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1. Sobrinho-Simões M, Preto A, Rocha AS, Castro P, Máximo V, Fonseca E, Soares P: Molecular pathology of well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas. Virchows Arch; 2005 Nov;447(5):787-93
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  • [Title] Molecular pathology of well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas.
  • The newly discovered molecular features of well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas derived from follicular cells are reviewed, within the frame of the 2004 WHO classification of thyroid tumours, under the following headings: "Follicular carcinoma", "Papillary carcinoma", "Follicular variant of papillary carcinoma" and "Hürthle cell tumours".
  • A particular emphasis is put on the meaning of PAX8-PPARgamma rearrangements, RAS and BRAF mutations, and deletions and mutations of mitochondrial genes and of nuclear genes encoding for mitochondrial enzymes, for thyroid tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. Gene Rearrangement. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16189702.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / PAX8 Transcription Factor; 0 / PAX8 protein, human; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
  • [Number-of-references] 70
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2. Bałdys-Waligórska A, Gołkowski F, Krzentowska A, Sokołowski G, Halytsky O, Hubalewska-Dydejczyk A: A case of acromegaly and disseminated follicular thyroid carcinoma. Endokrynol Pol; 2010 Sep-Oct;61(5):497-501
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  • [Title] A case of acromegaly and disseminated follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • INTRODUCTION: A particularly challenging case of concurrent acromegaly and follicular thyroid carcinoma in a patient of the Clinic of Endocrinology, UJCM in Krakow is discussed.
  • CASE DESCRIPTION: A 59-year-old male with post total thyroidectomy performed in 2005 and histopathologically confirmed metastases of the follicular thyroid carcinoma to the lungs was admitted to the Clinic in April 2006 for complementary ¹³¹I treatment.
  • Pre-therapeutic whole-body scintigraphy (WBS) revealed numerous conjoined hot spots of ¹³¹I accumulation in both lungs and in thyroid remnants.
  • Post-therapeutic WBS in November 2006 revealed complete ablation of the thyroid remnants.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Disseminated thyroid cancer in a patient with pituitary insufficiency may be successfully treated by rhTSH-supported ¹³¹I treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / etiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Lung Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Middle Aged. Radionuclide Imaging. Thyroglobulin / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 21049465.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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3. Mishra A, Pal L, Mishra SK: Distribution of Na+/I- symporter in thyroid cancers in an iodine-deficient population: an immunohistochemical study. World J Surg; 2007 Sep;31(9):1737-42
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  • [Title] Distribution of Na+/I- symporter in thyroid cancers in an iodine-deficient population: an immunohistochemical study.
  • BACKGROUND: There are significant differences in the prevalence and behavior of differentiated thyroid cancers (DTC) in the iodine-deficient areas (IDA) and iodine-sufficient areas (ISA) of the world.
  • The sodium iodide symporter (NIS), mediates active transport of iodide across the basolateral aspect of the thyroid follicular cell.
  • However, no study had specifically addressed the issue of expression of sodium iodide symporter (NIS) in thyroid cancer specimens from IDA.
  • The aim of the present study was to find an expression pattern of NIS in DTC in an iodine-deficient population, and to correlate it with histological subtypes, i.e., papillary carcinoma (PTC), follicular carcinoma (FTC), poorly differentiated carcinoma (PDTC), as well as with clinicopathological risk factors and iodine ((131)I) uptake by distant metastases.
  • METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was carried out in 39 cases of thyroid cancer (41 samples) including PTC (15), FTC (10), PDTC (9), anaplastic cancer (5), and resected metastases (2).
  • There was no significant difference in expression rate between PTC (73.3%) and FTC (70.0%).
  • The results of NIS expression were not concordant with (131)I uptake by metastases in 4 of 10 cases. (131)I uptake was absent in one case despite the finding that a metastatic site itself showed NIS expression in that case, whereas in the remaining 9 cases (131)I uptake was present although three cases did not show NIS expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / chemistry. Carcinoma / pathology. Immunohistochemistry. Iodine / deficiency. Symporters / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / chemistry. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / chemistry. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Papillary / chemistry. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / chemistry. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Female. Goiter, Endemic / epidemiology. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 17653791.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Symporters; 0 / sodium-iodide symporter; 9679TC07X4 / Iodine
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4. Buergy D, Weber T, Maurer GD, Mudduluru G, Medved F, Leupold JH, Brauckhoff M, Post S, Dralle H, Allgayer H: Urokinase receptor, MMP-1 and MMP-9 are markers to differentiate prognosis, adenoma and carcinoma in thyroid malignancies. Int J Cancer; 2009 Aug 15;125(4):894-901
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Urokinase receptor, MMP-1 and MMP-9 are markers to differentiate prognosis, adenoma and carcinoma in thyroid malignancies.
  • The identification of high-risk patients with thyroid cancer and the preoperative differentiation between follicular adenoma and carcinoma remain clinically challenging.
  • Our study was conducted to analyze whether the quantification of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (u-PAR) and transcription factor binding to the u-PAR promoter improve prognostic predictability and differential diagnosis of thyroid tumors.
  • Tumor/normal tissue was collected from 69 prospectively followed patients with thyroid carcinomas (papillary, medullary, follicular and anaplastic, PTC, MTC, FTC and ATC) or follicular adenomas.
  • Carcinomas except MTC expressed significantly more u-PAR/MMPs than adenomas/normal tissues, this being associated with advanced pT- or M-stages.
  • MMP-1 and MMP-9 were significantly higher in follicular carcinomas than in adenomas.
  • In carcinomas, high u-PAR-gene expression correlated significantly with high MMP-9, the latter being associated with MMP-7 in normal tissues.
  • Poor survival in differentiated tumors was associated in trend (p = 0.07); poor survival of all patients (p = 0.043) and especially of patients with carcinomas of follicular origin (including ATC), but not medullary carcinomas, were significantly associated with high u-PAR-protein (p = 0.015).
  • Quantification of u-PAR is of prognostic relevance in thyroid carcinomas of non-c-cell origin, and u-PAR in part may be regulated nontranscriptionally in thyroid cancers.
  • This is the first study to suggest MMP-1/-9 as significant differentiation markers between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Matrix Metalloproteinase 1 / metabolism. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / metabolism. Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adult. Aged. Blotting, Western. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Luciferases. Male. Matrix Metalloproteinase 7 / metabolism. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 19480010.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Urokinase Plasminogen Activator; EC 1.13.12.- / Luciferases; EC 3.4.24.23 / MMP7 protein, human; EC 3.4.24.23 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 7; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9; EC 3.4.24.7 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 1
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5. Weinhaeusel A, Scheuba C, Lauss M, Kriegner A, Kaserer K, Vierlinger K, Haas OA, Niederle B: The influence of gender, age, and RET polymorphisms on C-cell hyperplasia and medullary thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid; 2008 Dec;18(12):1269-76
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  • [Title] The influence of gender, age, and RET polymorphisms on C-cell hyperplasia and medullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: RET germline mutations predispose to the development of hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma (hMTC).
  • However, the findings regarding their influence on the clinical course and biological behavior of this disorder are discordant.
  • To clarify the contradictory findings, we studied the association of certain SNPs considering age, gender, and histopathology in a large Austrian cohort with C-cell hyperplasia (CCH) and MTC.
  • METHODS: Genotyping of SNPs located in RET codons 691, 769, 836, and 904 from 199 patients with MTC and CCH (basal calcitonin > 10 pg/mL, pentagastrin stimulated > 100 pg/mL) was performed, and the results were analyzed considering gender, age at diagnosis, and histopathology.
  • In sMTC and sporadic CCH (sCCH) no significant association of SNP frequency with the age at diagnosis was found.
  • In patients with sporadic C-cell disease (sCCH and sMTC), 3.7 times more males than females suffered synchronously from papillary or follicular thyroid cancer (20/97 [20.6%] males; 3/54 [5.6%] females; p = 0.02).
  • In contrast to males, the ratio of CCH to total C-cell disease was significantly higher in females with hereditary (26/32, 81%) compared to those with sporadic disease (27/54, 50%; p = 0.006).
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this study RET SNPs had no clinical impact on the development of sporadic C-cell disease when the age of diagnosis or gender is considered.
  • C-cell disease seems to predispose males to the development of papillary and follicular thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Calcitonin / blood. Female. Gene Frequency. Humans. Hyperplasia / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide. Sex Factors. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 18976163.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret
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6. Oue T, Inoue M, Kubota A, Kuwae Y, Kawa K: Pediatric thyroid cancer arising after treatment for pleuropulmonary blastoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Apr;50(4):901-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pediatric thyroid cancer arising after treatment for pleuropulmonary blastoma.
  • Open biopsy revealed the pathological diagnosis of pleuropulmonary blastoma.
  • Three years later, follicular carcinoma of the right thyroid lobe was found, so a right hemithyroidectomy was performed.
  • Five months later, the thyroid tumor recurred.
  • The remaining thyroid lobe was completely excised and radioiodine therapy was administered.
  • The etiology and treatment of the uncommon combination of pleuropulmonary blastoma and thyroid carcinoma is discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Pulmonary Blastoma / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology


7. Ying H, Furuya F, Zhao L, Araki O, West BL, Hanover JA, Willingham MC, Cheng SY: Aberrant accumulation of PTTG1 induced by a mutated thyroid hormone beta receptor inhibits mitotic progression. J Clin Invest; 2006 Nov;116(11):2972-84
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  • [Title] Aberrant accumulation of PTTG1 induced by a mutated thyroid hormone beta receptor inhibits mitotic progression.
  • Overexpression of pituitary tumor-transforming 1 (PTTG1) is associated with thyroid cancer.
  • We found elevated PTTG1 levels in the thyroid tumors of a mouse model of follicular thyroid carcinoma (TRbeta(PV/PV) mice).
  • Here we examined the molecular mechanisms underlying elevated PTTG1 levels and the contribution of increased PTTG1 to thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • We showed that PTTG1 was physically associated with thyroid hormone beta receptor (TRbeta) as well as its mutant, designated PV.
  • Concomitant with thyroid hormone-induced (T3-induced) degradation of TRbeta, PTTG1 proteins were degraded by the proteasomal machinery, but no such degradation occurred when PTTG1 was associated with PV.
  • The loss of this regulatory function in PV led to an aberrant accumulation of PTTG1 disrupting mitotic progression that could contribute to thyroid carcinogenesis.

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  • (PMID = 17039256.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9738
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Invest.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ligands; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / Securin; 0 / Thyroid Hormone Receptors beta; EC 3.4.25.1 / Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1592548
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8. Pisello F, Geraci G, Sciumè C, Li Volsi F, Modica G: [Total thyroidectomy of choice in papillary microcarcinoma]. G Chir; 2007 Jan-Feb;28(1-2):13-9
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  • [Transliterated title] La tiroidectomia totale di principio nel microcarcinoma papillare.
  • INTRODUCTION: Today, the "gold standard" of surgical management of benign thyroid disease is still controversy.
  • There are different surgical approaches to the thyroid gland, from a radical, total thyroidectomy to a conservative treatment, lobectomy with or not isthmectomy.
  • In consideration of the more frequent incidence of small carcinomas accidentally founded in the context of the thyroid parenchyma removed for another pathology, the aim of this study is to bring a contribute to resolve the debate on the therapeutic choice in the surgical management of the thyroid benign disease.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From January 2000 to January 2006 502 thyroidectomy were performed in the Section of General and Thoracic Surgery of University of Palermo: 458 total thyroidectomy (91.3%), 2 partial thyroidectomy (0.3%), 24 (4.8%) lobectomy with isthmectomy and 18 (3.6%) reinterventions for relapse; 34 patients (6.8%) were preoperative suspected (cytological or ultrasonography) for thyroid cancer.
  • Histologically, were 11 cases of classical papillary (64.7%), 4 cases (23.6%) of follicular and 2 (11.7%) sclerosing, in 9 cases of multinodular goiter, 3 of follicular adenoma, 3 cases of follicular carcinoma, 1 case of Graves disease and 1 case of Hashimoto thyroiditis.
  • DISCUSSION: Papillary microcarcinoma is a "thyroid papillary cancer with a diameter < or = 1 cm? ".
  • CONCLUSIONS: In our opinion, the surgical management of the all thyroid disease must be the more radical since the first time, because we think other approaches not correct to improve the complete health from the benign thyroid disease and to prevent (secondary prevention) papillary microcarcinoma not pre-operative diagnosed, because there are no preoperative pattern to make a correct diagnosis of this tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17313727.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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9. Pu RT, Yang J, Wasserman PG, Bhuiya T, Griffith KA, Michael CW: Does Hurthle cell lesion/neoplasm predict malignancy more than follicular lesion/neoplasm on thyroid fine-needle aspiration? Diagn Cytopathol; 2006 May;34(5):330-4
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  • [Title] Does Hurthle cell lesion/neoplasm predict malignancy more than follicular lesion/neoplasm on thyroid fine-needle aspiration?
  • Thyroid fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is a standard procedure for the clinical triage of thyroid nodules.
  • The diagnosis of an adequately sampled thyroid FNA is generally grouped into three categories: benign, malignant, and indeterminate.
  • The latter group usually includes follicular neoplasm, follicular lesion, and sometimes a more specific diagnosis such as Hurthle cell neoplasm or follicular lesion/neoplasm with Hurthle cell change.
  • Whether a FNA diagnosis of Hurthle cell lesion/neoplasm (HLN) denotes a worse clinical outcome than follicular lesion/neoplasm (FLN) remains controversial.
  • A cohort of 303 thyroid FNA cases with follow-up thyroidectomy in our institutes was identified, with the follow-up excision diagnosis compared to the FNA diagnosis in order to address this issue.
  • Of this cohort, 87 cases had an FNA diagnosis of HLN while 216 cases had a diagnosis of FLN.
  • Upon excision, the FNA diagnosis of HLN group had 14 cases of goiter/nodular hyperplasia (16%), 46 cases of adenoma (12 follicular adenoma (14%) and 34 cases of Hurthle cell adenoma (39%)), and 27 cases of carcinoma (31%, 12 papillary carcinoma and 15 Hurthle cell carcinoma).
  • The FLN group had 74 cases of goiter/nodular hyperplasia (34.3%), 8 cases of Hashimoto thyroiditis (3.7%), 73 cases of follicular adenoma (33.8%), one case of granular cell tumor, and 60 cases of carcinoma (27.8%, 46 papillary carcinoma, 12 follicular carcinoma, and 1 Hurthle cell carcinoma and 1 parathyroid carcinoma) upon excision.
  • There is no significant difference in predicting cancer between the two cytology diagnosis groups (HLN versus FLN, 31% versus 27.8%, P = 0.5771).
  • When sorting all the cases by the surgical diagnosis, while comparable for age at diagnosis, the cancer group having the higher proportion of male patients than the non-cancer group (28.7% versus 16.7%, P = 0.0259).
  • Hurthle cell carcinoma patients are typically older than patients with other cancer diagnoses (59 versus 44, P = 0.0077).
  • Our results suggest that an FNA diagnosis of HLN does not predict more malignancy than FLN.
  • Males and older patients with a HLN FNA diagnosis carry a higher risk of Hurthle cell carcinoma upon thyroidectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Oxyphil Cells / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cohort Studies. Female. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Goiter, Nodular / surgery. Humans. Hyperplasia / pathology. Hyperplasia / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / surgery. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16604553.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Lopez JP, Wang-Rodriguez J, Chang C, Chen JS, Pardo FS, Aguilera J, Ongkeko WM: Gefitinib inhibition of drug resistance to doxorubicin by inactivating ABCG2 in thyroid cancer cell lines. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2007 Oct;133(10):1022-7
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  • [Title] Gefitinib inhibition of drug resistance to doxorubicin by inactivating ABCG2 in thyroid cancer cell lines.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the regulation of the breast cancer resistance protein ABCG2/BRCP1 drug transporter by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase activity, and to determine whether gefitinib, an EGFR small molecule inhibitor, will modulate the effects of doxorubicin hydrochloride by inhibiting its extrusion from thyroid cancer cells.
  • DESIGN: Extrusion assays using flow cytometry analysis were used to determine the ability of thyroid cancer cells to extrude the chemotherapy drug, doxorubicin, via the ABCG2 drug transporter in the presence or absence of gefitinib.
  • The ABCG2 expression in ARO and WRO cell lines was analyzed by Western blot analysis.
  • Colony formation assays were performed to determine the effect of gefitinib on thyroid cancer cell survival in response to gefitinib, doxorubicin, or the combination of both drugs.
  • RESULTS: Inhibition of EGFR kinase activity by gefitinib causes the translocation of the ABCG2 drug transporter away from the plasma membrane, resulting in a concomitant decrease in doxorubicin extrusion in thyroid cancer cell lines.
  • The addition of gefitinib increases doxorubicin-induced cell death in thyroid cancer cells as measured by colony formation assay.
  • Inactivation of the EGFR kinase by gefitinib potentiates the cytotoxic effect of doxorubicin in thyroid cancer, most likely by decreasing the ability of the cell to extrude doxorubicin.
  • The expression of ABCG2 may explain in part the ineffectiveness of doxorubicin as a single modality treatment for anaplastic thyroid cancer or for treatment of metastatic follicular thyroid cancer.
  • Use of this combination treatment of gefitinib and doxorubicin may be a promising therapy for anaplastic thyroid and metastatic follicular thyroid cancer and needs to be investigated further.
  • [MeSH-major] ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters / genetics. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / drug effects. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Sub-Family G, Member 2. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Apoptosis / drug effects. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Blotting, Western. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma / pathology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Culture Media. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Drug Resistance, Multiple. Flow Cytometry. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Humans. In Situ Nick-End Labeling. Quinazolines / administration & dosage. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17938326.001).
  • [ISSN] 0886-4470
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of otolaryngology--head & neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ABCG2 protein, human; 0 / ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Sub-Family G, Member 2; 0 / ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Culture Media; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Quinazolines; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; S65743JHBS / gefitinib
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11. De Nicola H, Szejnfeld J, Logullo AF, Wolosker AM, Souza LR, Chiferi V Jr: Flow pattern and vascular resistive index as predictors of malignancy risk in thyroid follicular neoplasms. J Ultrasound Med; 2005 Jul;24(7):897-904
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  • [Title] Flow pattern and vascular resistive index as predictors of malignancy risk in thyroid follicular neoplasms.
  • OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether flow pattern and resistive index (RI) are useful parameters for distinguishing benign from malignant thyroid follicular neoplasms (FNs).
  • METHODS: Eighty-six thyroid nodules that underwent sonographically guided fine-needle aspiration and were diagnosed as cases of FN were evaluated by power and duplex Doppler sonography.
  • RESULTS: Ten nodules (11.63%) were malignant (3 follicular carcinomas, 5 follicular variants of papillary carcinoma, and 2 papillary carcinomas).
  • The average RI in non-neoplastic nodules was 0.588 (P < .001, chi(2) test): 0.662 in adenomas and 0.763 in malignant nodules.
  • None of the nodules had flow pattern type 0.
  • Flow patterns 1 and 2 (peripheral flow only or predominantly) were present in 58 non-neoplastic nodules (93.5%), 10 adenomas (71.4%), and 2 malignant nodules (20%).
  • Flow pattern type 3 (predominantly central flow) was present in 7 malignant nodules (70%), 4 adenomas (28.6%), and 4 non-neoplastic nodules (6.5%).
  • Only 1 nodule, a papillary carcinoma, had flow pattern type 4 (internal flow only).
  • CONCLUSIONS: In FNs, there were significant positive associations between predominantly central flow and malignancy and between predominantly peripheral flow and benign disease (P < .0001, Fisher exact test).
  • However, power Doppler characteristics could not be used to rule out malignancy because 20% of malignant nodules had predominantly peripheral flow.
  • Resistive index values in non-neoplastic nodules were lower than in adenomas and malignant nodules (P < .001, chi(2) test).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / blood supply. Adenoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / blood supply. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood supply. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vascular Resistance
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Predictive Value of Tests. Regional Blood Flow. Reproducibility of Results. Risk Factors. Sensitivity and Specificity. Statistics, Nonparametric. Thyroid Nodule / blood supply. Thyroid Nodule / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color / methods. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex / methods

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  • (PMID = 15972703.001).
  • [ISSN] 0278-4297
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ultrasound Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Ghossein RA, Hiltzik DH, Carlson DL, Patel S, Shaha A, Shah JP, Tuttle RM, Singh B: Prognostic factors of recurrence in encapsulated Hurthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland: a clinicopathologic study of 50 cases. Cancer; 2006 Apr 15;106(8):1669-76
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors of recurrence in encapsulated Hurthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid gland: a clinicopathologic study of 50 cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Follicular carcinomas of the thyroid gland, including its oncocytic variant (so-called Hurthle cell carcinoma), are subdivided into the indolent encapsulated ("minimally invasive") and the clinically aggressive widely invasive tumors.
  • There are, however, cases of encapsulated follicular carcinoma that recur and metastasize.
  • Identifying these cases at the time of diagnosis is crucial for prognostic and therapeutic considerations.
  • Because to the authors' knowledge most studies do not focus exclusively on the encapsulated Hurthle cell carcinoma (EHC), the current study attempted to identify predictors of recurrence in EHC.
  • METHODS: A tumor was defined as EHC if it was encapsulated, macroscopically well defined with microscopic but no macroscopic evidence of vascular or capsular invasion, and composed of > 75% follicular oncocytic cells.
  • Retrospective chart review and microscopic examination identified 50 primary tumors meeting the above criteria at the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center between 1967 and 2005.
  • RESULTS: Seven of 50 (14%) patients developed disease recurrence.
  • The finding of a solid/trabecular growth and mitosis correlated with the presence of numerous foci (> or = 4) of vascular invasion (P = .01 and P = .005, respectively).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / secondary. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] 2006 American Cancer Society
  • (PMID = 16534796.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Dotto J, Nosé V: Familial thyroid carcinoma: a diagnostic algorithm. Adv Anat Pathol; 2008 Nov;15(6):332-49
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  • [Title] Familial thyroid carcinoma: a diagnostic algorithm.
  • Thyroid carcinomas derived from follicular cells are the most common endocrine malignancies, and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common type.
  • Although, the majority of papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs) are sporadic, familial forms have been described in recent years.
  • Familial syndromes are classified into familial medullary thyroid carcinoma and familial nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Multifocal papillary carcinoma is the most frequent presentation of familial nonmedullary thyroid carcinoma, and based on clinico-pathologic findings it is divided into 2 groups.
  • The first includes familial syndromes characterized by a predominance of nonthyroidal tumors, such as familial adenomatous polyposis, PTEN-hamartoma tumor syndrome, Carney complex type 1, and Werner syndrome.
  • The second group includes familial syndromes characterized by a predominance of NMTC, such as pure familial (f) PTC with or without oxyphilia, fPTC with papillary renal cell carcinoma, and fPTC with multinodular goiter.
  • Medullary thyroid carcinoma is derived from calcitonin-producing C cells.
  • The familial form accounts for 20% to 25% of cases, and is usually a component of multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) IIA or IIB, or presents as pure familial medullary thyroid carcinoma syndrome.
  • C-cell hyperplasia is the precursor lesion of these heritable syndromes.
  • Some characteristic morphologic findings should alert the pathologist of a possible familial cancer syndrome, which may lead to further molecular genetic evaluation.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / genetics. Adenomatous Polyposis Coli / pathology. Adult. Algorithms. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Medullary / genetics. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. Female. Hamartoma Syndrome, Multiple / pathology. Humans. Middle Aged. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2a / pathology. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / diagnosis. Neoplastic Syndromes, Hereditary / genetics. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18948764.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4031
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
  • [Number-of-references] 94
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14. Wang SL, Chan HM, Yang SF, Wu MT, Chai CY: Compurerized morphometric study of thyroid follicular carcinoma in correlation with known prognostic factors. Kaohsiung J Med Sci; 2005 Feb;21(2):65-9
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  • [Title] Compurerized morphometric study of thyroid follicular carcinoma in correlation with known prognostic factors.
  • This study investigates the correlation between computer-assisted nuclear morphometry and known prognostic factors in thyroid follicular carcinoma.
  • Thirty-six patients with thyroid follicular carcinoma who underwent surgery between 1991 and 2001 were grouped according to sex, age, size of the primary lesion, the presence of vascular invasion, and metastases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 15825691.001).
  • [ISSN] 1607-551X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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15. Mazeh H, Greenstein A, Swedish K, Arora S, Hermon H, Ariel I, Divino C, Freund HR, Weber K: From Mount Sinai to Mount Scopus: differences in the role and value of fine needle aspiration for evaluating thyroid nodules. Isr Med Assoc J; 2009 May;11(5):291-5
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  • [Title] From Mount Sinai to Mount Scopus: differences in the role and value of fine needle aspiration for evaluating thyroid nodules.
  • BACKGROUND: Fine needle aspiration is the main diagnostic tool used to assess thyroid nodules.
  • Results compared FNA diagnosis, histological findings and frozen section results (Mt. Sinai only).
  • "Follicular lesion" was diagnosed on FNA in 33.1% of the patients at Hadassah and in 21.5% at Mt Sinai (P < 0.005) with a malignancy rate of 42.5 vs. 23.1% (P < 0.05), respectively.
  • Follicular carcinoma was diagnosed in 12 patients at Hadassah vs. 2 patients at Mt.
  • Follicular lesions and the rate of malignancy in such lesions were more common at Hadassah, favoring a more aggressive surgical approach.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19637507.001).
  • [ISSN] 1565-1088
  • [Journal-full-title] The Israel Medical Association journal : IMAJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Isr. Med. Assoc. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Israel
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16. de Micco C, Savchenko V, Giorgi R, Sebag F, Henry JF: Utility of malignancy markers in fine-needle aspiration cytology of thyroid nodules: comparison of Hector Battifora mesothelial antigen-1, thyroid peroxidase and dipeptidyl aminopeptidase IV. Br J Cancer; 2008 Feb 26;98(4):818-23
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  • [Title] Utility of malignancy markers in fine-needle aspiration cytology of thyroid nodules: comparison of Hector Battifora mesothelial antigen-1, thyroid peroxidase and dipeptidyl aminopeptidase IV.
  • The purpose of this study was to compare the diagnostic interest of Hector Battifora mesothelial antigen-1 (HBME-1), thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and dipeptidyl aminopeptidase IV (DPP4) in thyroid fine-needle aspirates obtained from 200 resected thyroid lesions (55 colloid nodules, 54 follicular adenomas, 59 papillary cancers, and 32 follicular carcinomas).
  • Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted and optimal cutoff values for diagnosing malignancy were determined.
  • The TPO ROC curve was consistently higher than the HBME-1 ROC curve.
  • The TPO curve was also higher than the DPP4 curve with regard to sensitivity, but dipped below the DPP4 curve with regard to specificity.
  • Due to poor performance on follicular lesions, HBME-1 showed no advantage over TPO or DPP4.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Autoantigens / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4 / metabolism. Iodide Peroxidase / metabolism. Iron-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Biopsy, Needle. Cytodiagnosis. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. ROC Curve. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Nodule / metabolism. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18212751.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantigens; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / HBME-1 antigen; 0 / Iron-Binding Proteins; EC 1.11.1.7 / TPO protein, human; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase; EC 3.4.14.5 / DPP4 protein, human; EC 3.4.14.5 / Dipeptidyl Peptidase 4
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2259194
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17. Kukulska A, Krajewska J, Gawkowska-Suwińska M, Puch Z, Paliczka-Cieslik E, Roskosz J, Handkiewicz-Junak D, Jarzab M, Gubała E, Jarzab B: Radioiodine thyroid remnant ablation in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC): prospective comparison of long-term outcomes of treatment with 30, 60 and 100 mCi. Thyroid Res; 2010;3(1):9
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  • [Title] Radioiodine thyroid remnant ablation in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC): prospective comparison of long-term outcomes of treatment with 30, 60 and 100 mCi.
  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of 131I therapy between three groups of DTC patients who received 30, 60 or 100 mCi for thyroid remnant ablation after total thyroidectomy and were postoperatively judged with low risk of cancer recurrence.
  • The present study comprises the long-term assessment of the disease course in 3 study groups.
  • RESULTS: A group of 309 DTC patients (285 women and 24 men) with no clinical, histopathological, sonographical or biochemical signs of persistent disease were included after total thyroidectomy and appropriate extent of neck lymph node dissection (265 with papillary and 44 with follicular thyroid cancer).
  • For radioiodine thyroid remnant ablation, 30 mCi of 131I was applied in 86 patients, whereas 60 mCi in 128 and 100 mCi in 95 patients.
  • In the first evaluation, published previously, we observed that because of incomplete thyroid remnant ablation, the second 131I treatment was necessary in 10% patients, without difference between groups treated with 60 and 100 mCi and in 22% patients treated with 30 mCi.
  • To evaluate the long-term outcome of the adjuvant 131I treatment, the course of the follow-up and the most recent disease status were assessed by sonography, radiological examinations and serum Tg estimation (on LT4-suppressive treatment).
  • CONCLUSIONS: No significant differences in the 5 years efficacy of thyroid remnant radioiodine ablation using 30, 60 and 100 mCi were observed in low-risk DTC patients operated by total thyroidectomy and neck lymph node dissection.

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  • (PMID = 21040579.001).
  • [ISSN] 1756-6614
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2989933
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18. Silberstein EB: Comparison of outcomes after (123)I versus (131)I pre-ablation imaging before radioiodine ablation in differentiated thyroid carcinoma. J Nucl Med; 2007 Jul;48(7):1043-6
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  • [Title] Comparison of outcomes after (123)I versus (131)I pre-ablation imaging before radioiodine ablation in differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • Detection of residual tissue after thyroidectomy for papillary or follicular thyroid carcinoma may be performed using diagnostic imaging with either (123)I or (131)I.
  • The former is often preferred to avoid "stunning"-defined as a reduction in uptake of the therapeutic dose of (131)I caused by some form of cell damage from the diagnostic dosage of the radionuclide.
  • This study examines the outcomes of ablative (131)I therapy after diagnostic studies with either (123)I or (131)I to determine if the diagnostic dosages of these radionuclides used in our Thyroid Cancer Center reduce the efficacy of (131)I given for remnant ablation.
  • METHODS: Fifty patients with nonmetastatic papillary or follicular carcinoma of the thyroid received total thyroidectomy; this was followed by thyroid hormone withdrawal to achieve a serum thyroid-stimulating hormone level in excess of 30 microIU/mL.
  • Group 1 had diagnostic imaging with 14.8 MBq of (123)I followed by thyroid remnant ablation with 3.7 GBq of (131)I.
  • Successful ablation required a negative follow-up thyroid scan 6-8 mo after ablation and also an undetectable serum thyroglobulin level in the absence of antithyroglobulin antibodies.
  • CONCLUSION: If thyroid remnant stunning occurs due to 74 MBq (131)I used as a diagnostic agent before (131)I ablation, it has no significant clinical correlate, as it yields the same ablation rate as that which occurs after 14.8 MBq of (123)I used for imaging.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Papillary / radionuclide imaging. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Hormones / blood. Thyroidectomy. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] J Nucl Med. 2008 Jan;49(1):166; author reply 166-7 [18165699.001]
  • (PMID = 17574976.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-5505
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of nuclear medicine : official publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nucl. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Thyroid Hormones
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19. Erickson LA, Jin L, Nakamura N, Bridges AG, Markovic SN, Lloyd RV: Clinicopathologic features and BRAF(V600E) mutation analysis in cutaneous metastases from well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas. Cancer; 2007 May 15;109(10):1965-71
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  • [Title] Clinicopathologic features and BRAF(V600E) mutation analysis in cutaneous metastases from well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Cutaneous metastases from well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas are rare and are usually identified in patients with widely disseminated disease.
  • Occasionally, thyroid carcinomas can present as cutaneous metastases for which the primary site needs to be determined.
  • Papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) commonly have BRAF(V600E) mutation.
  • A series of 16 cutaneous metastases were analyzed from well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas to learn more about the clinicopathologic features and BRAF(V600E) mutation status.
  • METHODS: Eleven cases of PTC and 5 of follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) metastatic to the skin were evaluated.
  • All cutaneous metastases were studied histologically and with thyroglobulin and thyroid transcription factor immunostains.
  • RESULTS: Two patients with FTC presented with cutaneous metastases.
  • Fourteen of 16 patients died of disease and 2 were alive with disease at follow-up.
  • BRAF(V600E) mutation (T1799A) was detected in 5 of 11 cases of PTC and in none of the 5 FTCs.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Cutaneous metastases from PTC may show prominent clear cell change requiring differentiation from clear cell hidradenoma, clear cell dermatofibroma, malignant melanoma with prominent clear cell change, and cutaneous metastasis from renal cell carcinoma.
  • Cutaneous metastases from PTC and FTC are associated with a very poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 American Cancer Society
  • (PMID = 17387744.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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20. Bhandary SK, Bhat VS, Shenoy MS: A rare case of skull base metastasis from follicular carcinoma of thyroid. Indian J Surg Oncol; 2010 Dec;1(4):334-6
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  • [Title] A rare case of skull base metastasis from follicular carcinoma of thyroid.
  • We are reporting a case of skull base metastasis from follicular carcinoma of thyroid in an adult lady.
  • She presented with the history of a longstanding thyroid swelling and recent onset epistaxis and diplopia.
  • She was evaluated and diagnosed to have follicular carcinoma of thyroid with metastasis to the skull base.

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  • (PMID = 22693385.001).
  • [ISSN] 0976-6952
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3244260
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Follicular carcinoma / Metastasis / Skull base / Thyroid
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21. Ensinger C, Kremser R, Prommegger R, Spizzo G, Schmid KW: EpCAM overexpression in thyroid carcinomas: a histopathological study of 121 cases. J Immunother; 2006 Sep-Oct;29(5):569-73
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  • [Title] EpCAM overexpression in thyroid carcinomas: a histopathological study of 121 cases.
  • Epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is expressed by a broad variety of carcinoma cells.
  • It is recognized by the monoclonal antibody 17-1A, which has already been applied for immunotherapy of several carcinoma types in preclinical and small clinical studies.
  • In the present study the immunohistochemical properties of 17-1A were evaluated in 121 cases of thyroid carcinomas of follicular cell origin, comprising of 75 differentiated (DTC; 35 papillary and 40 follicular carcinomas), 24 poorly differentiated (PDTC) and 22 anaplastic thyroid carcinomas.
  • In contrast, all anaplastic thyroid carcinomas (0%) completely lacked EpCAM expression.
  • Normal thyroid tissue presented with weak and heterogeneous EpCAM staining.
  • This study demonstrates EpCAM overexpression as a common finding in DTCs and PDTCs, and thus these tumors as possible novel targets for EpCAM-directed immunotherapy.
  • Our findings suggest that patients with recurrent or advanced tumor disease and metastatic spread could benefit from this modern therapeutic regime, especially after insufficient radioiodine therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Antigens, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cell Adhesion Molecules / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16971812.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-9557
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of immunotherapy (Hagerstown, Md. : 1997)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Immunother.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / EPCAM protein, human
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22. Ruf J, Seehofer D, Nadjari B, Amthauer H, Rayes N: Incidental parathyroid adenoma mimicking tumor recurrence in a patient with follicular thyroid carcinoma. Clin Nucl Med; 2006 Feb;31(2):74-6
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  • [Title] Incidental parathyroid adenoma mimicking tumor recurrence in a patient with follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • We report the case of a 59-year-old woman with a history of follicular thyroid cancer who had reoperation for suspected local tumor recurrence as laboratory (tumor marker), imaging findings (ultrasound, I-131 scintigraphy and Tc-99m-MIBI scintigraphy), and also fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology were equivocal.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radionuclide imaging. Adenoma / radionuclide imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radionuclide imaging. Parathyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Incidental Findings. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16424689.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Abu-Amero KK, Alzahrani AS, Zou M, Shi Y: High frequency of somatic mitochondrial DNA mutations in human thyroid carcinomas and complex I respiratory defect in thyroid cancer cell lines. Oncogene; 2005 Feb 17;24(8):1455-60
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  • [Title] High frequency of somatic mitochondrial DNA mutations in human thyroid carcinomas and complex I respiratory defect in thyroid cancer cell lines.
  • Significant progress has been made to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that determine thyroid tumor development and progression.
  • The potential role of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations in thyroid tumorigenesis is not well defined.
  • In the present study, we investigated the frequency of mtDNA mutations in 24 thyroid tumor specimens (19 primary papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC), one follicular thyroid carcinoma, and four multinodular hyperplasias) and four thyroid cancer cell lines by sequencing the entire coding regions of mitochondrial genome.
  • All the thyroid tumor cell lines carried sequence variations that change amino acid and have not been reported previously as normal sequence variants.
  • Flow cytometry analysis of mitochondria respiratory function in the thyroid tumor cell lines revealed a severe defect in mitochondrial complex I activity.
  • The mutations were either A --> G or C --> T transitions, often resulting in a change of a moderately or highly conserved amino acid of their corresponding protein.
  • These data suggest that mtDNA mutations may play an important role in the thyroid tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / genetics. DNA, Mitochondrial / genetics. Electron Transport Complex I / physiology. Mutation / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 15608681.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-9232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Mitochondrial; EC 1.6.5.3 / Electron Transport Complex I
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24. Serra A, Bolasco P, Satta L, Nicolosi A, Uccheddu A, Piga M: Role of SPECT/CT in the preoperative assessment of hyperparathyroid patients. Radiol Med; 2006 Oct;111(7):999-1008
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  • Sixteen of these foci of increased uptake were hyperplastic parathyroid glands, six were adenomas, one was a parathyroid carcinoma and one was a thyroid follicular carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We believe 99mTc-sestamibi SPECT/CT to be a more reliable presurgical method to study a patient subgroup affected by PHP or SHP in whom conventional US and other scintigraphic methods have failed for intrinsic reasons due to the concomitant presence of multinodular goitre or ectopic parathyroid gland.

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  • (PMID = 17021682.001).
  • [ISSN] 0033-8362
  • [Journal-full-title] La Radiologia medica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiol Med
  • [Language] eng; ita
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 971Z4W1S09 / Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
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26. Ciuni R, Musmeci N, Di Giunta M, Basile F, Ciuni S: [Treatment of microcarcinoma and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid]. Ann Ital Chir; 2010 Mar-Apr;81(2):115-9
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  • [Title] [Treatment of microcarcinoma and papillary carcinoma of the thyroid].
  • [Transliterated title] Trattamento del microcarcinoma e del carcinoma papillifero della tiroide.
  • AIM OF THE STUDY: Of our is to demonstrate that total thyroidectomy with lymphadenectomy of the six level is effective in papillary thyroid carcinomas than for microcarcinoma, according to recent acquisitions on the biological behavior of some microcarcinoma.
  • RESULTS: Of all the interventions of total thyroidectomy, 75% performed for benign disease and 25% for malignant disease (PTMC 356 cases, 291 PTC cases, 56 cases of follicular carcinoma, 5 cases of medullary carcinoma, anaplastic carcinoma, 2 cases).
  • 40% of PTMC underwent TT and subsequent follow up, because the diagnosis was placed postoperatively and in 60% diagnosis was placed during surgery with indication for TT and lymphadenectomy of the sixth level and subsequent follow-up showed no evidence of residual disease or relapse.
  • All patients in the follow-up post-operatively does not show in the following years, signs of residual disease or relapse.
  • This applies to papillary carcinomas than for microcarcinoma whose surgical treatment (total thyroidectomy, lobectomy, subtotal thyroidectomy or near-total) is still debated.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Lymph Node Excision. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 20726389.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-469X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annali italiani di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Ital Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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27. Iqbal M, Mehmood Z, Rasul S, Inamullah, H Shah SS, Bokhari I: Carcinoma thyroid in multi and uninodular goiter. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak; 2010 May;20(5):310-2
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  • [Title] Carcinoma thyroid in multi and uninodular goiter.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and profile of carcinoma in multi-nodular goiter and solitary thyroid nodule.
  • METHODOLOGY: Cases with solitary thyroid nodules and multi-nodular goiter were included.
  • Patients under 12 years of age, cystic benign lesion in solitary thyroid nodules or those multi-nodular goiters which were not causing pressure symptoms, cosmetic problems or sign of malignancy were excluded.
  • In solitary thyroid nodule, hemithyroidectomy was done and if histopathology examination revealed carcinoma thyroid then completion thyroidectomy was done.
  • Results were described as frequency percentages and mean.
  • RESULTS: Out of 397 patients of multi-nodular goiter only one patient was found to be papillary carcinoma (0.25%).
  • In 220 patients of solitary thyroid nodules, 93 patients were diagnosed as carcinoma of thyroid (42.27%).
  • Others diagnosed in solitary thyroid nodule were thyroid adenoma, colloid goiter, thyroiditis and multi-nodular goiter.
  • The frequency of papillary carcinoma in 65.95% occuring females of 12-30 years of age and being multifocal in 6.45%, follicular carcinoma in 23.40%, medullary carcinoma in 7.44%, anaplastic carcinoma in 2.12% and lymphoma in 1.01%.
  • Female were predominantly involved and papillary carcinoma was common in 12-30 years of age (71.63%) and follicular was common in 30-40 years of age (68.18%).
  • 6.45% of papillary carcinoma was found to be multifocal in nature.
  • CONCLUSION: Frequency of carcinoma of thyroid is very high in solitary thyroid nodule (42.27%), but markedly low in multinodular goiter.
  • Papillary carcinoma is the most common variety, most of in younger female.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / epidemiology. Carcinoma / pathology. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / epidemiology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20642922.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-386X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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28. Jarząb M, Lange D: Endogenous avidin biotin activity (EABA) in thyroid pathology: immunohistochemical study. Thyroid Res; 2009 Apr 08;2(1):5
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  • [Title] Endogenous avidin biotin activity (EABA) in thyroid pathology: immunohistochemical study.
  • The aim of our investigation is to study presence of endogenous avidin biotin activity (EABA) in thyrocytes originating from various thyroid pathological lesions (neoplastic and non-neoplastic).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The immunohistochemical study was performed on paraffin-embedded specimens of surgically resected thyroid tissue from 97 patients with thyroid diseases: 65 patients with papillary carcinoma (PTC), 11 patients with nodular goiter in whom features of benign papillary hyperplasia were found, 9 with lymphocytic thyroiditis (LT), 8 with follicular adenoma, and 4 patients with follicular carcinoma.
  • Normal surrounding thyroid tissues showed absence or weak EABA.
  • CONCLUSION: Among thyroid lesions, false positive reactions are highly probable in papillary thyroid carcinoma and in lymphocytic thyroiditis if immunohistochemical detection is used on systems containing (strept)avidin.

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  • (PMID = 19351422.001).
  • [ISSN] 1756-6614
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2678080
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29. Snabboon T, Plengpanich W, Saengpanich S, Sirisalipoch S, Keelawat S, Sunthornyothin S, Khovidhunkit W, Suwanwalaikorn S, Sridama V, Shotelersuk V: Two common and three novel PDS mutations in Thai patients with Pendred syndrome. J Endocrinol Invest; 2007 Dec;30(11):907-13
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  • Pendred syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by congenital sensorineural deafness, goiter, and impaired iodide organification.
  • Follicular thyroid carcinoma and Hürthle cell adenoma were found in affected members of a family, raising the possibility of an increased risk of thyroid carcinoma in Pendred syndrome patients.
  • The identification of these two frequent PDS mutations will facilitate the molecular diagnosis of Pendred syndrome in Thai populations.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / genetics. Adult. Alleles. Female. Humans. Iodides / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Pedigree. Risk Factors. Syndrome. Thailand. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18250610.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodides; 0 / Membrane Transport Proteins; 0 / SLC26A4 protein, human
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30. Prasad P, Nunns D, Ubhi CS, Chaudry Z, Soomro I: A rare case of follicular thyroid carcinoma in ovarian struma. Surgeon; 2008 Oct;6(5):313-5
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  • [Title] A rare case of follicular thyroid carcinoma in ovarian struma.
  • Struma ovarii is a form of specialised mature teratoma, with predominantly mature thyroid tissue in an ovarian teratoma as seen in 2% of cases.
  • Its malignant transformation is even rarer and is seen in only 5% of those cases.
  • This 40-year-old female patient had an incidental finding of a pelvic mass during investigation of secondary amenorrhoea.
  • The histopathology revealed a bilateral mature teratoma of the ovary with follicular thyroid carcinoma in the right ovarian struma (malignant struma).
  • The patient remains well after four years and is being followed-up with serial serum thyroglobulin surveillance.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Struma Ovarii / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18939380.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-666X
  • [Journal-full-title] The surgeon : journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgeon
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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31. Yang CS, Zhang Q, Guo ZM, Zeng ZY, Lai FY: [Childhood thyroid carcinoma: clinical analyses of 22 cases]. Ai Zheng; 2008 Mar;27(3):311-4
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  • [Title] [Childhood thyroid carcinoma: clinical analyses of 22 cases].
  • BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVE: Thyroid carcinoma is rarely occurred in children.
  • Clinicopathologic characteristics, therapy and prognosis of childhood thyroid carcinoma patients are different from those of adult patients, and the treatment of this disease is controversial.
  • This study was to explore the clinicopathologic characteristics, diagnosis and therapy of thyroid carcinoma in children.
  • METHODS: Clinical data of 22 children under the age of 14, diagnosed as thyroid carcinoma between Jan.
  • Of the 22 patients, 8 (36.4%) had papillary carcinoma, 8 (36.4%) had follicular carcinoma, 5(22.7%) had mixed papillary-follicular carcinoma, and 1 (4.5%) had medullary carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Childhood thyroid carcinomas are mostly differentiated carcinomas, with high frequency of cervical lymph node metastases.
  • The optimal treatment for thyroid carcinoma in children may improve the quality of life and decrease the incidence of complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18334124.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Ai zheng = Aizheng = Chinese journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ai Zheng
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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32. Chen Y, Chen YC, Lin YT, Huang SH, Wang SM: Cordycepin induces apoptosis of CGTH W-2 thyroid carcinoma cells through the calcium-calpain-caspase 7-PARP pathway. J Agric Food Chem; 2010 Nov 24;58(22):11645-52
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  • [Title] Cordycepin induces apoptosis of CGTH W-2 thyroid carcinoma cells through the calcium-calpain-caspase 7-PARP pathway.
  • We used CGTH W-2, a follicular thyroid carcinoma cell line, to study the mechanism of the anticancer effect of cordycepin.
  • Cordycepin decreased cell viability and resulted in apoptosis but not necrosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Calcium / metabolism. Calpain / metabolism. Caspase 7 / metabolism. Deoxyadenosines / pharmacology. Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Cordyceps / chemistry. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Humans. Signal Transduction / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 20961042.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-5118
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of agricultural and food chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Agric. Food Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Deoxyadenosines; 73-03-0 / cordycepin; EC 2.4.2.30 / Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases; EC 3.4.22.- / Calpain; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 7; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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33. Kung SP, Lee CH, Yang AH, Chi CW, Tseng LM, Wu CW: Expression of c-kit, Flk-1, and Flk-2 receptors in benign and malignant tumors of follicular epithelial origin. J Chin Med Assoc; 2006 Feb;69(2):74-9
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  • [Title] Expression of c-kit, Flk-1, and Flk-2 receptors in benign and malignant tumors of follicular epithelial origin.
  • BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key regulator of physiologic as well as pathologic angiogenesis.
  • The response of VEGF to endothelial cell mitogenesis and survival, as well as angiogenesis and microvascular permeability, is mainly mediated through its receptor-2, VEGFR2 (kinase domain receptor or fetal liver kinase-1, KDR or Flk-1).
  • This study aimed to detect the expression of VEGFR2 in various forms of thyroid tumors.
  • In addition, the expression of Flk-2 (receptor for Flt-3) and c-Kit (receptor for steel locus factor), which shows strong similarity to Flk-1, was also examined in thyroid tumors.
  • METHODS: RT-PCR analyses of c-Kit and immunohistochemical staining of c-Kit, Flk-1, and Flk-2 were performed in archived samples of 18 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), 9 follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC), 12 follicular adenoma (FA), and 7 nodular goiter (NG) samples.
  • RESULTS: By RT-PCR analyses, c-Kit expression was detected in 22% (4/18) of PTC, 22% (2/9) of FTC, 25% (3/12) of FA, and 57% (4/7) of NG samples.
  • However, positive immunostaining signals of c-Kit were only observed in 17% (3/18) of PTC samples, and not in the others.
  • Interestingly, the expression of Flk-2 was found in 89% (16/18) of PTC, 89% (8/9) of FTC, 75% (9/12) of FA, and 29% (2/7) of NG samples.
  • An inverse relationship of thyroid cancer size with Flk-2 expression was found.
  • CONCLUSION: Flk-2 expression was detected in various forms of thyroid tumors and increased Flk-2 expression was correlated with thyroid tumors with increased transforming activity, suggesting that Flk-2 is involved in pathogenic development of thyroid malignancy.
  • Similarly, Flk-1 expression was also found in some thyroid tumors, while the expression of c-Kit-mediated pathways may not play a major role in thyroid tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / chemistry. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / chemistry. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / analysis. fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3 / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Papillary / chemistry. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 16570574.001).
  • [ISSN] 1726-4901
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Chinese Medical Association : JCMA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chin Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / FLT3 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2; EC 2.7.10.1 / fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3
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34. Manxhuka-Kerliu S, Devolli-Disha E, Gerxhaliu A, Ahmetaj H, Baruti A, Loxha S, Thaqi H: Prognostic values of thyroid tumours. Bosn J Basic Med Sci; 2009 May;9(2):111-9
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  • [Title] Prognostic values of thyroid tumours.
  • Thyroid cancer accounts for approximately 1% of total cancer cases in developed countries.
  • The aim of this study has been to analyze the histopathological variants of thyroid tumours with regard to gender and age.
  • During the period from 2001-2007, 138 biopsy cases of thyroid tumours, which were fixed in buffered neutral formalin and embedded in paraffin, have been reviewed.
  • Follicular adenomas have been found in 39, 1% of cases, thyroid carcinomas in 60, 12%, whereas thyroid secondary carcinomas have been found in 0, 72% of cases.
  • As far as histological variants of thyroid carcinomas are concerned, most frequently found were papillary carcinomas in 39,85% of cases; followed by follicular carcinomas in 9,42% of cases; follicular variants of papillary carcinomas in 5,79% of cases; medullary carcinomas in 3,62% of cases, while anaplastic and Hurthle cell carcinomas have been found in 0,72% of cases each.
  • All histological variants of thyroid tumours occurred more frequently in women than in men.
  • Papillary carcinoma has been found in 80% of female cases.
  • Thyroid tumours in our material mainly occurred in the third, the fourth and the fifth decade of life.
  • Our data indicate that apart from the fact that papillary carcinomas, well differentiated, and characterised by relatively good prognosis, were most frequent variants, certain morphological variants of it were associated with poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / mortality

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  • (PMID = 19485942.001).
  • [ISSN] 1512-8601
  • [Journal-full-title] Bosnian journal of basic medical sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bosn J Basic Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Bosnia and Herzegovina
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35. Ogawa C, Kammori M, Onose H, Yamada E, Shimizu K, Yamada T: Follicular carcinoma arising from the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid. J Nippon Med Sch; 2009 Jun;76(3):169-72
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  • [Title] Follicular carcinoma arising from the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid.
  • We present a rare case of follicular carcinoma arising from the pyramidal lobe of the thyroid in a 21-year-old woman.
  • Radical resection of the thyroid isthmus was performed, followed by adjuvant hormonal therapy with levothyroxine.
  • After 15 months of follow-up, the patient remains disease-free.
  • Thyroid carcinoma in children and adolescents is rare, and also rarely arises in the pyramidal lobe.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first report of this type of neoplasm arising from the thyroid pyramidal lobe.
  • This case suggests the importance of the differential diagnosis of midline cervical masses and the management of this type of neoplasm in adolescents.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19602825.001).
  • [ISSN] 1345-4676
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Nippon Medical School = Nippon Ika Daigaku zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Nippon Med Sch
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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36. Saleh HA, Jin B, Barnwell J, Alzohaili O: Utility of immunohistochemical markers in differentiating benign from malignant follicular-derived thyroid nodules. Diagn Pathol; 2010;5:9
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  • [Title] Utility of immunohistochemical markers in differentiating benign from malignant follicular-derived thyroid nodules.
  • BACKGROUND: Thyroid nodules are common among adults though only a small percentage is malignant, which can histologically mimic benign nodules.
  • Accurate diagnosis of these thyroid nodules is critical for the proper clinical management.
  • METHODS: We investigated immunoexpression in 98 surgically removed benign thyroid nodules including 52 hyperplastic nodules (HN) and 46 follicular/Hurthle cell adenomas (FA), and 54 malignant tumors including 22 follicular carcinoma (FC), 20 classic papillary carcinoma (PTC), and 12 follicular variant papillary carcinoma (FVPC).
  • RESULTS: The staining results showed that malignant tumors express galectin-3, HBME-1, CK19 and Ret oncoprotein significantly more than benign nodules.
  • The sensitivity of these markers for the distinction between benign and malignant lesions ranged from 83.3% to 87%.
  • Immunoexpression was usually diffuse and strong in malignant tumors, and focal and weak in the benign lesions.
  • CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that these immunomarkers are significantly more expressed in malignant tumors compared to benign lesions and may be of additional diagnostic value when combined with routine histology.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Immunohistochemistry. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular. Carcinoma. Diagnosis, Differential. Galectin 3 / analysis. Humans. Hyperplasia. Keratin-19 / analysis. Predictive Value of Tests. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / analysis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Neoplasms / chemistry. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20181018.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / HBME-1 antigen; 0 / Keratin-19; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; Thyroid cancer, Hurthle cell; Thyroid cancer, papillary
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2831001
  • [General-notes] NLM/ Original DateCompleted: 20100524
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37. Morari EC, Silva JR, Guilhen AC, Cunha LL, Marcello MA, Soares FA, Vassallo J, Ward LS: Muc-1 expression may help characterize thyroid nodules but does not predict patients' outcome. Endocr Pathol; 2010 Dec;21(4):242-9
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  • [Title] Muc-1 expression may help characterize thyroid nodules but does not predict patients' outcome.
  • Our purpose was to evaluate MUC1 clinical utility in the diagnosis and prognosis of thyroid cancer patients.
  • We studied the protein expression of MUC1 in 289 thyroid carcinomas and 121 noncancerous thyroid nodules.
  • There were 41 follicular carcinomas (FC) and 248 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) including 149 classic (CPTC), 20 tall cell (TCPTC) and 79 follicular variants (FVPTC).
  • In addition, we used a quantitative real-time PCR (q-PCR) method to measure MUC1 mRNA expression levels in 108 carcinomas, 23 hyperplasias, and 19 FA.
  • According to their serum Tg levels and other evidences of recurrence/metastasis, the patients were classified as free-of-disease (185 cases) or bad outcome (56 cases, 10 deaths).
  • MUC1 protein was identified in 80.2% PTC; 48.8% FC; 68.3% FVPTC; 70% TCPTC; 21.8% FA; 30% hyperplasias and 6% normal thyroid tissues.
  • MUC1 distinguished benign from malignant thyroid tissues (sensitivity = 89%; specificity = 53%).
  • MUC1 also differentiated FC from FA (p = 0.0083).
  • q-PCR mRNA expression of MUC1 also distinguished malignant from benign nodules (Mann-Whitney test, p < 0.0001).
  • We suggest that MUC1 expression may help differentiate follicular patterned thyroid lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Mucin-1 / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis

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  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MUC1 protein, human; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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38. Nosé V: Familial non-medullary thyroid carcinoma: an update. Endocr Pathol; 2008;19(4):226-40
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  • [Title] Familial non-medullary thyroid carcinoma: an update.
  • Familial thyroid cancer can arise from follicular cells (familial non-medullary thyroid carcinoma (FNMTC)) or from the calcitonin-producing C-cell (familial medullary thyroid carcinoma).
  • This is usually a component of multiple endocrine neoplasias (MEN) IIA or IIB, or as pure familial medullary thyroid carcinoma syndrome.
  • The genetic events in the familial C-cell-derived tumors are known and genotype-phenotype correlations are well established.
  • In contrast, the case for a familial predisposition of non-medullary thyroid carcinoma is only now beginning to emerge.
  • Although the majority of papillary (PTC) and follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC) are sporadic, familial tumors account for over 5% of cases.
  • The presence of multifocal papillary carcinoma is a common feature of FNMTC.
  • The familial follicular cell-derived tumors or non-medullary thyroid carcinomas encompass a heterogeneous group of diseases, including diverse syndromic-associated tumors and non-syndromic tumors.
  • The first includes familial syndromes characterized by a predominance of non-thyroidal tumors, such as familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (PHTS), Carney complex type 1, and Werner syndrome.
  • The second group includes familial syndromes characterized by a predominance of NMTC, such as pure familial (f) PTC with or without oxyphilia, fPTC with papillary renal cell carcinoma, and fPTC with multinodular goiter.
  • Some characteristic morphologic findings should alert the pathologist of a possible familial cancer syndrome, which may lead to further molecular genetic evaluation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. Hamartoma Syndrome, Multiple / genetics. Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Child, Preschool. Humans. Infant. Middle Aged. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18931957.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 97
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39. Lundgren CI, Hall P, Dickman PW, Zedenius J: Clinically significant prognostic factors for differentiated thyroid carcinoma: a population-based, nested case-control study. Cancer; 2006 Feb 1;106(3):524-31
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  • [Title] Clinically significant prognostic factors for differentiated thyroid carcinoma: a population-based, nested case-control study.
  • BACKGROUND: Different scoring systems currently are being used to stratify patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) into risk groups.
  • DTC is usually subdivided into papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC).
  • METHODS: The authors conducted a nested case-control study within the cohort of all patients (n=5123) diagnosed with DTC in Sweden between 1958-1987 who survived at least 1 year after diagnosis.
  • One control, matched by age at diagnosis, gender, and calendar period, was randomly selected for each case (patients who died of DTC).
  • All patients were classified at the time of diagnosis according to the TNM staging system.
  • RESULTS: Patients with widely invasive FTC experienced a significantly higher mortality compared with PTC patients.
  • Patients with TNM Stage IV disease had a higher mortality rate compared with patients with Stage II disease (odds ratio [OR]=9.1; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 5.7-14.6).
  • Patients with lymph node metastases experienced a higher mortality (OR=2.5; 95% CI, 1.6-4.1) and patients with distant metastasis at the time of diagnosis were found to have a nearly 7-fold higher mortality rate (OR=6.6; 95% CI, 4.1-10.5).
  • Incomplete surgical excision was associated with higher mortality, particularly in patients with Stage I disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / standards. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Case-Control Studies. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Registries / statistics & numerical data. Risk Assessment

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2005 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 16369995.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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40. Woyach JA, Shah MH: New therapeutic advances in the management of progressive thyroid cancer. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2009 Sep;16(3):715-31
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  • [Title] New therapeutic advances in the management of progressive thyroid cancer.
  • The spectrum of thyroid cancers ranges from one of the most indolent to one of the most aggressive solid tumors identified.
  • Conventional therapies for thyroid cancers are based on the histologic type of thyroid cancers such as papillary or follicular thyroid cancer (differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC)), medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), or anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC).
  • While surgery is one of the key treatments for all such types of thyroid cancers, additional therapies vary.
  • Effective targeted therapy for DTC is a decades-old practice with systemic therapies of thyroid stimulating hormone suppression and radioactive iodine therapy.
  • Recent advances in understanding pathogenesis of DTC and development of molecular targeted therapy have dramatically transformed the field of clinical research in thyroid cancer.
  • Over the last five years, incredible progress has been made and phases I-III clinical trials have been conducted in various types of thyroid cancers with some remarkable results that has made an impact on lives of patients with thyroid cancer.
  • Such history-making events have boosted enthusiasm and interest among researchers, clinicians, patients, and sponsors and we anticipate ongoing efforts to develop more effective and safe therapies for thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Protocols. Carcinoma / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Carcinoma, Medullary / etiology. Carcinoma, Medullary / therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / etiology. Carcinoma, Papillary / therapy. Clinical Trials as Topic / methods. Clinical Trials as Topic / trends. Disease Progression. Drug Evaluation, Preclinical / methods. Drug Evaluation, Preclinical / trends. Humans. Models, Biological

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  • (PMID = 19218279.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 106
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41. Rodrigues F, Limbert E, Marques AP, Santos AP, Lopes C, Rodrigues E, Borges F, Carrilho F, Castro JJ, Neto J, Salgado L, Oliveira MJ, Grupo de Estudo da Tiróide: [Treatment and follow up protocol in differentiated thyroid carcinomas of follicular origin]. Acta Med Port; 2005 Jan-Feb;18(1):2-16
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  • [Title] [Treatment and follow up protocol in differentiated thyroid carcinomas of follicular origin].
  • [Transliterated title] Protocolo de tratamento e seguimento dos carcinomas diferenciados da tiróide de origem folicular.
  • Differentiated thyroid carcinoma of follicular origin (DTCFO), although not very frequent, has registered a raising incidence in the last decades.
  • In the majority of the cases, DTCFO is a curable disease when treated and monitored by experienced, multidisciplinary teams.
  • The present protocol represents the consensus of the members of the Grupo de Estudo da Tiróide of the Sociedade Portuguesa de Endocrinologia, Diabetes e Metabolismo.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16202330.001).
  • [ISSN] 1646-0758
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta médica portuguesa
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Med Port
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Practice Guideline; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Portugal
  • [Number-of-references] 120
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42. Lee B, Cook G, John L, Harrington K, Nutting C: Follicular thyroid carcinoma metastasis to the esophagus detected by 18FDG PET/CT. Thyroid; 2008 Feb;18(2):267-71
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  • [Title] Follicular thyroid carcinoma metastasis to the esophagus detected by 18FDG PET/CT.
  • A 55-year-old male with treated well-differentiated follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) had persistently raised thyroglobulin levels despite both negative whole-body CT scan and 131I scans.
  • A diagnostic endoscopy revealed a pedunculated esophageal polyp, which histological examination confirmed to be metastatic FTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Esophageal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Positron-Emission Tomography. Radiopharmaceuticals. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18279026.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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43. Ulger Z, Karaman N, Piskinpasa SV, Niksarlioglu YO, Kilickap S, Erman M, Firat P, Guler N: Endobronchial metastasis of thyroid follicular carcinoma. J Natl Med Assoc; 2006 May;98(5):803-6
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  • [Title] Endobronchial metastasis of thyroid follicular carcinoma.
  • Well-differentiated forms of thyroid cancer, including follicular carcinoma, usually have good prognoses.
  • In this paper, we report on a patient with endobronchial metastasis of follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • Biopsy from the supraclavicular mass was consistent with follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • Taking into account the advanced nature of the disease as well as the general condition and age of the patient, aggressive treatment modalities were not considered in the management.
  • Although endobronchial metastasis of thyroid follicular carcinoma is very rare, the presence of endobronchial metastasis may be life threatening due to massive hemoptysis, and such a lesion must be suspected in any cancer patients presenting with hemoptysis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Bronchial Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Cites] Lung Cancer. 2000 May;28(2):163-70 [10717334.001]
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  • (PMID = 16749660.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-4693
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Natl Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2569294
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44. Price HC, Jayagopal V: Myopathy following postoperative ablative radioiodine for follicular carcinoma of the thyroid. Int Med Case Rep J; 2009;2:11-3
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  • [Title] Myopathy following postoperative ablative radioiodine for follicular carcinoma of the thyroid.
  • We highlight a case of disabling myopathy following radioablative iodine treatment for follicular carcinoma of the thyroid.
  • A 34-year-old man presented with a tender neck swelling, ultrasound and biopsy were suggestive of thyroid malignancy.
  • Thyroidectomy was undertaken and histology confirmed follicular carcinoma of the thyroid.

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  • (PMID = 23754875.001).
  • [ISSN] 1179-142X
  • [Journal-full-title] International medical case reports journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Med Case Rep J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3658207
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; iodine radioisotopes / muscular diseases / thyroid neoplasms
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45. López Mondéjar P, Picó A, Seguí J, López Maciá A: [Usefulness of galectin-3 expression in the clinical behavior of differentiated thyroid carcinoma]. Med Clin (Barc); 2008 Feb 16;130(5):161-4
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  • [Title] [Usefulness of galectin-3 expression in the clinical behavior of differentiated thyroid carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Utilidad de la expresión de galectina-3 en el comportamiento clínico del cáncer diferenciado de tiroides.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to quantify the galectin-3 (gal-3) expression in differentiated thyroid carcinoma and study its relation with the clinical behavior of these tumors.
  • PATIENTS AND METHOD: We investigated the immunohistochemical reaction of gal-3 in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and performed a retrospective study in order to find correlations with clinical features.
  • Gal-3 expression was studied in 53 differentiated tyroid carcinomas (42 PTC and 11 FTC), and was related with clinical features: metastases, extrathyroid invasion and initial stage in the diagnosis and persistence disease and relapses in the follow up.
  • RESULTS: Gal-3 expression positivity in PTC had a median of 60% (percentil 25 [p25], 17.5%; percentil 75 [p75], 100%), and was significantly higher (p < 0.0001) than in FTC (median, 0%; p25, 0%; p75, 15%).
  • In PTC, gal-3 expression was significantly higher in advanced stages at the time of initial diagnosis (p = 0.014), persistent disease (p = 0.012) and relapses (p = 0.012) during the follow up.
  • We did not find any significant association between gal-3 expression and clinical features of FTC.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Gal-3 is a negative prognosis marker in PTC but not in FTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Galectin 3 / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18341829.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-7753
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina clínica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Clin (Barc)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Galectin 3
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46. Miyauchi A, Takamura Y, Ito Y, Miya A, Kobayashi K, Matsuzuka F, Amino N, Toyoda N, Nomura E, Nishikawa M: 3,5,3'-Triiodothyronine thyrotoxicosis due to increased conversion of administered levothyroxine in patients with massive metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Jun;93(6):2239-42
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  • [Title] 3,5,3'-Triiodothyronine thyrotoxicosis due to increased conversion of administered levothyroxine in patients with massive metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: Some patients with massive metastatic thyroid carcinoma exhibit T(3) thyrotoxicosis.
  • We investigated the prevalence and cause of T(3) thyrotoxicosis and the clues to the diagnosis.
  • DESIGN: Serum free T(3) (FT(3)), free T(4) (FT(4)), and TSH were measured in patients with massive metastases from papillary, follicular, or medullary thyroid carcinomas (31, 20, and seven patients, respectively).
  • Type 1 and type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase (D1 and D2) activities were measured in three tumor tissues from thyrotoxic patients.
  • MAIN OUTCOME: The serum FT(3) level and FT(3)/FT(4) ratio in the follicular carcinoma (FC) group were significantly higher than those in the papillary carcinoma group or patients without recurrence.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Twenty percent of patients with massive metastatic FC exhibited T(3) thyrotoxicosis, most likely due to increased conversion of T(4) to T(3) by tumor expressing high D1 and D2 activities.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyrotoxicosis / etiology. Thyroxine / pharmacokinetics. Triiodothyronine / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Iodide Peroxidase / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prevalence. Thyroid Function Tests. Tumor Burden

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  • (PMID = 18397985.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 06LU7C9H1V / Triiodothyronine; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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47. Kobayashi K, Fukata S, Miyauchi A: Diagnosis of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid: role of sonography in preoperative diagnosis of follicular nodules. J Med Ultrason (2001); 2005 Dec;32(4):153-8
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  • [Title] Diagnosis of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid: role of sonography in preoperative diagnosis of follicular nodules.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate sonographic examination, as well as other clinical tests, for clarifying the parameters for predicting follicular carcinoma in follicular nodules of the thyroid.
  • Nine hundred and ten consecutive patients with follicular nodules were pathologically classified as having follicular carcinoma (109 patients) or benign tumor (811 patients).
  • Benign tumors included follicular adenoma (237 patients) and adenomatous thyroid nodules (574 patients).
  • A case-control study was performed for follicular carcinomas and benign tumors.
  • "Thyroglobulin 1000 ng/ml≦", "cytology class 3≦", and a "solid pattern", "low-echoic level of internal echo", and "jagged borders" of follicular carcinomas were found to be significantly higher than those of benign tumors.
  • The sensitivities of a solid pattern (79.8%) and a low-echoic level (75.2%) were found to be relatively higher than those of other features and findings.
  • We concluded that thyroglobulin 1000 ng/ml≦ and cytology class 3≦ in clinical features, and a solid pattern, low-echoic level, and jagged borders on sonography, indicated an increased risk of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid in follicular nodules.

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  • (PMID = 27277482.001).
  • [ISSN] 1346-4523
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical ultrasonics (2001)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Ultrason (2001)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; cytology / follicular carcinoma / sonography / thyroglobulin / thyroid
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48. Freitas BC, Cerutti JM: Genetic markers differentiating follicular thyroid carcinoma from benign lesions. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2010 May 28;321(1):77-85
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  • [Title] Genetic markers differentiating follicular thyroid carcinoma from benign lesions.
  • Thyroid nodules are commonly encountered during routine medical care.
  • The main problem established by a discovery of a thyroid nodule is to discriminate between a benign and malignant lesion.
  • Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is the most widely used and cost-effective preoperative test for initial evaluation of a thyroid nodule.
  • While the overall accuracy of FNA for classical papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) approaches 100%, it has limited accuracy with follicular lesions.
  • Patients with a cytological report of indeterminate or follicular lesions are referred to surgery for a more accurate diagnosis.
  • A more acute molecular-based test for thyroid nodules is needed not only to improve treatment decisions, but also to potentially reduce the long-term health costs.
  • Several studies have looked into biologic markers that could be used as an adjuvant to distinguish the benign from malignant nodules.
  • This review will focus on those biomarkers that are potentially useful in the diagnosis of thyroid lesions commonly classified as indeterminate.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Gene Expression Profiling. Genetic Markers. Humans

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19932149.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8057
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers
  • [Number-of-references] 140
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49. Pietz L, Michałek K, Waśko R, Ruchała M, Sowiński J: [Influence of the endogene TSH stimulation of thyroid volume increase in the patients after total thyroidectomy due to differentiated thyroid cancer]. Endokrynol Pol; 2008 Mar-Apr;59(2):119-22
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  • [Title] [Influence of the endogene TSH stimulation of thyroid volume increase in the patients after total thyroidectomy due to differentiated thyroid cancer].
  • INTRODUCTION: The treatment-of-choice for differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is a total thyroidectomy with subsequent radioiodine therapy.
  • In order to increase an iodine uptake in thyroid tissue remnants, the L-thyroxine withdrawal is required.
  • As TSH is a known key factor in thyroid cell proliferation regulation, prolonged stimulation of the cells during L-thyroxine withdrawal can be a causative factor for a re-growth.
  • Our aim was to assess the degree of thyroid re-growth in the patients after total thyroidectomy due to DTC and its possible clinical implications.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: 23 patients operated due to papillary and follicular thyroid cancer were included into the study.
  • Biochemical determinations and ultrasound thyroid imaging were performed (TSH, Tg) during suppressive L-thyroxine therapy as well as 4-5 weeks after the withdrawal.
  • RESULTS: The mean volume of thyroid tissue remnants increased after withdrawal for substantial 30.1%.
  • The phenomenon may be of a clinical significance in the selected cases influencing therapeutic decisions.
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / surgery. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy. Thyrotropin

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  • (PMID = 18465686.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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50. Refeidi AA, Al-Shehri GY, Al-Ahmary AM, Tahtouh MI, Alsareii SA, Al-Ghamdi AG, Mahfouz AA, Abu-Eshy SA: Patterns of thyroid cancer in Southwestern Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J; 2010 Nov;31(11):1238-41
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  • [Title] Patterns of thyroid cancer in Southwestern Saudi Arabia.
  • OBJECTIVE: To examine the pattern of thyroid cancer, assess the magnitude of the problem, and evolve a management plan for such malignancies.
  • METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study of all thyroid cases operated at Aseer Central Hospital, Abha, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between January 1998 and December 2007.
  • RESULTS: Five hundred and sixteen patients were operated for different thyroid lesions.
  • Ninety-two (17.8%) were malignant (20 males and 72 females).
  • Papillary carcinoma constituted 50%, while follicular carcinoma formed only 4.3% of malignant cases.
  • Lymphoma ranked third with only 1.1% of all malignant thyroid lesions.
  • No cases of medullary carcinoma were found.
  • CONCLUSION: High resolution neck ultrasonography and image-guided fine needle aspiration cytology should be considered as routine investigative tools in patients with suspicious thyroid swelling.
  • Residual thyroid tissues, following surgery, should be ablated using radioiodine I131 isotope.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 21063655.001).
  • [ISSN] 0379-5284
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
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51. Kim TY, Kim WB, Song JY, Rhee YS, Gong G, Cho YM, Kim SY, Kim SC, Hong SJ, Shong YK: The BRAF mutation is not associated with poor prognostic factors in Korean patients with conventional papillary thyroid microcarcinoma. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2005 Nov;63(5):588-93
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  • [Title] The BRAF mutation is not associated with poor prognostic factors in Korean patients with conventional papillary thyroid microcarcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The BRAF(V600E) mutation, the most common genetic alteration reported in papillary thyroid carcinoma, has been associated with poor prognostic factors.
  • AIM: To determine whether the presence of the BRAF(V600E) mutation is associated with poor prognosis in Korean patients with conventional papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (micro-PTC).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded thyroid tumour specimens taken from 60 patients with conventional micro-PTC, as well as from nine patients with follicular variant papillary carcinoma, six with nodular hyperplasia, four with follicular carcinoma (including one with Hürthle cell carcinoma), four with follicular adenoma (including two with Hürthle cell adenoma) and one each with medullary carcinoma, poorly differentiated carcinoma and anaplastic carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: The BRAF(V600E) mutation was detected in tumour samples from 31 of 60 conventional micro-PTC patients (52%), but was not detected in patients with other types of thyroid tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Point Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16268813.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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52. Cupisti K, Raffel A, Ramp U, Wolf A, Donner A, Krausch M, Eisenberger CF, Knoefel WT: Synchronous occurrence of a follicular, papillary and medullary thyroid carcinoma in a recurrent goiter. Endocr J; 2005 Apr;52(2):281-5
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  • [Title] Synchronous occurrence of a follicular, papillary and medullary thyroid carcinoma in a recurrent goiter.
  • The simultaneous occurrence of different types of thyroid carcinoma in a single patient is an unusual event.
  • We report the case of a 52-year-old man with the history of two previous thyroid operations for benign goiters, who developed a recurrent goiter.
  • In the pathohistological examination the specimen showed a 5 cm follicular carcinoma and a 0.3 cm papillary microcarcinoma in the right lobe as well as a 1.5 cm medullary carcinoma in the left lobe.
  • All tumors were clearly separated from each other, representing the pure entity of each type.
  • This work represented possible long term exposure to inhalative carcinogenous toxins like hydrazine, which caused thyroid parafollicular cell adenomas in an animal model.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Goiter / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15863962.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-8959
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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53. Zekri JM, Manifold IH, Wadsley JC: Metastatic struma ovarii: late presentation, unusual features and multiple radioactive iodine treatments. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2006 Dec;18(10):768-72
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  • Metastatic malignant struma ovarii is rare and there is a lack of agreement on the criteria of diagnosis and the lines of management.
  • At this time, a pathological review of the initial lesion found that it contained invasive well-differentiated follicular carcinoma.
  • The case was associated with a number of unusual features and challenging management issues, such as a delayed diagnosis of recurrence, functioning metastases with treatment consequences, tumour lysis-induced thyrotoxicosis and cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhea.
  • The diagnosis and management of struma ovarii should be led by an expert multidisciplinary team.
  • Radioactive iodine should be considered in the management of metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Struma Ovarii / diagnosis. Struma Ovarii / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Metastasis. Ovarian Follicle / pathology. Thyroglobulin / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17168212.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-6555
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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54. Rakotoarisoa AH, Ralamboson SA, Rakotoarivelo RA, Raharisolo CV, Rakouth A, Ramiandrasoa AL, Andrianjafinala NM, Randrianjafisamindrakotroka NS, Gizy RD: [Thyroid cancers in Madagascar]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot; 2010 Oct;103(4):233-7
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  • [Title] [Thyroid cancers in Madagascar].
  • [Transliterated title] Les cancers de la thyroïde à Madagascar.
  • This is a retrospective study, conducted on thyroid cancer observed for 13 months (from June 1(st) 2004 to June 30(th) 2005).
  • Among 6,036 surgical samples, 179 were of thyroid gland, a rate that is near 3% of the total.
  • Among them were found 40 cases of thyroid cancer, which is 0.66% of all screened samples, and 22.32% of all examined thyroid samples.
  • In the studied population was observed a female preponderance (82%) with a mean age of 43.9 years when diagnosis was confirmed.
  • It was evidenced a 50 % of papillary carcinoma and 45% of follicular carcinoma, with a rate of 2.5% respectively for the medullar and anaplastic carcinoma.
  • Metastases were seen in 20%, originated from papillary type for the lymph node involvement and from the follicular type for the bone involvement.
  • In Antananarivo, thyroid cancer is seen mainly in people from the surrounding Highlands, supposed to be sites of endemic goiter related to iodine deficiency.
  • Despite its limits, this study may be used as reference about thyroid cancer in Madagascar.
  • Further studies are required to find out other factors involved in the development of this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoma, Papillary / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Ethnic Groups / statistics & numerical data. Female. Humans. Madagascar / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Prevalence. Retrospective Studies. Sex Ratio

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  • (PMID = 20556675.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-9085
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin de la Société de pathologie exotique (1990)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Soc Pathol Exot
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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55. Moncayo R, Kroiss A, Oberwinkler M, Karakolcu F, Starzinger M, Kapelari K, Talasz H, Moncayo H: The role of selenium, vitamin C, and zinc in benign thyroid diseases and of selenium in malignant thyroid diseases: Low selenium levels are found in subacute and silent thyroiditis and in papillary and follicular carcinoma. BMC Endocr Disord; 2008;8:2
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  • [Title] The role of selenium, vitamin C, and zinc in benign thyroid diseases and of selenium in malignant thyroid diseases: Low selenium levels are found in subacute and silent thyroiditis and in papillary and follicular carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Thyroid physiology is closely related to oxidative changes.
  • The aim of this controlled study was to evaluate the levels of nutritional anti-oxidants such as vitamin C, zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se), and to investigate any association of them with parameters of thyroid function and pathology including benign and malignant thyroid diseases.
  • METHODS: This controlled evaluation of Se included a total of 1401 subjects (1186 adults and 215 children) distributed as follows: control group (n = 687), benign thyroid disease (85 children and 465 adults); malignant thyroid disease (2 children and 79 adults).
  • Clinical evaluation of patients with benign thyroid disease included sonography, scintigraphy, as well as the determination of fT3, fT4, TSH, thyroid antibodies levels, Se, Zn, and vitamin C.
  • Besides the routine oncological parameters (TG, TSH, fT4, ultrasound) Se was also determined in the cases of malignant disease.
  • The local control groups for the evaluation of Se levels were taken from a general practice (WOMED) as well as from healthy active athletes.
  • The Ho stated that there should be no differences in the levels of antioxidants between controls and thyroid disease patients.
  • RESULTS: Among the thyroid disease patients neither vitamin C, nor Zn nor Se correlated with any of the following parameters: age, sex, BMI, body weight, thyroid scintigraphy, ultrasound pattern, thyroid function, or thyroid antibodies.
  • The proportion of patients with benign thyroid diseases having analyte concentrations below external reference cut off levels were 8.7% of cases for vitamin C; 7.8% for Zn, and 20.3% for Se.
  • Se levels were significantly decreased in cases of sub-acute and silent thyroiditis (66.4 +/- 23.1 microg/l and 59.3 +/- 20.1 microg/l, respectively) as well as in follicular and papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Patients with benign or malignant thyroid diseases can present low Se levels as compared to controls.

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  • (PMID = 18221503.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-6823
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC endocrine disorders
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Endocr Disord
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2266752
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56. Duntas L, Grab-Duntas BM: Risk and prognostic factors for differentiated thyroid cancer. Hell J Nucl Med; 2006 Sep-Dec;9(3):156-62
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  • [Title] Risk and prognostic factors for differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • Papillary and follicular carcinomas, commonly referred to as follicular cell-derived differentiated thyroid carcinomas (DTC), account for 90% of all thyroid carcinomas.
  • However, a considerable number of patients, approximately 30%, as shown after 30 years of follow-up, have recurrent disease.
  • Histological type of the cancer especially tall cancer cells and columnar cancer cells, as well as increased vascular invasion of the tumor, lymph-node and distant metastases, are all considered as risk factors that can lead to poor prognosis.
  • However, prognostic significance of the SS is limited, since they do not take into consideration the clinical status or the treatment procedure during the course of the disease.
  • Molecular factors such as rearrangements of genes RET/PTC, RAS mutations and fusion of, paired box and 8/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PAX8/PPARgamma) are also involved in thyroid cancer prognosis, while some others: human Pituitary- Tumor Transforming Gene (e.g.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Risk Assessment / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / mortality. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • [CommentIn] Hell J Nucl Med. 2008 May-Aug;11(2):118-9; author reply 119 [18815668.001]
  • (PMID = 17160155.001).
  • [ISSN] 1790-5427
  • [Journal-full-title] Hellenic journal of nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hell J Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Number-of-references] 88
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57. Savin S, Cvejic D, Isic T, Paunovic I, Tatic S, Havelka M: Thyroid peroxidase and galectin-3 immunostaining in differentiated thyroid carcinoma with clinicopathologic correlation. Hum Pathol; 2008 Nov;39(11):1656-63
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  • [Title] Thyroid peroxidase and galectin-3 immunostaining in differentiated thyroid carcinoma with clinicopathologic correlation.
  • Thyroperoxidase and galectin-3 have been reported as useful immunohistochemical markers of thyroid malignancy.
  • In this study, we evaluated the relationship between immunohistochemical staining results for these markers and clinicopathologic features of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • A total of 193 archival thyroid samples including 28 follicular adenomas, 18 follicular carcinomas, and 147 papillary carcinomas with 114 adjacent thyroid tissues were analyzed by immunohistochemistry.
  • Thyroperoxidase was underexpressed (<50% stained thyrocytes), and galectin-3 was expressed (>5% stained thyrocytes) in most carcinomas.
  • The sensitivity for diagnosis of differentiated thyroid carcinoma was 86.1% for thyroperoxidase and 82.4% for galectin-3, whereas the combination of both markers increased the sensitivity up to 94.5%.
  • Thus, the combination of thyroperoxidase and galectin-3 immunohistochemistry may help to ascertain the malignant nature of the lesion.
  • Furthermore, tumor size, nodal involvement, extrathyroidal invasion, and high tumor-node-metastasis stage in patients with papillary carcinoma were related to thyroperoxidase absence and high galectin-3 expression in most cases (P < .05).
  • In patients with follicular carcinoma, the extent of invasiveness was associated with galectin-3 positivity.
  • Thus, expression of these markers is related to more or less aggressive biological behavior of differentiated thyroid carcinomas.
  • Although thyroperoxidase presence may indicate favorable prognosis of papillary cancer, expression of galectin-3 illustrates the potential importance of this protein in the pathogenesis and/or progression of differentiated thyroid carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Galectin 3 / metabolism. Iodide Peroxidase / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18657294.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase
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58. Takano T, Higashiyama T, Uruno T, Yamada H, Yoshida H, Miyauchi A: Preparation of thyroid tumor cells in aspiration biopsies for aspiration biopsy nucleic acid diagnosis. Head Neck; 2008 Aug;30(8):983-90
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  • [Title] Preparation of thyroid tumor cells in aspiration biopsies for aspiration biopsy nucleic acid diagnosis.
  • BACKGROUND: The relative expression level of trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) mRNA to galectin-3 (LGALS3) mRNA (T/G ratio) is a useful marker to distinguish thyroid follicular carcinomas from adenomas.
  • METHODS: We tested 2 methods of selecting thyroid tumor cells and removing blood cells from the aspirates.
  • CONCLUSION: Mesh filtration of aspirates proved superior results for the measurement of T/G ratio.
  • [MeSH-major] Galectin 3 / metabolism. Peptides / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Antigens, CD45 / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / immunology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cell Separation. Filtration / instrumentation. Humans. Immunomagnetic Separation. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18302262.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0347
  • [Journal-full-title] Head & neck
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / Peptides; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / TFF3 protein, human; 0 / human epithelial antigen-125; EC 3.1.3.48 / Antigens, CD45
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59. Cretney A, Mow C: Mucinous variant of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid gland. Pathology; 2006 Apr;38(2):184-6
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  • [Title] Mucinous variant of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16581665.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Mucins
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60. Wolff EF, Hughes M, Merino MJ, Reynolds JC, Davis JL, Cochran CS, Celi FS: Expression of benign and malignant thyroid tissue in ovarian teratomas and the importance of multimodal management as illustrated by a BRAF-positive follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer. Thyroid; 2010 Sep;20(9):981-7
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  • [Title] Expression of benign and malignant thyroid tissue in ovarian teratomas and the importance of multimodal management as illustrated by a BRAF-positive follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The most common type of ovarian germ cell tumor is the teratoma.
  • Thyroid tissue, both benign and malignant, may be a component of an ovarian teratoma.
  • Here we review this topic and illustrate major features by presenting multimodal management of a patient with BRAF-positive disseminated follicular thyroid cancer arising in an ovarian teratoma.
  • SUMMARY: Malignant thyroid tissue is often difficult to distinguish from benign thyroid tissue arising in ovarian teratomas.
  • Preoperatively, an elevated thyroglobulin (Tg) level, laboratory or clinical evidence of hyperthyroidism, or ultrasonography appearance of "struma pearl" should prompt referral to oncologist for surgical management of a possibly malignant ovarian teratoma.
  • Postoperatively, tumor tissue should be referred to pathologists experienced with differentiating benign from malignant struma ovarii.
  • We cared for woman with disseminated thyroid cancer arising in an ovarian teratoma whose history illustrates the complexity of managing ovarian teratomas with malignant thyroid tissue.
  • During her next pregnancy, pelvic masses were noted; biopsies revealed well-differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma, follicular variant.
  • She then developed abdominal pain and, on computed tomography, was found to have multiple intraabdominal foci of disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Aggressive multimodal management appears to be the most promising approach for malignant thyroid tissue arising in ovarian teratomas.


61. Camargo RS, Maeda MY, di Loreto C, Shirata NK, Anselmo Garcia E, Filho AL: Is agNOR and DNA ploidy analysis useful for evaluating thyroid neoplasms? Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2005 Jun;27(3):157-61
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  • [Title] Is agNOR and DNA ploidy analysis useful for evaluating thyroid neoplasms?
  • OBJECTIVE: To correlate the subjective AgNOR counting method and DNA content with histologic diagnoses of thyroid cancer and invasion.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Eighty-one consecutive cases of thyroid carcinoma were selected for DNA and AgNOR analysis.
  • The diagnoses were: papillary carcinoma (n = 40), follicular carcinoma (n = 31), Hürthle cell adenocarcinoma (n = 4), and undifferentiated carcinoma (n = 6).
  • Counting the NORs was performed by subjectively counting the NORs in 200 malignant cells.
  • RESULTS: DNA ploidy analysis showed all Hürthle cell adenocarcinomas, 21 (67%)follicular tumors, 23 (57%) papillary tumors and 4 (67%) undifferentiated carcinomas to be aneuploid.
  • DNA analysis correlated with histologic type of the tumor (p = 0.032).
  • Statistical analysis showed correlation between ploidy and histologic diagnosis, but not AgNOR counting, to have prognostic value.
  • CONCLUSION: DNA ploidy is more useful than subjective counting of NORs as an adjunct method for thyroid lesion analysis.

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  • (PMID = 16121637.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Nuclear; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / nucleolar organizer region associated proteins
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62. Shiba E: [Diagnosis and treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma]. Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi; 2005 Aug;106(8):459-62
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  • [Title] [Diagnosis and treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma].
  • Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy.
  • More than 90% of primary thyroid cancers are differentiated papillary or follicular types.
  • The prognosis for patients with differentiated thyroid carcinomas is favorable.
  • The diagnosis of papillary thyroid cancer is not difficult with ultrasonography and fine-needle aspiration cytology under ultrasonography, whereas that of follicular cancer is difficult, especially of minimally invasive follicular carcinoma.
  • The diagnosis of most follicular cancer is made by pathologic diagnosis postoperatively.
  • The primary treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma is thyroid surgery with lymph node dissection.
  • The extent of resection of the thyroid gland depends on size the of the thyroid cancer and area of invasion.
  • The extent of initial surgery, indications for radioiodine ablation therapy, and the degree of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) suppression are all issues that are still being debated.
  • The aim of TSH-suppressive therapy is to restore euthyroidism and to decrease serum TSH levels to reduce the growth and progression of thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16119107.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-4894
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Geka Gakkai zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 0
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63. Fridman MV, Solobkaia OI: [Mucous transformation of the cells and stroma in follicular carcinoma of the thyroid]. Vopr Onkol; 2010;56(6):729-32
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  • [Title] [Mucous transformation of the cells and stroma in follicular carcinoma of the thyroid].
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21395135.001).
  • [ISSN] 0507-3758
  • [Journal-full-title] Voprosy onkologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vopr Onkol
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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64. Kim DS, Franklyn JA, Boelaert K, Eggo MC, Watkinson JC, McCabe CJ: Pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) stimulates thyroid cell proliferation via a vascular endothelial growth factor/kinase insert domain receptor/inhibitor of DNA binding-3 autocrine pathway. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Nov;91(11):4603-11
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  • [Title] Pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) stimulates thyroid cell proliferation via a vascular endothelial growth factor/kinase insert domain receptor/inhibitor of DNA binding-3 autocrine pathway.
  • CONTEXT: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) exerts its biological effects by binding to the tyrosine kinase receptors VEGF receptor type 1 (VEGFR1/Flt-1) and VEGFR2 (Flk-1/KDR).
  • OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to test whether VEGF, ID3, and KDR confer a PTTG-mediated effect on thyroid cell growth.
  • DESIGN: Gene expression, MAPK stimulation, and cell proliferation were assessed in follicular thyroid cancer FTC133 cells.
  • Gene expression and clinical associations were determined in 21 normal and 38 tumorous thyroid specimens (nine follicular and 29 papillary).
  • RESULTS: ID3 correlated with VEGF mRNA expression in our series of thyroid cancers, which also showed up-regulated KDR mRNA.
  • PTTG significantly correlated with KDR mRNA expression in our thyroid cancer cohort and up-regulated KDR and VEGF expression in FTC133 cells.
  • Finally, cells transfected with PTTG demonstrated increased cell proliferation and phosphorylation of MAPK, which was abrogated by ZM323881.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We report the presence of a VEGF/KDR/ID3-dependent autocrine pathway in FTC133 thyroid cells.
  • By up-regulating both VEGF and KDR expression, we propose a novel PTTG-mediated proliferative pathway that may be critical to thyroid cancer growth and progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Autocrine Communication. Cell Proliferation. Inhibitor of Differentiation Proteins / physiology. Neoplasm Proteins / physiology. Thyroid Gland / physiology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / physiology. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Growth Substances / metabolism. Humans. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism. Paracrine Communication. Phosphorylation. Securin. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 16926250.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Growth Substances; 0 / Inhibitor of Differentiation Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Securin; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / pituitary tumor-transforming protein 1, human; 147785-34-0 / ID3 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
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65. Eszlinger M, Krohn K, Kukulska A, Jarzab B, Paschke R: Perspectives and limitations of microarray-based gene expression profiling of thyroid tumors. Endocr Rev; 2007 May;28(3):322-38
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  • [Title] Perspectives and limitations of microarray-based gene expression profiling of thyroid tumors.
  • Microarray-based gene expression profiles are available for malignant thyroid tumors (i.e., follicular thyroid carcinoma, and papillary thyroid carcinoma), and for benign thyroid tumors (such as autonomously functioning thyroid nodules and cold thyroid nodules).
  • In general, the two main foci of microarray investigations are improved understanding of the pathophysiology/molecular etiology of thyroid neoplasia and the detection of genetic markers that could improve the differential diagnosis of thyroid tumors.
  • Simultaneously, the increasing number of microarray analyses of different thyroid pathologies raises the demand to efficiently compare the data.
  • 2) the reference tissue is defined as strictly nonnodular healthy tissue or also contains benign lesions such as goiter, follicular adenoma, and hyperplastic nodules in some studies; and 3) the widely used Affymetrix GeneChip platform comprises several GeneChip generations that are only partially compatible.
  • It also illustrates perspectives and solutions for data set integration and meta-analysis, as well as the possibilities to combine array analysis with other genetic approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17353294.001).
  • [ISSN] 0163-769X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 164
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66. Balthasar S, Bergelin N, Löf C, Vainio M, Andersson S, Törnquist K: Interactions between sphingosine-1-phosphate and vascular endothelial growth factor signalling in ML-1 follicular thyroid carcinoma cells. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2008 Jun;15(2):521-34
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  • [Title] Interactions between sphingosine-1-phosphate and vascular endothelial growth factor signalling in ML-1 follicular thyroid carcinoma cells.
  • Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) induces migration of human ML-1 thyroid follicular cancer cells and inhibits migration of human FRO anaplastic thyroid cancer cells.
  • As tumour cells often secrete vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), we investigated a possible interaction between S1P and VEGF signalling in the regulation of thyroid tumour cell migration.
  • S1P stimulated VEGF-A secretion in both cell lines, and blocking S1P receptors 1, 2 and 3 attenuated the S1P-evoked secretion of VEGF-A.
  • Both cell lines expressed VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) mRNA and proteins.
  • VEGFR-2 inhibition, but not a VEGF-neutralizing antibody, reduced ML-1 cell proliferation independently of S1P stimulation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Lysophospholipids / metabolism. Signal Transduction / physiology. Sphingosine / analogs & derivatives. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C / metabolism. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Division / physiology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement / physiology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Neovascularization, Pathologic / metabolism. Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology. Phosphorylation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Receptors, Lysosphingolipid / genetics. Receptors, Lysosphingolipid / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18509004.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Lysophospholipids; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Lysosphingolipid; 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C; 26993-30-6 / sphingosine 1-phosphate; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; NGZ37HRE42 / Sphingosine
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67. Demirag F, Cakir E, Aydin E, Kaya S, Akyurek N: Ectopic primary B cell lymphoma of the thyroid presenting as an anterior mediastinal mass. A case report. Acta Chir Belg; 2009 Nov-Dec;109(6):802-4
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  • [Title] Ectopic primary B cell lymphoma of the thyroid presenting as an anterior mediastinal mass. A case report.
  • Ectopic thyroid tumours arising in the mediastinum without connection to the cervical thyroid gland are very rare.
  • Follicular adenoma, papillary carcinoma and follicular carcinoma in the mediastinum has been reported, but primary ectopic thyroid B cell lymphoma has not been reported previously.
  • We report mediastinal primary ectopic thyroid large B cell lymphoma in an 80-year-old man.
  • Differential diagnosis from primary mediastinal large B cell lymphoma and clinicopathologic features are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Choristoma / pathology. Lymphoma, B-Cell / diagnosis. Mediastinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Gland
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 20184075.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta chirurgica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Chir. Belg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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68. João Oliveira M, Rodrigues F, Pereiras C, Borges F, Carrilho F, Limbert E, de Castro JJ, El Grupo de Estudos da Tiróide: Treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma: a survey. Endocrinol Nutr; 2008 Aug;55(7):283-8
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  • [Title] Treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma: a survey.
  • INTRODUCTION: In January 2005, during the annual meeting of the Portuguese Society of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, a questionnaire on the treatment and follow-up of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) was given to attendants.
  • METHODS: The questionnaire addressed the following issues: the surgical treatment of the gland and cervical lymph nodes, whole body scan and ablation with (131)I, suppression with levothyroxine, and treatment of recurrence and metastases.
  • When the diagnosis is made postsurgically, completion of thyroidectomy is recommended by 70% of respondents for papillary carcinoma, by 67% for papillary microcarcinoma and by 44% for minimally invasive follicular carcinoma.
  • Twenty-eight percent routinely perform ablation of the thyroid, and 59% request adjuvant radioiodine ablation of the thyroid bed if there is (131)I uptake, if thyroglobulin is increased, or if risk factors are present.
  • When thyroglobulin levels remain high and the results of (131)I scanning are negative, 50% choose computed tomography scan for the diagnosis of disease recurrence.
  • According to the published guidelines and the responses to a similar survey performed in Spain, the widest differences are mainly found in lymph node dissection and the treatment of disease recurrence.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2008 Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 22975520.001).
  • [ISSN] 1575-0922
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinología y nutrición : órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol Nutr
  • [Language] eng; spa
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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69. Guignard R, Truong T, Rougier Y, Baron-Dubourdieu D, Guénel P: Alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking, and anthropometric characteristics as risk factors for thyroid cancer: a countrywide case-control study in New Caledonia. Am J Epidemiol; 2007 Nov 15;166(10):1140-9
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  • [Title] Alcohol drinking, tobacco smoking, and anthropometric characteristics as risk factors for thyroid cancer: a countrywide case-control study in New Caledonia.
  • Exceptionally high incidence rates of thyroid cancer are observed in New Caledonia, particularly in Melanesian women.
  • To investigate further the etiology of thyroid cancer and to clarify the reasons of this elevated incidence, the authors conducted a countrywide population-based case-control study in this multiethnic population.
  • The study included 332 cases with histologically verified papillary or follicular carcinoma (293 women and 39 men) diagnosed in 1993-1999 and 412 population controls (354 women and 58 men) frequency matched by gender and 5-year age group.
  • Thyroid cancer was negatively associated with tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking, but no inverse dose-response relation was observed.
  • Height was positively associated with thyroid cancer, particularly in men.
  • This study clarifies the role of overweight for thyroid cancer in postmenopausal women.
  • Because of the high prevalence of obesity among Melanesian women of New Caledonia, this finding may explain in part the exceptionally elevated incidence of thyroid cancer in this group.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / etiology. Alcohol Drinking / adverse effects. Body Size. Carcinoma, Papillary / etiology. Smoking / adverse effects. Thyroid Neoplasms / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17855390.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-6256
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of epidemiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Epidemiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ HALMS176743; NLM/ PMC2220030
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70. Bajaj Y, De M, Thompson A: Fine needle aspiration cytology in diagnosis and management of thyroid disease. J Laryngol Otol; 2006 Jun;120(6):467-9
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  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration cytology in diagnosis and management of thyroid disease.
  • The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of fine needle aspiration cytology in diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules.
  • The study also evaluated the predictive value of pre-operative fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) in surgical decision making, by comparing the final pathological diagnosis with the initial FNAC result.
  • Failures were mainly noted in cases of follicular neoplasm.
  • Our results indicate that FNAC is helpful in the diagnosis of thyroid pathology.
  • However, complete histopathological analysis is essential to distinguish follicular adenoma from follicular carcinoma.
  • From this study, it can be concluded that FNAC is a cost-effective method of evaluating thyroid pathology pre-operatively and plays a useful role in planning the surgical management of thyroid nodules.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 16526971.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-2151
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of laryngology and otology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laryngol Otol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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71. Smith J, Cheifetz RE, Schneidereit N, Berean K, Thomson T: Can cytology accurately predict benign follicular nodules? Am J Surg; 2005 May;189(5):592-5; discussion 595
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  • [Title] Can cytology accurately predict benign follicular nodules?
  • BACKGROUND: The reliability of fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy in differentiating benign from malignant follicular lesions of the thyroid has been the subject of renewed debate recently.
  • Although surgical excision has been recommended for most follicular lesions identified by cytology, this approach may not be necessary in all cases.
  • The goal of this study was to determine whether FNA could be used as a diagnostic tool to safely identify patients with follicular thyroid nodules who do not require immediate surgical intervention.
  • METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on a sample of 24 patients diagnosed with either follicular adenoma or follicular carcinoma after surgical excision of a thyroid nodule.
  • The positive predictive value (PPV) of a benign diagnosis was 82%; PPV of a malignant diagnosis was 38%.
  • The PPV of a benign diagnosis was 83%; PPV of a malignant diagnosis was 42%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that in follicular lesions of the thyroid, a benign FNA biopsy report from an experienced cytopathologist has a high positive predictive value.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chi-Square Distribution. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 15862502.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9610
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Chung KW, Yang SK, Lee GK, Kim EY, Kwon S, Lee SH, Park DJ, Lee HS, Cho BY, Lee ES, Kim SW: Detection of BRAFV600E mutation on fine needle aspiration specimens of thyroid nodule refines cyto-pathology diagnosis, especially in BRAF600E mutation-prevalent area. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2006 Nov;65(5):660-6
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  • [Title] Detection of BRAFV600E mutation on fine needle aspiration specimens of thyroid nodule refines cyto-pathology diagnosis, especially in BRAF600E mutation-prevalent area.
  • BACKGROUND: Between 10 and 30% of the fine needle aspiration biopsies (FNABs) of thyroid nodules are diagnosed as 'indeterminate'.
  • In Korea, most thyroid cancer is the classic papillary type and the BRAF(V600E) mutation is highly prevalent.
  • AIM: To evaluate the role of pre-operative detection of BRAF(V600E) mutation in the FNAB specimens of thyroid nodules in a BRAF(V600E) mutation-prevalent geographical area.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 137 specimens of FNAB (107 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC); 3 follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC); 2 undifferentiated thyroid carcinomas; 25 benign lesions), both direct DNA sequencing and PCR-RFLP were used for detecting the BRAF(V600E) mutation.
  • RESULTS: The BRAF(V600E) mutation was present in 93 (83%) of 112 thyroid cancers.
  • Among 25 cases with indeterminate FNAB cytology, 8 patients had malignant lesions (5 PTC and 3 FTC).
  • No mutation was found in 3 FTCs.
  • CONCLUSION: Detection of the BRAF(V600E) mutation in FNAB specimens refines the FNAB-cytology diagnosis, especially in a BRAF(V600E) mutation-prevalent area.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Point Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Nodule / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. DNA Mutational Analysis. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Korea. Male. Middle Aged. Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17054470.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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73. Pujani M, Arora B, Pujani M, Singh SK, Tejwani N: Role of Ki-67 as a proliferative marker in lesions of thyroid. Indian J Cancer; 2010 Jul-Sep;47(3):304-7
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  • [Title] Role of Ki-67 as a proliferative marker in lesions of thyroid.
  • BACKGROUND: Specific criteria are used to diagnose thyroid neoplasms; however, the distinction between certain neoplasms, such as follicular adenoma and carcinoma, could be difficult.
  • AIMS: To evaluate the role of the proliferative marker Ki-67 in nonneoplastic and neoplastic lesions of the thyroid, with a special emphasis on the distinction between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred cases of thyroid lesions, including 50 nonneoplastic and 50 neoplastic lesions, were retrieved from the archives of the Department of Pathology, Pt.
  • RESULTS: Ki-67 labeling index (LI) showed a progressive rise from multinodular goiter to benign to malignant neoplasms.
  • A statistically significant difference was observed in Ki-67 counts between multinodular goiter vs papillary carcinoma (P < 0.05) and follicular adenoma vs follicular carcinoma (P < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, Ki-67 was found to be useful in differentiating between follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma, but since the sample size of our study was small, larger studies are needed to confirm this observation as well as to assign a cutoff value for differentiating benign from malignant tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Goiter, Nodular / diagnosis. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Proliferation. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • [CommentIn] Indian J Cancer. 2011 Jul-Sep;48(3):378 [21921351.001]
  • (PMID = 20587907.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4774
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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74. Fujita T, Ogasawara Y, Doihara H: Solitary cranial metastasis of thyroid carcinoma 13 years after primary surgery: report of a case. Surg Today; 2009;39(1):44-7
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  • [Title] Solitary cranial metastasis of thyroid carcinoma 13 years after primary surgery: report of a case.
  • Thyroid cancers rarely metastasize to the brain: the incidence of brain metastasis of differential thyroid carcinomas has been reported at only 0.69%-1.3%.
  • We report a case of a solitary brain metastasis from thyroid follicular carcinoma found 13 years after primary surgery.
  • A 73-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for investigation of headaches, double vision, and facial nerve palsy, 13 years after a subtotal thyroidectomy for thyroid follicular carcinoma.
  • After making a provisional preoperative diagnosis of a primary brain tumor, we performed subtotal removal of the tumor.
  • Histopathological examination confirmed metastasis of thyroid follicular carcinoma.
  • She has remained well in the 4 years since her operation, without any signs of further recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19132467.001).
  • [ISSN] 0941-1291
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery today
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg. Today
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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75. Rahman GA, Abdulkadir AY, Olatoke SA, Yusuf IF, Braimoh KT: Unusual cutaneous metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma. J Surg Tech Case Rep; 2010 Jan;2(1):35-8
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  • [Title] Unusual cutaneous metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • Follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) is the second most common thyroid cancer (TCs) after papillary carcinoma, but it is ranked first in producing distant metastases among TCs.
  • It accounts for 10 - 20% of all thyroid malignancies and is most often seen in patients over 40 years of age.
  • Distant metastases at the time of diagnosis are reported in 11 - 20% of the patients and may be the reason for presentation.
  • There have been less than 30 reported cases of cutaneous metastases from FTC in the English Literature, a majority affecting the scalp.
  • We present an unusual aggressive, hypervascular FTC in a 58-year-old man with a previous diagnosis of multinodular goiter.

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  • (PMID = 22091330.001).
  • [ISSN] 0976-2825
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of surgical technique and case report
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Surg Tech Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3214490
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Multinodular goiter / skull metastasis / thyroid follicular carcinoma
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76. Suzuki S, Takenoshita S: [Current topics of endoscopic surgery for thyroid cancer]. Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi; 2006 Mar;107(2):59-63
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  • [Title] [Current topics of endoscopic surgery for thyroid cancer].
  • Endoscopic surgery has been introduced in the field of thyroid disease.
  • Endoscopic thyroid surgery is divided into complete endoscopic surgery using CO2 gas, which is approached from the axilla, mammary areola, and anterior chest; and video-assisted thyroid surgery without CO2 gas, approached from the neck or anterior chest under the clavicula through a small incision.
  • Many thyroid tumors are benign, and cases of thyroid cancer are few.
  • Only 7.9% of patients who underwent endoscopic thyroid surgery in the English and Japanese literature had papillary thyroid cancer.
  • The indications for endoscopic surgery in papillary thyroid cancer is microcancer or small tumor without lympnode metastasis before surgery.
  • In follicular thyroid cancer, minimally invasive thyroid cancer of less than 5cm is recommended for endoscopic thyroid surgery.
  • Furthermore, in medullary carcinoma with multiple endocrine neoplasia, prophylactic thyroidectomy can be performed using these endoscopic techniques.
  • At present, it is still controversial whether endoscopic surgery should be performed to treat thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Endoscopy. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16613204.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-4894
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Geka Gakkai zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nihon Geka Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gases; 142M471B3J / Carbon Dioxide
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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77. Stolf BS, Santos MM, Simao DF, Diaz JP, Cristo EB, Hirata R Jr, Curado MP, Neves EJ, Kowalski LP, Carvalho AF: Class distinction between follicular adenomas and follicular carcinomas of the thyroid gland on the basis of their signature expression. Cancer; 2006 May 1;106(9):1891-900
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  • [Title] Class distinction between follicular adenomas and follicular carcinomas of the thyroid gland on the basis of their signature expression.
  • BACKGROUND: Nodules of the thyroid gland are observed frequently in patients who undergo ultrasound studies.
  • The majority of these nodules are benign, corresponding to goiters or adenomas, and only a small fraction corresponds to carcinomas.
  • Among thyroid tumors, the diagnosis of follicular adenocarcinomas by preoperative fine-needle aspiration biopsy is a major challenge, because it requires inspection of the entire capsule to differentiate it from adenoma.
  • METHODS: Using data from gene expression analysis, the authors applied Fisher linear discriminant analysis and searched for expression signatures of individual samples of adenomas and follicular carcinomas that could be used as molecular classifiers for the precise classification of malignant and nonmalignant lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / classification. Adenoma / classification. Thyroid Neoplasms / classification

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  • (PMID = 16565969.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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78. Terada T: Brain metastasis from thyroid adenomatous nodules or an encapsulated thyroid follicular tumor without capsular and vascular invasion: a case report. Cases J; 2009;2:7180
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  • [Title] Brain metastasis from thyroid adenomatous nodules or an encapsulated thyroid follicular tumor without capsular and vascular invasion: a case report.
  • Because benign-appearing thyroid nodules with metastasis are very rare, the author reports herein four thyroid nodules (one follicular adenoma and three adenomatous nodules) with brain metastasis.
  • A 75-year-old Japanese woman was admitted to our hospital because of thyroid mass.
  • Imaging modalities revealed four distinct nodules in the thyroid, and tumorectomies of all nodules were performed under the clinical diagnosis of benign thyroid nodules.
  • Microscopically, the largest tumor was an encapsulated follicular adenoma.
  • Thus, the largest tumor was diagnosed as follicular thyroid adenoma.
  • Therefore, a diagnosis of adenomatous nodules (goiters) was made.
  • However, six years later, the patient showed a brain metastasis of thyroid tumor composed of macrofollicles without cellular and nuclear atypia.
  • A diagnosis of metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma was made.
  • The present case suggests that benign thyroid nodules can metastasize.

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  • [Cites] Endocr J. 2008 Oct;55(5):889-94 [18552462.001]
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  • (PMID = 19829930.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2740070
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79. Welte FJ, Dann RH, Polga JP, Gianturco LE: Gallbladder Visualization on I-131 Post-Ablative Whole Body Imaging Mimicking Hepatic Metastases. Radiol Case Rep; 2008;3(2):180
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  • A 52-year-old woman with follicular thyroid carcinoma presented for ablative radioiodide and whole body I-131 imaging following subtotal thyroidectomy.

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  • (PMID = 27303524.001).
  • [ISSN] 1930-0433
  • [Journal-full-title] Radiology case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Radiol Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4896233
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; CT, computed tomography
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80. Rodrigues M, Li S, Gabriel M, Heute D, Greifeneder M, Virgolini I: 99mTc-depreotide scintigraphy versus 18F-FDG-PET in the diagnosis of radioiodine-negative thyroid cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Oct;91(10):3997-4000
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] 99mTc-depreotide scintigraphy versus 18F-FDG-PET in the diagnosis of radioiodine-negative thyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Papillary and follicular thyroid cancer were found recently to express somatostatin receptors (SSTRs). (99m)Tc-depreotide binds with high affinity to SSTRs 2, 3, and 5.
  • AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of applying (99m)Tc-depreotide scintigraphy to search for radioiodine-negative thyroid cancer; comparison is made to a standard approach using (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG-PET).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ten radioiodine-negative patients with suspicion of recurrent or metastatic thyroid cancer were investigated with (99m)Tc-depreotide scintigraphy and (18)F-FDG-PET, performed with a time interval that ranged from 1-8 wk.
  • RESULTS: True-positive results were obtained in nine patients (90%) with (99m)Tc-depreotide scintigraphy and in seven patients (70%) with (18)F-FDG-PET. (99m)Tc-depreotide scintigraphy gave better results in terms of detection of recurrent or metastatic disease compared with (18)F-FDG-PET in three patients, whereas (18)F-FDG-PET identified metastatic disease that was not seen with (99m)Tc-depreotide in only one patient. (99m)Tc-depreotide scintigraphy portrayed lesions in three patients with negative morphological imaging.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate a potential value of (99m)Tc-depreotide scintigraphy for the diagnosis of thyroid cancer in the setting of detectable thyroglobulin and negative radioiodine scan.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Organotechnetium Compounds. Positron-Emission Tomography. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 16895961.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Organotechnetium Compounds; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 9M48M2SF02 / technetium Tc 99m depreotide
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81. de Matos PS, Ferreira AP, de Oliveira Facuri F, Assumpção LV, Metze K, Ward LS: Usefulness of HBME-1, cytokeratin 19 and galectin-3 immunostaining in the diagnosis of thyroid malignancy. Histopathology; 2005 Oct;47(4):391-401
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  • [Title] Usefulness of HBME-1, cytokeratin 19 and galectin-3 immunostaining in the diagnosis of thyroid malignancy.
  • AIMS: To investigate the usefulness of immunohistochemical expression and immunolocalization of a panel of thyroid malignancy markers including HBME-1, cytokeratin (CK) 19 and galectin-3.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: We evaluated 170 thyroid lesions including 148 neoplastic lesions [84 papillary carcinomas (PC), 38 follicular carcinomas (FC), 18 follicular adenomas, one hyalinizing trabecular tumour, five medullary carcinomas, two anaplastic carcinomas] and 22 non-neoplastic lesions (12 adenomatous nodules and 10 Hashimoto's thyroiditis).
  • Although the most helpful marker in terms of sensitivity and specificity for the follicular variant of PC and for FC diagnosis was HBME-1, when we consider the differentiation between cases of follicular variant of papillary carcinoma (FVPC) and FC or adenoma, in terms of percentage of positive cells, galectin-3 and CK 19 were more relevant.
  • CONCLUSIONS: HBME-1 is the most sensitive marker for thyroid malignancy but the three markers may be useful in specific cases.
  • This panel of markers is useful to differentiate the follicular patterned lesions, with special reference to the FVPC.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Galectin 3 / metabolism. Keratins / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16178894.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / HBME-1 antigen; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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82. Yeh MW, Rougier JP, Park JW, Duh QY, Wong M, Werb Z, Clark OH: Differentiated thyroid cancer cell invasion is regulated through epidermal growth factor receptor-dependent activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2/gelatinase A. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2006 Dec;13(4):1173-83
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  • [Title] Differentiated thyroid cancer cell invasion is regulated through epidermal growth factor receptor-dependent activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2/gelatinase A.
  • Mechanisms of invasion in thyroid cancer remain poorly understood.
  • We hypothesized that signaling via the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) stimulates thyroid cancer cell invasion by altering the expression and cleavage of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs).
  • Papillary and follicular carcinoma cell lines were treated with EGF, the EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG1478, and the MMP inhibitors GM-6001 and Col-3.
  • All cell lines were found to overexpress functional EGFR.
  • EGF stimulated invasion by thyroid cancer cells up to sevenfold (P<0.0001), a process that was antagonized completely by AG1478 and Col-3, partially by GM-6001, but not by the serine protease inhibitor aprotinin.
  • EGF upregulated expression of MMP-9 (2.64- to 8.89-fold, P<0.0001) and membrane type-1 MMP (MT1-MMP, 1.97- to 2.67-fold, P<0.0001).
  • We demonstrate that MMPs are critical effectors of invasion in the papillary and follicular thyroid cancer cell lines studied.
  • MMP inhibitors and growth factor antagonists may be effective tumoristatic agents for the treatment of aggressive thyroid carcinomas.

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  • (PMID = 17158762.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA072006-09; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA072006-09; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA072006-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA072006-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA072006; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA072006-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA072006-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA072006
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dipeptides; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors; 0 / N-(2(R)-2-(hydroxamidocarbonylmethyl)-4-methylpentanoyl)-L-tryptophan methylamide; 0 / Protease Inhibitors; 0 / Quinazolines; 0 / Serine Proteinase Inhibitors; 0 / Tetracyclines; 0 / Tyrphostins; 0 / tetracycline CMT-3; 170449-18-0 / tyrphostin AG 1478; 62229-50-9 / Epidermal Growth Factor; 9087-70-1 / Aprotinin; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 3.1.3.48 / Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 1; EC 3.1.3.48 / Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS74619; NLM/ PMC2574514
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83. Camargo RS, Shirata NK, di Loreto C, Garcia EA, Castelo A, Longatto Filho A: Significance of AgNOR measurement in thyroid lesions. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2006 Aug;28(4):188-92
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  • [Title] Significance of AgNOR measurement in thyroid lesions.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the discriminating potential of AgNOR area measurement and count in thyroid tumors using static cytometry equipment.
  • ), using the Cell Measurement computer program (CAS 200, Becton & Dickinson).
  • The cases studied included 3 goiters, 10 follicular adenomas, 6 Hürthle adenomas, 4 follicular carcinomas, 7 papillary carcinomas, and 3 Hürthle carcinomas.
  • For statistical purposes, lesions were classified as benign and malignant, and both the number and the area of counted NORs showed very similar values.
  • The NORs median among 19 benign tumors was 1.484 (SD +/- 0.265) and of 14 malignant tumors was 1.436 (SD +/- 0.414); the NORs areas were 2.6584 (SD +/- 1.0653) and 2.3643 (SD +/- 0.6320), respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: Our results showed that AgNOR evaluation was not a significant parameter to discriminate between malignant and benign thyroid lesions.

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  • (PMID = 16927638.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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84. Aydin O, Yildiz L, Kefeli M, Kandemir B: CD117 expression in normal, neoplastic, inflammatory, and reactive lesions of the thyroid. Pathol Res Pract; 2008;204(6):359-65
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  • [Title] CD117 expression in normal, neoplastic, inflammatory, and reactive lesions of the thyroid.
  • The mutations of c-kit gene, which encodes a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase (CD117-KIT) or activation of CD117, lead to the activation of signal transduction cascades regulating cell proliferation, apoptosis, chemotaxis, and adhesion.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of CD117 in normal, inflammatory, neoplastic, and reactive lesions of the thyroid.
  • Within the neoplastic group, papillary carcinomas differed from follicular adenomas significantly, although papillary carcinomas showed no statistically significant difference compared to follicular carcinomas.
  • Immunohistochemical CD117 positivity was detected in a wide range of neoplastic and inflammatory thyroid diseases.
  • The neoplastic group and, within them, the papillary carcinomas showed a higher ratio of CD117 positivity.
  • Although our results need to be confirmed by other molecular and genetic studies, the high rate of positivity in papillary carcinomas was one of the striking findings, which may result in novel diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenoma / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Thyroiditis / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Count. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques

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  • (PMID = 18337018.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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85. Shomaf MS, Younes NA, Albsoul NM, Musmar AA, Al-Zaheri MM, Tarawneh MS, Sroujieh AS: New trends in the clinicopathological features of differentiated thyroid cancer in Central Jordan. Saudi Med J; 2006 Feb;27(2):185-90
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  • [Title] New trends in the clinicopathological features of differentiated thyroid cancer in Central Jordan.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the current trends in presentation and distribution of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) at the largest referral hospital for endocrine cancers in Central Jordan.
  • METHODS: We analyzed the clinical features, management and outcome of 110 patients diagnosed with thyroid carcinoma at Jordan University Hospital, Amman, between 1996 and 2001.
  • RESULTS: Papillary carcinoma was diagnosed in 87 patients (80%), follicular carcinoma in 3 patients (2.7%), Hurthle cell carcinoma in 8 patients (7.3%), medullary carcinoma in 5 (4.5%), and anaplastic carcinoma in 4 patients (3.6%), metastatic cancer in 2 patients and lymphoma in one patient.
  • Time course analysis showed an increasing trend in surgery for thyroid cancer from 28 cases in 1986-1991 to 48 in 1996-2001.
  • As time advanced, the incidence of locally invasive disease and lymph node involvement markedly increased over the last 5 years of the study (from 28-62%).
  • All patients with follicular carcinoma were diagnosed in the period 1986-1994.
  • After thyroidectomy and a follow up period of 2-15 years, 10 patients died of their disease, 4 of these died within one year from anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: The dramatic decline in the incidence of follicular thyroid carcinoma combined with the increase in the advanced forms of thyroid cancer in Central Jordan may suggest a possible environmental factor in thyroid carcinogenesis in this region.
  • We suggest a larger scale studies and steps to investigate the etiologic factors for thyroid carcinogenesis in Central Jordan.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Carcinoma / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Medullary / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Papillary / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Jordan / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 16501673.001).
  • [ISSN] 0379-5284
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
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86. Teixeira MR: Recurrent fusion oncogenes in carcinomas. Crit Rev Oncog; 2006 Dec;12(3-4):257-71
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  • [Title] Recurrent fusion oncogenes in carcinomas.
  • Although this type of gene rearrangement has long been recognized as a fundamental pathogenetic mechanism in hematologi-cal malignancies and soft-tissue tumors, it has until recently only rarely been described in the common carcinomas.
  • In this review, the existing information on recurrent fusion oncogenes characterizing carcinomas is summarized, namely, the RET and NTRK1 fusion oncogenes in papillary thyroid carcinoma, PAX8-PPARG in follicular thyroid carcinoma, MECT1-MAML2 in mucoepidermoid carcinoma, the TFE3 and TFEB fusion oncogenes in kidney carcinomas, BRD4-NUT in midline carcinomas, ETV6-NTRK3 in secretory breast carcinomas, and TMPRSS2-ETS fusion oncogenes in prostate carcinomas.
  • As in hematological and soft-tissue malignancies, the most common types of genes involved in fusion oncogenes in carcinomas are transcription factors and tyrosine kinases.
  • With a few exceptions, most fusion oncogenes are tumor type specific in carcinomas, as in other cancers.
  • The mechanisms behind the relative specificity of this type of somatic mutation involve the cellular environment influencing the selection of oncogenic fusions, and the oncogenic fusions in turn driving differentiation programs that may alter the cellular environment.
  • The data summarized on different types of carcinomas characterized by fusion oncogenes indicate that the pathogenetic mechanisms involved in epithelial carcino-genesis may be similar to those known to operate in hematological and soft-tissue malignancies, and further anticipates that many more fusion oncogenes await identification in the most common types of human cancer.

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  • (PMID = 17425505.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-9675
  • [Journal-full-title] Critical reviews in oncogenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Crit Rev Oncog
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 70
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87. de Melo Martins PC, Parise Junior O, Pereira Hors C, Villela Miguel RE, da Costa Andrade VC, Garicochea B: C8orf4/TC-1 (thyroid cancer-1) gene expression in thyroid cancer and goiter. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec; 2007;69(2):127-30
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  • [Title] C8orf4/TC-1 (thyroid cancer-1) gene expression in thyroid cancer and goiter.
  • BACKGROUND: The expression of the thyroid cancer-1(TC-1) gene seems to be related with malignant transformation in the thyroid tissue.
  • OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the potential use of TC-1 gene expression as a marker of malignancy in thyroid nodules.
  • METHODS: A total of 92 frozen thyroid samples were studied, including 46 samples from thyroid nodules (19 papillary carcinomas, 1 follicular carcinoma, 24 adenomatous goiters, and 2 follicular adenomas) and 46 samples from normal surrounding thyroid tissue.
  • Results were verified using real-time RT-PCR in some of the samples.
  • There was a significant difference (p < 0.001) between TC-1 gene expression in benign thyroid lesions (1.07 +/- 0.10) and carcinomas (2.73 +/- 0.51).
  • CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that TC-1 gene expression may be useful in the differential diagnosis of goiters and thyroid papillary carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Goiter / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / radiography. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / radiography. DNA, Antisense / genetics. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17167272.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-1569
  • [Journal-full-title] ORL; journal for oto-rhino-laryngology and its related specialties
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ORL J. Otorhinolaryngol. Relat. Spec.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / C8orf4 protein, human; 0 / DNA, Antisense; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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88. Hsu CC, Chen YW, Huang YF, Chuang YW: Routine 201Tl scintigraphy in the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma: diagnostic accuracy and clinical impact. Nucl Med Commun; 2007 Sep;28(9):681-7
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  • [Title] Routine 201Tl scintigraphy in the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma: diagnostic accuracy and clinical impact.
  • OBJECTIVE: The use of 201Tl scintigraphy as a routine imaging modality in the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is controversial.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three hundred and twenty-one patients (261 women, 60 men) with DTC (243 papillary thyroid carcinomas, 78 follicular thyroid carcinomas) were enrolled in this study.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / radionuclide imaging. Radionuclide Imaging / methods. Thallium Radioisotopes. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging

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  • (PMID = 17667746.001).
  • [ISSN] 0143-3636
  • [Journal-full-title] Nuclear medicine communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nucl Med Commun
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Thallium Radioisotopes
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89. Sofiadis A, Tani E, Foukakis T, Kjellman P, Skoog L, Höög A, Wallin G, Zedenius J, Larsson C: Diagnostic and prognostic potential of MIB-1 proliferation index in thyroid fine needle aspiration biopsy. Int J Oncol; 2009 Aug;35(2):369-74
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  • [Title] Diagnostic and prognostic potential of MIB-1 proliferation index in thyroid fine needle aspiration biopsy.
  • Fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is the preferred technique for the initial diagnostic evaluation of thyroid lesions, which nevertheless poses a diagnostic challenge for all clinicians involved.
  • The latter necessitates the use of molecular markers on thyroid cytology.
  • In this study, we assessed whether MIB-1 proliferation index adds diagnostic information to the conventional cytological analysis of thyroid nodules and prognostic information in thyroid cancers.
  • MIB-1 index for various thyroid lesions was retrospectively reviewed in a series of 504 patients.
  • Furthermore, the prognostic value of MIB-1 index was investigated for 183 of the patients with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC).
  • MIB-1 index was significantly higher in anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) compared to other tumor types (p<0.01).
  • No significant difference in MIB-1 index was observed between thyroid adenomas and follicular carcinomas.
  • In PTC, MIB-1 index equal to or >4% was found to be an independent factor significantly associated with higher risk of distant metastasis and disease-related mortality (p<0.05).
  • Conclusively, this study shows that preoperative MIB-1 index assessment in FNAB of thyroid nodules offers little diagnostic information as far as follicular tumors are concerned.
  • In cases of PTC, though, MIB-1 may serve as a prognostic indicator of disease spreading and poor survival and hence influence the planning of the overall treatment scheme.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Antinuclear / immunology. Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Needle. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cell Proliferation. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19578751.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Antinuclear; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / MIB-1 antibody
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90. Ito Y, Asahi S, Matsuzuka F, Nakamura Y, Amino N, Miyauchi A: Needle tract implantation of follicular neoplasm after fine-needle aspiration biopsy: report of a case. Thyroid; 2006 Oct;16(10):1059-62
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  • [Title] Needle tract implantation of follicular neoplasm after fine-needle aspiration biopsy: report of a case.
  • We herein report a 28-year-old woman with a follicular neoplasm showing subcutaneous needle tract implantation.
  • One month after fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) for a tumor measuring 2.5 cm, the patient became aware of a subcutaneous nodule measuring about 1 cm at the needle insertion site.
  • FNAB smear of this nodule showed poorly cohesive clusters of follicular cells with nuclear crowding, overlapping and resetting with some microfollicular architecture.
  • Although there was no capsular or vascular invasion of the nodule, the lesion was diagnosed as follicular carcinoma because of the subcutaneous seeding.
  • Ki-67 labeling indices of the thyroid nodule and implanted tumor were higher than 5%.
  • Furthermore, although galectin-3 was completely negative in the thyroid nodule, it was heterogeneously positive in the implanted tumor.
  • It is therefore suggested that high cell proliferating activity as a characteristic of the original nodule and the subsequently obtained invasive characteristic of the implanted tumor contributed to this event.
  • Because implanted follicular carcinoma can be surgically removed, this complication should not impair the usefulness of FNAB.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / adverse effects. Biopsy, Needle / adverse effects. Neoplasm Transplantation / adverse effects. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17042694.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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91. ul Haq RN, Khan BA, Chaudhry IA: Prevalence of malignancy in goitre--a review of 718 thyroidectomies. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad; 2009 Oct-Dec;21(4):134-6
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  • BACKGROUND: Thyroid malignancies are a heterogeneous group oftumours which show considerable variability in biological behaviour, histological appearances and response to therapy.
  • Thyroid cancer is uncommon and represents only 1% of all malignancies.
  • Prevalence of papillary and follicular carcinoma was 33.33% each.
  • Anaplastic carcinoma was found in 23.81% of patients followed by Hurthle cell carcinoma in 9.53% of patients.
  • CONCLUSION: All postoperative thyroid specimens should be subjected to histopathology.
  • Prevalence of follicular carcinoma and anaplastic carcinoma is relatively higher in our country due to high incidence of iodine deficiency goitre.
  • [MeSH-major] Goiter, Endemic / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Carcinoma, Papillary / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pakistan / epidemiology. Prevalence. Prospective Studies. Thyroidectomy. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21067046.001).
  • [ISSN] 1025-9589
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad : JAMC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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92. Pavelić K, Dedivitis RA, Kapitanović S, Cacev T, Guirado CR, Danić D, Radosević S, Brkić K, Pegan B, Krizanac S, Kusić Z, Spaventi S, Bura M: Molecular genetic alterations of FHIT and p53 genes in benign and malignant thyroid gland lesions. Mutat Res; 2006 Jul 25;599(1-2):45-57
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  • [Title] Molecular genetic alterations of FHIT and p53 genes in benign and malignant thyroid gland lesions.
  • Several oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes are involved either as early or late event in thyroid gland carcinogenesis.
  • Human FHIT (fragile histidine triad) gene is highly conserved gene whose loss of function may be important in the development and/or progression of various types of cancer.
  • We undertook this study to analyze FHIT and p53 gene status in different benignant and malignant thyroid tumors.
  • Status of these genes as well as intensity of apoptosis was analyzed in tumor tissues by molecular genetic methods, immunohistochemistry, and FACS-scan analysis.
  • The majority of the malignant thyroid cancers displayed aberrant expression of FHIT gene, concominant with p53 gene inactivation.
  • This is followed by low rate of apoptosis, which may be important in the development and/or progression of thyroid cancer.
  • We found higher incidence of p53 mutation and aberrant processing of FHIT mRNA in malignant tumors (papillary, follicular, medullary and anaplastic carcinomas) and in those tumors with distant metastasis.
  • The growth of p53(-)/FHIT(-) follicular carcinoma of human origin was much faster in nude mice than p53(+)/FHIT(+) follicular carcinoma, and mice had shorter survival rate.
  • Concomitant aberration of FHIT gene and p53 could be responsible for development of highly malignant types of thyroid cancer and may be considered as a prognostic marker for these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Acid Anhydride Hydrolases / genetics. Genes, p53. Mutation. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Diseases / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16698048.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-5107
  • [Journal-full-title] Mutation research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mutat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / fragile histidine triad protein; EC 3.6.- / Acid Anhydride Hydrolases
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93. Lee S, Hong SW, Moon WC, Oh MR, Lee JK, Ahn CW, Cha BS, Kim KR, Lee HC, Lim SK: High prevalence of c-RET expression in papillary thyroid carcinomas from the Korean population. Thyroid; 2005 Mar;15(3):259-66
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  • [Title] High prevalence of c-RET expression in papillary thyroid carcinomas from the Korean population.
  • BACKGROUND: Activation of the RET proto-oncogene, located on the long arms of chromosome 10, contributes to the development of thyroid cancers in two different ways.
  • First, somatic rearrangements of RET with variable activation genes are frequently found in papillary thyroid carcinomas.
  • Second, germ-line point mutations are responsible for the development of medullary thyroid carcinomas and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2).
  • There are several conflicting reports on the influences of RET expression and RET/PTC rearrangements on the clinical outcome of thyroid cancers.
  • Therefore, the wild-type RET gene expression and RET/PTC-1, RET/PTC-2, RET/PTC-3 rearrangements were examined in thyroid carcinomas and other thyroid diseases.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), 8 follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTCs), 4 anaplastic thyroid carcinomas (ATC), 7 follicular adenomas (FAs), 23 hyperplasias, 6 normal thyroid tissues, and 39 normal portions from each tumor were included in this study.
  • Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemical analyses were used to identify the RET gene and RET/PTC rearrangements.
  • RESULTS: From the RT-PCR analysis, 68.9% of the PTCs, a single case of FTC, and 22.2% of the hyperplasias expressed the RET gene.
  • No RET gene expression was observed in ATCs, FAs, or normal thyroid tissues.
  • The immunohistochemical results revealed that 66.7% of PTCs, 28.6% of FAs, and 18.2% of hyperplastic thyroid tissue specimens showed high levels of RET protein expression.
  • Neither the normal thyroid tissues nor the FTCs and ATC, showed high levels of RET protein expression.
  • The two methods are agreed in PTC and hyperplastic nodules, but not in FA and FTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Asian Continental Ancestry Group / genetics. DNA Primers. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Korea. Prevalence. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15785245.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers
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94. Ito Y, Uramoto H, Funa K, Yoshida H, Jikuzono T, Asahi S, Higashiyama T, Tomoda C, Takamura Y, Miya A, Kobayashi K, Matsuzuka F, Kuma K, Miyauchi A: Delta Np73 expression in thyroid neoplasms originating from follicular cells. Pathology; 2006 Jun;38(3):205-9
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  • [Title] Delta Np73 expression in thyroid neoplasms originating from follicular cells.
  • In this study, we investigated the expression of delta Np73 in human thyroid neoplasms originating from follicular cells.
  • METHODS: We immunohistochemically investigated delta Np73 expression in 223 thyroid neoplasms.
  • RESULTS: Normal follicular cells did not express delta Np73, but 27.3% of follicular adenoma, 85.4% of follicular carcinoma, 99.2% of papillary carcinoma, and 95.7% of anaplastic carcinoma were positive for the transcript.
  • Delta Np73 expression level did not differ between widely invasive and minimally invasive follicular carcinomas.
  • In papillary carcinoma, the level was inversely linked to tumour size, extrathyroid extension, and clinically apparent metastasis.
  • Furthermore, in anaplastic carcinoma, delta Np73 expression level was significantly lower than that in papillary carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that delta Np73 plays a role predominantly in the early phase of papillary carcinoma progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenoma / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Disease Progression. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques

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  • (PMID = 16753740.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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95. Ghfir I, Ccedil Aoui M, Ben Raïs N: [Follicular thyroid carcinoma: metastasis to unusual skin locations]. Presse Med; 2005 Sep 24;34(16 Pt 1):1145-6
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  • [Title] [Follicular thyroid carcinoma: metastasis to unusual skin locations].
  • [Transliterated title] Carcinome vésiculaire de la thyroïde avec métastases cutanées de localisations inhabituelles.
  • INTRODUCTION: Cutaneous metastasis of thyroid cancer is rare.
  • We report here a case where follicular thyroid carcinoma metastasized to unusual skin locations.
  • CASE: An 82-year-old woman was followed after a total thyroidectomy for follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • Assessment after 2 years showed the presence of a small cervical residue, pulmonary metastases, and a high thyroglobulin level.
  • Biopsy of these lesions showed that they were malignant, and testing with anti-thyroglobulin antibodies confirmed the diagnosis of cutaneous metastasis of follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • DISCUSSION: Although the rare cutaneous metastases of follicular thyroid carcinoma usually occur on the scalp, firm nodular cutaneous lesions that are painless and resist standard treatment in patients with a history of thyroid cancer should suggest the possibility of metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16208262.001).
  • [ISSN] 0755-4982
  • [Journal-full-title] Presse medicale (Paris, France : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Presse Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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96. Musholt PB, Musholt TJ, Morgenstern SC, Worm K, Sheu SY, Schmid KW: Follicular histotypes of oncocytic thyroid carcinomas do not carry mutations of the BRAF hot-spot. World J Surg; 2008 May;32(5):722-8
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  • [Title] Follicular histotypes of oncocytic thyroid carcinomas do not carry mutations of the BRAF hot-spot.
  • BACKGROUND: The BRAF V600E mutation is the most prevalent genetic aberration in papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), and it is found exclusively in RET/PTC-negative tumors.
  • In oncocytic (Hürthle cell, oxyphilic) thyroid tumors, the presence of RET/PTC rearrangements is associated with either the conventional papillary histotype or the "solid" Hürthle cell tumors, whereas all predominantly follicular oncocytic carcinomas do not harbor RET/PTC chimeras.
  • Although 12% of tumors of the follicular variant of PTC carry BRAF mutations, none of the few oncocytic follicular thyroid adenomas (oncoAd) or carcinomas (oncoFTC) published worldwide tested positive.
  • An aspired molecular-based classification of oncocytic thyroid tumors is in need of additional evidence on BRAF mutations in the follicular histotype.
  • METHODS: A series of 44 oncocytic thyroid tumors with well-documented clinicopathological data was subjected to BRAF mutation analysis (complete exon 15) by automated sequencing.
  • RESULTS: The series of oncocytic thyroid tumors consisted of 21 adenomas (oncoAds: 17 females, 4 males; mean age, 54.5 years; range, 27-80 years), 20 follicular carcinomas (oncoFTCs: 14 females, 6 males; mean age, 61.4 years; range, 39-80 years), and 3 "classic" papillary carcinomas (oncoPTCs: 3 females; mean age, 58.1 years; range, 46-70 years; 3x T2 tumors).
  • The follicular variants of oncocytic cancers are divided into 11x T2, 5x T3, and 4x T4 tumor stages (International Union Against Cancer [UICC] TNM 5th edition).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results add to the evidence that, in contrast to follicular variants of oncoPTCs, predominantly follicular oncocytic thyroid tumors harbor neither RET/PTC rearrangements nor BRAF mutations.
  • Furthermore, the findings support the concept that oncocytic neoplasms of the thyroid gland are oncocytic counterparts of the respective histotype (adenoma, FTC, PTC, or poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma) rather than a separate tumor entity.
  • Molecular characterization of oncocytic thyroid malignancies for RET/PTC or BRAF genetic alterations may help with (preoperative) classification and prognostic evaluation of these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18235983.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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97. Nonaka D, Tang Y, Chiriboga L, Rivera M, Ghossein R: Diagnostic utility of thyroid transcription factors Pax8 and TTF-2 (FoxE1) in thyroid epithelial neoplasms. Mod Pathol; 2008 Feb;21(2):192-200
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  • [Title] Diagnostic utility of thyroid transcription factors Pax8 and TTF-2 (FoxE1) in thyroid epithelial neoplasms.
  • Thyroid-specific transcription factors, Pax8, TTF-1, and TTF-2, are crucial for thyroid organogenesis and differentiation.
  • The goal of this study is to evaluate the expressions of these markers in thyroid tumors of the full spectrum of differentiation, with special emphasis on anaplastic carcinomas.
  • A total of 94 cases of thyroid neoplasms were studied: 17 papillary carcinomas, 18 follicular adenomas, 16 follicular carcinomas, 7 poorly differentiated carcinomas, 28 anaplastic carcinomas, and 8 medullary carcinomas.
  • The antibodies to Pax8 and TTF-2 were also applied on 147 lung carcinomas as well as a variety of normal tissues and malignant tumors.
  • All three markers were seen in papillary carcinomas, follicular adenomas and carcinomas, and poorly differentiated carcinomas in a diffuse manner, whereas their expressions in medullary carcinomas were variable.
  • Pax8 was expressed in 79% of anaplastic carcinomas to a variable extent, whereas TTF-1 and TTF-2 were seen only in 18 and 7% of anaplastic carcinomas, respectively.
  • Pax8 was expressed in renal tubules, fallopian tubes, ovarian inclusion cysts, and lymphoid follicles as well as renal carcinoma, nephroblastoma, seminoma, and ovarian carcinoma, but not in normal tissue and carcinomas of the lung.
  • Pax8 is a useful marker for the diagnosis of anaplastic carcinomas, particularly when the differential diagnosis includes pulmonary carcinoma.
  • In differentiated thyroid neoplasms, no significant difference in expression was seen in all the three transcription factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenosine Triphosphatases / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Paired Box Transcription Factors / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Calcitonin / metabolism. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / metabolism. Carcinoma, Medullary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Medullary / metabolism. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Indirect. Humans. Hyperplasia. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18084247.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / PAX8 protein, human; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; 0 / Transcription Factors; 9007-12-9 / Calcitonin; EC 3.6.1.- / Adenosine Triphosphatases; EC 3.6.1.- / TTF2 protein, human
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98. Togao O, Mihara F, Yoshiura T, Noguchi T, Kuwabara Y, Yoshimitsu K, Honda H: Percutaneous vertebroplasty in the treatment of pain caused by metastatic tumor. Fukuoka Igaku Zasshi; 2005 Apr;96(4):93-9
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