided by other laboratories.
  • A 'majority' diagnosis was defined for each case and assumed as the reference standard.
  • The diagnosis provided from each laboratory was compared with the majority diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: According to the majority report the 35 slides in the set were classified as negative in nine cases, AGC in eight, adenocarcinoma in eight, and squamous lesion or squamous + glandular lesion in 10.
  • K-values were 0.46, 0.21, 0.34, 0.36 and 0.32 for negative, AGC/AIS (adenocarcinoma in situ of endocervix), AdenoCa, Sq/Sq + Gl and all reporting categories respectively.
  • The data confirmed the importance, in a screening scenario, of AGC/AIS diagnoses, but also presented difficulties in differentiating between the two diagnoses.
  • In addition to the results obtained from the circulation of the slides, laboratories which had annually a low number of cervical smears were able to gain experience focused on particular morphological pictures.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervix Uteri / cytology. Mass Screening / methods. Vaginal Smears / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Female. Humans. Reproducibility of Results. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


15. DeSimone CP, Day ME, Tovar MM, Dietrich CS 3rd, Eastham ML, Modesitt SC: Rate of pathology from atypical glandular cell Pap tests classified by the Bethesda 2001 nomenclature. Obstet Gynecol; 2006 Jun;107(6):1285-91
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  • Seventeen women (21%) had preinvasive disease: cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2 or 3, adenocarcinoma in situ and endometrial hyperplasia, whereas 14 women (17%) had invasive adenocarcinomas of the endometrium, cervix, ovary, and rectum.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology. Vaginal Smears / classification
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Colposcopy. Electrosurgery / statistics & numerical data. Female. Genital Neoplasms, Female / epidemiology. Health Planning Guidelines. Humans. Middle Aged. Practice Guidelines as Topic


16. McCluggage WG, Hurrell DP, Kennedy K: Metastatic carcinomas in the cervix mimicking primary cervical adenocarcinoma and adenocarcinoma in situ: report of a series of cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 May;34(5):735-41
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  • [Title] Metastatic carcinomas in the cervix mimicking primary cervical adenocarcinoma and adenocarcinoma in situ: report of a series of cases.
  • Metastatic tumors within the cervix are uncommon if one excludes endometrial carcinoma, which involves the cervix by direct spread.
  • A variety of other neoplasms rarely metastasize to the cervix and, in most cases, the diagnosis is straightforward because of a combination of clinical and pathologic parameters, common features of metastatic carcinoma within the cervix including predominant involvement of the deep stroma, absence of surface involvement and of an in situ component, and prominent lymphovascular permeation.
  • We describe 6 cases of metastatic adenocarcinoma involving the cervix with superficial "mucosal" involvement mimicking primary cervical adenocarcinoma or adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • In 5 cases, the primary adenocarcinoma was in the ovary or peritoneum and was of serous (4 cases) or clear-cell (1 case) type.
  • In the other case, the primary neoplasm was in the pancreas and this was initially interpreted as a primary cervical adenocarcinoma.
  • In the cases of primary ovarian or peritoneal carcinoma, the mucosal tumor within the cervix, which was discovered at the same time as the ovarian or peritoneal neoplasm, raised the possibility of synchronous independent lesions or metastasis from the cervix to the ovary or peritoneum.
  • Positive staining for WT1, p53, and estrogen receptor in the cases of serous carcinoma and an absence of human papillomavirus by linear array genotyping in all cases was of value in excluding a primary cervical neoplasm, although these ancillary studies are supplementary to microscopic examination.
  • In those cases with an ovarian or peritoneal primary, the likely pathogenesis of the cervical involvement is transtubal and intrauterine spread.
  • It is important for the pathologist to be aware of the possibility of cervical mucosal metastasis to avoid an erroneous diagnosis of a primary cervical adenocarcinoma or adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Peritoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged


17. Tsuda H, Mikami Y, Kaku T, Hasegawa T, Akiyama F, Ohishi Y, Sasajima Y, Kasamatsu T: Reproducible and clinically meaningful differential diagnosis is possible between lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia and 'adenoma malignum' based on common histopathological criteria. Pathol Int; 2005 Jul;55(7):412-8
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  • [Title] Reproducible and clinically meaningful differential diagnosis is possible between lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia and 'adenoma malignum' based on common histopathological criteria.
  • The aim of the present study was to determine if the differential diagnosis between lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia (LEGH) and minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA), or 'adenoma malignum', is reproducible when clear criteria for these two lesions are given.
  • A total of 44 proliferative endocervical glandular lesions were collected, for which differential diagnosis from MDA was considered to be necessary.
  • Seven observers independently classified these 44 lesions into LEGH, LEGH with adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), MDA, or common cervical adenocarcinoma, according to the following criteria: LEGH was non-invasive proliferation of endocervical glandular cells without any obvious adenocarcinoma component.
  • MDA was very well-differentiated endocervical-type mucinous adenocarcinoma composed mostly of LEGH-looking glands but containing the component of obviously invasive adenocarcinoma.
  • LEGH with AIS was defined as continuous coexistence of LEGH and AIS.
  • The level increased to almost perfect (kappa = 0.928) between the group of non-invasive lesions consisting of LEGH and LEGH with AIS and the other group of invasive lesions comprising MDA and common adenocarcinoma.
  • When the modal diagnosis was adopted as the final diagnosis for individual lesions, the 5 year survival rate of patients after surgery was 100% for the non-invasive lesions but only 54% for the invasive lesions (P < 0.01).
  • It is clearly shown that reproducible differential diagnosis is possible between LEGH, LEGH with AIS, and MDA and that such a differentiation is clinically meaningful.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Histocytochemistry / methods. Humans. Hyperplasia. Prognosis. Reproducibility of Results. Survival Analysis


18. Quint KD, de Koning MN, Geraets DT, Quint WG, Pirog EC: Comprehensive analysis of Human Papillomavirus and Chlamydia trachomatis in in-situ and invasive cervical adenocarcinoma. Gynecol Oncol; 2009 Sep;114(3):390-4
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  • [Title] Comprehensive analysis of Human Papillomavirus and Chlamydia trachomatis in in-situ and invasive cervical adenocarcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) has been implicated as a co-factor in cervical carcinogenesis.
  • The goal of the current study was to investigate if Ct may play a role in pathogenesis of cervical adenocarcinoma and, specifically, if there is a co-infection between Ct and Human Papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical adenocarcinomas.
  • The second goal of the study was to determine the distribution of HPV genotypes in most recent cases of in-situ and invasive cervical adenocarcinomas.
  • METHODS: Biopsies of 71 cervical adenocarcinomas (31 in-situ and 40 invasive) were tested for the presence of Ct using two novel PCR assays.
  • All lesions, however, were positive for HPV with the exception of a case of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated lack of co-infection between Human Papillomavirus and C. trachomatis in in-situ and invasive adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix.
  • The role of Ct as a carcinogenetic co-factor may be restricted to cervical squamous cell carcinomas.
  • Accounting for type cross-protection, currently available HPV vaccines are likely to prevent close to 100% of HPV-positive cervical adenocarcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / microbiology. Chlamydia Infections / pathology. Chlamydia trachomatis / isolation & purification. Human papillomavirus 16 / isolation & purification. Human papillomavirus 18 / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / microbiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / microbiology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / virology. DNA, Viral / genetics. Female. Genotype. Humans. Polymerase Chain Reaction


19. Kondo T, Hashi A, Murata S, Nakazawa T, Yuminamochi T, Nara M, Hoshi K, Katoh R: Endocervical adenocarcinomas associated with lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia: a report of four cases with histochemical and immunohistochemical analyses. Mod Pathol; 2005 Sep;18(9):1199-210
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  • We report on four cases of endocervical adenocarcinoma associated with lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia using histochemical and immunohistochemical analyses.
  • Cytological examinations of the cervical smears revealed adenocarcinoma cells and benign-looking glandular cells with intracytoplasmic golden-yellow mucin in all cases.
  • From surgical specimens, three tumors were diagnosed as mucinous adenocarcinoma and one was adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • All adenocarcinomas were located proximally on the cervix, and did not involve the transformation zone.
  • Adjacent to carcinoma tissues in the cervix, lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia was detected.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Hyperplasia / complications. Hyperplasia / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gastric Mucosa / metabolism. Gastric Mucosa / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Mucins / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / pathology


20. Basic E, Kozaric H, Kozaric M, Suko A: Conization as treatment of choice for precancerous changes and university cervical cancer at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Clinical Center of Sarajevo University in 2009. Med Arh; 2010;64(3):171-4
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  • [Title] Conization as treatment of choice for precancerous changes and university cervical cancer at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of Clinical Center of Sarajevo University in 2009.
  • According to the Public Health Institute of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina there were 132 newly diagnosed patients with cervical cancer in 2008.
  • AIM: The aim of this article is to present the incidence of precancerous changes on the cervix and cervical cancer as well as the incidence of the use of conization as the type of treatment for cervical patients.
  • RESULTS: In 2009 at the Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics there were 72 newly diagnosed women with cervical cancer, out of which 16 had in situ carcinoma, 158 CIN I lesions, 64 CIN II lesions, and 46 CIN III lesions.
  • Planocellular carcinoma was diagnosed in 59 patients (82%), cervical adenocarcinoma in 13 patients (18%).
  • The most common diagnosis made with pathohistological analysis of the conization was CIN III/CIS, which was found in 48 (29%) patients.
  • CONCLUSION: Surgical method of treatment of precancerous changes as well as cervical cancer using the cold-knife conization with Sturmdorf sutures has shown high efficacy but with certain disadvantages such as the formation of scars, cervical stenosis, postoperative bleeding and others.
  • [MeSH-major] Precancerous Conditions / surgery. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / surgery. Conization. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20645513.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicinski arhiv
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Arh
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bosnia and Herzegovina
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21. Luyten A, Scherbring S, Reinecke-Lüthge A, Braun BE, Pietralla M, Theiler K, Petry KU: Risk-adapted primary HPV cervical cancer screening project in Wolfsburg, Germany--experience over 3 years. J Clin Virol; 2009 Nov;46 Suppl 3:S5-10
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  • [Title] Risk-adapted primary HPV cervical cancer screening project in Wolfsburg, Germany--experience over 3 years.
  • BACKGROUND: Currently, the German cervical cancer screening program encompasses an annual cytological Papanicolaou (Pap) smear.
  • However, primary screening for cervical cancer using human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing detects cervical pre-cancerous lesions with a significantly higher sensitivity than the Pap smear-based cytology.
  • OBJECTIVES: In order to develop viable modalities for primary cervical screening incorporating DNA testing for high-risk (HR) types of HPV, we started a pilot project in the city of Wolfsburg, Germany, in February 2006.
  • There were 417 (2.48%) women referred for colposcopy, 104 of whom were diagnosed with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 3 or worse, including 8 invasive cancers and 8 adenocarcinoma in situ (ACIS).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The presented risk-adapted Wolfsburg Cervical Cancer Prevention Project ("Wolfsburg Model") has been shown to be effective and feasible in identifying women at risk and for avoiding unnecessary procedures for those who are double negative, thus allowing longer screening intervals and cost savings.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Mass Screening / methods. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Alphapapillomavirus / genetics. Alphapapillomavirus / isolation & purification. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Cervix Uteri / virology. Colposcopy. DNA, Viral / genetics. DNA, Viral / isolation & purification. Early Detection of Cancer / economics. Early Detection of Cancer / methods. Female. Germany. Humans. Middle Aged. Papanicolaou Test. Pilot Projects. Risk. Time Factors. Vaginal Smears


22. Kietpeerakool C, Srisomboon J, Prompittayarat W, Kanjanavaha P, Peuwsai R, Dheerakul C: Can adenocarcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix be predicted before cervical conization? Asian Pac J Cancer Prev; 2006 Oct-Dec;7(4):522-4
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  • [Title] Can adenocarcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix be predicted before cervical conization?
  • This study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of the Papanicolaou (Pap) smear, colposcopically-directed biopsy (CDB), and endocervical curettage (ECC) in preconization detection of adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) of the uterine cervix.
  • Women, whose cervical conization specimens contained adenocarcinoma in situ without any associated invasive lesion at Chiang Mai University Hospital between March 1998 and March 2006, were reviewed.
  • According to the histological type of AIS, glandular abnormality suspected from preoperative evaluation was noted in 20 women (70.4%) who had pure AIS.
  • Among women with mixed AIS/HSIL, only 12 women (50.0%) had preoperative evaluation suggesting glandular abnormality.
  • These data demonstrate that the sensitivity of combining Pap smear, CDB and/or ECC in detecting glandular lesions before conization containing AIS appears to be suboptimal.
  • Further study concerning the improvement of detecting AIS before conization is warranted to select the most appropriate diagnostic conization method for such lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Conization. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis


23. Saqi A, Gupta PK, Erroll M, Babiac A, Blackmun D, Mansukhani M, Vazquez M: High-risk human papillomavirus DNA testing: a marker for atypical glandular cells. Diagn Cytopathol; 2006 Mar;34(3):235-9
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  • Cervical/endocervical cytology screening has decreased morbidity and mortality, and implementing adjunctive human papilloma virus (HPV) DNA testing for atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance has improved the specificity for detecting premalignant squamous lesions.
  • Currently, there are no guidelines to perform HPV DNA testing on cervical/endocervical ThinPreps with atypical glandular cells (AGC).
  • To assess the potential role of HPV DNA testing on AGC cases, Hybrid Capture 2 (Digene Corp.) testing was performed on 144 cervical/endocervical AGC specimens.
  • Of 43 HPV-positive patients, 37 had adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance (ASCUS), or cervical squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, while only one patient without high-risk HPV had a squamous intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • Furthermore, most high-risk HPV positive AGC cases harbored high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) rather than AIS.
  • Our data support HPV DNA testing of all AGC specimens to detect cervical, especially squamous, neoplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervix Uteri / virology. DNA, Viral / analysis. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vaginal Smears
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / chemistry. Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. DNA Probes, HPV. Female. Genetic Markers. Humans. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / chemistry. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / pathology. Risk Factors. Sensitivity and Specificity


24. Seo SS, Kim WH, Song YS, Kim SH, Kim JW, Park NH, Kang SB, Lee HP: Epstein-Barr virus plays little role in cervical carcinogenesis in Korean women. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2005 Mar-Apr;15(2):312-8
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  • [Title] Epstein-Barr virus plays little role in cervical carcinogenesis in Korean women.
  • We examined whether Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection plays a role in cervical carcinogenesis in Korean women.
  • EBV infection was examined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with two different primer pairs flanking the BamHI "W" fragment of EBV and by EBV-encoded small RNAs (EBER) in situ hybridization in various histologic types of cervical cancer, including 17 cases of squamous cell carcinoma, 36 cases of adenocarcinoma, and 3 cases of small-cell carcinoma.
  • We also evaluated 20 cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and 20 cases of normal uterine cervix.
  • One case of squamous cell carcinoma and three cases of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia were positive for EBV DNA using PCR, but EBER in situ hybridization analysis showed that none of the PCR-positive cases expressed EBER.
  • EBV DNA was not found using PCR in any of the 20 normal uterine cervices.
  • From our results, EBV infection does not seem to play a role in cervical carcinogenesis in Korean women.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / etiology. Adenocarcinoma / virology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / etiology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / virology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / complications. Herpesvirus 4, Human / pathogenicity. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / etiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] DNA Primers. DNA, Viral. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization. Korea / ethnology. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 15823118.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / DNA, Viral
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25. Dalla Nora LC, Azara CZ, Pace EL, Martins CM, Zeferino LC, Westin MC, Derchain SF, Rabelo-Santos SH: Cytomorphological criteria, subclassifications of endocervical glandular cell abnormalities, and histopathological outcome: a frequency study. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Nov;38(11):806-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency and the significance of cytomorphological criteria defined in studies as being predictive of neoplasia in cervical smears of women with a cytological diagnosis of atypical glandular cells (AGC) or adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS).
  • Women (n = 103) with cytological findings suggestive of AGC or AIS, whose diagnoses were later established by histopathology, were included in the study.
  • The criteria analyzed and classified as present or absent in cervical smears previously classified as AGC-NOS (not otherwise specified), AGC-FN (favor neoplasia), or AIS were as follows: irregular nuclear membranes; scanty cytoplasm; dyskeratotic cells; increased nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio; nucleoli; overlapping; papillary clusters, feathering; loss of polarity; nuclear enlargement; coarsely granular chromatin; and pseudostratified strips.
  • Coarsely granular chromatin was observed in 62.5% of cases with a diagnosis of neoplasia.
  • Feathering was present in 80% of cases of histopathological AIS.
  • Loss of polarity and coarsely granular chromatin were significantly associated with neoplastic diagnosis considering all subcategories of glandular abnormalities diagnosis.
  • In AGC-SOE subclassification, coarsely granular chromatin was significantly associated with neoplastic diagnosis.
  • The presence of nucleoli was significantly associated with neoplastic diagnosis in cervical smears qualified as AGC-FN and AIS.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


26. Liang J, Mittal KR, Wei JJ, Yee H, Chiriboga L, Shukla P: Utility of p16INK4a, CEA, Ki67, P53 and ER/PR in the differential diagnosis of benign, premalignant, and malignant glandular lesions of the uterine cervix and their relationship with Silverberg scoring system for endocervical glandular lesions. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2007 Jan;26(1):71-5
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  • [Title] Utility of p16INK4a, CEA, Ki67, P53 and ER/PR in the differential diagnosis of benign, premalignant, and malignant glandular lesions of the uterine cervix and their relationship with Silverberg scoring system for endocervical glandular lesions.
  • Early detection of premalignant and malignant glandular lesions of the uterine cervix and their distinction from benign mimics is crucial but sometimes difficult.
  • In this study, we investigated utility of expression of p16, CEA, Ki67, p53 and ER/PR in evaluating the benign, premalignant, and malignant glandular lesions of the uterine cervix.
  • A total of 35 cervical cone or LEEP cases were collected including 14 adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), 7 endocervical glandular dysplasia (EGD), and 14 benign mimics (BM).
  • The histological scores assigned independently by 4 pathologists were all equal or above 6 for AIS, between 3 and 5 for EGD, and equal or below 3 for BM.
  • There was increased expression of p16 and CEA in EGD compared with BM (P < 0.05), with further increase in expression of these markers in AIS compared with EGD (P < 0.05).
  • Ki67 expression was significantly increased in AIS compared to EGD (P < 0.05) as well as compared to BM (P < 0.05).
  • There was a loss of ER/PR in cervical AIS, but not in EGD.
  • Our results indicate that the Silverberg scoring system is a useful tool in differential diagnosis of cervical glandular lesions for increased diagnostic accuracy and interobserver agreement.
  • Most cervical glandular lesions can be differentiated by using a combination of histological scores with a panel of immunomarkers.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoembryonic Antigen / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism


27. Vang R, Vinh TN, Burks RT, Barner R, Kurman RJ, Ronnett BM: Pseudoinfiltrative tubal metaplasia of the endocervix: a potential form of in utero diethylstilbestrol exposure-related adenosis simulating minimal deviation adenocarcinoma. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2005 Oct;24(4):391-8
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  • [Title] Pseudoinfiltrative tubal metaplasia of the endocervix: a potential form of in utero diethylstilbestrol exposure-related adenosis simulating minimal deviation adenocarcinoma.
  • We report three cases of unusual tubal-type endocervical glandular proliferations simulating minimal deviation adenocarcinoma in women with a history of in utero diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure.
  • Human papillomavirus DNA was not detected by in situ hybridization in one case that was tested.
  • The proliferations lacked features of mucinous and tubo-endometrioid types of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Diethylstilbestrol / adverse effects. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Metaplasia. Middle Aged. Mitosis. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Receptors, Progesterone / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16175088.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 731DCA35BT / Diethylstilbestrol
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28. Wilting SM, Snijders PJ, Meijer GA, Ylstra B, van den Ijssel PR, Snijders AM, Albertson DG, Coffa J, Schouten JP, van de Wiel MA, Meijer CJ, Steenbergen RD: Increased gene copy numbers at chromosome 20q are frequent in both squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas of the cervix. J Pathol; 2006 Jun;209(2):220-30
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  • [Title] Increased gene copy numbers at chromosome 20q are frequent in both squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas of the cervix.
  • Genome-wide microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) was used to identify common chromosomal alterations involved in cervical carcinogenesis as a first step towards the discovery of novel biomarkers.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 20 / genetics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cell Line, Tumor. Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosome Mapping / methods. Chromosomes, Human / genetics. DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferase / genetics. Female. Genome, Human / genetics. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence / methods. Middle Aged. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / methods. Papillomaviridae. RNA, Messenger / analysis. RNA, Neoplasm / analysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2006 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.
  • [CommentIn] J Pathol. 2006 Oct;210(2):258-9; author reply 260 [16841301.001]
  • (PMID = 16538612.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3417
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 90421
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.1.1.37 / DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferase; EC 2.1.1.37 / DNA methyltransferase 3B
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29. Roberts JM, Thurloe JK, Biro C, Hyne SG, Williams KE, Bowditch RC: Follow-up of cytologic predictions of endocervical glandular abnormalities: histologic outcomes in 123 cases. J Low Genit Tract Dis; 2005 Apr;9(2):71-7
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  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We obtained histologic follow-up for 100% of 67 cytologic predictions of adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and 82% of 39 predictions of possible AIS (?AIS) made over a 4-year period (1999-2002) and for 25% of 105 atypical endocervical cells (AEC) predictions over a 12-month period (2000).
  • RESULTS: PPVs for predictions of AIS and ?AIS for high-grade lesions overall were 91% and 75% (p = .032), respectively, and those for high-grade glandular lesions were 88% and 72% (p = .046), respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: Cytology can accurately predict AIS.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Cytodiagnosis / methods. Cytodiagnosis / standards. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Vaginal Smears


30. Miller B, Dunn J, Dalrymple J, Krivak TC: Pelvic sidewall adenocarcinoma after definitive therapy for cervical adenocarcinoma in situ. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Nov;99(2):489-92
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  • [Title] Pelvic sidewall adenocarcinoma after definitive therapy for cervical adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • BACKGROUND: Traditionally, hysterectomy is considered definitive therapy for cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) in women beyond childbearing.
  • CASE: A 45-year-old gravida 2, para 2 patient presented with cervical dysplasia and on pathology review of the large loop excision procedure cervical adenocarcinoma in situ was diagnosed.
  • Final pathology revealed adenocarcinoma in situ with negative margins.
  • A CT-guided biopsy of the mass was consistent with invasive adenocarcinoma of the endocervical type.
  • CONCLUSION: This case depicts another example of the unpredictable nature of cervical AIS.
  • Despite undergoing definitive surgery, a residual focus of disease may remain leading to invasive adenocarcinoma.
  • Close follow-up is required of all patients diagnosed with AIS because the disease is poorly understood.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Pelvic Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery


31. Raspollini MR, Fambrini M, Marchionni M, Baroni G, Taddei GL: In situ adenocarcinoma and squamous carcinoma of uterine cervix. Pathological and immunohistochemical analysis with cytokeratin 13. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 2007 Oct;134(2):249-53
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  • [Title] In situ adenocarcinoma and squamous carcinoma of uterine cervix. Pathological and immunohistochemical analysis with cytokeratin 13.
  • OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was the pathological and immunohistochemical analysis of cytokeratin 13 (CK13) in intraepithelial cervical tumors.
  • STUDY DESIGN: We studied 415 in situ squamous carcinomas and 13 in situ mucinous cervical type adenocarcinomas of the uterine cervix.
  • All patients underwent laser cervical conization and had a follow-up ranging 12-135 months.
  • RESULTS: 3% of the squamous carcinoma patients recurred during the follow-up period, while the percentage of recurrence of in situ adenocarcinoma patients was 7.6%.
  • We observed CK13 positive staining in cervical squamous tumors and in mucinous cervical type adenocarcinomas, while there was no positive staining in non-neoplastic cervical glandular elements.
  • CONCLUSION: CK13 positive immunostaining among in situ squamous and in situ mucinous cervical type adenocarcinoma cases adds additional evidence to data supporting a common origin of the two lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Keratin-13 / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16949723.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2115
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Keratin-13
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32. Xu JY, Hashi A, Kondo T, Yuminamochi T, Nara M, Hashi K, Murata S, Katoh R, Hoshi K: Absence of human papillomavirus infection in minimal deviation adenocarcinoma and lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2005 Jul;24(3):296-302
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  • [Title] Absence of human papillomavirus infection in minimal deviation adenocarcinoma and lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia.
  • The human papillomavirus (HPV) is basically always detected in squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix and its precursors; a high incidence of HPV also has been reported in adenocarcinoma and adenocarcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix.
  • It is difficult to differentiate minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) from LEGH preoperatively or postoperatively by clinical and pathologic features.
  • As the control, HPV DNA was detected in all cases of squamous cell carcinoma and three of five cases of adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / virology. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / virology. Papillomaviridae / growth & development. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Tumor Virus Infections / virology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 15968208.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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33. Mikami Y, Kiyokawa T, Sasajima Y, Teramoto N, Wakasa T, Wakasa K, Hata S: Reappraisal of synchronous and multifocal mucinous lesions of the female genital tract: a close association with gastric metaplasia. Histopathology; 2009 Jan;54(2):184-91
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  • All six patients had mucinous metaplasia of endometrium, which showed features of lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia (LEGH)/pyloric gland metaplasia (PGM) in five and was associated with mucinous adenocarcinoma in three.
  • Five patients had cervical lesions including LEGH/PGM associated with either adenocarcinoma in situ or minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the cervix.
  • One patient with minimal deviation adenocarcinoma involving the vagina died of her disease, whereas five patients, including three with microinvasion and three with positive peritoneal cytology or mucinous ascites, were alive without recurrence after a mean follow-up of 46 months (range 13-102 months).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Gastric Mucosa / pathology. Genital Neoplasms, Female / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19207943.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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34. Aximu D, Azad A, Ni R, Colgan T, Nanji S: A pilot evaluation of a novel immunohistochemical assay for topoisomerase II-alpha and minichromosome maintenance protein 2 expression (ProEx C) in cervical adenocarcinoma in situ, adenocarcinoma, and benign glandular mimics. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 Mar;28(2):114-9
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  • [Title] A pilot evaluation of a novel immunohistochemical assay for topoisomerase II-alpha and minichromosome maintenance protein 2 expression (ProEx C) in cervical adenocarcinoma in situ, adenocarcinoma, and benign glandular mimics.
  • The histopathologic distinction of cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and invasive adenocarcinoma (AC) from some benign endocervical lesions can be challenging.
  • In this immunohistochemical study the utility of the ProEx C reagent in distinguishing AIS and AC from a variety of non-neoplastic glandular lesions was examined.
  • ProEx C immunohistochemical staining was performed on sections from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue of 65 cervical tissues including 48 non-neoplastic cervices (normal [n=10], microglandular hyperplasia [n=10], tubal metaplasia [n=11], cervical endometriosis [n=7], reactive endocervix [n=10]) and 17 cervices with glandular malignancy (AIS [n=12] and AC [n=5]).
  • The median and distribution of scores for both prevalence and intensity was compared for AIS versus each of the 5 benign cervical lesions using a Mann-Whitney U test.
  • The median and distribution of prevalence of immunohistochemical staining for AIS was different from all benign mimics, but the intensity of staining for AIS did overlap with some mimics as it was not significantly different from endometriosis, microglandular hyperplasia, and reactive endocervix.
  • ProEx C reagent has potential as an adjunctive testing tool in the histopathologic diagnosis of both AIS and AC, particularly in difficult cases with small biopsies or foci of disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Antigens, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. Cell Cycle Proteins / biosynthesis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / biosynthesis. DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Nuclear Proteins / biosynthesis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Hyperplasia / metabolism. Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2. Pilot Projects. Reagent Kits, Diagnostic

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  • (PMID = 19188825.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Reagent Kits, Diagnostic; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM2 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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35. Young JL, Jazaeri AA, Lachance JA, Stoler MH, Irvin WP, Rice LW, Andersen WA, Modesitt SC: Cervical adenocarcinoma in situ: the predictive value of conization margin status. Am J Obstet Gynecol; 2007 Aug;197(2):195.e1-7; discussion 195.e7-8
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  • [Title] Cervical adenocarcinoma in situ: the predictive value of conization margin status.
  • OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the impact of conization margin status on outcomes of patients diagnosed with cervical adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective chart review identified patients at a University hospital from 1988-2006 with adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) on conization.
  • Of patients with positive margins, 55% (12/22) were diagnosed with residual or recurrent disease, including 3 patients diagnosed with adenocarcinoma on hysterectomy.
  • Thirteen percent of patients with negative conization margins (6/46) were diagnosed with residual or recurrent disease, including 2 patients diagnosed with adenocarcinoma during follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Conization. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


36. Negri G, Romano F, Vittadello F, Kasal A, Mazzoleni G, Colombetti V, Egarter-Vigl E: Laminin-5 gamma2 chain immunohistochemistry facilitates the assessment of invasiveness and improves the diagnostic reproducibility of glandular lesions of the cervix uteri. Hum Pathol; 2006 Jun;37(6):704-10
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  • [Title] Laminin-5 gamma2 chain immunohistochemistry facilitates the assessment of invasiveness and improves the diagnostic reproducibility of glandular lesions of the cervix uteri.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of laminin-5 (LN-5) gamma2 chain immunohistochemistry on the assessment of invasiveness in cervical adenocarcinomas and its impact on the diagnostic reproducibility of glandular lesions of the cervix uteri.
  • Immunohistochemistry with LN-5 gamma2 was performed on 30 cases, including 12 adenocarcinomas in situ (AISs), 5 AISs that were suggestive, albeit not conclusive, of infiltration (AIS+), 7 frankly invasive adenocarcinomas, and 6 nonneoplastic cases with reactive changes.
  • Laminin-5 gamma2 was expressed in 5 of the 12 AISs (41.6%), all AIS+ and invasive adenocarcinomas, and none of the reactive cases.
  • The difference in interobserver agreement further increased when including only AISs and AIS+ in the analysis (0.17 versus 0.72; P = .000).
  • After immunohistochemical evaluation, the original AIS diagnosis was unanimously changed to adenocarcinoma with minimal stromal invasion in 3 of 12 cases (25%), whereas a discordant hematoxylin-eosin diagnosis turned into a concordant one in 10 of 13 cases (6 AISs, 2 AIS+, 2 adenocarcinomas; 76.9%).
  • Immunohistochemistry with LN-5 gamma2 facilitates the assessment of the invasiveness of cervical adenocarcinomas and improves the interobserver agreement in glandular lesions of the cervix uteri.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Cell Adhesion Molecules / analysis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


37. Dekker AH: Fostering acceptance of human papillomavirus vaccines. J Am Osteopath Assoc; 2006 Mar;106(3 Suppl 1):S14-8
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  • Multivalent prophylactic human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines currently in the late stages of clinical testing are safe, immunogenic, and efficacious; and phase 3 tests of a quadrivalent vaccine show that it is 100% effective at preventing HPV types 16 and 18-associated cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grades 2 and 3, adenocarcinoma in situ, and cervical cancer through 2 years of postvaccination follow-up.

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  • (PMID = 16729556.001).
  • [ISSN] 0098-6151
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Am Osteopath Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Papillomavirus Vaccines; 0 / Viral Vaccines
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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38. Mikami Y, Kiyokawa T, Moriya T, Sasano H: Immunophenotypic alteration of the stromal component in minimal deviation adenocarcinoma ('adenoma malignum') and endocervical glandular hyperplasia: a study using oestrogen receptor and alpha-smooth muscle actin double immunostaining. Histopathology; 2005 Feb;46(2):130-6
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  • [Title] Immunophenotypic alteration of the stromal component in minimal deviation adenocarcinoma ('adenoma malignum') and endocervical glandular hyperplasia: a study using oestrogen receptor and alpha-smooth muscle actin double immunostaining.
  • AIMS: To define the phenotypic alteration of the stromal component in association with destructive invasion which is a crucial feature in distinguishing minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) from benign endocervical glandular lesions.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied endocervical glandular hyperplasias including non-specific-type (NEGH) (n = 3) and lobular-type (LEGH) (n = 8), and minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) (n = 11), well-differentiated endocervical adenocarcinoma of usual-type (WDA) (n = 11), and adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) (n = 6) of the cervix, by double immunostaining for oestrogen receptor (ER) and alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) using peroxidase- and alkaline phosphatase-polymer methods, respectively.
  • AIS was surrounded by ER+/alpha-SMA- stromal cells.
  • All cases of WDA, MDA, and AIS lacked nuclear staining for ER.
  • [MeSH-major] Actins / analysis. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


39. Daniel A, Barreth D, Schepansky A, Johnson G, Capstick V, Faught W: Histologic and clinical significance of atypical glandular cells on pap smears. Int J Gynaecol Obstet; 2005 Dec;91(3):238-42
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  • 197(45.2%) patients had a clinically significant diagnosis including 40 with adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) of the cervix and 48 with endometrial cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: AGC on a Pap smear is frequently associated with a clinically significant diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Genital Diseases, Female / pathology. Papanicolaou Test. Vaginal Smears


40. Medeiros F, Bell DA: Pseudoneoplastic lesions of the female genital tract. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 Mar;134(3):393-403
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  • Several of the more common pseudoneoplastic lesions are discussed in this article, including microglandular hyperplasia of the cervix mimicking well-differentiated endometrial adenocarcinoma, reactive epithelial changes in the fallopian tubes mimicking adenocarcinoma or carcinoma in situ, and pregnancy changes in the ovary including pregnancy luteoma and large solitary luteinized follicular cyst of pregnancy and puerperium that may mimic ovarian neoplasms.
  • Awareness of the features of such lesions will aid in their correct diagnosis and prevent overtreatment of benign processes.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Diseases, Female / diagnosis. Granuloma, Plasma Cell / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Genital Neoplasms, Female / classification. Genital Neoplasms, Female / diagnosis. Humans. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 20196667.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 76
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41. Ueda Y, Miyatake T, Okazawa M, Kimura T, Miyake T, Fujiwara K, Yoshino K, Nakashima R, Fujita M, Enomoto T: Clonality and HPV infection analysis of concurrent glandular and squamous lesions and adenosquamous carcinomas of the uterine cervix. Am J Clin Pathol; 2008 Sep;130(3):389-400
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  • [Title] Clonality and HPV infection analysis of concurrent glandular and squamous lesions and adenosquamous carcinomas of the uterine cervix.
  • We analyzed the clonality and human papillomavirus (HPV) infection status of concurrent glandular and squamous lesions and adenosquamous carcinomas of the uterine cervix to clarify their histogenesis.
  • HPV was in a mixed integrated-episomal form in a monoclonal GD, an adenocarcinoma in situ, and an adenocarcinoma.
  • These results imply that the concurrent glandular and squamous lesions are formed separately, whereas adenosquamous carcinoma is more likely to be a combination tumor of monoclonal origin, and that integration of HPV has an important role in the progression from polyclonal GD through monoclonal expansion to adenocarcinoma in situ and adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / virology. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Cervix Uteri / virology. Endometrial Neoplasms / virology. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Viral / analysis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / immunology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Female. Human papillomavirus 16 / isolation & purification. Human papillomavirus 18 / isolation & purification. Humans. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 18701412.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Viral
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42. Hatami M, Del Priore G, Chudnoff SG, Goldberg GL: Preserving fertility in invasive cervical adenocarcinoma by abdominal radical trachelectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy. Arch Iran Med; 2006 Oct;9(4):413-6
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  • [Title] Preserving fertility in invasive cervical adenocarcinoma by abdominal radical trachelectomy and pelvic lymphadenectomy.
  • A 32-year-old female was diagnosed by loop electrosurgical excision procedure with adenocarcinoma in situ and a focus suspicious for positive lympho-vascular invasion.
  • We concluded that abdominal radical trachelectomy may be a surgical option for early stage cervical cancer treatment in young women who wish to preserve fertility.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures / methods. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cervix Uteri / surgery. Electrosurgery. Female. Fertility. Humans. Intraoperative Complications. Postoperative Complications. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17061618.001).
  • [ISSN] 1029-2977
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of Iranian medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Iran Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Iran
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43. Kalir T, Simsir A, Demopoulos HB, Demopoulos RI: Obstacles to the early detection of endocervical adenocarcinoma. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2005 Oct;24(4):399-403
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  • [Title] Obstacles to the early detection of endocervical adenocarcinoma.
  • We observed that the ratio of in situ to invasive carcinomas of the cervix is significantly greater for squamous than for glandular lesions.
  • We wondered whether Pap smears were less effective for the identification of in situ glandular lesions.
  • Ten patients had in situ disease, seven (70%) of which involved the transformation zone (TZ); all seven of these were identified by Pap smears.
  • Among the 23 patients with invasive disease that spared the TZ, 6 (26%) had a documented history of negative Pap smears at New York University within 3 years of diagnosis.
  • Noteworthy was the finding that two of these six lesions extended from the endocervix upward, through the stroma, and into the endomyometrium of the lower uterine segment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis


44. Volante R, Giubilato P, Ronco G: Quality of colposcopy and treatment--data from the national survey of Italian organised cervical screening programmes: 2006 activity. Epidemiol Prev; 2009 May-Jun;33(3 Suppl 2):75-82
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  • [Title] Quality of colposcopy and treatment--data from the national survey of Italian organised cervical screening programmes: 2006 activity.
  • We collected from Italian organised cervical screening programmes data on the correlation between colposcopic findings (according to the 1990 international classification) and histology and on the treatment/management of screen-detected histologically confirmed cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / surgery. Colposcopy / standards. Quality Assurance, Health Care. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Catheter Ablation. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Electrocoagulation. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Health Surveys. Humans. Hysterectomy. Italy. Mass Screening. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Time Factors


45. Wilting SM, de Wilde J, Meijer CJ, Berkhof J, Yi Y, van Wieringen WN, Braakhuis BJ, Meijer GA, Ylstra B, Snijders PJ, Steenbergen RD: Integrated genomic and transcriptional profiling identifies chromosomal loci with altered gene expression in cervical cancer. Genes Chromosomes Cancer; 2008 Oct;47(10):890-905
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  • [Title] Integrated genomic and transcriptional profiling identifies chromosomal loci with altered gene expression in cervical cancer.
  • For a better understanding of the consequences of recurrent chromosomal alterations in cervical carcinomas, we integrated genome-wide chromosomal and transcriptional profiles of 10 squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), 5 adenocarcinomas (AdCAs) and 6 normal controls.
  • Previous genomic profiling showed that gains at chromosome arms 1q, 3q, and 20q as well as losses at 8q, 10q, 11q, and 13q were common in cervical carcinomas.
  • In conclusion, integrated chromosomal and transcriptional profiling identified chromosomal hotspots at 1q, 3q, 11q, and 20q with altered gene expression within large commonly altered chromosomal regions in cervical cancer.

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  • (PMID = 18618715.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-2264
  • [Journal-full-title] Genes, chromosomes & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genes Chromosomes Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA114033-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K01 CA114033; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K01 CA114033-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DTX3L protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; EC 3.6.3.8 / ATP2C1 protein, human; EC 3.6.3.8 / Calcium-Transporting ATPases; EC 6.3.2.19 / Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS120768; NLM/ PMC2733213
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46. Austin RM, Onisko A, Druzdzel MJ: The Pittsburgh Cervical Cancer Screening Model: a risk assessment tool. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 May;134(5):744-50
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  • [Title] The Pittsburgh Cervical Cancer Screening Model: a risk assessment tool.
  • CONTEXT: Evaluation of cervical cancer screening has grown increasingly complex with the introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination and newer screening technologies approved by the US Food and Drug Administration.
  • OBJECTIVE: To create a unique Pittsburgh Cervical Cancer Screening Model (PCCSM) that quantifies risk for histopathologic cervical precancer (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN] 2, CIN3, and adenocarcinoma in situ) and cervical cancer in an environment predominantly using newer screening technologies.
  • RESULTS: The PCCSM compares risk quantitatively over time for histopathologically verifiable CIN2, CIN3, adenocarcinoma in situ, and cervical cancer in screened patients for each current cytology result category and for each HPV result.
  • Prior history also alters the CIN2, CIN3, adenocarcinoma in situ, and cervical cancer risk for patients with common current cytology and HPV test results.
  • The PCCSM can also generate negative risk projections, estimating the likelihood of the absence of histopathologic CIN2, CIN3, adenocarcinoma in situ, and cervical cancer in screened patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The PCCSM is a dynamic Bayesian network that computes quantitative cervical disease risk estimates for patients undergoing cervical screening.
  • Continuously updatable with current system data, the PCCSM provides a new tool to monitor cervical disease risk in the evolving postvaccination era.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Early Detection of Cancer / methods. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Papanicolaou Test. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Risk Assessment. Risk Factors. Vaginal Smears


47. Yu KJ, Bashirova A, Madeleine MM, Cheng J, Johnson LG, Schwartz SM, Carrington M, Hildesheim A: Evaluation of the association with cervical cancer of polymorphisms in syndecan-1, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan involved with viral cell entry. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2007 Nov;16(11):2504-8
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  • [Title] Evaluation of the association with cervical cancer of polymorphisms in syndecan-1, a heparan sulfate proteoglycan involved with viral cell entry.
  • Infection with 1 of approximately 15 oncogenic human papillomaviruses is known to be linked to the development of all histologic forms of cervical cancer.
  • We evaluated whether polymorphisms in syndecan-1 (SDC-1), a gene whose protein product is believed to be involved in human papillomavirus entry into epithelial cells, were associated with histologic subtypes of cervical cancer.
  • A total of 293 in situ/invasive adenocarcinoma cases, 260 in situ/invasive squamous cell carcinoma cases, and 478 controls from two studies conducted in the Eastern United States and Seattle area were evaluated.
  • Polymorphisms of SDC-1 were not associated with risk of squamous cell carcinomas of the cervix.
  • Similarly, there was no evidence for an association between SDC-1 exon 3 polymorphisms and risk of cervical adenocarcinomas.
  • A marginally significant increase in risk of cervical adenocarcinoma was associated with the presence of the Pro-27 polymorphism (pooled odds ratios, 1.6; 95% confidence intervals, 0.99-2.6), an effect that was restricted to the Eastern U.S. Study.
  • Our results indicate a lack of association between SDC-1 polymorphisms and risk of squamous cell carcinomas of the cervix.
  • An association between SDC-1 Pro-27 polymorphism and cervical adenocarcinoma cannot be ruled out.

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  • (PMID = 18006945.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA112512-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA112512; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112512-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01CA042792; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA112512-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA112512-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112512-01; United States / NIDA NIH HHS / DA / DA 13324; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112512-03; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112512-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA112512-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA112512-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112512-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA112512; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CO / N01-CO-12400
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Syndecan-1
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48. Kumar N, Bongiovanni M, Molliet MJ, Pelte MF, Egger JF, Pache JC: Diverse glandular pathologies coexist with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion in cyto-histological review of atypical glandular cells on ThinPrep specimens. Cytopathology; 2009 Dec;20(6):351-8
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  • OBJECTIVE: To identify in cytology, high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions with endocervical glandular extension in cases previously diagnosed as atypical glandular cells (AGC), analyse possible reasons for the diagnostic pitfall and document the frequency of glandular pathology coexisting with high-grade cervical intraepithelial lesion in histology.
  • METHODS: Thirty-nine ThinPrep cervical smear (Pap) tests reported as AGC of undetermined significance and showing high-grade lesions on histology [cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) 2 or 3, endometrial or extrauterine adenocarcinoma] were reviewed retrospectively to identify the cases of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion with endocervical glandular extension, using the Bethesda 2001 system.
  • RESULTS: A high frequency of diverse glandular pathologies coexisted with high-grade cervical intraepithelial lesions on histology.
  • This included endocervical glandular extension in 63%, benign glandular pathology in 33% and pre-neoplastic or malignant glandular pathology (endocervical glandular dysplasia, adenocarcinoma in situ and metastatic breast carcinoma) in 17% cases.
  • The identification of endocervical glandular extension on cervical cytology would alert the gynaecologist to perform a thorough assessment of the endocervix during colposcopy.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Cytological Techniques. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult


49. Swartz RJ, West LA, Boiko I, Malpica A, Guillaud M, Macaulay C, Follen M, Atkinson EN, Cox DD: Classification using the cumulative log-odds in the quantitative pathologic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the cervix. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Dec;99(3 Suppl 1):S24-31
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  • [Title] Classification using the cumulative log-odds in the quantitative pathologic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the cervix.
  • The method was tested using data from cervical adenocarcinomas, adenocarcinoma in situ, and normal columnar tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Logistic Models. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


50. Vang R, Gown AM, Farinola M, Barry TS, Wheeler DT, Yemelyanova A, Seidman JD, Judson K, Ronnett BM: p16 expression in primary ovarian mucinous and endometrioid tumors and metastatic adenocarcinomas in the ovary: utility for identification of metastatic HPV-related endocervical adenocarcinomas. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 May;31(5):653-63
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  • The HPV status of the endocervical adenocarcinomas was determined by in situ hybridization and polymerase chain reaction (when in situ hybridization was negative).
  • Diffuse (>75% positive tumor cells) moderate to strong p16 expression is a sensitive (100%) and specific (97%) marker for identifying HPV-related endocervical adenocarcinomas metastatic to the ovary among the primary ovarian tumors and metastatic adenocarcinomas from other sites that are in the differential diagnosis of ovarian tumors having mucinous and/or endometrioid/endometrioidlike differentiation. p16 is useful as part of a panel of immunohistochemical markers for distinguishing primary ovarian tumors from metastases and, when diffusely positive, can suggest the cervix as a potential primary site for metastatic adenocarcinomas of unknown origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / metabolism. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. DNA, Viral / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. In Situ Hybridization. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Papillomavirus Infections. Polymerase Chain Reaction


51. Zelmanowicz Ade M, Schiffman M, Herrero R, Goldstein AM, Sherman ME, Burk RD, Gravitt P, Viscidi R, Schwartz P, Barnes W, Mortel R, Silverberg SG, Buckland J, Hildesheim A: Family history as a co-factor for adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix: results from two studies conducted in Costa Rica and the United States. Int J Cancer; 2005 Sep 10;116(4):599-605
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  • [Title] Family history as a co-factor for adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix: results from two studies conducted in Costa Rica and the United States.
  • Previous work suggests that cervical cancer may aggregate in families.
  • We evaluated the association between a family history of gynecological tumors and risk of squamous cell and adenocarcinomas of the cervix in 2 studies conducted in Costa Rica and the United States.
  • The U.S. study consisted of 570 women (124 with in situ or invasive adenocarcinomas, 139 with in situ or invasive squamous cell carcinomas of the cervix and 307 community-based controls) recruited as part of a multicentric case-control study in the eastern part of the United States.
  • Information on family history of cervical and other cancers among first-degree relatives was ascertained via questionnaire.
  • Information on other risk factors for cervical cancer was obtained via questionnaire.
  • A family history of cervical cancer in a first-degree relative was associated with increased risk of squamous tumors in both studies (odds ration [OR] = 3.2 for CIN3/cancer vs. controls; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-9.4 in Costa Rica; OR = 2.6 for in situ/invasive squamous cell carcinoma cases vs. controls, 95% CI = 1.1-6.4 in the Eastern United States study).
  • No significant association was observed between a family history of cervical cancer in a first-degree relative and adenocarcinomas (OR = 1.3; 95% CI = 0.43-3.9).
  • History of gynecological tumors other than cervical cancer in a first-degree relative was not significantly associated with risk of disease in either study.
  • These results are consistent with a role of host factors in the pathogenesis of squamous cell cervical cancer, although familial aggregation due to shared environmental exposures cannot be ruled out.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / etiology. Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / etiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / genetics

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15818615.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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52. Fambrini M, Pieralli A, Taddei GL, Penna C: Laser cylindrical excision for cervical adenocarcinoma in situ. Int J Gynaecol Obstet; 2006 Dec;95(3):292-3
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  • [Title] Laser cylindrical excision for cervical adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Conization / methods. Laser Therapy / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16999959.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7292
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Gynaecol Obstet
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 142M471B3J / Carbon Dioxide
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53. Baydar DE, Himmetoglu C: Test and Teach. Abnormal glands in the uterine cervix Part 1. Diagnosis: Ectopic prostate tissue in the uterine cervix. Pathology; 2008 Jun;40(4):407-8
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  • [Title] Test and Teach. Abnormal glands in the uterine cervix Part 1. Diagnosis: Ectopic prostate tissue in the uterine cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervix Uteri / pathology. Choristoma / pathology. Prostate. Uterine Cervical Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acid Phosphatase. Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prostate-Specific Antigen / metabolism. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis


54. Sanati S, Huettner P, Ylagan LR: Role of ProExC: a novel immunoperoxidase marker in the evaluation of dysplastic squamous and glandular lesions in cervical specimens. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2010 Jan;29(1):79-87
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  • [Title] Role of ProExC: a novel immunoperoxidase marker in the evaluation of dysplastic squamous and glandular lesions in cervical specimens.
  • Our purpose was to evaluate the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of ProExC in dysplastic squamous and glandular lesions of the cervix.
  • Nine low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 35 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 23 squamous metaplasia, and 14 adenocarcinoma in situ specimens were retrieved from our hospital files.
  • ProExC had sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value of 89%, 100%, 100%, and 82%, respectively, for distinguishing high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion from squamous metaplasia, and 93%, 100%, 100%, and 98%, respectively, for distinguishing adenocarcinoma in situ from reactive benign endocervix.
  • ProExC is a valuable marker for distinguishing dysplastic squamous and endocervical lesions of the cervix from squamous metaplasia in histologic sections.
  • ProExC may eventually be used in conjunction with morphologic and human papillomavirus evaluation for better classification of indeterminate cervical lesions in Papanicolaou smears.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19952938.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM2 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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55. Geldenhuys L, Murray ML: Sensitivity and specificity of the Pap smear for glandular lesions of the cervix and endometrium. Acta Cytol; 2007 Jan-Feb;51(1):47-50
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  • [Title] Sensitivity and specificity of the Pap smear for glandular lesions of the cervix and endometrium.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the sensitivity and specificity of the Pap smear for detection of adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix (AIS), endocervical adenocarcinoma (ECAC) and endometrial adenocarcinoma (EAC) as well as the overall specificity of the smear for detection of glandular lesions in general.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Computer records of the laboratory of the QE II Health Sciences Center, Halifax, were searched for patients who had AIS, ECAC or EAC diagnosed on histology between June 1, 1999, and May 31, 2001 and who had had a Pap smear within the preceding year.
  • Computer records were also searched for patients who had a Pap smear result consisting of suspicious or positive for AIS or adenocarcinoma (AC) with subsequent tissue diagnosis during the same time.
  • RESULTS: One hundred percent of patients with AIS, 80% with ECAC and 22% with EAC on histology had positive findings on a Pap smear performed within a year of the histologic diagnosis.
  • One hundred percent of patients with a Pap smear result consisting of suspicious or positive for AIS or AC and follow-up histology had a lesion on histology: 13% AIS, 13% ECAC, 37% EAC, 23% other AC, 10% high grade squamous lesion and 0.3% low grade squamous lesion.
  • It also confirmed the good sensitivity for glandular lesions of the cervix and the poor sensitivity for glandular lesions of the endometrium.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Papanicolaou Test. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vaginal Smears
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma in Situ. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Sensitivity and Specificity. Uterine Hemorrhage / diagnosis


56. Kim JH, Park JY, Kim DY, Kim YM, Kim YT, Nam JH: The role of loop electrosurgical excisional procedure in the management of adenocarcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 2009 Jul;145(1):100-3
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  • [Title] The role of loop electrosurgical excisional procedure in the management of adenocarcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the occurrence of residual or recurrent disease after loop electrosurgical excisional procedure (LEEP) for adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) of the uterine cervix.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Records of 78 patients with a histological diagnosis of AIS of uterine cervix on LEEP who were treated and followed at our center between 1992 and 2008 were, retrospectively, reviewed.
  • Of the 47 patients with negative margins, 30 underwent subsequent hysterectomy and residual AIS, including 1 invasive adenocarcinoma, was present in 17% (5/30) of patients.
  • Of the 31 patients with positive margins, 29 patients underwent subsequent hysterectomy and residual AIS, including 4 invasive adenocarcinomas, was present in 48% (14/29) of patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of residual disease in patients with negative margins after LEEP for AIS of the uterine cervix is low but not negligible.
  • However, positive resection margin carries a higher risk for residual AIS or occult invasive adenocarcinoma, warranting additional LEEP or hysterectomy in these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Electrosurgery / methods. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cervix Uteri / surgery. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures / instrumentation. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures / methods. Humans. Hysterectomy. Incidence. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19428171.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7654
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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57. Adhya AK, Mahesha V, Srinivasan R, Nijhawan R, Rajwanshi A, Suri V, Dhaliwal LK: Atypical glandular cells in cervical smears: histological correlation and a suggested plan of management based on age of the patient in a low-resource setting. Cytopathology; 2009 Dec;20(6):375-9
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  • [Title] Atypical glandular cells in cervical smears: histological correlation and a suggested plan of management based on age of the patient in a low-resource setting.
  • METHODS: A total of 18 376 cervical smears were screened from January 2005 to June 2007, of which 65 cases were reported as AGC.
  • Squamous abnormalities included one case each of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)1, CIN2 and CIN3 and five cases of squamous cell carcinoma.
  • All glandular epithelial abnormalities were endometrial in origin and included two endometrial adenocarcinomas and one uterine serous carcinoma.
  • Neither in situ nor invasive adenocarcinoma of the endocervix was observed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell. Cervix Uteri. Health Care Costs. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial. Papanicolaou Test. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms. Vaginal Smears


58. Zhao XL, Cheng SX, Kong XD: [Expression and significance of P16INK4A and PTEN in high-risk human papillomavirus-related cervical cancer]. Ai Zheng; 2007 May;26(5):480-3
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  • [Title] [Expression and significance of P16INK4A and PTEN in high-risk human papillomavirus-related cervical cancer].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is the most important etiologic factor for cervical cancer.
  • Recent studies have revealed that abnormal expression of tumor suppressor gene P16INK4A is closely associated with HR-HPV infection during carcinogenesis of cervical epithelium.
  • Tumor suppressor gene PTEN is also involved in cervical tumorigenesis.
  • This study was to investigate the correlations of HR-HPV infection to P16INK4A and PTEN expression and its clinical significance in the carcinogenesis of cervical epithelium.
  • METHODS: The expression of P16INK4A and PTEN in 30 specimens of normal cervical tissues, 11 specimens of cancer in situ (CIS), and 24 specimens of invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC) was detected by SP immunohistochemistry; 13 types of HR-HPV DNA in these cases were detected by Hybrid Capture 2 (HC-2) assay.
  • Both HR-HPV DNA and P16INK4A overexpression (moderate or strong expression) were observed simultaneously in 21 specimens of ICC and 9 specimens of CIS; they were simultaneously negative in 20 specimens of normal cervical tissues and 1 specimen of CIS and 2 specimens of ICC.
  • Overexpression of P16INK4A was positively correlated to HR-HPV infection in cervical cancer (rs = 0.690, P<0.001).
  • PTEN was moderately or strongly expressed in 26 specimens of normal cervical tissues.
  • The positive rate of PTEN was significantly lower in ICC and CIS than in normal cervical tissues (37.5% and 36.4% vs. 83.3%, P<0.01).
  • CONCLUSIONS: P16INK4A is overexpressed in HR-HPV-infected cervical cancer, but its tumor suppressor action might be inhibited.
  • In contrast, the functional down-regulation of PTEN contributes to cervical tumorigenesis through HR-HPV-independent mechanism.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / metabolism. Papillomavirus Infections / genetics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / virology. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Cervix Uteri / metabolism. Cervix Uteri / virology. DNA, Viral / metabolism. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Middle Aged. Papillomaviridae. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 17672936.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / DNA, Viral; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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59. Hurrell DP, Jamison J, Dobbs SP, McCluggage WG: Cervical adenocarcinoma in situ recurring as vaginal adenocarcinoma 16 years after hysterectomy. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 May;28(3):296-300
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  • [Title] Cervical adenocarcinoma in situ recurring as vaginal adenocarcinoma 16 years after hysterectomy.
  • We report a case in which a vaginal adenocarcinoma was discovered in a 67-year-old woman 16 years after hysterectomy for cervical adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • Both the vaginal and cervical lesions exhibited morphologic and immunohistochemical (CDX2-positive) features of intestinal differentiation.
  • Linear array human papillomavirus genotyping demonstrated the vaginal adenocarcinoma to contain human papillomavirus 45.
  • We believe the vaginal adenocarcinoma to be related to the cervical adenocarcinoma in situ and to represent recurrence of this.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology


60. Poynor EA, Marshall D, Sonoda Y, Slomovitz BM, Barakat RR, Soslow RA: Clinicopathologic features of early adenocarcinoma of the cervix initially managed with cervical conization. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 Dec;103(3):960-5
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  • [Title] Clinicopathologic features of early adenocarcinoma of the cervix initially managed with cervical conization.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinicopathologic features of microinvasive adenocarcinoma of the cervix in order to guide the management of patients with this disease.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of patients diagnosed with early invasive, <or=5 mm stromal invasion, adenocarcinoma of the cervix by a cervical conization between 1992 and 1999 at our institution.
  • Ten patients had positive conization margins for invasive cancer, 3 patients had margins positive for adenocarcinoma in situ, 14 patients had negative margins, and in 6 patients the margin status could not be evaluated.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Historically, the standard management of early invasive adenocarcinoma of the cervix has been controversial, and some clinicians continue to favor radical treatments.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Conization / utilization. Outcome Assessment (Health Care). Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery


61. McCluggage WG: Immunohistochemistry as a diagnostic aid in cervical pathology. Pathology; 2007 Feb;39(1):97-111
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemistry as a diagnostic aid in cervical pathology.
  • As with biopsies from other sites in the female genital tract, immunohistochemistry is now being increasingly used in cervical pathology as an aid to diagnosis.
  • In this review, I discuss applications of immunohistochemistry in diagnostic cervical pathology with a particular focus on recent developments.
  • Although much of this review focuses on glandular lesions, the value of markers, such as MIB1 and p16, in the assessment of pre-invasive cervical squamous lesions is discussed.
  • In the broad field of cervical glandular lesions, topics covered include: the value of markers such as MIB1, p16 and bcl-2 in distinguishing adenocarcinoma in situ and glandular dysplasia from benign mimics; markers of mesonephric lesions, including CD10; markers of value in the diagnosis of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma, such as HIK1083; markers of value in distinguishing metastatic cervical adenocarcinoma in the ovary from primary ovarian endometrioid or mucinous adenocarcinoma.
  • Rarely ectopic prostatic tissue occurs in the cervix, which can be confirmed by positive staining with prostatic markers.
  • A panel of markers, comprising oestrogen receptor, vimentin, monoclonal carcinoembryonic antigen and p16, is of value in distinguishing between a cervical adenocarcinoma and an endometrial adenocarcinoma of endometrioid type.
  • Markers of use in the diagnosis of cervical neuroendocrine neoplasms, including small cell and large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, are discussed.
  • It is stressed that small cell neuroendocrine carcinomas may be negative with most of the commonly used neuroendocrine markers and this does not preclude the diagnosis. p63, a useful marker of squamous neoplasms within the cervix, is of value in distinguishing small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (p63 negative) from small cell squamous carcinoma (p63 positive) and in confirming that a poorly differentiated carcinoma is squamous in type.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 17365826.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 104
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62. Sidoruk AA, Novik VI, Urmancheeva AF: [Clinico-morphological diagnosis of adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix uteri]. Vopr Onkol; 2009;55(6):733-9
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  • [Title] [Clinico-morphological diagnosis of adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix uteri].
  • Clinical and morphological investigation involved 57 patients with adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix uteri (poorly-differentiated (precancerous) cell carcinoma in situ (PAIS)--30; adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS)--27).
  • Predictions for PAIS histotype were confirmed in 83%, cytological findings--78%; AIS--52% and 58%, respectively.
  • Accuracy for PAIS and AIS biopsy was 52% and 32%, respectively.
  • However, our procedure failed to detect malignant process in 17.5% (PAIS--6 cases and AIS--4) which was established by use of smears (Feulgen).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Vaginal Smears


63. Terada T: Simultaneous squamous cell carcinoma in situ and adenocarcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix in a 36-year-old Japanese woman. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2010 Mar;281(3):527-30
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  • [Title] Simultaneous squamous cell carcinoma in situ and adenocarcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix in a 36-year-old Japanese woman.
  • INTRODUCTION: Simultaneous occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma in situ (SIS) and adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) is very rare in Japan.
  • CASE: The author reports a rare case of coexistence of SIS and AIS in a young Japanese woman.
  • A 36-year-old Japanese woman complained of abnormal uterine bleeding, and consulted to our hospital.
  • Colposcopic examination revealed irregular lesions in the cervix, and a biopsy showed simultaneous SIS and AIS.
  • The SIS corresponded to cervical intraepithelial neoplasm3, HGSIL, or carcinoma in situ, and AIS was typical AIS.
  • The SIS showed in situ atypical cells without stratification and polarity.
  • The AIS showed tubular or cribriform apparent AIS of mixed endocervical and intestinal type.
  • Most of the areas of SIS and AIS were separated but the two were occasionally seen to merge when involving the glands.
  • The Ki-67 labeling was 82% in the SIS and 78% in the AIS.
  • CONCLUSION: The author reported a Japanese case of combined SIS and AIS, so far infrequently reported in Japanese woman.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


64. Dunton CJ: Management of atypical glandular cells and adenocarcinoma in situ. Obstet Gynecol Clin North Am; 2008 Dec;35(4):623-32; ix
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  • [Title] Management of atypical glandular cells and adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • Glandular abnormalities of the cervix remain a difficult clinical problem.
  • It also discusses the diagnosis of associated endometrial lesions and the use of human papillomavirus DNA testing in the management of glandular lesions of the lower genital tract.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / therapy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Cervix Uteri / cytology. Cervix Uteri / pathology. DNA, Viral / analysis. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Papillomavirus Infections / therapy. Postmenopause. Pregnancy. Vaginal Smears. Young Adult


65. Alphandery C, Dagrada G, Frattini M, Perrone F, Pilotti S: Neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma of the cervix associated with endocervical adenocarcinoma: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2007 Jul-Aug;51(4):589-93
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  • [Title] Neuroendocrine small cell carcinoma of the cervix associated with endocervical adenocarcinoma: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Small-cell carcinoma (SCC) of the cervix is an uncommon member of the neuroendocrine group of cervical carcinomas that is frequently intermixed with a non-SCC component in the form of an adenocarcinoma (ADC) or squamous carcinoma.
  • CASE: Colposcopy revealed a cervical mass in a 41-year-old woman and a Pap smear the presence of some tumor cells from SCC, which was confirmed by subsequent biopsy.
  • The cervical samples showed areas of endocervical ADC adjacent to and intermixed with the SCC.
  • On subsequent molecular investigation to assess clonality by microsatellite analysis, the presence of HR-HPV DNA18 on real-time polymerase chain reaction, p16(INK4a) fluorescence in situ hybridization status and the corresponding immunohistochemical expression supported the hypothesis that the two components of the tumor shared the same cell origin.
  • CONCLUSION: SCC of the cervix is a rare but distinct HR-HPV-18-related cervical carcinoma often intermixed with a clonally related non-small cell component consisting of an ADC or squamous carcinoma.
  • The presence of SCC tumor cells in a cervical smear should prompt a search for malignant glandular or squamous tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antigens, CD56 / metabolism. Biopsy. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Chromogranin A / metabolism. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 18 / genetics. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Microsatellite Repeats / genetics. Papanicolaou Test. Synaptophysin / metabolism. Vaginal Smears


66. Yemelyanova A, Vang R, Seidman JD, Gravitt PE, Ronnett BM: Endocervical adenocarcinomas with prominent endometrial or endomyometrial involvement simulating primary endometrial carcinomas: utility of HPV DNA detection and immunohistochemical expression of p16 and hormone receptors to confirm the cervical origin of the corpus tumor. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Jun;33(6):914-24
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  • [Title] Endocervical adenocarcinomas with prominent endometrial or endomyometrial involvement simulating primary endometrial carcinomas: utility of HPV DNA detection and immunohistochemical expression of p16 and hormone receptors to confirm the cervical origin of the corpus tumor.
  • Determining the primary site of a uterine adenocarcinoma can be problematic in hysterectomy specimens due to the overlapping morphology of endocervical adenocarcinomas and endometrial carcinomas, particularly when both the corpus (usually lower uterine segment) and endocervix are involved and precursor lesions are lacking or difficult to distinguish from intramucosal spread of carcinoma from one site to the other.
  • Both preferential extension of endocervical adenocarcinomas into the endometrium (rather than deep cervical stroma) and myometrial invasion derived from the endometrial component are rarely encountered; to our knowledge, these unusual patterns of spread have not been detailed in prior reports.
  • Six cases had limited amounts of tumor in the cervix proper, with depths of invasion no greater than 5 mm in 4 and only adenocarcinoma in situ in 2.
  • Four cases had cervical stromal invasion of more than 5 mm but all of these had greater amounts of horizontal extension into endometrium or endomyometrium.
  • Five tumors were originally diagnosed as primary endometrial carcinoma with either cervical extension or concurrent endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • HPV DNA was detected in both the cervical and corpus components in all tumors and all exhibited diffuse/strong p16 expression and decreased or absent expression of hormone receptors.
  • These ancillary techniques are useful for clarifying the origin of uterine adenocarcinomas when morphologic features and tumor location are equivocal.
  • These cases illustrate that dominant uterine corpus involvement (endometrial or endomyometrial) by primary endocervical adenocarcinoma can lead to misclassification as primary endometrial adenocarcinoma with cervical extension (Fédération Internationale de Gynécologie et d'Obstétrique stage II), especially when endometrial extension of endocervical adenocarcinoma simulates complex atypical hyperplasia.
  • A subset of misclassified endocervical adenocarcinomas may account for some HPV-positive uterine carcinomas reported as primary endometrial carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / biosynthesis. DNA, Viral / analysis. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Receptors, Steroid / biosynthesis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Endometrium / metabolism. Endometrium / pathology. Endometrium / virology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Middle Aged. Papillomaviridae. Papillomavirus Infections / diagnosis. Papillomavirus Infections / metabolism. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Receptors, Estrogen / biosynthesis. Receptors, Progesterone / biosynthesis


67. Veras E, Srodon M, Neijstrom ES, Ronnett BM: Metastatic HPV-related cervical adenocarcinomas presenting with thromboembolic events (Trousseau Syndrome): clinicopathologic characteristics of 2 cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 Mar;28(2):134-9
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  • [Title] Metastatic HPV-related cervical adenocarcinomas presenting with thromboembolic events (Trousseau Syndrome): clinicopathologic characteristics of 2 cases.
  • The first patient, age 36, presented with bilateral lower extremity deep vein thromboses, pulmonary embolism, and supraclavicular and cervical lymphadenopathy.
  • Lymph node biopsy revealed metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma with focal signet ring cell differentiation.
  • Autopsy examination revealed widespread metastatic adenocarcinoma with a 2 cm cervical adenocarcinoma.
  • Diagnostic laparoscopy with biopsies and left oophorectomy revealed metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma with signet ring cell differentiation involving peritoneum, ovary, cervix, and bladder without a defined primary site.
  • HPV DNA was detected by in situ hybridization in the lymph node metastasis in the first case and in the cervical and ovarian tumor specimens in the second case.
  • These features more commonly suggest metastatic adenocarcinoma of upper gastrointestinal tract origin but the presence of HPV DNA within the tumors establishes them as cervical in origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Thromboembolism / etiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization

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  • (PMID = 19188822.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Griffin D, Manuck TA, Hoffman MS: Adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix in pregnancy. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 May;97(2):662-4
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  • [Title] Adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix in pregnancy.
  • INTRODUCTION: The number of patients diagnosed with adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix has increased in the last decade.
  • CASES: In this report, we describe three patients diagnosed with adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix during pregnancy.
  • DISCUSSION: The management of adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix may include procedures which present substantial risks to an ongoing pregnancy and more conservative management may be warranted in many instances.
  • [MeSH-major] Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / surgery. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adult. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Female. Humans. Pregnancy


69. O'Neill CJ, McCluggage WG: p16 expression in the female genital tract and its value in diagnosis. Adv Anat Pathol; 2006 Jan;13(1):8-15
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  • [Title] p16 expression in the female genital tract and its value in diagnosis.
  • Diffuse (as opposed to focal) positivity with p16 in the cervix can be regarded as a surrogate marker of the presence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV).
  • In cervical squamous lesions, p16 is positive in most high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and in some cases of low-grade CIN, usually those associated with high-risk HPV. p16 may be useful to identify small focal high-grade CIN lesions, to distinguish some cases of CIN involving immature metaplastic squamous epithelium from immature metaplastic squamous epithelium not involved by CIN and to distinguish high-grade CIN from benign mimics.
  • Most cervical carcinomas of squamous, glandular, and small cell type are p16-positive.
  • In cervical glandular lesions, p16 is useful, as part of a panel, in the distinction between adenocarcinoma in situ (diffusely positive) and benign mimics, including tuboendometrial metaplasia and endometriosis, which are usually p16-negative or focally positive. p16 may be used, in combination with other markers, to distinguish between a cervical adenocarcinoma (diffuse positivity) and an endometrioid-type endometrial adenocarcinoma (negative or focally positive).
  • Some uterine serous carcinomas are diffusely positive.
  • In the uterus, p16 positivity is more common and widespread in leiomyosarcomas than leiomyomas, and this may be a useful aid to diagnosis, although problematic uterine smooth muscle neoplasms have not been extensively studied.
  • Metastatic cervical adenocarcinomas in the ovary are usually diffusely p16-positive, and because these may closely mimic a primary ovarian endometrioid or mucinous adenocarcinoma, this may be a valuable diagnostic aid, although p16 expression in primary ovarian adenocarcinomas of these morphologic subtypes has not been widely investigated.
  • Some ovarian serous carcinomas, similar to their uterine counterparts, are p16-positive.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / analysis. Genital Neoplasms, Female / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / chemistry. Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Carcinoma, Small Cell / chemistry. Carcinoma, Small Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Small Cell / genetics. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / chemistry. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / diagnosis. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / genetics. Diagnosis, Differential. Endometrial Neoplasms / chemistry. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / genetics. Female. Genes, p16. Genitalia, Female / chemistry. Genitalia, Female / physiopathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ovarian Neoplasms / chemistry. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / analysis. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / chemistry. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / genetics. Uterine Neoplasms / chemistry. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / genetics. Vulvar Neoplasms / chemistry. Vulvar Neoplasms / classification. Vulvar Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vulvar Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16462152.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-4109
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 65
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70. Flannelly G: The management of women with abnormal cervical cytology in pregnancy. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol; 2010 Feb;24(1):51-60
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  • [Title] The management of women with abnormal cervical cytology in pregnancy.
  • The emphasis should be on diagnosis and confirmation of cervical precancer (Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) or Adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), thus excluding invasive cancer).
  • This must include colposcopy and take into account the physiological changes of the cervix during pregnancy and the puerperium.
  • The management of women with invasive cancer diagnosed during pregnancy depends on the gestation at diagnosis and requires careful assessment and multidisciplinary planning.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / surgery. Precancerous Conditions / surgery. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / surgery. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Colposcopy. Evidence-Based Medicine. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy / methods. Pregnancy. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Vaginal Smears


71. van der Aa MA, Helmerhorst TJ, Siesling S, Riemersma S, Coebergh JW: Vaginal and (uncommon) cervical cancers in the Netherlands, 1989-2003. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2010 May;20(4):638-45
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  • [Title] Vaginal and (uncommon) cervical cancers in the Netherlands, 1989-2003.
  • BACKGROUND: The clinical and prognostic evaluation of cervical and vaginal tumors other than squamous cell and adenocarcinomas is hampered by the low incidence, and clinical and epidemiological studies on these uncommon tumors are scarce.
  • Having close affinity with the pathology laboratories, the Netherlands Cancer Registry offers a great opportunity to study frequency, stage, treatment, and survival of uncommon tumors in the cervix and vagina and separately, the clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina and cervix.
  • METHODS: All invasive cervical tumors (n = 10,570) and all in situ and invasive vaginal tumors (n = 778) diagnosed in the Netherlands during 1989-2003 were selected from the Netherlands Cancer Registry.
  • Age, stage at diagnosis, and treatment were described for each histological subgroup to find differences between common and uncommon tumors, including 5-year relative survival rates.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-five patients (3%) with cervical cancer subsequently developed a vaginal tumor (during 1989-2003), and 19 of these patients underwent hysterectomy for their cervical cancer.
  • A significantly worse prognosis was found for patients with small cell neuroendocrine cervical tumors and for patients with vaginal melanomas.
  • Patients with clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina and cervix were found across all age categories.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The less common histological types of cervical and vaginal cancers were clearly different from squamous cell carcinomas, especially with respect to age at diagnosis and survival rates.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / mortality. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / mortality. Vaginal Neoplasms / mortality


72. Massad LS, Xie X, Darragh TM, Minkoff H, Levine AM, D'Souza G, Cajigas A, Colie C, Watts DH, Strickler HD: Histologic correlates of glandular abnormalities in cervical cytology among women with human immunodeficiency virus. Obstet Gynecol; 2009 Nov;114(5):1063-8
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  • [Title] Histologic correlates of glandular abnormalities in cervical cytology among women with human immunodeficiency virus.
  • OBJECTIVE: To estimate the frequency and histologic correlates of glandular abnormalities in cervical cytology among women with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and to compare findings with those of women without HIV.
  • Glandular abnormalities, including atypical glandular cells (AGC), adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), and adenocarcinoma, were identified and correlated with biopsy histology.
  • After index abnormal tests, endocervical curettings were obtained from 106 (43%) women, cervical biopsies from 76 (38%), and endometrial biopsies from 19 (8%).

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  • (PMID = 20168108.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-233X
  • [Journal-full-title] Obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / UO1-HD-32632; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-34994; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-34989; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI031834; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035004; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024131; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI034989; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-35004; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-34993; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI034994; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI035004-08S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA-085178; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI035004-08S1; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-42590; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA085178; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI034993; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / UO1-AI-31834; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / U01 HD032632; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U01 AI042590
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS257741; NLM/ PMC3032588
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73. Wang JF, Wang CX, Wang LS, Zhang J, Yang XJ, Liu M, Zheng GX: Association of human papillomavirus type 16 E7 and HLA class I antigen expression in cervical premalignant and malignant lesions. Int J Biol Markers; 2007 Apr-Jun;22(2):124-31
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  • [Title] Association of human papillomavirus type 16 E7 and HLA class I antigen expression in cervical premalignant and malignant lesions.
  • In the present experiment we studied the correlation between HPV16 infection and expression of HLA-I antigen in cervical premalignant and malignant lesions (cervicitis, CIN, cervical squamous carcinomas and adenocarcinoma samples).
  • Our data indicate that HPV16 E7 load was highly and positively associated with the development of cervical lesions (Spearman's correlation coefficient r=0.848, p<0.001), the negative rate of HLA-I antigen was significantly distinguished among groups (p<0.001), and HPV16 E7 infection and downregulation of HLA-I antigen were highly correlated in cervical lesions (Pearson's correlation coefficient r=-0.487, p<0.001).
  • HPV16 E7 may play an important role in the downregulation of HLA-I antigen in cervical lesions, which results in the immune escape of the virus and the occurrence, development, invasion and metastasis of cancer.
  • Furthermore, quantitative PCR for HPV16 E7 may play an important role in the early detection of cervical diseases and in guiding future therapy toward prevention.
  • [MeSH-major] Alphapapillomavirus / isolation & purification. Histocompatibility Antigens Class I / genetics. Precancerous Conditions / immunology. Precancerous Conditions / virology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / immunology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma in Situ / immunology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / virology. Cervix Uteri / immunology. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Cervix Uteri / virology. DNA, Viral / genetics. DNA, Viral / isolation & purification. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 17549668.001).
  • [ISSN] 0393-6155
  • [Journal-full-title] The International journal of biological markers
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Biol. Markers
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Histocompatibility Antigens Class I
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74. Gong L, Zhang WD, Liu XY, Han XJ, Yao L, Zhu SJ, Lan M, Li YH, Zhang W: Clonal status and clinicopathological observation of cervical minimal deviation adenocarcinoma. Diagn Pathol; 2010;5:25
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  • [Title] Clonal status and clinicopathological observation of cervical minimal deviation adenocarcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) of the uterine cervix is defined as an extremely well differentiated variant of cervical adenocarcinoma, with well-formed glands that resemble benign glands but show distinct nuclear anaplasia or evidence of stromal invasion.
  • Thus, MDA is difficult to differentiate from other cervical hyperplastic lesions.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Diagnosis of MDA depends mainly on its clinical manifestations, the pathological feature that MDA glands are located deeper than the lower level of normal endocervical glands, and immunostaining.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Cell Differentiation. Chromosomes, Human, X. Receptors, Androgen / genetics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / genetics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoembryonic Antigen / analysis. Case-Control Studies. Cell Proliferation. DNA, Viral / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Mosaicism. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Polymorphism, Genetic. Predictive Value of Tests. Stromal Cells / pathology


75. Li C, Rock KL, Woda BA, Jiang Z, Fraire AE, Dresser K: IMP3 is a novel biomarker for adenocarcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix: an immunohistochemical study in comparison with p16(INK4a) expression. Mod Pathol; 2007 Feb;20(2):242-7
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  • [Title] IMP3 is a novel biomarker for adenocarcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix: an immunohistochemical study in comparison with p16(INK4a) expression.
  • Adenocarcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix remains a diagnostic challenge in a small proportion of cases.
  • This suggests a need for biomarker that may be of help in establishing the diagnosis.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of insulin-like growth factor-II mRNA-binding protein 3 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16(INK4a) as biomarkers for adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • Forty-four samples of adenocarcinoma in situ from 40 patients and 23 control cases of benign uterine cervix were included in this study.
  • Cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for insulin-like growth factor-II mRNA-binding protein 3 was identified in 41 (93%) adenocarcinoma in situ samples, among which, 29 (71%), 10 (24%), and 2 (5%) samples showed insulin-like growth factor-II mRNA-binding protein 3 positive staining in 50% or more, >5 to <50 and <5% of adenocarcinoma in situ lesional cells, respectively.
  • Immunohistochemical reaction intensity for insulin-like growth factor-II mRNA-binding protein 3 was found to be strong in 34 adenocarcinoma in situ samples, intermediate in five, and weak in two.
  • All 23 control cases were negative for insulin-like growth factor-II mRNA-binding protein 3. p16(INK4a) expression was identified in all of the adenocarcinoma in situ samples with intermediate staining intensity seen in seven samples and strong in the remainder.
  • Our findings demonstrate significant expression of insulin-like growth factor-II mRNA-binding protein 3 and p16(INK4a) in adenocarcinoma in situ as compared to benign endocervical glands, suggesting that expression of these biomarkers may be helpful in the distinction of adenocarcinoma in situ from benign endocervical glands, particularly in difficult borderline cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. RNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cervix Uteri / metabolism. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Middle Aged


76. Frank JE: The colposcopic examination. J Midwifery Womens Health; 2008 Sep-Oct;53(5):447-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Colposcopy is used to evaluate women with genital tract abnormalities and abnormal cervical cytology.
  • It is an office-based procedure during which the cervix is examined under illumination and magnification before and after application of dilute acetic acid.
  • Endocervical sampling may accompany colposcopy, particularly in the evaluation of nonpregnant women with cytology results of atypical glandular cells and adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervix Uteri / pathology. Colposcopy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Biopsy. Female. Humans. Midwifery. Physical Examination. Postmenopause. Pregnancy. Uterine Cervical Diseases / diagnosis. Vaginal Diseases / diagnosis


77. Miyashita M, Agdamag DM, Sasagawa T, Matsushita K, Salud LM, Salud CO, Saikawa K, Leano PS, Pagcaliwagan T, Acuna J, Ishizaki A, Kageyama S, Ichimura H: High-risk HPV types in lesions of the uterine cervix of female commercial sex workers in the Philippines. J Med Virol; 2009 Mar;81(3):545-51
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  • [Title] High-risk HPV types in lesions of the uterine cervix of female commercial sex workers in the Philippines.
  • In order to prevent cervical cancer, vaccines against human papilloma virus types 16 (HPV-16) and 18 (HPV-18) have been implemented worldwide.
  • Therefore, the prevalence of HPV infection and cervical abnormalities among 369 female commercial sex workers in the Philippines were examined.
  • Among 56 women with abnormal cervical cytology (low- and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and adenocarcinoma in situ), HPV-52 was most common (23.2%), followed by HPV-16 (19.6%), -58 (10.7%), and -67 (10.7%).
  • Repeated analysis of HPV-52 single-positive samples using the original GP5+/6+ PCR primers produced negative results in 57% of cases, suggesting that the prevalence of HPV-52 infection may have been underestimated in previous studies, and the current vaccines may not be sufficient for preventing infection and the development of premalignant lesions of the cervix in women in the Philippines.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervix Uteri / virology. Papillomaviridae / classification. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Papillomavirus Infections / virology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19152419.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9071
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
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  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
  •  go-up   go-down


78. Cohn DE, Morrison CD, Zanagnolo VL, Goist MM, Copeland LJ: Invasive cervical adenocarcinoma immediately following a cone biopsy for adenocarcinoma in situ with negative margins. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Jul;98(1):158-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Invasive cervical adenocarcinoma immediately following a cone biopsy for adenocarcinoma in situ with negative margins.
  • BACKGROUND: Cervical adenocarcinoma in situ is often diagnosed in younger women who may wish to preserve the potential for fertility.
  • Given that the rate of recurrent adenocarcinoma in situ is relatively low and the risk of invasive adenocarcinoma is extremely rare, conservative management in this population after a cone biopsy demonstrates negative margins has been accepted as an appropriate management strategy.
  • This case challenges the concept of conservative management of cervical adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • CASE: A 42-year-old G2P2002 with previously normal annual cervical cytology had a Pap smear demonstrating atypical glandular cells of uncertain significance.
  • A 1.5-cm lesion was noted at the endocervix, and a punch biopsy revealed adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • A large cold knife cone biopsy confirmed cervical adenocarcinoma in situ with negative margins.
  • Definitive therapy for in situ disease with an extrafascial hysterectomy was performed 12 days after conization, and demonstrated stage IB1 cervical adenocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Conservative management of cervical adenocarcinoma in situ after a cone biopsy with negative margins does not exclude the possibility of concurrent invasive cervical adenocarcinoma.
  • This case challenges the current balance between risk and benefit associated with the conservative management of cervical adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Conization. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


79. Kennedy CM, Peterson LB, Galask RP: Erosive vulvar lichen planus: a cohort at risk for cancer? J Reprod Med; 2008 Oct;53(10):781-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the occurrence of cancer, including vulvovaginal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), among women after diagnosis of erosive vulvar lichen planus (LP).
  • RESULTS: A diagnosis of cancer was made in 5 women after diagnosis of erosive vulvar LP.
  • Of these, 1 had stage II vulvar SCC after treatment for stage IIB cervical cancer, and 2 with oral LP had subsequent diagnoses of oral or esophageal SCC.
  • The remaining 2 cancer diagnoses included cervical adenocarcinoma in situ and rectal adenocarcinoma.
  • Estimating the risk of SCC among women with vulvar LP is difficult because of the low prevalence of each disorder.


80. Dedecker F, Graesslin O, Bonneau S, Quéreux C: [Persistence and recurrence of in situ cervical adenocarcinoma after primary treatment. About 121 cases]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil; 2008 Jun;36(6):616-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Persistence and recurrence of in situ cervical adenocarcinoma after primary treatment. About 121 cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Persistance et récidive des adénocarcinomes in situ après traitement: à propos d'une série rétrospective multicentrique de 121 cas.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to assess the results of conservative management of adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) of the uterine cervix.
  • Patients with cervical invasive lesions were excluded.
  • General characteristics of population, diagnosis circumstances, treatment, histology and evolution were studied.
  • DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Conservative surgery for patients with AIS could be considered in young patients but several conditions should be respected: careful follow-up after conservative treatment; cold knife conization; length of cone specimen greater than 25 mm and negative margins.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Papillomavirus Infections / surgery. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery


81. Lacour RA, Garner EI, Molpus KL, Ashfaq R, Schorge JO: Management of cervical adenocarcinoma in situ during pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol; 2005 May;192(5):1449-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of cervical adenocarcinoma in situ during pregnancy.
  • OBJECTIVE: Adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) is a precursor of invasive disease that is being more frequently diagnosed during the reproductive years.
  • The purpose of this study was to review our collective experience managing cervical AIS during pregnancy.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective medical record review of all women diagnosed with AIS during pregnancy from 1995 to 2004 at 3 academic institutions.
  • Five who received a diagnosis in the early second trimester underwent uncomplicated cold knife conization (CKC) at 14 to 19 weeks' gestation.
  • One patient undergoing postpartum CKC required radical hysterectomy for stage IB1 cervical adenocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Management of cervical AIS during pregnancy by early second trimester CKC is safe for mother and fetus.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Conization. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / surgery. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery


82. Altaf FJ: Cervical cancer screening with pattern of pap smear. Review of multicenter studies. Saudi Med J; 2006 Oct;27(10):1498-502
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cervical cancer screening with pattern of pap smear. Review of multicenter studies.
  • OBJECTIVE: To estimate the frequency of abnormal cervical smears and to compare the findings with earlier reported data from Saudi Arabia.
  • The malignant categories were squamous cell carcinoma (0.08%), adenocarcinoma of cervix in situ (0.02%) and invasive (0.04%).
  • Unified national programs for diagnosing cervical precancerous lesions should be established covering different region of the Kingdom to evaluate the magnitude of the problem.
  • [MeSH-major] Papanicolaou Test. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology. Vaginal Smears / trends


83. Saglam A, Bozdag G, Kuzey GM, Kuçukali T, Ayhan A: Four synchronous female genital malignancies: the ovary, cervix, endometrium and fallopian tube. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2008 Jun;277(6):557-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Four synchronous female genital malignancies: the ovary, cervix, endometrium and fallopian tube.
  • OBJECTIVE: To present a unique case of a 63 year-old woman with coexistent adenocarcinoma of the ovary, endometrium, cervix and fallopian tube.
  • Furthermore, the focal endometrial irregularity at the left uterine cornus turned out to be a well differentiated endometrial carcinoma of the endometrioid type with <1/3 myometrial invasion.
  • The pale infiltrative lesion in the cervix also turned out to be an adenocarcinoma of the endocervical type with deep stromal invasion and areas of diffuse glandular dysplasia and in-situ glandular neoplasia at the periphery.
  • Besides, several sections from the left fallopian tube uncovered diffuse dysplasia in the lining epithelium and a focus of adenocarcinoma with papillary and cribriform pattern.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Fallopian Tube Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


84. Quint KD, de Koning MN, van Doorn LJ, Quint WG, Pirog EC: HPV genotyping and HPV16 variant analysis in glandular and squamous neoplastic lesions of the uterine cervix. Gynecol Oncol; 2010 May;117(2):297-301
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] HPV genotyping and HPV16 variant analysis in glandular and squamous neoplastic lesions of the uterine cervix.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to compare the distribution of HPV genotypes and HPV16 variants in glandular and squamous cervical neoplasia.
  • METHODS: Cases of endocervical adenocarcinoma in-situ (AIS, n=33) invasive adenocarcinoma (ADCA, n=55), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia-3 (CIN3, n=130) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, n=60) were collected at the New York Hospital and tested for HPV using SPF(10)PCR-LIPA(25) (version 1) assays and for HPV16 variants using a multiplex PCR and reverse hybridization assay.
  • RESULTS: There was a difference between the spectrum of HPV genotypes detected in glandular and squamous neoplasia: 13 different HPV genotypes were detected in CIN3 as single infections and 11 in SCC, while only 4 single genotypes were detected in AIS and 3 in ADCA.
  • In AIS, HPV16, 18, 45 and 35 accounted for 69.7%, 27.2%, 3%, 3% of cases.
  • European variants of HPV16 were the most common in CIN3 (83.8%), SCC (71.4%) and AIS (73.9%).
  • AA variant was also detected in 17.4%, 4.1%, and 2.4% of HPV16 positive AIS, CIN3 and SCC, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: Asian American variant of HPV16, HPV18 and HPV45 are preferentially associated with cervical adenocarcinoma as compared to squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / virology. Human papillomavirus 16 / genetics. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Papillomavirus Infections / virology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology


85. Maneo A, Chiari S, Bonazzi C, Mangioni C: Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and conservative surgery for stage IB1 cervical cancer. Gynecol Oncol; 2008 Dec;111(3):438-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Neoadjuvant chemotherapy and conservative surgery for stage IB1 cervical cancer.
  • OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of chemo-surgical conservative therapy for stage IB1 cervical tumors in patients desiring to preserve fertility.
  • METHODS: From 1995 to April 2007 51 nulliparous patients with tumor <or=3 cm, aged <or=40 years with no uterine and lymphnode neoplastic involvement were evaluated.
  • Three courses with cisplatin 75 mg/m(2), paclitaxel 175 mg/m(2) and ifosfamide 5 g/m(2) (epirubicin 80 mg/m(2) in adenocarcinoma) were followed by cold-knife conization and pelvic lymphadenectomy.
  • When intraoperative frozen section revealed massive neoplastic cervical persistence a radical total hysterectomy was performed.
  • Adenocarcinoma was present in 12 cases (57%) and indifferentiated neoplasia in 10 (48%).
  • Following neoadjuvant treatment, pathological complete response was observed in 5 cases, in situ or microinvasive residue in 12 and stromal invasion >3 mm in 4.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The high rate of pathological response confirms the effectiveness of the preoperative treatment for reducing the tumor volume allowing the removal only of a cervical cone instead of the entire cervix with cardinal ligaments as needed by radical trachelectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adult. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Conization. Epirubicin / administration & dosage. Epirubicin / adverse effects. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Ifosfamide / adverse effects. Lymph Node Excision. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Paclitaxel / adverse effects. Young Adult


86. Liao SY, Rodgers WH, Kauderer J, Bonfiglio TA, Walker JL, Darcy KM, Carter R, Hatae M, Levine L, Spirtos NM, Stanbridge EJ: Carbonic anhydrase IX and human papillomavirus as diagnostic biomarkers of cervical dysplasia/neoplasia in women with a cytologic diagnosis of atypical glandular cells: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study in United States. Int J Cancer; 2009 Nov 15;125(10):2434-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Carbonic anhydrase IX and human papillomavirus as diagnostic biomarkers of cervical dysplasia/neoplasia in women with a cytologic diagnosis of atypical glandular cells: a Gynecologic Oncology Group study in United States.
  • High-risk human papillomavirus (H-HPV) infection is strongly linked to cervical neoplasia, but its role in detecting glandular lesions (GLs) is unclear.
  • In the cervix, carbonic anhydrase IX (CA-IX) is expressed in cervical neoplasia, but rarely in the benign cervix.
  • The diagnostic utility of these biomarkers was evaluated in women with a cytologic diagnosis of atypical glandular cells (AGC).
  • Of 403 patients, 111 (28%) were positive for significant cervical lesions (SCLs) including CIN2, CIN3, adenocarcinoma in situ or invasive carcinoma.
  • The combination of CA-IX with H-HPV testing does not improve the diagnostic accuracy for cervical neoplasia in women with AGC diagnosis over that of H-HPV testing alone.

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  • (PMID = 19670419.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA037517-25; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA027469-29; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 11479; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 27469; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA027469; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA037517; None / None / / U10 CA037517-25; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 37517; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA027469-29
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA, Viral; EC 4.2.1.1 / CA9 protein, human; EC 4.2.1.1 / Carbonic Anhydrases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS137629; NLM/ PMC2779726
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87. Akiba Y, Kubushiro K, Fukuchi T, Fujii T, Tsukazaki K, Mukai M, Nozawa S: Is laser conization adequate for therapeutic excision of adenocarcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix? J Obstet Gynaecol Res; 2005 Jun;31(3):252-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Is laser conization adequate for therapeutic excision of adenocarcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix?
  • AIMS: To determine the safety of uterine-preserving operations for adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix.
  • METHODS: Fifteen cases of adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) were diagnosed using neodymium:yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser conization.
  • The accuracy of preconization histology or cytology was evaluated in 15 AIS cases.
  • In these AIS cases, we investigated how far the tumor was located from the squamocolumnar junction (SCJ) and the endocervix.
  • Fourteen cases of the 15 AIS-affected patients were treated using laser conization alone.
  • RESULTS: Precise agreement between preconization diagnosis and conization histology was seen in 46.7% (7/15) of the AIS cases.
  • In 14 of the 15 cases of AIS (93.3%), the tumor was adjacent to the transitional zone, within 3 mm of the SCJ, and in the other case (6.7%), the tumor was between 0 and 5 mm away from the SCJ.
  • None of the 15 patients showed any recurrence of AIS during follow up ranging from 15 to 75 months (43.1 months on average).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Women with AIS who want to preserve their fecundity might be treated with laser conization alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Cervix Uteri / surgery. Conization / methods. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery


88. Connolly TP, Evans AC: Atypical Papanicolaou smear in pregnancy. Clin Med Res; 2005 Feb;3(1):13-8
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  • Atypical glandular cells (AGC) in Papanicolaou (Pap) smears can be associated with premalignant and malignant cervical and endometrial lesions.
  • Positive diagnosis of endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ resulted in a risk-informed decision to proceed with a cold knife conization of the cervix.
  • Final pathology showed complete resection of the lesion with negative margins and an additional area of squamous dysplasia (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, grade II to III).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Papanicolaou Test. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vaginal Smears
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / surgery


89. Kałuzyński A, Olszak A, Smolarz B, Kowalczyk A, Kulig A: [Cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia topography and the risk of conisation]. Ginekol Pol; 2005 Oct;76(10):763-9
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  • [Title] [Cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia topography and the risk of conisation].
  • OBJECTIVES: The frequency of endocervical adenocarcinoma is increasing in comparison with squamous cell carcinoma and it presents a very difficult diagnostic and therapeutic problem.
  • 1) Evaluation of topography of the cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia (CGIN) 2) An analysis of the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection rate in samples.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: 360 amputated uterine cervix samples with histologically-proven diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN-3) were evaluated.
  • RESULTS: Among 360 positive cervical intraepithelial glandular neoplasia samples (CIN-3) 71 (19.7%) showed coexisting glandular lesions (CGIN-1, 2, 3).
  • The lesions in endocervical glandular cells of CIGN-type were distributed from the distance up to 14 mm from the surface of cervix.
  • CIN-3 is associated in about 20% with cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia (CGIN).
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Conization. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Female. Humans. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Retrospective Studies


90. Bull-Phelps SL, Garner EI, Walsh CS, Gehrig PA, Miller DS, Schorge JO: Fertility-sparing surgery in 101 women with adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix. Gynecol Oncol; 2007 Nov;107(2):316-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fertility-sparing surgery in 101 women with adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix.
  • OBJECTIVES: Cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) is a precursor of invasive disease that is increasing in incidence primarily among reproductive-age women of low parity.
  • Conization is an alternative to hysterectomy that allows future pregnancy, but has an inherent risk of residual AIS.
  • METHODS: Women diagnosed with cervical AIS who underwent primary fertility-sparing surgery with either loop excision or cold knife conization between 1993 and 2001 were identified at three institutions.
  • Patients 40 years of age and older and those undergoing hysterectomy within 12 months of diagnosis were excluded.
  • No invasive cervical adenocarcinomas were observed during the study interval.
  • CONCLUSION: Fertility-sparing surgery enables women with cervical AIS to achieve pregnancy with minimal risk of developing invasive disease during surveillance.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Conization. Fertility. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures / methods. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Medical Records. Parity. Population Surveillance. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Outcome. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome


91. Little L, Stewart CJ: Cyclin D1 immunoreactivity in normal endocervix and diagnostic value in reactive and neoplastic endocervical lesions. Mod Pathol; 2010 Apr;23(4):611-8
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  • It may be difficult to distinguish reactive glandular lesions from adenocarcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix, and although several immunohistochemical markers have established value in this diagnostic setting, none is completely reliable.
  • Therefore, we investigated cyclin D1 staining in a series of 64 cervical biopsy specimens including examples of normal and reactive endocervical epithelium, adenocarcinoma in situ, stratified mucin-producing intraepithelial lesions, and invasive adenocarcinoma.
  • Thirteen specimens also included a component of high-grade cervical squamous intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • In contrast, most cases of adenocarcinoma in situ were completely negative and, therefore, cyclin D1 staining distinguished benign from neoplastic epithelial cells.
  • Although focal cyclin D1 expression was observed in 5/19 cases of adenocarcinoma in situ, the staining was associated with more marked cytological atypia precluding confusion with a reactive process.
  • In conclusion, cyclin D1 can be included within an immunohistochemical panel to aid in the distinction between reactive cervical glandular lesions and adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / metabolism. Cervix Uteri / metabolism. Cyclin D1 / biosynthesis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20062011.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
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92. Wang QX, Wang SZ, Liu J: [Clinical significance on atypical cervical glandular cytology]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2009 Oct 27;89(39):2779-82
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  • [Title] [Clinical significance on atypical cervical glandular cytology].
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the pathological features and clinical implications of atypical glandular cells of undetermined significance (AGC) in cervical cytological results.
  • METHODS: All 87 cases of cervical cytological examinations with AGC were identified by a computerized database in our patient population.
  • The authors analyzed the cervical histopathological results by colposcopic biopsy, dilatation and curettage (D&C), cervical loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP)and follow-ups. RESULTS:.
  • (1) Thirty-five cases (40.23%) had cervical and endometrial neoplasic findings: ten glandular lesions (11.49%) and squamous lesion was present in 25 patients (28.74%). (2) Among 61 patients with Pap smears subclassified as "AGC-not otherwise specified", there were 18 pathological abnormalities.
  • Ten patients with AGC as "adenocarcinoma in situ" or "adenocarcinoma" were of 6 pathological abnormalities. (3) 100% of patients with AGC had both of colposcopic and cytologic follow-ups: 1 case CIN1, 1 case CIN2 and 1 case CIN3. (4) One of 10 patients was younger than 35 years old with CGIN1 and the other 9 patient aged over 35 years old had a greater diversity of glandular lesions.
  • Women aged over 35 years old has a greater diversity of glandular lesions and account for most cases of cervical and endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Cervix Uteri / cytology. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


93. Chang MC, Nevadunsky NS, Viswanathan AN, Crum CP, Feltmate CM: Endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ with ovarian metastases: a unique variant with potential for long-term survival. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2010 Jan;29(1):88-92
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  • [Title] Endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ with ovarian metastases: a unique variant with potential for long-term survival.
  • Adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) of the endocervix is typically confined to the cervix, but may be extensive.
  • We report 2 cases of extensive AIS-one with intraendometrial spread-that recurred after cone biopsy and were associated with ovarian metastases.
  • Extensive, recurring AIS is a rare variant that may be unique for its risk of coincident ovarian involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


94. Dalrymple C, Valmadre S, Cook A, Atkinson K, Carter J, Houghton CR, Russell P: Cold knife versus laser cone biopsy for adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix--a comparison of management and outcome. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2008 Jan-Feb;18(1):116-20
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  • [Title] Cold knife versus laser cone biopsy for adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix--a comparison of management and outcome.
  • Eighty-two patients with adenocarcinoma in situ of the cervix managed at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital were reviewed and data were collected on those treated by cold knife cone biopsy (n= 38) and laser cone biopsy (n= 44).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Conization / methods. Laser Therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17506846.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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95. Srisomboon J, Kietpeerakool C, Suprasert P, Siriaunkgul S, Khunamornpong S, Prompittayarat W: Factors affecting residual lesion in women with cervical adenocarcinoma in situ after cone excisional biopsy. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev; 2007 Apr-Jun;8(2):225-8
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  • [Title] Factors affecting residual lesion in women with cervical adenocarcinoma in situ after cone excisional biopsy.
  • The objective of this study was undertaken to evaluate the factors affecting residual lesion in women with adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) on cervical conization specimens.
  • The medical records of women with AIS who had no associated invasive carcinoma after cervical conization and underwent subsequent hysterectomy at Chiang Mai University Hospital were reviewed.
  • Thirteen (28.9%) women presented with AIS on Pap smear.
  • Twenty (44.4%) women had mixed lesions of AIS and squamous intraepithelial lesion on cervical specimens.
  • In conclusion, approximately one-third of women with AIS on cervical conization have residual lesion on subsequent hysterectomy specimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Neoplasm, Residual / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Carcinoma in Situ / epidemiology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Incidence. Neoplasms, Second Primary / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Predictive Value of Tests


96. Biscotti CV, Ray N: Papanicolaou tests associated with cervical mucosal endometriosis: an analysis of cellular features and comparison to endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Aug;38(8):551-4
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  • [Title] Papanicolaou tests associated with cervical mucosal endometriosis: an analysis of cellular features and comparison to endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • Endometrium directly sampled from endocervical mucosal endometriosis can mimic endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) in Papanicolaou (Pap) tests.
  • We analyzed a series of Pap tests to investigate the cellular features of mucosal endometriosis and to assess the utility of stroma and apoptotic bodies in the differential diagnosis with AIS.
  • Pap test samples from patients known to have endocervical mucosal endometriosis were compared with samples containing AIS.
  • By comparison, only one (8%) AIS case had endometrial-type stroma.
  • Seven (58%) AIS cases had apoptotic bodies and three (25%) had mitotic figures.
  • These lesional cells almost always include stroma, which is useful in the differential diagnosis with AIS.
  • We identified stroma significantly more often in endometriosis cases (92%) than in AIS cases (8%).
  • In the absence of stroma, AIS should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Endometriosis / pathology. Mucous Membrane / pathology. Papanicolaou Test. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Vaginal Smears / methods


97. Sharpless KE, Schnatz PF, Mandavilli S, Greene JF, Sorosky JI: Dysplasia associated with atypical glandular cells on cervical cytology. Obstet Gynecol; 2005 Mar;105(3):494-500
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  • [Title] Dysplasia associated with atypical glandular cells on cervical cytology.
  • Most women aged younger than 35 years had a squamous abnormality, whereas women aged 35 years or older had a greater diversity of squamous and glandular lesions and accounted for all cases of endometrial cancer, adenocarcinoma in situ, and cervical adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervix Uteri / pathology. Uterine Cervical Dysplasia / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Vaginal Smears


98. Kawauchi S, Kusuda T, Liu XP, Suehiro Y, Kaku T, Mikami Y, Takeshita M, Nakao M, Chochi Y, Sasaki K: Is lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia a cancerous precursor of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma?: a comparative molecular-genetic and immunohistochemical study. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Dec;32(12):1807-15
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  • [Title] Is lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia a cancerous precursor of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma?: a comparative molecular-genetic and immunohistochemical study.
  • Although lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia (LEGH) was originally described as a distinct hyperplastic glandular lesion of the uterine cervix, recent studies have raised a question that LEGH may be a cancerous precursor of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) and other mucinous adenocarcinomas (MACs) of the uterine cervix.
  • Dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed a gain of chromosome 3 fragment in these cervical glandular lesions.
  • HPV in situ hybridization revealed that high-risk HPV (types 16 and 18) was positive in over 80% of MACs, but negative in all LEGHs and MDAs examined.
  • Microsatellite instability was rarely detected in these cervical glandular lesions.
  • Our present study results demonstrated a molecular-genetic link between LEGH and cervical mucinous glandular malignancies including MDA and MAC, and are thought to support the hypothesis that a proportion of LEGHs are cancerous precursors of MDA and/or MAC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Comparative Genomic Hybridization. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Microsatellite Instability. Middle Aged. Papillomavirus Infections. Polymerase Chain Reaction


99. Smedts F, Ramaekers FC, Hopman AH: The two faces of cervical adenocarcinoma in situ. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2010 Jul;29(4):378-85
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  • [Title] The two faces of cervical adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • In order of frequency, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), combined adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS)/CIN lesions, and solitary AIS are the most prevalent premalignant lesions of the uterine cervix.
  • As the morphologic distinction of these subtypes is not always straightforward, we performed an immunophenotyping analysis to establish distinguishing profiles for each of these squamous and glandular progenitor lesions of cervical carcinoma.
  • A series of 26 premalignant cervical lesions, comprising 13 cases of AIS, of which 7 represented solitary AIS and 6 were combined with CIN (combined AIS/CIN), as well as 13 solitary high-grade CIN lesions, were immunophenotypically analyzed using antibodies directed against p16, p63, bcl-2, and cytokeratins (CK) 5, 7, 8, 13, 17, 18, and 19.
  • Combined AIS/CIN lesions also expressed the full complement of markers in both the AIS and CIN compartments.
  • However, the expression of p63, bcl-2, CK5, and CK17 was lower in AIS compared with CIN.
  • The solitary AIS lesions could be subdivided into 2 subgroups, 1 expressing the full complement of markers and a second group in which no expression of p63, bcl-2, CK5, and a sporadically CK17 expression was observed.
  • We conclude that 2 phenotypically distinct types of AIS can be identified, that is, AIS with a reserve cell marker phenotype and AIS with an endocervical glandular phenotype.
  • These observations support the view that reserve cells are capable of bidirectional premalignant transformation, that is, into CIN and reserve cell-type AIS, as well as combined AIS/CIN.
  • The endocervical type of AIS is probably a result of the unidirectional transformation of progenitor cells within the glandular cell compartment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20567153.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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100. Lai HC, Lin YW, Huang RL, Chung MT, Wang HC, Liao YP, Su PH, Liu YL, Yu MH: Quantitative DNA methylation analysis detects cervical intraepithelial neoplasms type 3 and worse. Cancer; 2010 Sep 15;116(18):4266-74
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Quantitative DNA methylation analysis detects cervical intraepithelial neoplasms type 3 and worse.
  • BACKGROUND: DNA methylation may be used a potential biomarker for detecting cervical cancer.
  • The authors of this report used quantitative methylation analysis of 4 genes in a full spectrum of cervical lesions to test its potential clinical application.
  • METHODS: This hospital-based, retrospective, case-control study was conducted in 185 patients and included patients who had a normal uterine cervix (n = 53), cervical intraepithelial neoplasm type 1 (CIN1) (n = 37), CIN2 (n = 22), CIN3 (n = 24), carcinoma in situ (CIS) (n = 22), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, n = 20), and adenocarcinoma (AC) (n = 7).
  • RESULTS: The PMRs of the 4 genes were significantly higher in CIN3 and worse (CIN3+) lesions than the PMRs in specimens of normal cervix and CIN1 or CIN2 (P < .001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The current results indicated that quantitative PCR-based testing for DNA methylation of 4 genes holds great promise for cervical cancer screening and warrants further population-based studies using standardized DNA methylation testing.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers / analysis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / genetics. DNA Methylation. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 20564139.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers
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