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1. Verkooijen RB, Smit JW, Romijn JA, Stokkel MP: The incidence of second primary tumors in thyroid cancer patients is increased, but not related to treatment of thyroid cancer. Eur J Endocrinol; 2006 Dec;155(6):801-6
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  • [Title] The incidence of second primary tumors in thyroid cancer patients is increased, but not related to treatment of thyroid cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study is to assess the prevalence of second primary tumors in patients treated for thyroid cancer.
  • Furthermore, we wanted to assess the standardized risk rates for all second primary tumors, but especially for breast cancer, as data in the literature indicate an excessive risk in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients for this tumor.
  • RESULTS: Thirty-five of the 282 patients (12.4%) had a second primary tumor (SPT), either preceding or following the diagnosis of thyroid cancer.
  • Twenty tumors (7.1%) preceded the thyroid cancer with a mean interval of 5.7 years (range: 0.5-22.0 years), whereas 20 tumors (7.1%) occurred after this tumor with a mean interval of 6.7 years (range: 1.0-15.0 years).
  • In 13 female patients, breast cancer was found as SPT.
  • The standardized incidence rate (SIR) for all cancers after the diagnosis of DTC in this study population was not increased (1.13; confidence interval (CI): 0.68-1.69).
  • However, we found an increased SIR of 2.26 (CI: 1.60-3.03) for all cancers either following or preceding DTC, which is mainly caused by a SIR of 3.95 (CI: 2.06-6.45) for breast cancer.
  • These findings suggest a common etiologic and/or genetic mechanism instead of a causal relation.

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  • [CommentIn] Eur J Endocrinol. 2007 Sep;157(3):369 [17766722.001]
  • (PMID = 17132748.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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2. Kłubo-Gwieździńska J, Junik R: [The early treatment results of well differentiated thyroid cancer and its dependence on chosen factors]. Endokrynol Pol; 2008 Mar-Apr;59(2):123-30
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  • [Title] [The early treatment results of well differentiated thyroid cancer and its dependence on chosen factors].
  • INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to estimate the influence of a thyroid remnants' volume, postsurgical concentration of thyroglobulin and radioiodine dose on the early treatment efficacy of well differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 91 patients (76 females, 15 men) with well differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • RESULTS: Histological classification revealed 68.1% (62/91) papillary thyroid cancers, 25.3% (23/91) follicular thyroid cancers, and 6.6% (6/91) oxyphilic thyroid cancers.
  • Among the group, 74 (81.3%) patients reached the remission criteria and the remaining 17 patients (18.7%) showed biochemical and morphological evidence of metastatic disease.
  • The remission was obtained in 100% of patients in stage I of the disease, 68.4% - in stage II, 78.6% - in stage III and 33.3% in stage IV.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Early treatment results of well differentiated thyroid cancer depend on the clinical stage, and postoperative serum thyroglobulin level measured after endogenous TSH stimulation.
  • Early treatment results are not dependent on age, sex, histological type of thyroid cancer, the dose of radioiodine used in brackets of 60-150 mCi and additional diseases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18465687.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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3. Asaad NY, Abd El-Wahed MM, Mohammed AG: Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene expression in thyroid carcinoma: diagnostic and prognostic role. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst; 2006 Mar;18(1):8-16
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  • [Title] Human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene expression in thyroid carcinoma: diagnostic and prognostic role.
  • BACKGROUND: The catalytic component of telomerase, human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) has been found to be reactivated in immortalized cell lines and considered as a diagnostic marker for malignancy in different body tissues.
  • AIM OF WORK: Therefore we thought to determine whether hTERT gene detection could serve as an adjunct in the diagnosis of thyroid lesions together with evaluation of its prognostic value.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study included 50 cases of primary thyroid carcinoma including; 28 papillary carcinoma, 14 follicular carcinoma, 5 anaplastic carcinoma and 3 medullary carcinoma in addition to 5 cases of nodular hyperplasia and 5 cases of follicular adenoma.
  • RNA was extracted from paraffin sections of those patients and hTERT gene expression was identified by Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR).
  • RESULTS: RT-PCR of hTERT gene revealed expression in 43/50 (86%) malignant thyroid cases; including 25 papillary, 11 follicular, 4 anaplastic and 3 medullary carcinoma cases.
  • On the other hand, hTERT gene expression could not be detected in either hyperplastic nodule or in follicular adenoma cases.
  • The diagnostic validity of hTERT gene detection in benign and malignant thyroid lesions was in the form of 88.3% accuracy, 86% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value and 90% negative predictive value.
  • In thyroid carcinoma cases, hTERT gene detection was the most independent predictor of poor survival by multivariate survival analysis.
  • CONCLUSION: Detection of hTERT gene expression should be considered in confirmation of malignant thyroid lesions.
  • Moreover it could be one of the helpful tools in addition to grade, tumor type, and age to stratify patients with thyroid carcinoma into different prognostic categories.
  • Hence, inhibition of hTERT could be of use prospectively in the era of cancer therapy as an attractive weapon in thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / enzymology. Telomerase / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 17237847.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-0362
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Egypt Natl Canc Inst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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4. Büch TR, Biebermann H, Kalwa H, Pinkenburg O, Hager D, Barth H, Aktories K, Breit A, Gudermann T: G13-dependent activation of MAPK by thyrotropin. J Biol Chem; 2008 Jul 18;283(29):20330-41
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  • Whereas G(s)/cAMP-dependent cellular responses upon TSHR stimulation are well established, other signaling pathways are less characterized.
  • We evaluated TSH-elicited cellular responses in human follicular thyroid carcinoma cells stably expressing the TSHR and in primary, nonneoplastic human thyrocytes.
  • In these cellular models, stimulation with TSH caused activation of p44/42 MAPK and subsequent induction of c-Fos.
  • Dominant negative constructs of G(12) or G(13) as well as shRNA-mediated suppression of Galpha(12) or Galpha(13) revealed that MAPK activation was dependent on G(13) but not on G(12) signaling.
  • Furthermore, G(13)-dependent transactivation of the epidermal growth factor receptor was necessary for MAPK activation in follicular carcinoma cells, whereas EGFR was not involved in MAPK activation in nonneoplastic primary thyrocytes.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cattle. Cell Line. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases / metabolism. Enzyme Activation / drug effects. GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gq-G11 / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation. Humans. MAP Kinase Signaling System. Protein Subunits / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos / metabolism. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Receptors, Thyrotropin / genetics. Receptors, Thyrotropin / metabolism. Transcriptional Activation / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18445595.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9258
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of biological chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biol. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ATF6B protein, human; 0 / Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors; 0 / Protein Subunits; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos; 0 / Receptors, Thyrotropin; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.11.11 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3; EC 3.6.5.1 / GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gq-G11
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5. Bachelot A, Leboulleux S, Baudin E, Hartl DM, Caillou B, Travagli JP, Schlumberger M: Neck recurrence from thyroid carcinoma: serum thyroglobulin and high-dose total body scan are not reliable criteria for cure after radioiodine treatment. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2005 Mar;62(3):376-9
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  • [Title] Neck recurrence from thyroid carcinoma: serum thyroglobulin and high-dose total body scan are not reliable criteria for cure after radioiodine treatment.
  • BACKGROUND: Local and regional recurrences occur in up to 20% of patients with papillary and follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • We assessed the value of serum thyroglobulin (Tg) determination and of high-dose 131I total body scan (TBS) for ascertaining the absence of disease in patients who had already been treated with radioiodine and who subsequently underwent surgery.
  • METHODS: Between 1990 and 2000, 105 patients who had been treated with radioiodine for lymph node recurrence with initial 131I uptake were included in a standardized protocol performed after withdrawal of thyroid hormone treatment: on day 1, serum Tg determination and administration of 3.7 GBq 131I; on day 4, 131I TBS; on day 5, surgery; on day 8, 131I TBS.
  • RESULTS: In 25 patients the serum Tg obtained following thyroid hormone withdrawal was undetectable: for these patients, the 131I TBS showed uptake foci in 21 and pathology disclosed neoplastic foci in 19.
  • CONCLUSION: Serum Tg levels and 131I TBS cannot be considered as reliable indicators for the absence of disease in patients already treated with 131I.
  • However, when both tests are negative, the risk of persistent disease is minimal.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 15730423.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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6. Saggiorato E, De Pompa R, Volante M, Cappia S, Arecco F, Dei Tos AP, Orlandi F, Papotti M: Characterization of thyroid 'follicular neoplasms' in fine-needle aspiration cytological specimens using a panel of immunohistochemical markers: a proposal for clinical application. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2005 Jun;12(2):305-17
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  • [Title] Characterization of thyroid 'follicular neoplasms' in fine-needle aspiration cytological specimens using a panel of immunohistochemical markers: a proposal for clinical application.
  • The distinction of benign from malignant follicular thyroid neoplasms remains a difficult task in diagnostic fine-needle aspiration cytology, and some discrepant results have been reported for the individual immunocytochemical markers of malignancy proposed so far.
  • The aim of this study was to test if the combined use of a panel of markers could improve the diagnostic accuracy in the preoperative cytological evaluation of 'follicular neoplasms' in an attempt to reduce the number of thyroidectomies performed for benign lesions.
  • The immunocytochemical expression of galectin-3, HBME-1, thyroperoxidase, cytokeratin-19 and keratan-sulfate was retrospectively analyzed in 125 consecutive fine-needle aspiration samples (cell blocks) of indeterminate diagnoses of 'follicular thyroid neoplasm', and compared with their corresponding surgical specimens, including 33 follicular carcinomas, 42 papillary carcinomas and 50 follicular adenomas.
  • Our data showed that, as compared with the use of single markers, the sequential combination of two markers represents the most accurate immunohistochemical panel in managing patients with a fine-needle aspiration biopsy diagnosis of 'follicular neoplasms', especially in otherwise controversial categories such as oncocytic tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Immunohistochemistry. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • (PMID = 15947105.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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7. Dralle H, Machens A: Surgical approaches in thyroid cancer and lymph-node metastases. Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Dec;22(6):971-87
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  • [Title] Surgical approaches in thyroid cancer and lymph-node metastases.
  • Thyroid cancer collectively encompasses a variety of tumors of disparate morphology and biology.
  • With the exception of radio-iodine therapy for iodine-concentrating well-differentiated thyroid cancers, surgery is the foremost and generally sole effective treatment.
  • Established indications for less-than-total thyroidectomy include small (<or=1 cm), unifocal, and non-metastatic papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC), and minimally invasive follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC; invasion of the tumor capsule only).
  • Whether occult multifocal PTC and minimally invasive FTC with histopathological evidence of vascular invasion also fall into the 'low-risk' category remains unclear.
  • For node-positive thyroid cancers, compartment-oriented microdissection is the gold standard of care, whereas the concept of prophylactic lymph-node dissection continues to arouse controversy.
  • Most experts agree that routine lymph-node dissection is unnecessary for low-risk well-differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC).
  • Because occult lymph-node metastases are frequent in high-risk PTC and medullary thyroid carcinoma, compartment-oriented microdissection helps prevent reoperations for 'recurrences' arising from residual nodes, sparing patients the excess morbidity from reoperations in the neck.
  • Because of the looming epidemic of early forms of thyroid cancer, an international consensus is needed regarding (1) the definition of low- versus high-risk tumors;.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Medullary / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19041826.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-1594
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical endocrinology & metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract. Res. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 115
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8. Sapio MR, Posca D, Raggioli A, Guerra A, Marotta V, Deandrea M, Motta M, Limone PP, Troncone G, Caleo A, Rossi G, Fenzi G, Vitale M: Detection of RET/PTC, TRK and BRAF mutations in preoperative diagnosis of thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytological findings. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2007 May;66(5):678-83
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  • [Title] Detection of RET/PTC, TRK and BRAF mutations in preoperative diagnosis of thyroid nodules with indeterminate cytological findings.
  • BACKGROUND: Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is the primary means to distinguish benign from malignant nodules and select patients for surgery.
  • OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether a search for the oncogenes RET/PTC, TRK and BRAF(V600E) in thyroid aspirates could refine an uncertain diagnosis.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 132 thyroid aspirates, including colloid nodules, inadequate samplings, indeterminate and suspicious for malignancy were analysed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and mutant allele-specific amplification techniques for the presence of oncogenes.
  • No oncogenes were detected in one follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) with indeterminate cytology.
  • Five out of six papillary thyroid cancers (83%) with FNAB suspicious for malignancy were correctly diagnosed by the presence of oncogenes.
  • On final analysis, no false-positive results were reported in 131 samples and five out of seven carcinomas (71%) were correctly diagnosed.
  • The finding of oncogenes in FNAB specimens suspicious for malignancy guided the extent of surgical resection, changing the surgery from diagnostic to therapeutic in five cases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Detection of RET/PTC, TRK and BRAF(V600E) in FNAB specimens is proposed as a diagnostic adjunctive tool in the evaluation of thyroid nodules with suspicious cytological findings.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Oncogenes. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Nodule / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. DNA Mutational Analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Gene Rearrangement. Humans. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17381488.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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9. Favia G, Iacobone M, Zanella S, Ciarleglio FA: Management of invasive and advanced thyroid cancer. Minerva Endocrinol; 2009 Mar;34(1):37-55
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  • [Title] Management of invasive and advanced thyroid cancer.
  • The majority of thyroid cancers are slow growing and have an excellent prognosis after surgical and medical therapy.
  • However, a subset of thyroid cancers do not follow an indolent course, and exhibit aggressive behaviour.
  • Advanced thyroid malignancies can cause distressing and life-threatening symptoms by local invasion, growth of distant metastases.
  • Novel therapies using molecular targets and redifferentiation agents promise to expand our ability to treat patients with advanced thyroid malignancies in the future.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / therapy. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / surgery. Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Carcinoma / secondary. Carcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma, Medullary / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Carcinoma, Papillary / therapy. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Larynx / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neck Muscles / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Palliative Care. Prognosis. Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve / pathology. Thyroidectomy. Trachea / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19209127.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Minerva endocrinologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minerva Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
  • [Number-of-references] 174
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10. Lado-Abeal J, Celestino R, Bravo SB, Garcia-Rendueles ME, de la Calzada J, Castro I, Castro P, Espadinha C, Palos F, Soares P, Alvarez CV, Sobrinho-Simões M, Cameselle-Teijeiro J: Identification of a paired box gene 8-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PAX8-PPARgamma) rearrangement mosaicism in a patient with an autonomous functioning follicular thyroid carcinoma bearing an activating mutation in the TSH receptor. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2010 Sep;17(3):599-610
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  • [Title] Identification of a paired box gene 8-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PAX8-PPARgamma) rearrangement mosaicism in a patient with an autonomous functioning follicular thyroid carcinoma bearing an activating mutation in the TSH receptor.
  • Our main objective was to search for mutations in candidate genes and for paired box gene 8-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PAX8-PPARgamma) rearrangement in a well-differentiated angioinvasive follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) causing hyperthyroidism.
  • DNA and RNA were extracted from the patient's thyroid tumor, as well as 'normal' thyroid tissue, and from peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) of the patient, her daughter, and two siblings.
  • Nuclear isolation was extracted from the patient's tumor, 'normal' thyroid tissue, PBLs, and uterine leiomyoma tissue.
  • We searched for PAX8-PPARgamma in thyroid, PBL, and uterine leiomyoma samples from the patient and family members.
  • A second rearrangement, PAX8 (exons 1-8)-PPARgamma, was detected in the patient's normal thyroid tissue.
  • Under deprived medium condition, co-transfection of PAX8-PPARgamma and TSHR-M453T dramatically increased the number of thyrocytes, an effect that it was not observed with TSHR wild-type (WT); under complete medium conditions, co-transfection of PAX8-PPARgamma with either TSHR-M453T or TSHR-WT inhibited cell proliferation.
  • We report a patient with hyperthyroidism due to a FTC bearing an activating TSHR mutation and PAX8-PPARgamma rearrangements.
  • The activating TSHR mutation could promote in vivo FTC development in PAX8-PPARgamma-positive thyrocytes under poor blood supply with deprivation of growth factors but restraint the tumor growth when growth factors are supplied.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. PPAR gamma / genetics. Paired Box Transcription Factors / genetics. Receptors, Thyrotropin / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20427420.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6821
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / PAX8 protein, human; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; 0 / Receptors, Thyrotropin
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11. Gerhard R, Nonogaki S, Fregnani JH, Soares FA, Nagai MA: NDRG1 protein overexpression in malignant thyroid neoplasms. Clinics (Sao Paulo); 2010 Jun;65(8):757-62
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  • [Title] NDRG1 protein overexpression in malignant thyroid neoplasms.
  • OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to examine the expression of the N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 protein in benign and malignant lesions of the thyroid gland by immunohistochemistry.
  • INTRODUCTION: N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 encodes a protein whose expression is induced by various stimuli, including cell differentiation, exposure to heavy metals, hypoxia, and DNA damage.
  • Increased N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression has been detected in various types of tumors, but the role of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression in thyroid lesions remains to be determined.
  • METHODS: A tissue microarray paraffin block containing 265 tissue fragments corresponding to normal thyroid, nodular goiter, follicular adenoma, papillary thyroid carcinoma (classical pattern and follicular variant), follicular carcinoma, and metastases of papillary and follicular thyroid carcinomas were analyzed by immunohistochemistry using a polyclonal anti- N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 antibody.
  • RESULTS: The immunohistochemical expression of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 was higher in carcinomas compared to normal thyroid glands and nodular goiters, with higher expression in classical papillary thyroid carcinomas and metastases of thyroid carcinomas (P < 0.001).
  • A combined analysis showed higher immunohistochemical expression of NDRG1 in malignant lesions (classical pattern and follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinomas, follicular carcinomas, and metastases of thyroid carcinomas) compared to benign thyroid lesions (goiter and follicular adenomas) (P = 0.043).
  • In thyroid carcinomas, N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression was significantly correlated with a more advanced TNM stage (P = 0.007) and age, metastasis, tumor extent, and size (AMES) high-risk group (P = 0.012).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Thyroid carcinomas showed increased immunohistochemical N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 expression compared to normal and benign thyroid lesions and is correlated with more advanced tumor stages.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Cell Cycle Proteins / metabolism. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Microarray Analysis. Middle Aged. Paraffin Embedding. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20835551.001).
  • [ISSN] 1980-5322
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clinics (Sao Paulo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 protein; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; Thyroid cancer, papillary
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2933120
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Immunohistochemistry / NDRG1 / Thyroid Carcinoma / Thyroid Gland / Tissue Microarray
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12. Wada DA, Agarwal N, Florell SR, Lim MS: Recurrent squamous cell carcinoma and follicular lymphoma arising in the scalp after treatment for lymphoma. Pathology; 2008 Apr;40(3):316-20
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  • [Title] Recurrent squamous cell carcinoma and follicular lymphoma arising in the scalp after treatment for lymphoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Lymphoma, Follicular / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Scalp / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology


13. Mansberg R, Son H, Kean AM: Occult carcinoma of the thyroid presenting with orbital metastasis. Clin Nucl Med; 2006 Feb;31(2):109-11
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  • [Title] Occult carcinoma of the thyroid presenting with orbital metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Eye Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Eye Neoplasms / secondary. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / radiotherapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 16424702.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
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14. Sapio MR, Guerra A, Posca D, Limone PP, Deandrea M, Motta M, Troncone G, Caleo A, Vallefuoco P, Rossi G, Fenzi G, Vitale M: Combined analysis of galectin-3 and BRAFV600E improves the accuracy of fine-needle aspiration biopsy with cytological findings suspicious for papillary thyroid carcinoma. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Dec;14(4):1089-97
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  • [Title] Combined analysis of galectin-3 and BRAFV600E improves the accuracy of fine-needle aspiration biopsy with cytological findings suspicious for papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • Ten to fifteen percent of fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of thyroid nodules are indeterminate.
  • The objective of this study was to determine whether the combined analysis of Gal-3 and BRAFV600E expression in thyroid aspirates could improve the diagnosis in FNAB with suspicious cytological findings.
  • Two hundred and sixty-one surgical thyroid tissues and one hundred and forty-four thyroid aspirates were analyzed for the presence of the two markers.
  • In surgical specimens, Gal-3 expression was present in 27.4% benign nodules, 91.9% papillary (PTC) and 75% follicular (FTC) thyroid carcinomas.
  • BRAFV600E was not detected in 127 benign nodules, as well as in 32 FTCs, while was found in 42.9% PTC.
  • Twenty suspicious nodules were diagnosed as PTC and four FTCs at histology.
  • Of these 24 carcinomas, 9 resulted positive for BRAFV600E, 17 for Gal-3, and 22 for one or both the markers.
  • In conclusion, the combined detection of Gal-3 and BRAFV600E improves the diagnosis in FNAB with cytological findings suspicious for PTC and finds clinical application in selected cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Galectin 3 / genetics. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18045960.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Galectin 3; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; JAC85A2161 / Adenine; QR26YLT7LT / Thymine
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15. Nikiforova MN, Nikiforov YE: Molecular genetics of thyroid cancer: implications for diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. Expert Rev Mol Diagn; 2008 Jan;8(1):83-95
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  • [Title] Molecular genetics of thyroid cancer: implications for diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.
  • Thyroid cancer is the most common malignant tumor of the endocrine system and accounts for approximately 1% of all newly diagnosed cancer cases.
  • The most frequent type of thyroid malignancy is papillary carcinoma, which constitutes approximately 80% of all cases.
  • Papillary carcinomas frequently have genetic alterations leading to the activation of the MAPK signal pathway.
  • Mutations in these genes are found in over 70% of papillary carcinomas and they rarely overlap in the same tumor.
  • Frequent genetic alterations in follicular carcinomas, the second most common type of thyroid malignancy, include RAS mutations and PAX8-PPAR gamma rearrangement.
  • RET point mutations are crucial for the development of medullary thyroid carcinomas.
  • Many of these mutations, particularly those leading to the activation of the MAPK pathway, are being actively explored as therapeutic targets for thyroid cancer.
  • Detection of these genetic alterations using molecular techniques is important for preoperative fine-needle aspiration diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18088233.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8352
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of molecular diagnostics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev. Mol. Diagn.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
  • [Number-of-references] 128
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16. Braunschweig T, Kaserer K, Chung JY, Bilke S, Krizman D, Knezevic V, Hewitt SM: Proteomic expression profiling of thyroid neoplasms. Proteomics Clin Appl; 2007 Mar;1(3):264-71
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  • [Title] Proteomic expression profiling of thyroid neoplasms.
  • Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine neoplasm with multiple histologic subtypes, each associated with different treatments and outcomes.
  • Differentiating benign neoplasms such as follicular adenomas from malignant entities such as follicular carcinomas and papillary carcinoma can be challenging.
  • To define the proteomic profile of different thyroid tumors, we screened an antibody array of 330 features against five thyroid neoplasms: follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, anaplastic carcinoma, and medullary carcinoma as well as normal thyroid epithelium.
  • Eight candidate biomarkers; c-erbB-2, Stat5a, Annexin IV, IL-11, RARα, FGF7, Caspase 9, and phospho-c-myc were identified as differentially expressed on the antibody array, and validated with immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays, with a total of 144 samples of the same variety of thyroid neoplasms.
  • Analysis revealed c-erbB-2, Annexin IV, and Stat5a have potential clinical utility to differentiate follicular adenoma, follicular carcinoma, and papillary carcinoma from each other.
  • By using an antibody array as a discovery platform and a tissue microarray as a first step in validation on a large number of specimens, we have identified new markers that have potential utility in the diagnosis of thyroid neoplasms.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
  • (PMID = 21136677.001).
  • [ISSN] 1862-8346
  • [Journal-full-title] Proteomics. Clinical applications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proteomics Clin Appl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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17. Russo D, Bisca A, Celano M, Talamo F, Arturi F, Scipioni A, Presta I, Bulotta S, Ferretti E, Filetti S, Scaloni A, Damante G, Tell G: Proteomic analysis of human thyroid cell lines reveals reduced nuclear localization of Mn-SOD in poorly differentiated thyroid cancer cells. J Endocrinol Invest; 2005 Feb;28(2):137-44
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  • [Title] Proteomic analysis of human thyroid cell lines reveals reduced nuclear localization of Mn-SOD in poorly differentiated thyroid cancer cells.
  • Differential protein arrays between nuclear extracts of human thyroid cell lines obtained from tumors with different degree of differentiation were exploited to define molecular alterations occurring during thyroid tumor progression.
  • Nuclear extracts from the well differentiated TPC-1 (from papillary carcinoma) and the poorly differentiated ARO (from anaplastic carcinoma) cells showed an overall similar pattern of protein expression as revealed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis.
  • A similar expression pattern of nuclear Mn-SOD was detected by immunohistochemistry in human thyroid tumors, with the lowest or absent detection in anaplastic carcinomas.
  • These data indicate that an altered nuclear expression of Mn-SOD parallels, together with changes in other elements of the antioxidant protective system, the loss of differentiation occurring during the progression of thyroid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / enzymology. Cell Nucleus / enzymology. Proteomics. Superoxide Dismutase / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / enzymology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / enzymology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Blotting, Western. Carcinoma, Papillary / enzymology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cell Line, Tumor. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Vitro Techniques. Tissue Distribution

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  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
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18. Portocarrero-Ortiz L, Garcia-Lopez R, Romero-Vargas S, Padilla JA, Gómez-Amador JL, Salinas-Lara C, Tena-Suck ML, González AS: Thyroid follicular carcinoma presenting as skull and dural metastasis mimicking a meningioma: a case report. J Neurooncol; 2009 Nov;95(2):281-284
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  • [Title] Thyroid follicular carcinoma presenting as skull and dural metastasis mimicking a meningioma: a case report.
  • Follicular thyroid cancer rarely manifests itself as a distant metastatic lesion.
  • We report a case of a 61-year-old woman presented with a solid mass located in the left temporo-occipital region.
  • After magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) a suspect diagnosis of meningioma was made.
  • Histological examination revealed a thyroid follicular neoplasm with positive staining for follicular carcinoma in immunohistochemical analysis.
  • Postoperatively levels of thyroid hormones were normal.
  • Treatment was planned for the thyroid gland, but the patient did not consent.
  • The definitive diagnosis of a meningioma should be established only after the histopathological analysis.
  • Thyroid follicular carcinoma should be included in the differential diagnosis in cases of extrinsic tumoral lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Dura Mater / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Meningioma / diagnosis. Skull Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Middle Aged

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  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
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19. Ozolins A, Narbuts Z, Strumfa I, Volanska G, Gardovskis J: Diagnostic utility of immunohistochemical panel in various thyroid pathologies. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2010 Sep;395(7):885-91
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  • [Title] Diagnostic utility of immunohistochemical panel in various thyroid pathologies.
  • BACKGROUND: For management of thyroid nodules, distinction between benign and malignant tumours is essential.
  • The study was performed to evaluate the diagnostic value of molecular markers in different thyroid tumours.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Immunohistochemistry for CD56, HBME-1, COX-2, Ki-67, p53 and E-cadherin (E-CAD) was performed in 113 benign and 35 malignant thyroid lesions including 36 follicular adenomas (FA), 77 colloid goitres, 26 papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) and 9 follicular carcinomas (FC).
  • RESULTS: PTC was characterised by decreased E-CAD and CD56 expression in contrast to surrounding benign thyroid tissues.
  • HBME-1 expression was absent in benign thyroid tissues but was notably high in PTC and occasionally in FC.
  • The expression of E-CAD and CD56 in FA was significantly higher than in the surrounding thyroid tissues.
  • HBME-1 is found in malignant lesions only and is the most sensitive and specific single marker in PTC.
  • The role of adhesion factors in thyroid malignancies may be superior in comparison with cell proliferation.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD56 / genetics. Antigens, CD56 / metabolism. Cadherins / genetics. Cadherins / metabolism. Cyclooxygenase 2 / genetics. Cyclooxygenase 2 / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / genetics. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Prognosis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20640858.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2451
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / HBME-1 antigen; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
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20. Coca Pelaz A, Llorente JL, Suárez C: Infratemporal metastasis from occult follicular thyroid carcinoma. J Craniofac Surg; 2009 Jan;20(1):165-7
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  • [Title] Infratemporal metastasis from occult follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • An extremely rare case that has not been reported before is described in which metastasis of a follicular carcinoma of the thyroid is resected from the infratemporal fossa.
  • The patient had not been diagnosed of this thyroid pathology.
  • She underwent a left subtemporal preauricular approach, but after this, she had another subtemporal preauricular approach with total thyroidectomy, a facial translocation by degloving, and an endoscopic surgery, because of a local recurrence, and a sella turcica and sphenoidal sinus metastasis.
  • Surgical excision of metastatic thyroid lesions may be the only effective treatment but always followed by suppression therapy and whole-body iodine I 131 internal radiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Cranial Fossa, Middle / pathology. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology. Skull Base Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19165017.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3732
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of craniofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Sillery JC, Reading CC, Charboneau JW, Henrichsen TL, Hay ID, Mandrekar JN: Thyroid follicular carcinoma: sonographic features of 50 cases. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2010 Jan;194(1):44-54
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  • [Title] Thyroid follicular carcinoma: sonographic features of 50 cases.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of our study was to retrospectively evaluate sonography of thyroid follicular neoplasms for features that would aid in distinguishing follicular carcinoma from follicular adenoma and for any imaging features that distinguish the Hürthle-cell variant of follicular carcinoma from classic follicular carcinoma.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study cohort consisted of patients with the diagnosis of follicular carcinoma and patients with the diagnosis of follicular adenoma.
  • Fifty patients (25 men and 25 women; median age, 59.5 years) with a diagnosis of follicular carcinoma (27 with classic follicular carcinoma, 22 with Hürthle-cell variant of follicular carcinoma, and one insular variant) in a 6-year period were included.
  • Fifty-two control patients (10 men and 42 women; median age, 46.5 years) were selected from a random sampling of all cases of follicular adenoma during the same time period.
  • All study patients and control patients underwent surgical resection and pathologic analysis of their thyroid follicular neoplasm.
  • RESULTS: Hypoechoic appearance (82% of follicular carcinoma patients vs 50% of follicular adenoma patients; p<0.005; odds ratio [OR]), 0.5; 95% CI, 0.3-0.7), absence of halo (64% of follicular carcinoma patients vs 42% of follicular adenoma patients; p<0.05; OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.2-0.9), absence of cystic change (90% of follicular carcinoma patients vs 69% of follicular adenoma patients; p<0.05; OR, 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.7), greater patient age (median age of 59.5 years for follicular carcinoma patients vs 46.5 years for follicular adenoma patients; p<0.05), size of the tumor (median size of 11.75 mL for follicular carcinoma patients vs 5.95 mL for follicular adenoma patients; p<0.05), and male sex (50% of follicular carcinoma patients vs 19.2% of follicular adenoma patients; p<0.005; OR, 3.7; 95% CI, 1.6-8.9) were more frequently associated with follicular thyroid cancer than with benign adenoma.
  • Within the follicular carcinoma subgroup, homogeneous or predominantly homogeneous echotexture (67% of classic follicular carcinoma patients vs 36% of Hürthle-cell variant of follicular carcinoma patients; p<0.05; OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.1-11.4) and the presence of calcifications (22% of classic follicular carcinoma patients vs 4% of Hürthle-cell variant of follicular carcinoma patients [multivariate analysis including age]; p < 0.05; OR, 22.9; 95% CI, 2.0-261.9) were associated with classic follicular carcinoma.
  • Greater patient age (median age of 53 years for classic follicular carcinoma patients vs 64.5 years for Hürthle-cell variant of follicular carcinoma patients; p<0.05) was associated with Hürthle-cell variant follicular carcinoma.
  • There was no association between tumor volume, sex, sonographic halo, refractive shadowing, echogenicity, visible invasion, lymph node enlargement, adjacent nonfollicular suspicious lesions, vascularity subtype, and cystic change between the subgroups of follicular carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: The sonographic features of follicular adenoma and follicular carcinoma are very similar, but larger lesion size, lack of a sonographic halo, hypoechoic appearance, and absence of cystic change favored a follicular carcinoma diagnosis.
  • Within the follicular carcinoma subgroup, Hürthle-cell variant of follicular carcinoma is more often seen in older patients with nodules having a heterogeneous appearance and lacking internal calcifications.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Chi-Square Distribution. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • (PMID = 20028904.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Bongiovanni M, Triponez F, McKee TA, Kumar N, Matthes T, Meyer P: Fine-needle aspiration of the diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma masked by florid lymphocytic thyroiditis; A potential pitfall: A case report and review of the literature. Diagn Cytopathol; 2009 Sep;37(9):671-5
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  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration of the diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma masked by florid lymphocytic thyroiditis; A potential pitfall: A case report and review of the literature.
  • The diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (DSV-PTC) is a rare tumor with aggressive behavior that requires aggressive treatment.
  • Despite characteristic clinical and histological features that easily permit diagnosis, pre-operative fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) diagnosis is often challenging and thus delays diagnosis.
  • We describe the cytological features of a case of DSV-PTC diagnosed by FNAC in a 30-year-old woman presenting with an ill-defined mass in her neck lasting for 2 months.
  • Ultrasonograpy revealed a heterogeneous enlargement of both thyroid lobes suspicious for a lymphoproliferative syndrome.
  • The remaining slide showed syncytial tissue fragments of follicular cells with nuclear enlargement and pleomorphism, irregular nuclear membrane, grooves with scattered intranuclear inclusions, squamous metaplastic epithelium, and abundant psammoma bodies.
  • A diagnosis of DSV-PTC was rendered and confirmed by total thyroidectomy and lymph node dissection.
  • Our report supports the possibility of obtaining a preoperative diagnosis of DSV-PTC by FNAC.
  • In the case of diffuse thyroid enlargement, adequate sampling of the thyroid and the presence of the combination of features described in our case permitted the diagnosis of this PTC variant.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / complications. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroiditis, Autoimmune / complications. Thyroiditis, Autoimmune / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Lymphoproliferative Disorders / pathology. Thyroidectomy

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  • [Copyright] 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19373906.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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23. Trojanowicz B, Winkler A, Hammje K, Chen Z, Sekulla C, Glanz D, Schmutzler C, Mentrup B, Hombach-Klonisch S, Klonisch T, Finke R, Köhrle J, Dralle H, Hoang-Vu C: Retinoic acid-mediated down-regulation of ENO1/MBP-1 gene products caused decreased invasiveness of the follicular thyroid carcinoma cell lines. J Mol Endocrinol; 2009 Mar;42(3):249-60
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  • [Title] Retinoic acid-mediated down-regulation of ENO1/MBP-1 gene products caused decreased invasiveness of the follicular thyroid carcinoma cell lines.
  • Retinoic acid (RA) acts as an anti-proliferative and redifferentiation agent in the therapy of thyroid carcinoma.
  • Our previous studies demonstrated that pretreatment of follicular thyroid carcinoma cell lines FTC-133 and FTC-238 resulted in decreased in vitro proliferation rates and reduced tumor cell growth of xenotransplants.
  • In addition to the previous results, we found that RA led to decreased vitality and invasiveness of FTC-133 and FTC-238 cells as they reacted with reduction of intracellular ATP levels and number of migrated cells respectively.
  • However, the molecular mechanisms by which RA mediates these effects are not well understood.
  • Two-dimensional (2D) screening of the proteins related to ATP metabolism and western blot analysis revealed alpha-enolase (ENO1) to be down-regulated in FTC-133 and FTC-238 cells after RA treatment.
  • Comparative 2D difference gel electrophoresis analysis of fluorescently labeled protein samples of RA-treated and untreated FTC-133 demonstrated a selective down-regulation of ENO1-A1 which we identified as a phosphoprotein.
  • Both, RA-mediated and specific knock-down of ENO1/MBP-1 resulted in the reduction of MYC oncoprotein, and simultaneously decreased proliferation rates of FTC-133 and FTC-238 cell lines.
  • In summary, the RA-mediated down-regulation of the ENO1 gene products and MYC oncoprotein provides a novel molecular mechanism facilitating the anti-proliferative effect of RA in human thyroid carcinoma cells and suggests new pathways for supportive RA therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / physiology. Cell Movement / drug effects. DNA-Binding Proteins / physiology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Phosphopyruvate Hydratase / physiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism. Tretinoin / pharmacology. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis / drug effects. Blotting, Western. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Electrophoresis, Gel, Two-Dimensional. Humans. Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization

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  • (PMID = 19060179.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-6813
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of molecular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Mol. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; EC 4.2.1.11 / ENO1 protein, human; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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24. Schweppe RE, Klopper JP, Korch C, Pugazhenthi U, Benezra M, Knauf JA, Fagin JA, Marlow LA, Copland JA, Smallridge RC, Haugen BR: Deoxyribonucleic acid profiling analysis of 40 human thyroid cancer cell lines reveals cross-contamination resulting in cell line redundancy and misidentification. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Nov;93(11):4331-41
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  • [Title] Deoxyribonucleic acid profiling analysis of 40 human thyroid cancer cell lines reveals cross-contamination resulting in cell line redundancy and misidentification.
  • CONTEXT: Cell lines derived from human cancers provide critical tools to study disease mechanisms and develop novel therapies.
  • Recent reports indicate that up to 36% of cell lines are cross- contaminated.
  • OBJECTIVE: We evaluated 40 reported thyroid cancer-derived cell lines using short tandem repeat and single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis.
  • RESULTS: Only 23 of 40 cell lines tested have unique genetic profiles.
  • The following groups of cell lines are likely derivatives of the same cell line: BHP5-16, BHP17-10, BHP14-9, and NPA87; BHP2-7, BHP10-3, BHP7-13, and TPC1; KAT5, KAT10, KAT4, KAT7, KAT50, KAK1, ARO81-1, and MRO87-1; and K1 and K2.
  • The unique cell lines include BCPAP, KTC1, TT2609-C02, FTC133, ML1, WRO82-1, 8505C, SW1736, Cal-62, T235, T238, Uhth-104, ACT-1, HTh74, KAT18, TTA1, FRO81-2, HTh7, C643, BHT101, and KTC-2.
  • The misidentified cell lines included the DRO90-1, which matched the melanoma-derived cell line, A-375.
  • The ARO81-1 and its derivatives matched the HT-29 colon cancer cell line, and the NPA87 and its derivatives matched the M14/MDA-MB-435S melanoma cell line.
  • TTF-1 and Pax-8 mRNA levels were determined in the unique cell lines.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Many of these human cell lines have been widely used in the thyroid cancer field for the past 20 yr and are not only redundant, but not of thyroid origin.
  • These results emphasize the importance of cell line integrity, and provide the short tandem repeat profiles for a panel of thyroid cancer cell lines that can be used as a reference for comparison of cell lines from other laboratories.

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  • (PMID = 18713817.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA072597; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA100560; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA050706; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA72597; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA046934; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA50706; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA100560; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA015083; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30CA15083
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2582569
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25. Scott AW, Cummings TJ, Kirkpatrick JP, Mruthyunjaya P: Choroidal metastasis of follicular thyroid adenocarcinoma diagnosed by 25-gauge transretinal biopsy. Ann Ophthalmol (Skokie); 2008;40(2):110-2
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  • [Title] Choroidal metastasis of follicular thyroid adenocarcinoma diagnosed by 25-gauge transretinal biopsy.
  • We report a case of a patient with previously treated follicular thyroid carcinoma who presented with a symptomatic amelanotic choroidal mass with low internal reflectivity and a metastatic lytic skull lesion.
  • A 25-gauge vitrector was used to perform transretinal choroidal biopsy (TRCB), confirming the diagnosis of metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Choroid Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19013920.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-4086
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of ophthalmology (Skokie, Ill.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Ophthalmol (Skokie)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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26. Listernick R, Fangusaro J, Zimmerman D, Dilley K, Cohn R, Saker M, Rowell E, Cham E: A 17-year-old girl with a neck mass. Pediatr Ann; 2010 Sep;39(9):541-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20839756.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-4481
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric annals
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Ann
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Clinical Conference; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Akdemir I, Erol FS, Akpolat N, Ozveren MF, Akfirat M, Yahsi S: Skull metastasis from thyroid follicular carcinoma with difficult diagnosis of the primary lesion. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2005 Apr;45(4):205-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Skull metastasis from thyroid follicular carcinoma with difficult diagnosis of the primary lesion.
  • Postoperatively, levels of thyroid hormones were normal, and thyroid ultrasonography and technetium-99m scintigraphy showed no abnormalities.
  • Fine needle aspiration biopsy performed at various locations of the thyroid gland revealed no atypical thyroid cells.
  • The histological evidence was suggestive of follicular carcinoma metastasis.
  • Surgical treatment was planned for the thyroid gland, but the patient did not consent.
  • The patient underwent total thyroidectomy under a diagnosis of follicular carcinoma.
  • The present case of a lytic skull lesion associated with normal thyroid tissue on admission but finally treated as follicular thyroid cancer emphasizes the difficulty in histological discrimination of follicular carcinoma from normal thyroid tissue.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / secondary. Skull Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15849459.001).
  • [ISSN] 0470-8105
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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28. Podnos YD, Smith D, Wagman LD, Ellenhorn JD: Radioactive iodine offers survival improvement in patients with follicular carcinoma of the thyroid. Surgery; 2005 Dec;138(6):1072-6; discussion 1076-7
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  • [Title] Radioactive iodine offers survival improvement in patients with follicular carcinoma of the thyroid.
  • BACKGROUND: The use of radioactive iodine (RAI) in patients with follicular thyroid carcinoma is well established.
  • It was used to identify patients with follicular thyroid carcinomas and the treatment that they received.
  • RESULTS: A total of 4317 patients were identified with follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • Factors that were associated with increased risk of death included distant metastatic disease, cervical lymph node disease, and the lack of RAI use.
  • CONCLUSION: RAI provides survival benefit to some patients with follicular carcinoma of the thyroid.
  • The greatest improvements were seen in those patients with locoregional or distant disease spread.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / mortality. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radiotherapy. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Radiopharmaceuticals / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / mortality. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 16360393.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
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29. Ozülker T, Ozülker F, Eker O, Ozpaçaci T, Ozcan D: Tumour thrombus from follicular thyroid cancer detected by 18F-FDG-PET/CT. Hell J Nucl Med; 2009 Jan-Apr;12(1):66-7
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  • [Title] Tumour thrombus from follicular thyroid cancer detected by 18F-FDG-PET/CT.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / diagnosis. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Venous Thrombosis / diagnosis. Venous Thrombosis / etiology


30. Zou CC, Zhao ZY, Liang L: Childhood minimally invasive follicular carcinoma: clinical features and immunohistochemistry analysis. J Paediatr Child Health; 2010 Apr;46(4):166-70
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  • [Title] Childhood minimally invasive follicular carcinoma: clinical features and immunohistochemistry analysis.
  • AIM: To report on two cases of childhood thyroid minimally invasive follicular carcinoma (MIFC) to highlight the clinical features, laboratory findings and diagnosis of this rare disease.
  • RESULTS: From 2000 to 2008, a total of 15 cases of thyroid cancer were confirmed by pathological analysis, which account for about 2.16% of all malignant solid tumours.
  • They included nine of thyroid papillary carcinoma, two of MIFC and one of undifferentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • Thyroid mass was found as the primary sign.
  • Imaging findings showed well-defined heterogeneous mass and radionuclide scintigraphy with 99mTc demonstrated small cold nodules in the right lobe of thyroid in two cases.
  • Histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of MIFC.
  • Immunohistochemical staining was positive for thyroglobulin, thyroid transcription factor-1, galectin-3, Hector Battifora mesothelial antigen-1, cytokeratin-AE1/AE3, cytokeratin-19, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and E-cadherin in two cases, and S-100 in one case, while CD56, vimentin and desmin were negative.
  • CONCLUSION: MIFC is exceedingly rare in children and should be included in the differential diagnosis of thyroid mass.
  • The diagnosis of MIFC depends mainly on the pathological findings.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20105250.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1754
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of paediatrics and child health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Paediatr Child Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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31. Vorländer C, Wolff J, Saalabian S, Lienenlüke RH, Wahl RA: Real-time ultrasound elastography--a noninvasive diagnostic procedure for evaluating dominant thyroid nodules. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2010 Sep;395(7):865-71
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  • [Title] Real-time ultrasound elastography--a noninvasive diagnostic procedure for evaluating dominant thyroid nodules.
  • So far, only limited data for thyroid nodules is available.
  • METHODS: This study included 309 prospective evaluated patients with dominant, nontoxic thyroid nodules.
  • A total of 50 thyroid malignancies (35 papillara carcinoma, 9 medullary carcinoma, and 6 follicular carcinoma) were observed.
  • Patients (81) were within the hard group, 35 of them (43.2%) had thyroid cancer (TC) in final histology.
  • CONCLUSION: USE is a useful adjunctive tool in the workup of thyroid nodules.
  • [MeSH-major] Elasticity Imaging Techniques / methods. Thyroid Nodule / diagnostic imaging. Thyroid Nodule / surgery. Thyroidectomy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Chi-Square Distribution. Cohort Studies. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Pilot Projects. Predictive Value of Tests. Preoperative Care / methods. Prospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Treatment Outcome. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color / methods

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  • (PMID = 20632029.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2451
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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32. Mandal S, Jain S: Adenoid cystic pattern in follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: a report of four cases. Cytopathology; 2010 Apr;21(2):93-6
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  • [Title] Adenoid cystic pattern in follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma: a report of four cases.
  • OBJECTIVE: An adenoid cystic pattern in thyroid tumours is a rare finding that may be seen in papillary carcinoma of thyroid (PCT), the follicular variant of PCT (FV-PCT), a rare cribriform-morular variant of papillary carcinoma of thyroid (CMV-PCT) and follicular carcinoma.
  • There were also prominent follicular areas with hyaline globules in some of the cell clusters reminiscent of adenoid cystic carcinoma and, in places, morula-like groups of neoplastic cells were also seen.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adenoid cystic areas with morula-like groups in PCT are a rare finding.
  • Cytopathologists and clinicians should be aware of these distinct features in thyroid tumours to avoid diagnosing metastatic adenoid cystic carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Thyroglobulin / metabolism. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19456847.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2303
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytopathology : official journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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33. Richmond BK, Eads K, Flaherty S, Belcher M, Runyon D: Complications of thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy in the rural community hospital setting. Am Surg; 2007 Apr;73(4):332-6
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  • The objective of this study was to examine the complications encountered in a series of 150 consecutive thyroid and parathyroid procedures performed by a single surgeon in a rural community hospital setting.
  • A retrospective chart review was conducted on a series of 150 patients undergoing any thyroid or parathyroid operation by a single surgeon in a rural setting over a 4-year period.
  • One hundred thirty-one thyroid procedures were performed (71 lobectomies, 60 total or near total procedures) for a diverse range of patholological conditions: multinodular goiter, 76 (50.7%) patients, follicular adenoma, 9 (6.0%) patients, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 13 (8.7%) patients, papillary carcinoma, 14 (9.3%) patients, follicular carcinoma, 5 (3.3%) patients, follicular variant of papillary carcinoma, 13 (8.7%) patients, and medullary carcinoma, 1 (0.7%) patient.
  • We conclude that outcomes and complications in thyroid and parathyroid surgical procedures are largely dependent on surgeon skill and experience, and can be performed safely in the community setting by an experienced general surgeon despite the absence of advanced technology in this setting.

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  • (PMID = 17439023.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-1348
  • [Journal-full-title] The American surgeon
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Faivre-Defrance F, Carpentier P, Do Cao C, D'herbomez M, Leteurtre E, Marchandise X, Wemeau JL: Thyrotoxicosis revealing metastases of unrecognized thyroid cancer: a report on two cases. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2007 Oct;68(5):389-94
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  • [Title] Thyrotoxicosis revealing metastases of unrecognized thyroid cancer: a report on two cases.
  • We report two cases of thyrotoxicosis-revealing functional metastases of a follicular carcinoma that extended to the bones, liver and kidneys in one case and to the lungs in the other.
  • Both patients had undergone surgical intervention for a thyroid nodule more than 15 years before the diagnosis of thyrotoxicosis and metastatic dissemination.
  • In both the cases, the carcinoma was not recognized by the pathologist after the first surgical intervention, but was finally diagnosed several years later due to the occurrence of thyrotoxicosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyrotoxicosis / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17905194.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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35. Nishihara E, Amino N, Miyauchi A: Fractionated radioiodine therapy for hyperthyroidism caused by widespread metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid; 2010 May;20(5):569-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fractionated radioiodine therapy for hyperthyroidism caused by widespread metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / complications. Hyperthyroidism / etiology. Hyperthyroidism / radiotherapy. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Antithyroid Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Middle Aged. Positron-Emission Tomography. Thyroid Function Tests. Thyrotoxicosis / etiology

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  • (PMID = 20384491.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antithyroid Agents; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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36. Diaz-Cano SJ: Kinetic topographical heterogeneity in follicular thyroid neoplasms and growth patterns. Histopathology; 2007 Sep;51(3):416-8
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  • [Title] Kinetic topographical heterogeneity in follicular thyroid neoplasms and growth patterns.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Nick-End Labeling. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Kinetics. Thyroid Gland / chemistry. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17727487.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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37. Davies L, Welch HG: Increasing incidence of thyroid cancer in the United States, 1973-2002. JAMA; 2006 May 10;295(18):2164-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Increasing incidence of thyroid cancer in the United States, 1973-2002.
  • CONTEXT: Increasing cancer incidence is typically interpreted as an increase in the true occurrence of disease but may also reflect changing pathological criteria or increased diagnostic scrutiny.
  • Changes in the diagnostic approach to thyroid nodules may have resulted in an increase in the apparent incidence of thyroid cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To examine trends in thyroid cancer incidence, histology, size distribution, and mortality in the United States.
  • METHODS: Retrospective cohort evaluation of patients with thyroid cancer, 1973-2002, using the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program and data on thyroid cancer mortality from the National Vital Statistics System.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Thyroid cancer incidence, histology, size distribution, and mortality.
  • RESULTS: The incidence of thyroid cancer increased from 3.6 per 100,000 in 1973 to 8.7 per 100,000 in 2002-a 2.4-fold increase (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2-2.6; P<.001 for trend).
  • There was no significant change in the incidence of the less common histological types: follicular, medullary, and anaplastic (P>.20 for trend).
  • Virtually the entire increase is attributable to an increase in incidence of papillary thyroid cancer, which increased from 2.7 to 7.7 per 100,000-a 2.9-fold increase (95% CI, 2.6-3.2; P<.001 for trend).
  • Mortality from thyroid cancer was stable between 1973 and 2002 (approximately 0.5 deaths per 100,000).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The increasing incidence of thyroid cancer in the United States is predominantly due to the increased detection of small papillary cancers.
  • These trends, combined with the known existence of a substantial reservoir of subclinical cancer and stable overall mortality, suggest that increasing incidence reflects increased detection of subclinical disease, not an increase in the true occurrence of thyroid cancer.


38. Adotey JM: Papillary adenocarcinoma of thyroid in a patient with right submandibular mass--a rare case of 'lateral aberrant thyroid'. Niger J Clin Pract; 2009 Sep;12(3):333-4
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  • [Title] Papillary adenocarcinoma of thyroid in a patient with right submandibular mass--a rare case of 'lateral aberrant thyroid'.
  • BACKGROUND: Ectopic thyroid is a rare entity in the study of thyroid disease.
  • The occurrence of ectopic thyroid tissue as a mass in the submandibular region is even rarer.
  • AIM: To report a case of papillary adenocarcinoma of thyroid within a right submandibular mass in a 67-year-old man.
  • The neck ultrasound scan demonstrated the presence of a solid right submandibular mass.
  • The FNAB showed papillary adenocarcinoma of the thyroid.
  • CONCLUSION: This patient illustrates the even rarer case of a 'lateral aberrant thyroid' presenting as a malignant submandibular mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Choristoma / diagnosis. Submandibular Gland Diseases / diagnosis. Thyroid Gland. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19803039.001).
  • [ISSN] 1119-3077
  • [Journal-full-title] Nigerian journal of clinical practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Niger J Clin Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
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39. Cappelli C, Pirola I, Braga M, De Martino E, Morassi ML, Gandossi E, Mattanza C, Balzano R, Castellano M, Rosei EA: Prognostic factors in well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma in patients treated and followed in the same institution. Ann Ital Chir; 2006 Mar-Apr;77(2):107-13
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors in well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma in patients treated and followed in the same institution.
  • AIM: To test the prognostic significant of clinicopathologic factors in patients affected by well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma (WDTC).
  • METHODS: A retrospective review of patients treated for WDTC (thyroidectomy and a radioactive iodine (1131) thyroid ablation) at our Institute with a minimum of 10 years of follow-up was carried out.
  • The unfavourable prognosis at the end of the follow-up was defined as persistence/recurrence of WDTC or death due to the cancer.
  • RESULTS: 234 patients (162 female, 72 male), mean age of 47.6 +/- 166 years, were included in this study (mean follow-up 158.4 +/- 34.8 months): 78 (33.4%) subjects had persistence/recurrence of neoplasia while 5 (2.1%) died for cancer.
  • The multivariate regression showed that prognostic factors were old age, size of cancer, detectable thyroglonulin levels six months after metabolic ablation, and DeGroot staging system.
  • Even if we have chosen an "aggressive" therapy and our mortality rate is lower, one third of patients have persistence/recurrence of cancer: it seems that tumour recurrence rate better reflects clinical problems related to cancer.
  • CONCLUSION: WDTC has with a good disease-specific survival but a significant recurrence rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / therapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chi-Square Distribution. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Data Interpretation, Statistical. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / administration & dosage. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroidectomy. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17147082.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-469X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annali italiani di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Ital Chir
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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40. Nggada HA, Ojo OS, Adelusola KO: A histopathological analysis of thyroid diseases in Ile-ife, Nigeria. a review of 274 cases. Niger Postgrad Med J; 2008 Mar;15(1):47-51
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  • [Title] A histopathological analysis of thyroid diseases in Ile-ife, Nigeria. a review of 274 cases.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the spectrum of histopathological features of thyroid diseases; analyse the occurrence of each of the types and to compare the findings with those from previous studies done in Nigeria and elsewhere.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective study of thyroid lesions seen at the OAUTHC Histopathology Department during a 10-year period between 1988 and 1997.
  • RESULTS: The 274 surgical thyroid specimens received during the study period came from 235 (85.8%) females and 39 (14.2%) males giving a female: male ratio of 6:1.
  • The adenomas constituted about 6% while carcinomas constituted about 11% of cases respectively.
  • Adenomas occurred almost a decade earlier than carcinomas.
  • Follicular carcinoma was the commonest thyroid cancer seen in this study.
  • CONCLUSION: This study shows that the commonest thyroid disease in Ile-Ife is colloid goiter, which is a preventable disease.
  • Thus, public health measures such as iodination of salt and health education are called for to reduce the occurrence of this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Diseases / epidemiology. Thyroid Diseases / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18408784.001).
  • [ISSN] 1117-1936
  • [Journal-full-title] The Nigerian postgraduate medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Niger Postgrad Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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41. Zhu XL, Zhou XY, Zhu XZ: [BRAFV599E mutation and RET/PTC rearrangements in papillary thyroid carcinoma]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2005 May;34(5):270-4
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  • [Title] [BRAFV599E mutation and RET/PTC rearrangements in papillary thyroid carcinoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To detect the BRAF(V599E) mutation and the RET/PTC chimeric gene in benign and malignant thyroid diseases and to explore their correlation with the clinicopathologic features of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC).
  • METHODS: PCR and RT-PCR were employed to detect BRAF(V599E) mutation and RET/PTC chimeric genes in 95 frozen and parraffine-embeded thyroid tissue. RESULTS:.
  • (1) BRAF(V599E) mutation was detected only in PTC (56%, 37/66) and had a high prevalence in both classic and tall cell types (70%, 29/41 and 2/3).
  • However, follicular types of PTC and other benign and malignant thyroid diseases were negative for BRAF(V599E) mutation. (2) Fourteen (21.2%) PTC cases expressed RET/PTC chimeric gene.
  • The high prevalence of BRAF(V599E) mutation indicates that it is an important molecular hallmark of PTC. (2) BRAF(V599E) mutation rate was high in classic type PTC and tall cell type inferred that BRAF(V599E) mutation played an important role in their etiopathogenesis. (3) There was no overlap between BRAF(V599E) mutation and RET/PTC rearrangements suggest that they are alternative events in PTC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics. Point Mutation. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Rearrangement. Hashimoto Disease / genetics. Hashimoto Disease / pathology. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16181547.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / ret-PTC fusion oncoproteins, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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42. Wang Y, Dan HJ, Dan HY, Li T, Hu B: Differential diagnosis of small single solid thyroid nodules using real-time ultrasound elastography. J Int Med Res; 2010 Mar-Apr;38(2):466-72
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  • [Title] Differential diagnosis of small single solid thyroid nodules using real-time ultrasound elastography.
  • In this prospective study, the diagnostic value of real-time ultrasound elastography (USE) was evaluated in 51 consecutive patients referred for surgical treatment with single solid thyroid nodules < 10 mm in maximum diameter with an indeterminate result on B-mode and colour Doppler ultrasonography.
  • Nineteen follicular adenomas and 32 papillary thyroid microcarcinomas (PTMCs) were observed.
  • It is concluded that real-time USE is a promising imaging technique that could assist in the differential diagnosis of single solid thyroid nodules < 10 mm in maximum diameter that give indeterminate results on conventional ultrasound.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / diagnostic imaging. Adenoma / diagnostic imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Thyroid Nodule / diagnostic imaging. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Image Processing, Computer-Assisted. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20515561.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0605
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of international medical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Int. Med. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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43. Chia WK, Sharifah NA, Reena RM, Zubaidah Z, Clarence-Ko CH, Rohaizak M, Naqiyah I, Srijit D, Hisham AN, Asmiati A, Rafie MK: Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis using PAX8- and PPARG-specific probes reveals the presence of PAX8-PPARG translocation and 3p25 aneusomy in follicular thyroid neoplasms. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2010 Jan 1;196(1):7-13
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  • [Title] Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis using PAX8- and PPARG-specific probes reveals the presence of PAX8-PPARG translocation and 3p25 aneusomy in follicular thyroid neoplasms.
  • At the present time, the differentiation between follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) and adenoma can be made only postoperatively and is based on the presence of capsular or vascular invasion.
  • The ability to differentiate preoperatively between the malignant and benign forms of follicular thyroid tumors assumes greater importance in any clinical setting.
  • The PAX8-PPARG translocation has been reported to occur in the majority of FTC.
  • In this study, a group of 60 follicular thyroid neoplasms [18 FTC, 1 Hurthle cell carcinoma (HCC), 24 follicular thyroid adenomas (FTA), 5 Hurthle cell adenomas (HCA), and 12 follicular variants of papillary thyroid carcinomas (FV-PTC)] were analyzed to determine the prevalence of the PAX8-PPARG translocation by fluorescence in situ hybridization.
  • The PAX8-PPARG translocation was detected in 2/18 FTC (11.1%).
  • In addition, 2/18 (11.1%) FTC and 1/5 (20%) HCA showed 3p25 aneusomy only.
  • The frequency of the translocation detected in the study was lower compared to the earlier studies conducted in Western countries.
  • Detection of either the PAX8-PPARG translocation or the 3p25 aneusomy in FTC indicates that these are independent genetic events.
  • It is hereby concluded that 3p25 aneusomy or PAX8-PPARG translocation may play an important role in the molecular pathogenesis of follicular thyroid tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3. PPAR gamma / genetics. Paired Box Transcription Factors / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Translocation, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 19963130.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4456
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Molecular Probes; 0 / PAX8 protein, human; 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors
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44. Alvarez-Nuñez F, Bussaglia E, Mauricio D, Ybarra J, Vilar M, Lerma E, de Leiva A, Matias-Guiu X, Thyroid Neoplasia Study Group: PTEN promoter methylation in sporadic thyroid carcinomas. Thyroid; 2006 Jan;16(1):17-23
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  • [Title] PTEN promoter methylation in sporadic thyroid carcinomas.
  • The tumor-suppressor gene PTEN/MMAC1, on chromosome 10q23.3, has been implicated in an important number of human tumors, such as thyroid carcinomas.
  • PTEN somatic mutations occur in sporadic tumors of the endometrium, brain, prostate, or melanomas, while germline mutations predispose to development of the multiple hamartoma syndromes (i.e., Cowden's disease and Bannayan-Zonana syndrome).
  • Because the frequency of PTEN suppression in thyroid tumors exceeds that of PTEN mutations or deletions, it is very likely that epigenetic mechanisms, such as promoter hypermethylation, may account for its inactivation in a subset of tumors.
  • The main aim of this study was to assess the frequency of promoter hypermethylation of PTEN in thyroid tumors.
  • We studied frozen tissue samples from 46 papillary carcinomas, 7 follicular carcinomas, 6 follicular adenomas as well as 39 normal thyroid tissue samples.
  • PTEN promoter hypermethylation was detected in 21 of 46 (45.7%) papillary carcinomas, 6 of 7 follicular carcinomas, and 5 of 6 follicular adenomas.
  • These results show a high frequency of PTEN promoter hypermethylation, especially in follicular tumors, suggesting its possible role in thyroid tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / metabolism. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / genetics. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / metabolism. Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16487009.001).
  • [ISSN] 1050-7256
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
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45. Matuszczyk A, Petersenn S, Voigt W, Kegel T, Dralle H, Schmoll HJ, Bockisch A, Mann K: Chemotherapy with paclitaxel and gemcitabine in progressive medullary and thyroid carcinoma of the follicular epithelium. Horm Metab Res; 2010 Jan;42(1):61-4
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  • [Title] Chemotherapy with paclitaxel and gemcitabine in progressive medullary and thyroid carcinoma of the follicular epithelium.
  • Nine patients (mean age 53) with metastasizing, progressive, medullary (MTC), thyroid carcinoma and progressive, nonradioiodine accumulating thyroid carcinoma of the follicular epithelium (follicular carcinoma, FTC and papillary carcinoma, PTC) were treated with a combination of paclitaxel and gemcitabine between 2004 and 2006.
  • Tumors were histologically classified as follicular in 5 patients (56%), as papillary in 2 patients (22%), and medullary in 2 patients (22%).
  • All patients with papillary, follicular, or medullary thyroid carcinoma had continuous progression during restaging 14.8+/-8.8 weeks after initiation of chemotherapy, including one patient with stable disease after 3 cycles, but continuous progression after 6 cycles of chemotherapy.
  • Paclitaxel and gemcitabine are not a valid chemotherapy option, in particular in patients with progressive, nonradioiodine-accumulating follicular thyroid carcinoma, who were already treated by other chemotherapeutic agents.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Medullary / drug therapy. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Disease Progression. Drug Therapy, Combination. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging

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  • [Copyright] Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.
  • (PMID = 19735058.001).
  • [ISSN] 1439-4286
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone and metabolic research = Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung = Hormones et métabolisme
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Metab. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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46. Chen KT, Lin JD, Liou MJ, Weng HF, Chang CA, Chan EC: An aberrant autocrine activation of the platelet-derived growth factor alpha-receptor in follicular and papillary thyroid carcinoma cell lines. Cancer Lett; 2006 Jan 18;231(2):192-205
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  • [Title] An aberrant autocrine activation of the platelet-derived growth factor alpha-receptor in follicular and papillary thyroid carcinoma cell lines.
  • Platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) can bind to its ligand and consequently possess a kinase activity, and which is associated with the carcinogenesis of different cell types, including astrocytomas, oligodendrogliomas, and glioblastoma.
  • In a cDNA microarray analysis, we observe the over-expressed mRNA of both PDGF-A and PDGF-alpha receptor in thyroid carcinoma cells.
  • And the elevated protein expressions of PDGF-A and PDGF-alpha receptor in thyroid carcinoma cells were also confirmed by a Western blot analysis.
  • The phosphorylation of PDGF-alpha receptor evaluated by an antibody against Tyr 720-phosphate was found in thyroid carcinoma cells.
  • The tyrosine kinase activity of PDGF-alpha receptor was inhibited by tyrphostin AG1295 and showed a dose-dependent inhibition for the proliferation of thyroid carcinoma cells.
  • These findings imply that autocrine activation of PDGF-alpha receptor plays a crucial role in the carcinogenesis of thyroid cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Autocrine Communication. Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. DNA, Complementary. Enzyme Activation. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Phosphorylation. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor / genetics. Platelet-Derived Growth Factor / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Tyrosine / metabolism. Tyrphostins / pharmacology


47. Goethals I, Mervillie K, De Winter O, Delrue L, Mekeirele K, Ham H: Mismatch of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and Tc-99m pertechnetate single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in a euthyroid multinodular goiter. Clin Nucl Med; 2007 Jan;32(1):6-8
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  • Imaging results of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT scanning and Tc-99m pertechnetate scintigraphy of the thyroid gland are described and compared with pathology in a patient who was followed after left nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma diagnosed 10 years earlier.
  • High focal F-18 FDG uptake was also seen in a lesion that corresponded with a "cold" nodule on Tc-99m pertechnetate scintigraphy, suggesting malignant disease.
  • On pathology, a well-differentiated follicular carcinoma was found.
  • These findings, in a single patient, illustrate the wide spectrum of matched and mismatched F-18 FDG and Tc-99m pertechnetate thyroid uptake along with their variable pathologic correlates.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Aged. Female. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Glucose / metabolism. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m. Thyroid Gland / radionuclide imaging. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods

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  • (PMID = 17179794.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18; A0730CX801 / Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose
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48. O'Gorman CS, Hamilton J, Rachmiel M, Gupta A, Ngan BY, Daneman D: Thyroid cancer in childhood: a retrospective review of childhood course. Thyroid; 2010 Apr;20(4):375-80
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  • [Title] Thyroid cancer in childhood: a retrospective review of childhood course.
  • BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer (TC) is an uncommon childhood malignancy, but the incidence may be increasing.
  • Recent American Thyroid Association guidelines focus primarily on adult data.
  • METHODS: Cases of papillary TC (PTC) (including follicular variant PTC) and follicular TC (FTC) were identified from pathology databases.
  • Pathological TC diagnosis included 40 PTC, 1 diffuse-sclerosing papillary, 7 follicular variant PTC, and 6 FTC.
  • Five patients had a history of previous malignancy, and five had a history of previous thyroid conditions.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Adolescent. Canada / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Child. Female. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes / therapeutic use. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Retrospective Studies. Thyroidectomy


49. Hoffman AE, Zheng T, Stevens RG, Ba Y, Zhang Y, Leaderer D, Yi C, Holford TR, Zhu Y: Clock-cancer connection in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a genetic association study and pathway analysis of the circadian gene cryptochrome 2. Cancer Res; 2009 Apr 15;69(8):3605-13
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  • [Title] Clock-cancer connection in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: a genetic association study and pathway analysis of the circadian gene cryptochrome 2.
  • Circadian genes have the potential to influence a variety of cancer-related biological pathways, including immunoregulation, which may influence susceptibility to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL).
  • Each of these associations remained significant when restricting the analysis to B-cell cases and when further restricting to follicular lymphomas.
  • In addition, these genes were predicted to have significant effects on several disease processes, including cancer (B-H P = 3.75E(-9)) and hematologic disease (B-H P = 8.01E(-8)).

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  • (PMID = 19318546.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03 CA110937-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA108369; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03 CA108369-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03 CA110937; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA122676-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA122676; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA110937; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA122676; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R03 CA108369
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CRY2 protein, human; 0 / Cryptochromes; 0 / Flavoproteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS318133; NLM/ PMC3175639
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50. Sundaraiya S, Dizdarevic S, Miles K, Quin J, Williams A, Wheatley T, Zammitt C: Unusual initial manifestation of metastatic follicular carcinoma of the thyroid with thyrotoxicosis diagnosed by technetium Tc 99m pertechnetate scan: case report and review of literature. Endocr Pract; 2009 Jul-Aug;15(5):458-62
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  • [Title] Unusual initial manifestation of metastatic follicular carcinoma of the thyroid with thyrotoxicosis diagnosed by technetium Tc 99m pertechnetate scan: case report and review of literature.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report a case of metastatic thyroid cancer diagnosed on a technetium Tc 99m pertechnetate (TcO4-) thyroid scan.
  • METHODS: We present the clinical findings, laboratory results, imaging studies, and surgical pathology report in a man with thyrotoxicosis in whom metastatic well-differentiated thyroid cancer was diagnosed incidentally on a routine TcO4- thyroid scan in the setting of a presumed diagnosis of benign toxic thyroid disease.
  • In addition, we review the literature regarding coexistence of metastatic thyroid cancer and thyrotoxicosis.
  • A routine TcO4- thyroid scan revealed high-grade extrathyroidal uptake in the right upper hemithorax as well as in the left side of the thorax.
  • In view of this finding, radioiodine treatment was deferred; further imaging with computed tomography revealed a 6.5-cm mass in a rib on the right side.
  • A biopsy of the rib confirmed the presence of metastatic follicular carcinoma of the thyroid.
  • Scintigraphy revealed sites of metastatic involvement predominantly in the bones along with a cold nodule in the left thyroid lobe, consistent with the primary tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: This case emphasizes the impact of scintigraphic findings on determining the correct management of a patient who would have otherwise undergone inappropriate treatment.
  • Through an extensive literature review, the incidence of malignant involvement in hyperfunctioning thyroid glands and the possible role of sodium iodide symporter expression by thyroid cancer metastatic lesions in preoperative detection of metastatic sites are addressed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyrotoxicosis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19491082.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine practice : official journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] A0730CX801 / Sodium Pertechnetate Tc 99m
  • [Number-of-references] 68
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51. Algahtani M, Alqudah M, Alshehri S, Binahmed A, Sándor GK: Pathologic fracture of the mandible caused by metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma. J Can Dent Assoc; 2009 Jul;75(6):457-60
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  • [Title] Pathologic fracture of the mandible caused by metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Mandibular Fractures / pathology. Mandibular Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19627656.001).
  • [ISSN] 1488-2159
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal (Canadian Dental Association)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Can Dent Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
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52. Krause K, Karger S, Gimm O, Sheu SY, Dralle H, Tannapfel A, Schmid KW, Dupuy C, Fuhrer D: Characterisation of DEHAL1 expression in thyroid pathologies. Eur J Endocrinol; 2007 Mar;156(3):295-301
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  • [Title] Characterisation of DEHAL1 expression in thyroid pathologies.
  • Iodotyrosine dehalogenase 1 (DEHAL1) is a transmembrane protein involved in the recycling of iodide in the human thyroid.
  • The aim of the present study was (I) to investigate whether DEHAL1 expression is different in differentially functioning thyroid pathologies and (II) to evaluate DEHAL1 as a possible marker of thyroid cell differentiation.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: Real-time PCR for DEHAL1 and its isoform DEHAL1B was performed in a series of 105 thyroid specimens, including toxic thyroid nodules (TTN), Graves' disease (GD) thyroids, benign cold thyroid nodules (CTN), normal thyroid tissues and thyroid cancers (follicular thyroid carcinomas (FTC), papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC), partially differentiated thyroid cancers (PDTC) and anaplastic thyroid carcinomas (ATC)).
  • In addition, DEHAL1 protein expression was studied by immunohistochemistry in 163 benign and malignant thyroid pathologies and normal thyroids.
  • (IV) in differentiated thyroid cancers (FTC and PTC), a diffuse cytoplasmic DEHAL1 expression was found; and (V) in PDTC and ATC, DEHAL1 expression was faint or absent.
  • CONCLUSION: Upregulation of DEHAL1 protein expression and sublocalisation of DEHAL1 at the apical cell pole in TTNs and GD thyroids is consistent with increased thyroid hormone turnover during thyrotoxicosis.
  • Diffuse cytoplasmatic localisation or downregulation of DEHAL1 expression in thyroid cancers suggests alteration or loss of DEHAL1 function during thyroid cell dedifferentiation.

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  • (PMID = 17322488.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Isoenzymes; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 3.- / Hydrolases; EC 3.8.1.2 / iodotyrosine dehalogenase 1, human
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53. Chia SY, Milas M, Reddy SK, Siperstein A, Skugor M, Brainard J, Gupta MK: Thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor messenger ribonucleic acid measurement in blood as a marker for circulating thyroid cancer cells and its role in the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2007 Feb;92(2):468-75
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  • [Title] Thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor messenger ribonucleic acid measurement in blood as a marker for circulating thyroid cancer cells and its role in the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid cancer.
  • CONTEXT: Thyroid cancer cells express TSH receptor (TSHR) mRNA, and its measurement in the circulation may be useful in the diagnosis/management of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC).
  • OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to assess the diagnostic value of circulating TSHR mRNA for preoperative detection of DTC in patients with thyroid nodules.
  • PATIENTS: We measured TSHR mRNA levels by RT-PCR in 258 subjects: 51 healthy subjects and 207 patients (thyroid nodules, n = 180; recurrent thyroid cancer, n = 27) with fine-needle aspirations (FNA) and/or thyroid/neck surgery.
  • OUTCOME MEASURES: TSHR mRNA levels were compared with FNA cytology for cancer detection preoperatively and serum thyroglobulin and/or whole-body 131I scans postoperatively.
  • RESULTS: Based on cytology/pathology, 88 patients had DTC and 119 had benign thyroid disease.
  • The TSHR mRNA levels in cancer patients were significantly higher than in benign disease (P < 0.0001).
  • Of 131 patients with FNA and surgery, 51 were FNA positive (all cancer), 17 were FNA negative (15 benign, two cancer), and 63 were indeterminate.
  • TSHR mRNA correctly diagnosed DTC in 16 of 24 (67%) and benign disease in 29 of 39 (74%) patients with indeterminate FNA (combined sensitivity = 90%; specificity = 80%).
  • Combining TSHR mRNA and ultrasound features for follicular lesions correctly classified all follicular cancers and could have spared surgery in 31% of these patients with benign disease.
  • TSHR mRNA has a short life in circulation, and normalized levels on postoperative d 1 correlated with disease-free status, whereas elevated levels predicted residual/metastatic disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: TSHR mRNA measured with FNA enhances the preoperative detection of cancer in patients with thyroid nodules, reducing unnecessary surgeries, and immediate postoperative levels can predict residual/metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / blood. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating. Receptors, Thyrotropin / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Autoantibodies / blood. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Female. Humans. Iodine Radioisotopes. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm, Residual / blood. Neoplasm, Residual / diagnosis. Predictive Value of Tests. Preoperative Care. RNA, Messenger / blood. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroglobulin / immunology. Thyroid Nodule / blood. Thyroid Nodule / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Nodule / surgery. Thyroidectomy. Whole Body Imaging

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  • (PMID = 17118994.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Thyrotropin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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54. Pace L, Klain M, Albanese C, Salvatore B, Storto G, Soricelli A, Salvatore M: Short-term outcome of differentiated thyroid cancer patients receiving a second iodine-131 therapy on the basis of a detectable serum thyroglobulin level after initial treatment. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging; 2006 Feb;33(2):179-83
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  • [Title] Short-term outcome of differentiated thyroid cancer patients receiving a second iodine-131 therapy on the basis of a detectable serum thyroglobulin level after initial treatment.
  • METHODS: Among patients treated with total or near-total thyroidectomy and 131I ablation, 76 (54 women and 22 men) with differentiated thyroid cancer (41 with follicular and 35 with papillary cancer) showed a detectable (i.e.
  • [MeSH-major] Iodine Radioisotopes. Thyroglobulin / blood. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / therapy. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Thyroxine / metabolism. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16205897.001).
  • [ISSN] 1619-7070
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of nuclear medicine and molecular imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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55. O'Kane P, Shelkovoy E, McConnell RJ, Shpak V, Parker L, Brenner A, Zablotska L, Tronko M, Hatch M: Frequency of undetected thyroid nodules in a large I-131-exposed population repeatedly screened by ultrasonography: results from the Ukrainian-American cohort study of thyroid cancer and other thyroid diseases following the Chornobyl accident. Thyroid; 2010 Sep;20(9):959-64
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  • [Title] Frequency of undetected thyroid nodules in a large I-131-exposed population repeatedly screened by ultrasonography: results from the Ukrainian-American cohort study of thyroid cancer and other thyroid diseases following the Chornobyl accident.
  • BACKGROUND: Imperfect detection on screening tests can lead to erroneous conclusions about the natural history of thyroid nodules following radiation exposure.
  • Our objective was to assess in a repeatedly screened I-131-exposed population the frequency with which a thyroid nodule could be retrospectively identified on ultrasonography studies preceding the one on which it was initially detected.
  • The study group consisted of screening examinations on which a thyroid nodule was detected following one or more prior negative examinations.
  • While viewing the index study, three independent reviewers scored the comparison studies for the presence and size of a preexisting nodule.
  • Detection rates were compared for true priors versus controls, for cancer versus benign, and for histologic subtypes of papillary carcinoma.
  • There was no correlation between time from prior to index study and change in nodule size for either malignant or benign nodules (r = 0.01, NS).
  • There were no differences in detection rates or size among papillary cancer subtypes.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These findings, showing significant rates of undetected benign and malignant nodules and no evidence for rapid growth, suggest that conclusions drawn from screening studies about the frequency of late-developing, rapidly growing thyroid nodules following radiation exposure should be interpreted with caution.
  • [MeSH-major] Chernobyl Nuclear Accident. Environmental Exposure. Iodine Radioisotopes / toxicity. Thyroid Nodule / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Adolescent. Adult. Carcinoma, Medullary / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Medullary / ultrasonography. Carcinoma, Papillary / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Papillary / ultrasonography. Child. Cohort Studies. Humans. Longitudinal Studies. Male. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / ultrasonography. Thyroid Diseases / epidemiology. Thyroid Diseases / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Ukraine / ethnology. United States / epidemiology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20615138.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 CP010132-13
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2964362
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56. Musholt TJ, Schönefeld S, Schwarz CH, Watzka FM, Musholt PB, Fottner C, Weber MM, Springer E, Schad A: Impact of pathognomonic genetic alterations on the prognosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. ESES vienna presentation. Langenbecks Arch Surg; 2010 Sep;395(7):877-83
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  • [Title] Impact of pathognomonic genetic alterations on the prognosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. ESES vienna presentation.
  • INTRODUCTION: BRAF mutations and RET or NTRK1 rearrangements were identified as causing events that drive the malignant transformation of the thyroid follicular cell.
  • The impact of these alterations on the course of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is still unsettled.
  • Comprehensive analysis of RET/PTC and NTRK1 rearrangements was carried out by multiplex screening RT-PCR, hybrid-specific RT-PCR and sequencing of detected hybrids.
  • This study provides further evidence that patients harboring BRAF-V600E-positive PTCs may experience an unfavorable course of the disease compared to patients with tumors carrying other genetic alterations.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / mortality. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Receptor, trkA / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / mortality

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  • (PMID = 20640859.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-2451
  • [Journal-full-title] Langenbeck's archives of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langenbecks Arch Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, trkA; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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57. Dzodic R, Markovic I, Inic M, Jokic N, Djurisic I, Zegarac M, Pupic G, Milovanovic Z, Jovic V, Jovanovic N: Sentinel lymph node biopsy may be used to support the decision to perform modified radical neck dissection in differentiated thyroid carcinoma. World J Surg; 2006 May;30(5):841-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sentinel lymph node biopsy may be used to support the decision to perform modified radical neck dissection in differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The prognostic significance of lymph node metastases (LNM) in follicle cell-derived differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is still controversial.
  • The incidence of LNM in papillary thyroid carcinoma varies from 27% to 80%.
  • [MeSH-major] Neck Dissection. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / surgery. Adult. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Thyroidectomy

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  • [ErratumIn] World J Surg. 2006 May;30(5):918. Markovic, Ivan [added]; Inic, Momcilo [added]; Jokic, Neven [added]; Djurisic, Igor [added]; Zegarac, Milan [added]; Pupic, Gordana [added]; Milovanovic, Zorka [added]; Jovic, Viktor [added]; Jovanovic, Nikola [added]
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  • (PMID = 16680598.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2313
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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58. Gen R, Akbay E, Camsari A, Ozcan T: P-wave dispersion in endogenous and exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism. J Endocrinol Invest; 2010 Feb;33(2):88-91
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  • BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to measure maximum P wave duration (Pmax) and P wave dispersion (PWD), which can be indicators for the risk of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation when increased, and to reveal their relationship with thyroid hormone levels in patients with endogenous and exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism.
  • Lack of a difference in Pmax and PWD between patients with endogenous and exogenous subclinical hyperthyroidism seems to support the idea that hormone levels rather than the etiology of thyrotoxicosis affect the heart.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / physiopathology. Adenoma / physiopathology. Atrial Fibrillation / diagnosis. Atrial Fibrillation / etiology. Carcinoma, Papillary / physiopathology. Female. Goiter, Nodular / physiopathology. Graves Disease / physiopathology. Humans. Middle Aged. Thyroid Neoplasms / physiopathology. Thyrotropin / blood. Thyroxine / blood. Triiodothyronine / blood

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  • (PMID = 19636214.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 06LU7C9H1V / Triiodothyronine; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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59. Triponez F, Wong M, Sturgeon C, Caron N, Ginzinger DG, Segal MR, Kebebew E, Duh QY, Clark OH: Does familial non-medullary thyroid cancer adversely affect survival? World J Surg; 2006 May;30(5):787-93
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Does familial non-medullary thyroid cancer adversely affect survival?
  • BACKGROUND: Familial non-medullary thyroid cancer (FNMTC) is associated with a higher rate of multifocality and a higher recurrence rate than sporadic thyroid cancer.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using data from our FNMTC database, we calculated life expectancy and survival rates after diagnosis of FNMTC and compared the results with the rates for unaffected family members and for the standard US population.
  • The mean age at diagnosis was 40.8 +/- 13.9 years and the mean follow-up time was 9.4 +/- 11.7 years.
  • Ten patients died of thyroid cancer during follow-up.
  • Survival was significantly shorter for patients with 3 or more affected family members, for patients diagnosed before the familial setting was recognized, and for patients with anaplastic cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that FNMTC may be more aggressive than sporadic thyroid cancer, particularly in families with 3 or more affected members.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / mortality. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / mortality. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / mortality. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / mortality. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / pathology. Adult. Genetic Diseases, Inborn. Humans. Life Expectancy. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis


60. Machens A, Dralle H: Decreasing tumor size of thyroid cancer in Germany: institutional experience 1995-2009. Eur J Endocrinol; 2010 Jul;163(1):111-9
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  • [Title] Decreasing tumor size of thyroid cancer in Germany: institutional experience 1995-2009.
  • OBJECTIVE: Decreasing tumor size in a population over time is widely interpreted as a measure of effectiveness of cancer screening programs.
  • Nonetheless, thyroid cancer size is rarely analyzed as a function of time.
  • This study aimed to explore secular trends of thyroid cancer diameter in Germany.
  • DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of 1644 thyroid cancer patients from a large referral center for thyroid cancer (1995-2009).
  • METHODS: Calculation of largest tumor diameters for each type of cancer as a function of time periods and birth cohorts.
  • RESULTS: Over the past 25 years, subdivided into 5-year periods by year of thyroidectomy (1985-1989; 1990-1994; 1995-1999; 2000-2004; 2005-2009), tumor diameters diminished from 25 to 16 mm (P=0.025) for medullary thyroid cancer and from 28 to 18 mm (P=0.017) for papillary thyroid cancer.
  • This reduction was greater for hereditary medullary thyroid cancer (from 27 to 11 mm; P=0.088) than sporadic medullary thyroid cancer (from 23 to 19 mm; P=0.11).
  • No decline was observed for follicular thyroid cancer (means of 45 to 42 mm; P=0.52).
  • From the first (1921-1940) to the most recent birth cohort (1981-2000), tumor size fell from 22 to 10 mm (P<0.001) for medullary thyroid cancer, from 24 to 22 mm (P<0.001) for papillary thyroid cancer, and from 49 to 38 mm (P=0.011) for follicular thyroid cancer.
  • The reduction of medullary thyroid cancers affected exclusively patients with hereditary disease (from 20 to 7 mm; P<0.001).
  • CONCLUSION: The consistency and robustness of these data signify powerful secular trends toward smaller papillary, follicular, and medullary thyroid cancers.

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  • (PMID = 20447999.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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61. Troncone G, Cozzolino I, Fedele M, Malapelle U, Palombini L: Preparation of thyroid FNA material for routine cytology and BRAF testing: a validation study. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Mar;38(3):172-6
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  • [Title] Preparation of thyroid FNA material for routine cytology and BRAF testing: a validation study.
  • V600E BRAF mutation is emerging as an independent marker of papillary thyroid carcinoma aggressive behavior.
  • Papillary thyroid carcinomas harboring this mutation should be extensively resected.
  • However, this requires an unquestionable cytological diagnosis of malignancy.
  • A representative Diff-Quik smear prepared from the first two passages was evaluated onsite.
  • Cytological diagnoses were inadequate (2%), benign (85%), follicular lesion of undetermined significance (5%), follicular neoplasms (2%), suspicious for malignancy (2%), and malignant (4%).
  • Whenever necessary BRAF testing may also be performed on the residual samples of thyroid nodules, without interfering with routine cytology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Specimen Handling / methods. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Nodule / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19693938.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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62. Sorrentino F, Atzeni J, Romano G, Buscemi G, Romano M: [Differentiated microcarcinoma of the thyroid gland]. G Chir; 2010 Jun-Jul;31(6-7):277-8
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  • [Title] [Differentiated microcarcinoma of the thyroid gland].
  • [Transliterated title] Il microcarcinoma differenziato della tiroide.
  • BACKGROUND: The thyroid microcarcinoma is a tumor with maximum diameter of 10 mm (WHO).
  • The papillary microcarcinoma is the most common form of thyroid cancer, followed by follicular microcarcinoma.
  • The aim of our study is to assess the frequency of microcarcinoma, the association of benign thyroid disease himself and the controversial surgery.
  • RESULTS: 42 carcinomas were detected, of which 24 PTMC and 1 follicular microcarcinoma.
  • The PTMC was associated with cancer in only 2 cases (papillary carcinoma and parathyroid carcinoma) in the remaining thyroid tissue was suffering from benign disease (20 goiters, 3 Hashimoto thyroiditis, a trabecular adenoma).
  • TALK: Controversial is still the type of surgery to be performed in case of differentiated thyroid microcarcinomas, as well as the indication is still debated to lymphadenectomy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Papillary microcarcinoma of the thyroid in our series, represents 57% of all thyroid cancers.
  • Microcarcinoma and benign thyroid disease association (76.92% of cases) was high.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Lymph Node Excision. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery. Thyroidectomy

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  • (PMID = 20646369.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-9005
  • [Journal-full-title] Il Giornale di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Chir
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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63. Mills SC, Haq M, Smellie WJ, Harmer C: Hürthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid: Retrospective review of 62 patients treated at the Royal Marsden Hospital between 1946 and 2003. Eur J Surg Oncol; 2009 Mar;35(3):230-4
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  • [Title] Hürthle cell carcinoma of the thyroid: Retrospective review of 62 patients treated at the Royal Marsden Hospital between 1946 and 2003.
  • INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have included Hürthle cell carcinoma (HCC) as a variant of follicular thyroid carcinoma in analysis of clinical outcome and others have failed to adequately distinguish between benign and malignant Hürthle cell neoplasms.
  • The aim of this study was to report our experience of histologically confirmed malignant HCC, identifying patient, tumour and treatment factors that predict outcome.
  • Study end-points were disease-free survival (DFS) and cause-specific survival (CSS).
  • Lymph node status (p=0.008), presence of metastases at diagnosis (p=0.005) and tumour stage (p=0.009) were independent predictors of DFS.
  • CONCLUSIONS: HCC appears to be a separate entity from follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC), with a more aggressive disease profile.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Oxyphilic / therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18722077.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2157
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of surgical oncology : the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes
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64. Quinn TR, Duncan LM, Zembowicz A, Faquin WC: Cutaneous metastases of follicular thyroid carcinoma: a report of four cases and a review of the literature. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Aug;27(4):306-12
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  • [Title] Cutaneous metastases of follicular thyroid carcinoma: a report of four cases and a review of the literature.
  • Cutaneous metastasis of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid is very rare, and when it occurs, can exhibit a variety of histologic appearances.
  • The cases consisted of 4 patients, 3 men and 1 woman, aged 52 to 75 years, with cutaneous metastasis of follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • The tumors include a conventional follicular carcinoma, a follicular carcinoma with anaplastic transformation following initial metastasis, the first reported cutaneous metastases of a follicular carcinoma with oncocytic features (Hürthle cell carcinoma), and a follicular carcinoma with a prominent insular carcinoma component.
  • All 4 tumors were widely invasive within the thyroid gland.
  • Three metastases retained the morphologic and immunocytochemical features of the primary thyroid tumors.
  • However, in one case there was high-grade transformation to anaplastic carcinoma following treatment of a sacral metastasis with accompanying loss of the characteristic immunophenotype of follicular thyroid carcinoma.
  • Awareness of the varied morphologies of metastatic follicular thyroid carcinoma to the skin may prompt immunohistochemical analysis and the request for a complete clinical history, ultimately preventing misdiagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16121050.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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65. Yoon JH, Kim EK, Hong SW, Kwak JY, Kim MJ: Sonographic features of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. J Ultrasound Med; 2008 Oct;27(10):1431-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sonographic features of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sonographic findings of the follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (FVPTC) and to assess the role of preoperative fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB).
  • METHODS: The sonographic findings of 27 thyroid nodules in 26 patients (2 male and 24 female; mean age, 45 years) with surgically proven FVPTC were reviewed retrospectively.
  • Malignant findings included marked hypoechogenicity, irregular or microlobulated margins, a taller-than-wide shape, and microcalcifications.
  • Thyroid nodules with a single malignant finding as described above were classified as malignant.
  • RESULTS: Lesion sizes varied from 3 to 34 mm (mean, 15.2 mm), and lesions were most commonly solid (23 [85.2%]), hypoechoic (14 [51.9%]), and oval (17 [63%]) with well-defined margins (14 [51.9%]) and no microcalcifications (23 [85.2%]).
  • Eighteen lesions (66.7%) were correctly classified as malignant, whereas 9 (33.3%) were classified as benign on the basis of sonographic criteria.
  • Twenty-one of 24 diagnostic cytologic results (87.5%) were suspicious for papillary carcinoma (5 of 21 [20.8%]) or malignant (16 of 21 [66.7%]), whereas 3 lesions (12.5%) had benign results.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma tends to have relatively benign sonographic features, such as hypoechogenicity, well-defined margins, an oval shape, and no microcalcifications, but most lesions were correctly classified as malignant by both sonography and FNAB.
  • The possibility of FVPTC should be considered when thyroid nodules with a relatively benign sonographic appearance have suspicious or malignant FNAB results.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18809953.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-9613
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ultrasound Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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66. Seifert A, Klonisch T, Wulfaenger J, Haag F, Dralle H, Langner J, Hoang-Vu C, Kehlen A: The cellular localization of autotaxin impacts on its biological functions in human thyroid carcinoma cells. Oncol Rep; 2008 Jun;19(6):1485-91
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The cellular localization of autotaxin impacts on its biological functions in human thyroid carcinoma cells.
  • Autotaxin (ATX/NPP2) shows a nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase and lysophospholipase D (lysoPLD) activity and is a member of a family of structurally-related mammalian ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphate/phosphodiesterases (E-NPP1-3).
  • The ATX gene activity is significantly higher in undifferentiated anaplastic (UTC) as compared to follicular (FTC) and papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC) or goiter tissues.
  • ATX also enhances the motility of thyroid tumor cells.
  • We bio-engineered stable transfectants of the human thyroid carcinoma cell line FTC-238 expressing either bioactively-secreted (sATX) or membrane-anchored ATX (mATX) to identify the biological functions of ATX which critically depend on the E-NPP member being secreted and provide insight into the effects of high local ATX concentrations and cellular responses.
  • An increased cell motility was exclusively observed with FTC-238 sATX transfectants, whereas membrane-anchored ATX appeared to impair motility.
  • We identified IL-1beta as an upstream suppressor of ATX expression in FTC-238, ATX-mediated motility in FTC-238 and stable transfectants, with IL-1beta having the strongest motility-suppressive effect on FTC-238 sATX clones. sATX and mATX strongly increased the anchorage-independent colony formation of FTC-238 but the size and number of colonies formed in the soft agar were significantly smaller in FTC-238 mATX versus the FTC-238 sATX clones.
  • The cancer-testis antigen BAGE was identified as a novel target gene of ATX in FTC-238.
  • Transcript levels for BAGE were 6-fold higher in FTC-238 mATX versus sATX clones.
  • Increased BAGE transcript levels were also detected in tissues of patients with UTC versus FTC, PTC or goiter tissues.
  • In summary, enhanced tumor cell motility and tumorigenic capacity critically depended on sATX in thyroid carcinoma cells.
  • Irrespective of its compartmentalization, the cancer-testis antigen BAGE was identified as a novel target gene of ATX in FTC-238 and a potential new tissue marker in UTC tissues, which we had previously shown to express high levels of ATX.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Cell Movement. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology. Multienzyme Complexes / genetics. Phosphodiesterase I / genetics. Pyrophosphatases / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Neoplasm / genetics. Antigens, Neoplasm / metabolism. Cell Adhesion. Cell Membrane / metabolism. Humans. Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Transfection. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 18497954.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / BAGE protein, human; 0 / Multienzyme Complexes; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; EC 3.1.4.- / Phosphoric Diester Hydrolases; EC 3.1.4.1 / Phosphodiesterase I; EC 3.1.4.39 / alkylglycerophosphoethanolamine phosphodiesterase; EC 3.6.1.- / Pyrophosphatases
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67. Carta C, Moretti S, Passeri L, Barbi F, Avenia N, Cavaliere A, Monacelli M, Macchiarulo A, Santeusanio F, Tartaglia M, Puxeddu E: Genotyping of an Italian papillary thyroid carcinoma cohort revealed high prevalence of BRAF mutations, absence of RAS mutations and allowed the detection of a new mutation of BRAF oncoprotein (BRAF(V599lns)). Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2006 Jan;64(1):105-9
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  • [Title] Genotyping of an Italian papillary thyroid carcinoma cohort revealed high prevalence of BRAF mutations, absence of RAS mutations and allowed the detection of a new mutation of BRAF oncoprotein (BRAF(V599lns)).
  • OBJECTIVES: The genes RET and RAS, and more recently BRAF, have been shown to be frequently mutated in human papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC).
  • The aim of this study was to genotype for these mutations a cohort of thyroid tumours collected at our institutions.
  • DESIGN AND PATIENTS: Thyroid tumours removed from 51 subjects were analysed, including 43 PTC and 8 non-PTC tumours [3 follicular adenomas (FA), 4 follicular carcinomas (FTC) and 1 anaplastic carcinoma (AC)].
  • Screening of the RAS gene allowed identification of oncogenic mutations in 1/3 (33.3%) FA and 3/4 (75%) FTC.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that BRAF mutations are the most frequent genetic event in PTC and that RAS mutations, besides being a genetic hallmark of follicular tumours, are rare or completely absent in PTC from our area.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. ras Proteins / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Cohort Studies. DNA Mutational Analysis. Gene Frequency. Gene Rearrangement. Genetic Markers. Genotype. Humans. Middle Aged. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16402937.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
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68. Niu D, Murata S, Kondo T, Nakazawa T, Kawasaki T, Ma D, Yamane T, Nakamura N, Katoh R: Involvement of centrosomes in nuclear irregularity of thyroid carcinoma cells. Virchows Arch; 2009 Aug;455(2):149-57
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  • [Title] Involvement of centrosomes in nuclear irregularity of thyroid carcinoma cells.
  • Nuclear irregularities including nuclear pseudoinclusions and nuclear grooves are characteristic of papillary thyroid carcinoma cells and are regarded as important diagnostic clues in histopathology.
  • We observed nuclear features of thyroid carcinoma cell lines (KTC-1 and TPC-1) in various culture conditions and performed immunocytochemical examinations for cytoskeleton molecules to clarify the morphogenesis of thyroid carcinoma nuclei.
  • On immunocytofluorescence analyses, clusters of gamma-tubulin, representing a centrosome, frequently localized at the indentation of BLNs or in the hole of DLNs of thyroid carcinoma cells.
  • In conclusion, we suggest that cell-to-cell contact may affect nuclear changes such as BLNs and DLNs in cancer cell lines and that centrosomes may be involved in the morphogenetic process of these nuclear changes.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Centrosome / physiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Communication / physiology. Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. Tubulin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19588164.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2307
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tubulin
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69. Takano T: [Fetal cell carcinogenesis hypothesis and the prospect of future laboratory tests]. Rinsho Byori; 2009 Aug;57(8):761-8
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  • [Title] [Fetal cell carcinogenesis hypothesis and the prospect of future laboratory tests].
  • A novel hypothesis of carcinogenesis, the "fetal cell carcinogenesis" hypothesis, was established based on molecular evidence of thyroid carcinoma.
  • In this hypothesis, cancer cells are derived directly from the remnants of fetal cells, instead of well-differentiated somatic cells by de-differentiation.
  • For example, thyroid cancer cells are generated from three types of fetal thyroid cell, namely, thyroid stem cells (TSCs), thyroblasts, and prothyrocytes by proliferation without differentiation, which results in producing anaplastic, papillary, and follicular carcinoma, respectively.
  • Genomic alternations, such as RET/PTC and PAX8-PPARgamma1 rearrangements and a mutation in the BRAF gene, play an oncogenic role by preventing thyroid fetal cells from differentiating.
  • Fetal cell carcinogenesis effectively explains recent molecular evidence regarding cancer, including cancer stem cells, and it underscores the importance of identifying a stem cells and clarifying the molecular mechanism of organ development in cancer research.
  • Further, it introduces two important concepts, the reverse approach and stem cell crisis.
  • Analysis of the molecular behavior of a single cell will be a key technique in establishing future laboratory tests.
  • In light of these aspects, we started a project to establish FACS-mQ (mRNA quantification after Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting).
  • [MeSH-major] Clinical Laboratory Techniques. Neoplastic Stem Cells / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Rearrangement. Humans. Mutation. Paired Box Transcription Factors / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / genetics. Thyroid Gland / embryology. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19764411.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1860
  • [Journal-full-title] Rinsho byori. The Japanese journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rinsho Byori
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / PAX8 protein, human; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
  • [Number-of-references] 9
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70. García J, Campos J, Abdulkader I, León L, López R: [Collision tumor consisting in a metastatic adenocarcinoma and follicular lymphoma in the same lymph node. Report of one case]. Rev Med Chil; 2009 Jan;137(1):83-7
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  • [Title] [Collision tumor consisting in a metastatic adenocarcinoma and follicular lymphoma in the same lymph node. Report of one case].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumor de colisión. Metástasis de adenocarcinoma y linfoma folicular en un mismo ganglio linfático.
  • We report a 52 year-old woman with a collision tumor consisting of metastatic adenocarcinoma and follicular lymphoma present in the same lymph node, excised from the left supraclavicular space.
  • The patient died four weeks after the diagnosis was made.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphoma, Follicular / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19399326.001).
  • [ISSN] 0034-9887
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista médica de Chile
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Chil
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Chile
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71. Pelttari H, Välimäki MJ, Löyttyniemi E, Schalin-Jäntti C: Post-ablative serum thyroglobulin is an independent predictor of recurrence in low-risk differentiated thyroid carcinoma: a 16-year follow-up study. Eur J Endocrinol; 2010 Nov;163(5):757-63
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  • [Title] Post-ablative serum thyroglobulin is an independent predictor of recurrence in low-risk differentiated thyroid carcinoma: a 16-year follow-up study.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study whether post-surgical and/or post-ablative thyroglobulin (Tg) concentrations may serve as independent predictors of disease recurrence in patients treated for TNM stage I or II well-differentiated thyroid carcinoma (WDTC).
  • PATIENTS AND MEASUREMENTS: Post-operative and post-ablative Tg concentrations, age, tumour size, local infiltration and nodal metastasis at primary surgery as well as disease recurrences and cancer-specific deaths were evaluated in 495 low-risk (TNM stages I and II) patients, the majority of whom had total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine remnant ablation as initial treatment.
  • RESULTS: Fifty-one patients (10.3%) experienced disease recurrence during follow-up.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Post-ablative Tg concentration is a strong predictor of disease recurrence in WDTC.

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  • (PMID = 20813788.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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72. Caresia AP, Castell Conesa J, Obiols Alfonso G, Pifarré Montaner P, Negre Busó M, García Alonso C, Galofré Mora P, Mesa Manteca J: [Comparison of administration of rhTSH with withdrawal of thyroid hormone. Follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma]. Rev Esp Med Nucl; 2006 Jul-Aug;25(4):236-41
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  • [Title] [Comparison of administration of rhTSH with withdrawal of thyroid hormone. Follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Estudio comparativo entre la utilización de TSH recombinante y la estimulación endógena con TSH. Valoración en el seguimiento de los pacientes con carcinoma diferenciado de tiroides.
  • Recombinant human thyrotropin (rhTSH) has been introduced recently in follow up of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients, as an alternative of thyroid hormone withdrawal.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Thirty-three patients with DTC with previous thyroidectomy and thyroid ablation were selected.
  • All patients underwent whole-body radioiodine scanning and third day serum thyroglobulin (TG) measurement by two techniques, the first one after conventional thyroid hormone withdrawal (TSHe, TGe), and the second one after rhTSH stimulation (TSHr, TGr).
  • We only included patients with stable disease, without therapeutic interventions between two consecutive controls in an interval inferior to one year.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Administration of rhTSH produces a significantly higher increase of TSH than thyroid hormone withdrawal and lower increase in TG levels.
  • There were no significant differences in the stage of disease (TG and whole-body radioiodine scan).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radionuclide imaging. Carcinoma, Papillary / radionuclide imaging. Thyroid Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thyrotropin / pharmacology. Thyroxine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 16827986.001).
  • [ISSN] 0212-6982
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista española de medicina nuclear
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Esp Med Nucl
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Iodine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 0 / anti-thyroglobulin; 06LU7C9H1V / Triiodothyronine; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin; Q51BO43MG4 / Thyroxine
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73. Goldenberg D, Zagon IS, Fedok F, Crist HS, McLaughlin PJ: Expression of opioid growth factor (OGF)-OGF receptor (OGFr) axis in human nonmedullary thyroid cancer. Thyroid; 2008 Nov;18(11):1165-70
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  • [Title] Expression of opioid growth factor (OGF)-OGF receptor (OGFr) axis in human nonmedullary thyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Although thyroid cancers are readily treatable with surgery and radioactive iodine, there are problems in managing recurring, as well as locally advanced, thyroid cancer.
  • The opioid growth factor (OGF) and its receptor, OGF receptor (OGFr), form a tonically active, autocrine-paracrine loop that serves to inhibit cell proliferation in a wide variety of normal and abnormal cells and tissues.
  • In the present study we examined the presence and distribution of OGF and OGFr in nonmedullary thyroid cancer, including papillary, follicular, and anaplastic, as well as thyroid tissue from patients with nonmalignant disease.
  • METHODS: Patient samples of thyroid cancers and goiter were collected at the time of resection and processed for immunohistochemistry of OGF and OGFr, as well as pharmacological binding assays for OGFr.
  • RESULTS: Both peptide and receptor were detected in the cytoplasm and nucleus of all nonmedullary thyroid cancers, as well as in goiter.
  • Specific and saturable binding of OGFr was found in all thyroid samples.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The finding that a potent negative growth regulator and its receptor are present in nonmedullary thyroid cancers and thyroid tissues from patients with nonmalignant disease lead us to suggest that the OGF-OGFr axis serves as a regulator of cell proliferation in these tissues.
  • Moreover, modulation of this biological system may be used to treat progression of nonmedullary thyroid neoplasias.
  • [MeSH-major] Enkephalin, Methionine / metabolism. Receptors, Opioid / metabolism. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Kinetics. Male. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19014324.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-9077
  • [Journal-full-title] Thyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Thyroid
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Opioid; 0 / methionine-enkephalin receptor; 58569-55-4 / Enkephalin, Methionine
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74. Kebebew E, Weng J, Bauer J, Ranvier G, Clark OH, Duh QY, Shibru D, Bastian B, Griffin A: The prevalence and prognostic value of BRAF mutation in thyroid cancer. Ann Surg; 2007 Sep;246(3):466-70; discussion 470-1
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  • [Title] The prevalence and prognostic value of BRAF mutation in thyroid cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence of BRAF mutation among thyroid cancer histologic subtypes and determine the association of BRAF mutation with indicators of poor prognosis for papillary thyroid cancer and patient outcome.
  • SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: The appropriate extent of surgical treatment, adjuvant therapy and follow-up monitoring for thyroid cancer remains controversial.
  • Advances in the molecular biology of thyroid cancer have helped to identify candidate markers of disease aggressiveness.
  • A commonly found genetic alternation is a point mutation in the BRAF oncogene (BRAF V600E), which is primarily found in papillary thyroid cancer and is associated with more aggressive disease.
  • METHODS: BRAF V600E mutation status was determined in 347 tumor samples from 314 patients with thyroid cancer (245 with conventional papillary thyroid cancer, 73 with follicular thyroid cancer, and 29 with the follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer).
  • RESULTS: : The prevalence of BRAF V600E mutation was higher in conventional papillary thyroid cancer (51.0%) than in follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer (24.1%) and follicular thyroid cancer (1.4%) (P < 0.0001).
  • In patients with conventional papillary thyroid cancer, BRAF V600E mutation was associated with older age (P = 0.0381), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.0323), distant metastasis (P = 0.045), higher TNM stage (I and II vs. III and IV, P = 0.0389), and recurrent and persistent disease (P = 0.009) with a median follow-up time of 6.0 years.
  • Multivariate analysis showed that BRAF V600E mutation [OR (95% CI) = 4.2 (1.2-14.6)] and lymph node metastasis [OR (95% CI) = 7.75 (2.1-28.5)] were independently associated with recurrent and persistent disease in patients with conventional papillary thyroid cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: BRAF V600E mutation is primarily present in conventional papillary thyroid cancer.
  • It is associated with an aggressive tumor phenotype and higher risk of recurrent and persistent disease in patients with conventional papillary thyroid cancer.

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  • (PMID = 17717450.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4932
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA118688; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1R21 CA 118688-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1959359
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75. McCall KD, Harii N, Lewis CJ, Malgor R, Kim WB, Saji M, Kohn AD, Moon RT, Kohn LD: High basal levels of functional toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and noncanonical Wnt5a are expressed in papillary thyroid cancer and are coordinately decreased by phenylmethimazole together with cell proliferation and migration. Endocrinology; 2007 Sep;148(9):4226-37
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  • [Title] High basal levels of functional toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) and noncanonical Wnt5a are expressed in papillary thyroid cancer and are coordinately decreased by phenylmethimazole together with cell proliferation and migration.
  • High basal levels of TLR3 and Wnt5a RNA are present in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) cell lines consistent with their overexpression and colocalization in PTC cells in vivo.
  • This is not the case in thyrocytes from normal tissue and in follicular carcinoma (FC) or anaplastic carcinoma (AC) cells or tissues.
  • C10 simultaneously decreased PTC proliferation and cell migration but had no effect on the growth and migration of FC, AC, or FRTL-5 cells.
  • IL-6-induced Stat3 phosphorylation is important both in up-regulating Wnt5a levels and in cell growth.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Methimazole / analogs & derivatives. Methimazole / pharmacology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / physiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Toll-Like Receptor 3 / physiology. Wnt Proteins / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Division / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement / drug effects. Humans


76. Kilfoy BA, Devesa SS, Ward MH, Zhang Y, Rosenberg PS, Holford TR, Anderson WF: Gender is an age-specific effect modifier for papillary cancers of the thyroid gland. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2009 Apr;18(4):1092-100
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  • [Title] Gender is an age-specific effect modifier for papillary cancers of the thyroid gland.
  • BACKGROUND: Thyroid cancer incidence rates have increased worldwide for decades, although more for papillary carcinomas than other types and more for females than males.
  • There are few known thyroid cancer risk factors except female gender, and the reasons for the increasing incidence and gender differences are unknown.
  • METHODS: We used the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 9 Registries Database for cases diagnosed during 1976-2005 to develop etiological clues regarding gender-related differences in papillary thyroid cancer incidence.
  • RESULTS: The papillary thyroid cancer incidence rate among females was 2.6 times that among males (9.2 versus 3.6 per 100,000 person-years, respectively), with a widening gender gap over time.
  • APC models for papillary thyroid cancers confirmed statistically different age-specific effects among women and men (P < 0.001 for the null hypothesis of no difference by gender), adjusted for calendar-period and birth-cohort effects.
  • CONCLUSION: Gender was an age-specific effect modifier for papillary thyroid cancer incidence.
  • Future analytic studies attempting to identify the risk factors responsible for rising papillary thyroid cancer incidence should be designed with adequate power to assess this age-specific interaction among females and males.

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  • (PMID = 19293311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / TU2 CA105666; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 CP010183-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / TU2CA105666
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS96006; NLM/ PMC2667567
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77. Gallego R, Pintos E, García-Caballero T, Raghay K, Boulanger L, Beiras A, Gaudreau P, Morel G: Cellular distribution of growth hormone-releasing hormone receptor in human reproductive system and breast and prostate cancers. Histol Histopathol; 2005 07;20(3):697-706
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  • Growth hormone releasing hormone receptor (GHRH-R) mRNA and protein was first localized to the anterior pituitary gland, consequent with the action of its ligand on GH synthesis and release.
  • GHRH-R immunostaining was also demonstrated in the ovary: oocytes, follicular cells, granulosa, thecal and corpus luteum cells.
  • Moreover, GHRH-R was demonstrated in prostate and breast carcinomas, opening a variety of possibilities for the use of GHRH antagonists in the treatment of prostatic and mammary tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Male. Mammary Glands, Human / metabolism. Placenta / metabolism. Pregnancy. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Uterus / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15944917.001).
  • [ISSN] 0213-3911
  • [Journal-full-title] Histology and histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histol. Histopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Neuropeptide; 0 / Receptors, Pituitary Hormone-Regulating Hormone; 0 / somatotropin releasing hormone receptor
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78. Ito Y, Arai K, Nozawa R, Yoshida H, Hirokawa M, Fukushima M, Inoue H, Tomoda C, Kihara M, Higashiyama T, Takamura Y, Miya A, Kobayashi K, Matsuzuka F, Miyauchi A: S100A8 and S100A9 expression is a crucial factor for dedifferentiation in thyroid carcinoma. Anticancer Res; 2009 Oct;29(10):4157-61
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  • [Title] S100A8 and S100A9 expression is a crucial factor for dedifferentiation in thyroid carcinoma.
  • S100A8 and S100A9 are also known to be overexpressed in certain species of carcinomas.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, the protein expression of S100A8 as well as that of S100A9 was investigated in thyroid tumors.
  • RESULTS: All of the undifferentiated carcinomas were immunopositive for S100A8 and S100A9 and overlap between staining patterns of both proteins was observed.
  • In poorly differentiated carcinomas, all the cases were negative for S100A8, while slight immunopositivity of S100A9 was seen in 2 cases.
  • Papillary carcinoma, follicular carcinoma, follicular adenoma and medullary carcinoma and normal follicules were negative for both proteins.
  • CONCLUSION: S100A8 plays an important role in dedifferentiation of thyroid carcinoma possibly by forming a complex with S100A9.
  • [MeSH-major] Calgranulin A / biosynthesis. Calgranulin B / biosynthesis. Thyroid Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation / physiology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 19846966.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calgranulin A; 0 / Calgranulin B
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79. Jeh SK, Jung SL, Kim BS, Lee YS: Evaluating the degree of conformity of papillary carcinoma and follicular carcinoma to the reported ultrasonographic findings of malignant thyroid tumor. Korean J Radiol; 2007 May-Jun;8(3):192-7
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  • [Title] Evaluating the degree of conformity of papillary carcinoma and follicular carcinoma to the reported ultrasonographic findings of malignant thyroid tumor.
  • OBJECTIVE: We wanted to evaluate the degree of conformity of papillary carcinoma and follicular carcinoma to the reported ultrasonographic findings of malignant thyroid tumor.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 2003 and December 2004, fine needle aspiration biopsy was performed in 1,036 patients with palpable and nonpalpable thyroid lesions.
  • We retrospectively reviewed the ultrasonographic findings of patients with papillary carcinomas (n = 127) and follicular carcinomas (n = 23) that were proven by operation or fine needle aspiration biopsy.
  • We analyzed the ultrasonographic findings of these nodules based on the reported ultrasonographic findings of malignant thyroid tumor: hypoechogenicity, a taller than wide orientation, a microlobulated or irregular margin, a thick hypoechoic rim (halo sign), microcalcification and cystic change.
  • RESULTS: The echogenicity was hypoechoic in 72.4% (92/127) of the papillary carcinomas, but it was isoechoic in 65.2% (15/23) of the follicular carcinomas (p < 0.001).
  • The nodule shape was tall or round in 74.1% of the papillary carcinomas, but it was flat in 72.7% of the follicular carcinomas (p < 0.001).
  • The tumor margin was microlobulated or irregular in 92.9% of the papillary carcinomas and in 60.9% of the follicular carcinomas (p < 0.001).
  • A hypoechoic rim was seen in 26% of the papillary carcinomas (thin rim: 13.4%, thick rim: 12.6%) and in 86.6% of the follicular carcinomas (thin rim: 39.1%, thick rim: 47.8%, p < 0.001).
  • Microcalcifications were demonstrated in 33.9% of the papillary carcinomas and in none of the cases of follicular carcinoma (p < 0.001).
  • A solid mass without cystic change were seen in 98.4% of the papillary carcinomas and in 82.6% of the follicular carcinomas (p < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSION: The previously reported ultrasonography findings of malignant thyroid tumor are in conformity with most of the papillary carcinomas, but not with follicular carcinomas.
  • The current ultrasonographic features for thyroid malignancy should be cautiously applied as the indication for needle aspiration biopsy so that follicular carcinomas are not missed by too narrow and strict biopsy criteria.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / ultrasonography. Carcinoma, Papillary / ultrasonography. Thyroid Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Calcinosis / ultrasonography. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Thyroid Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17554185.001).
  • [ISSN] 1229-6929
  • [Journal-full-title] Korean journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2627417
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80. Mullin EJ, Metcalfe MS, Maddern GJ: Differentiation of metastatic follicular thyroid cancer from hepatocellular carcinoma using Hep Par 1. J Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2007 Nov;22(11):2047-8
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  • [Title] Differentiation of metastatic follicular thyroid cancer from hepatocellular carcinoma using Hep Par 1.
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma usually arises in a cirrhotic liver.
  • The case is reported of a middle-aged woman presenting with multiple nodules on computed tomography with no clinically apparent primary for whom results of initial diagnostic investigations were potentially misleading.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal. Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans


81. Bazrafshan H, Azarhoush R, Gholamrezanezhad A: Fine needle aspiration of thyroid nodules in a general teaching hospital setting performing moderate number of biopsies: outcome of indeterminate cytologic results. Endokrynol Pol; 2008 Sep-Oct;59(5):385-9
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  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration of thyroid nodules in a general teaching hospital setting performing moderate number of biopsies: outcome of indeterminate cytologic results.
  • INTRODUCTION: Our aim was to assess the usefulness of fine-needle aspiration cytologic biopsy (FNA) of the thyroid in our general teaching hospital with average health care facility performing moderate number of such procedures and to evaluate the outcome of Indeterminate Cytologic Results.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: We studied on all consecutive patients referred for FNA of the thyroid nodule.
  • Cytological findings were classified as malignant, histologic control recommended (suspicious or indeterminate), benign, and unsatisfactory.
  • A neoplastic nodule was confirmed in 91/476 of cases (19.1%), of which 14 were cytologically malignant (3.0%).
  • Follicular lesions were identified in the remaining 77/476 cases (16.1%).
  • Upon excision, benign lesions were diagnosed in 47/56 (83.8%), of which 32 lesions (57.1%) were follicular adenoma and 15 cases (26.7%) of colloid nodules.
  • Malignancy was confirmed histopathologically in 9 cases (16.2%), including 4 follicular variant papillary carcinomas and 5 follicular carcinomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: FNA is an inexpensive, safe, practical, well tolerated, and easily applied method, even in not fully-experienced hands and provides useful information.
  • Based on our study findings, suspicious cytologic results (cytologically follicular neoplasms) are inconclusive and are associated with a remarkable chance of malignant involvement; hence surgical treatment is necessary for clarification.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / statistics & numerical data. Thyroid Nodule / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Thyroid Diseases / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18979447.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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82. Montone KT, Baloch ZW, LiVolsi VA: The thyroid Hürthle (oncocytic) cell and its associated pathologic conditions: a surgical pathology and cytopathology review. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2008 Aug;132(8):1241-50
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  • [Title] The thyroid Hürthle (oncocytic) cell and its associated pathologic conditions: a surgical pathology and cytopathology review.
  • CONTEXT: Hürthle cells are eosinophilic, follicular-derived cells that are associated with a variety of nonneoplastic and neoplastic thyroid lesions.
  • The differential diagnosis of Hürthle cell lesions is quite broad.
  • OBJECTIVE: To review the pathologic conditions associated with Hürthle cells in the thyroid and to discuss pathology of thyroid lesions associated with oncocytic cytology.
  • DATA SOURCES: A variety of thyroid nonneoplastic (autoimmune thyroiditis, multinodular goiter) and neoplastic conditions (Hürthle cell adenoma, Hürthle cell carcinoma) are associated with Hürthle cell cytology.
  • In addition, there are several thyroid neoplasms that should be considered when one observes a Hürthle cell neoplasm in the thyroid (oncocytic variant of medullary carcinoma, several variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Oncocytic cytology is seen in a variety of thyroid conditions that are associated with a broad differential diagnosis and care must be used for accurate diagnosis.
  • Newer molecular-based techniques may be useful for further classification of thyroid neoplasms with oncocytic pathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Oxyphil Cells / pathology. Thyroid Diseases / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biopsy, Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. History, 19th Century. Humans. Metaplasia. Pathology, Surgical / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18684023.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 107
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83. Lopez JP, Wang-Rodriguez J, Chang CY, Sneh G, Yu MA, Pardo FS, Aguilera J, Ongkeko WM: Gefitinib (Iressa) potentiates the effect of ionizing radiation in thyroid cancer cell lines. Laryngoscope; 2008 Aug;118(8):1372-6
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  • [Title] Gefitinib (Iressa) potentiates the effect of ionizing radiation in thyroid cancer cell lines.
  • OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To determine whether inactivation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase activity will sensitize thyroid cancer cell lines to ionizing radiation-induced death.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Established human thyroid cancer cells lines were studied.
  • METHODS: Colony formation assay was used to determine the effect of Gefitinib, a small molecule inhibitor of EGFR, on anaplastic (ARO) and follicular (WRO) thyroid cancer cell lines.
  • EGFR protein expression on the cell lines and inactivation of EGFR kinase by Gefitinib was analyzed by Western blot.
  • Immunohistochemistry was performed on archived thyroid cancer tissue to demonstrate expression of EGFR.
  • RESULTS: Incubation with Gefitinib caused decreased phosphorylation of EGFR protein in established thyroid cancer cell lines as measured by Western blot.
  • Inhibition of EGFR kinase activity by Gefitinib resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in colony formation in both ARO and WRO thyroid cancer cell lines.
  • Addition of Gefitinib in combination with ionizing radiation reduced cell proliferation in ARO (P = .0084) and WRO (P = .0252) as measured by colony formation assay.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Inactivation of the EGFR kinase by Gefitinib potentiates the ionizing radiation-induced inhibition of cell proliferation in thyroid cancer cell lines.
  • Use of this combination treatment of Gefitinib and ionizing radiation may be a promising therapy for anaplastic thyroid and metastatic follicular thyroid cancer and should be extended into animal models.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / radiotherapy. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Carcinoma / radiotherapy. Quinazolines / pharmacology. Thyroid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Down-Regulation. Drug Synergism. Humans. Phosphorylation / drug effects. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18475209.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-4995
  • [Journal-full-title] The Laryngoscope
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Laryngoscope
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Quinazolines; EC 2.7.10.1 / EGFR protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; S65743JHBS / gefitinib
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84. Zagrodzki P, Nicol F, Arthur JR, Słowiaczek M, Walas S, Mrowiec H, Wietecha-Posłuszny R: Selenoenzymes, laboratory parameters, and trace elements in different types of thyroid tumor. Biol Trace Elem Res; 2010 Apr;134(1):25-40
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  • [Title] Selenoenzymes, laboratory parameters, and trace elements in different types of thyroid tumor.
  • This study was performed to investigate selenoenzyme activities and trace element concentrations in thyroid tissues, with reference to other parameters routinely used to characterize thyroid function.
  • This was to reveal relevant parameters as possible additional markers of tumor grade, clinical course, and prognosis of thyroid disorders.
  • The tissue samples were obtained during surgical treatment (total or near total thyroidectomy) of 122 patients with different types of thyroid tumor.
  • In the majority of cases, thyroid benign or malignant tumors were not accompanied by significant derangement of the gland selenoenzymes and of either intrathyroidal or plasma concentration of selenium.
  • Nevertheless, types I and II iodothyronine deiodinases were the most promising (among selenoenzymes) targets for diagnoses and possibly therapy of thyroid tumors.
  • Higher activities of both enzymes in cases with Graves' disease, as compared with other thyroid lesions, suggest their involvement in the pathogenesis of this condition.
  • Patients with struna nodosa had higher levels of thyroid Zn, Cu, and Pb as compared with papillary carcinoma subjects and also a higher level of Cu than follicular carcinoma cases.
  • The above diagnostics may play a similar role to some of the general thyroid function indices, TSH, anti-TG, anti-TPO, and calcitonin, which can partially distinguish between various thyroid tumors.
  • In conclusion, some of selenium status markers, when accompanied with general parameters, and trace elements can serve as factors with pathophysiologic relevance and be helpful in the identification of malignant disease.
  • Multivariate statistical methods should be employed to tackle a broad array of thyroid tumor diagnostic data in a short time.
  • [MeSH-major] Selenium / metabolism. Selenoproteins / metabolism. Thyroid Gland. Thyroid Neoplasms / chemistry. Trace Elements / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19597722.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0720
  • [Journal-full-title] Biological trace element research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol Trace Elem Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Selenoproteins; 0 / Trace Elements; EC 1.11.1.8 / Iodide Peroxidase; H6241UJ22B / Selenium
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85. Moslavac S, Matesa N, Kusić Z: Thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology in children and adolescents. Coll Antropol; 2010 Mar;34(1):197-200
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  • [Title] Thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology in children and adolescents.
  • Thyroid fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is the most accurate and cost effective method in the evaluation of the thyroid nodule and has been commonly used in adults.
  • Thyroid nodules are uncommon in younger patients (1-2%).
  • Ultrasound-guided thyroid FNACs performed from May 1995 to June 2008 in patients under 18 years of age were retrospectively reviewed.
  • Cytological parameters included cytologic diagnosis and cyto-pathohistological correlation.
  • Total of 236 cases, representing 206 patients under 18 years of age, were retrieved from a total of 11748 thyroid FNAC cases (2.0%).
  • 20 (35.7%) patients did not have any nodules, 20 (35.7%) patients had solitary thyroid nodule and 16 (28.6%) patients had multiple nodules.
  • The cytologic diagnoses were: unsatisfactory (9), cyst fluid (7), benign (204), cellular follicular lesion/follicular neoplasm (9) and papillary thyroid carcinoma (7).
  • 5 patients (23.8%) had thyroid malignancies (all papillary carcinomas).
  • The remainder had benign thyroid lesions; follicular adenomas (8), multinodular goiters (5), diffuse goiters (2) and Hashimoto thyreoiditis (1).
  • The prevalence of thyroid malignancies among cytologic diagnoses was similar to those reported in adults.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / statistics & numerical data. Thyroid Diseases / epidemiology. Thyroid Diseases / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / surgery. Adolescent. Carcinoma, Papillary / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / surgery. Child. Child, Preschool. Croatia / epidemiology. Female. Goiter, Nodular / epidemiology. Goiter, Nodular / pathology. Goiter, Nodular / surgery. Hashimoto Disease / epidemiology. Hashimoto Disease / pathology. Hashimoto Disease / surgery. Humans. Male. Prevalence. Reproducibility of Results. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20432751.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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86. Parlea L, Fahim L, Munoz D, Hanna A, Anderson J, Cusimano M, Kovacs K, Gardiner G: Follicular carcinoma of the thyroid with aggressive metastatic behavior in a pregnant woman: report of a case and review of the literature. Hormones (Athens); 2006 Oct-Dec;5(4):295-302
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  • [Title] Follicular carcinoma of the thyroid with aggressive metastatic behavior in a pregnant woman: report of a case and review of the literature.
  • Distant metastases as initial presentation of follicular carcinoma of the thyroid is rare, especially in young patients.
  • We report the clinical and pathological features of a 33-year old pregnant patient with follicular carcinoma of the thyroid who presented with widespread bone and lung metastases at the time of diagnosis. the resected tumor had a focal insular component that showed extensive vascular invasion spreading beyond the thyroid capsule, and was associated with widespread bone and lung metastases.
  • We suggest that architectural differentiation of the tumor and cell proliferation rate are not reliable markers of metastatic behavior in this particular thyroid neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cadherins / genetics. Cadherins / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Pregnancy


87. Ruggiero FP, Frauenhoffer EE, Stack BC Jr: Papillary thyroid cancer with an initial presentation of abdominal and flank pain. Am J Otolaryngol; 2005 Mar-Apr;26(2):142-5
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  • [Title] Papillary thyroid cancer with an initial presentation of abdominal and flank pain.
  • PURPOSE: Well-differentiated thyroid cancer typically presents as a thyroid mass.
  • Well-differentiated thyroid cancer with clinically apparent kidney metastases is rare, with fewer than 20 cases reported in the literature.
  • In the vast majority of these cases, the patients had known thyroid neoplasms at the time the renal metastases were identified.
  • We report a case of papillary thyroid carcinoma that presented with abdominal pain in a 25-year-old woman with no previous history of thyroid disease.
  • RESULTS: The patient underwent radical nephrectomy for a right renal mass, which was diagnosed as papillary thyroid carcinoma follicular variant.
  • During subsequent evaluation, metastatic disease was also identified in the patient's lungs.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Papillary cancer, which ordinarily behaves in an indolent manner, can have unusual presentation, including disseminated metastasis on presentation.
  • [MeSH-major] Abdominal Pain / diagnosis. Abdominal Pain / etiology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / radiography. Flank Pain / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / surgery. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasms, Second Primary. Nephrectomy. Radiosurgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


88. Bogdańska M, Górnicka B, Ziarkiewicz-Wróblewska B, Koperski L, Morton M, Wasiutyński A: [Comparison of CD15, galectin-3 and HBME-1 expression in follicular thyroid neoplasms]. Endokrynol Pol; 2006 Jul-Aug;57(4):314-9
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  • [Title] [Comparison of CD15, galectin-3 and HBME-1 expression in follicular thyroid neoplasms].
  • INTRODUCTION: Estimation of malignancy in thyroid follicular neoplasms is a common diagnostic problem, thus revealing of differences in expression of some antigens in both benign and malignant lesions seems to be essential.
  • The aim of this study is to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of CD15, galectin-3 and HBME-1 in follicular adenomas and carcinomas.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Samples of 38 follicular adenomas (23 "classical", 5 with intracapsular invasion, 10 oncocytic) and 15 follicular carcinomas (9 "classic", 6 oncocytic) were stained immunohistochemically with anti-CD15, galectin-3 and HBME-1.
  • RESULTS: In the whole group we found statistically significant differences in CD15 expression between follicular adenomas and carcinomas.
  • "Classic" follicular carcinomas (without oncocytic tumors) showed stronger CD15 and HBME- 1 expression than "classic" adenomas.
  • In the group of nonoxyphilic tumors positive reaction with HBME-1 was more common in adenomas with intracapsular invasion and carcinomas, but positive reaction with anti-CD15--only in carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / chemistry. Antigens, CD15 / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / chemistry. Galectin 3 / analysis. Thyroid Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Invasiveness

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  • (PMID = 17006830.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD15; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / HBME-1 antigen
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89. Wada N, Masudo K, Hirakawa S, Woo T, Arai H, Suganuma N, Iwaki H, Yukawa N, Uchida K, Imoto K, Rino Y, Masuda M: Superior vena cava (SVC) reconstruction using autologous tissue in two cases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma presenting with SVC syndrome. World J Surg Oncol; 2009;7:75
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  • [Title] Superior vena cava (SVC) reconstruction using autologous tissue in two cases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma presenting with SVC syndrome.
  • Herein, we report two extremely rare cases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) with extended tumor thrombus or mediastinum lymph node metastasis (LNM) involving the superior vena cava (SVC), causing SVC syndrome.
  • The left brachiocephalic vein was used to reconstruct the SVC in a papillary thyroid carcinoma patient with mediastinum LNM and a pericardial patch was used in a follicular thyroid carcinoma patient with tumor thrombus.
  • However, SVC reconstruction using autologous tissue in thyroid carcinoma has not been reported to date.
  • [MeSH-major] Blood Vessel Prosthesis. Carcinoma, Papillary / complications. Superior Vena Cava Syndrome / etiology. Superior Vena Cava Syndrome / surgery. Thyroid Neoplasms / complications. Vena Cava, Superior / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19825162.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
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90. Antico-Arciuch VG, Dima M, Liao XH, Refetoff S, Di Cristofano A: Cross-talk between PI3K and estrogen in the mouse thyroid predisposes to the development of follicular carcinomas with a higher incidence in females. Oncogene; 2010 Oct 21;29(42):5678-86
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  • [Title] Cross-talk between PI3K and estrogen in the mouse thyroid predisposes to the development of follicular carcinomas with a higher incidence in females.
  • It is well known that thyroid disease is more frequent in women than in men; however, the molecular basis for this gender-based difference is still poorly understood.
  • The activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), through different mechanisms including loss of the PTEN tumor suppressor, is being increasingly recognized as a major player in the development of thyroid neoplastic lesions.
  • Loss of Pten in the mouse thyroid results in a significant increase in the thyrocyte proliferative index, which is more prominent in the female mice.
  • In this study, we show that 52% of the Pten(-/-) female mice, but only 12% of the males, develop follicular adenomas by 1 year of age.
  • In addition, 50% of female mutants, but only 35% of males older than 1 year of age develop invasive, and often metastatic, follicular carcinomas.
  • Furthermore, while genetic ablation of one Cdkn1b allele accelerated the development of neoplastic lesions, it also abolished the gender differences in survival and reduced the difference in neoplastic lesion development rate, underlining a key role of p27 in mediating estrogen action in the thyroid follicular cells.
  • These data, based on a clinically relevant model of thyroid follicular carcinoma, provide, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time in vivo evidence that circulating estrogens are directly responsible for the increased female susceptibility to thyroid disease, at least on activation of the PI3K pathway, and provide new insights into the gender-based differences characterizing thyroid neoplastic disorders.

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  • (PMID = 20676139.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5594
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK015070; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA097097-06; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R37 DK015070; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK15070; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA128943; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA128943-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA97097; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK015070-38; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA128943; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA097097-06; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R37 DK015070-38; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA128943-02; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK20595; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P30 DK020595; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA097097; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / P60 DK020595
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogens; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 3.1.3.48 / Pten protein, mouse; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS217275; NLM/ PMC2967724
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91. Chen YT, Kitabayashi N, Zhou XK, Fahey TJ 3rd, Scognamiglio T: MicroRNA analysis as a potential diagnostic tool for papillary thyroid carcinoma. Mod Pathol; 2008 Sep;21(9):1139-46
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  • [Title] MicroRNA analysis as a potential diagnostic tool for papillary thyroid carcinoma.
  • MicroRNA (miRNA) microarray analysis has consistently found altered expression of miRNAs in thyroid tumors, suggesting their roles in thyroid carcinogenesis.
  • To explore whether this differential expression can be used as a diagnostic tool in surgical pathology and fine-needle aspirate (FNA) specimens, the expression of selected miRNA was evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR, using total RNA from 84 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues and 40 ex vivo aspirate specimens. miRNA from all paraffin-embedded tissues and all but one FNA sample were found to be analyzable, with paraffin sections yielding better miRNA quality.
  • Preliminary analysis of 6 miRNAs in 10 papillary thyroid carcinoma and 10 follicular adenoma identified significant overexpression of miR-146b, -221, and -222 in papillary thyroid carcinoma (P<0.02), but not miR-146a, -155, or -187 (P>0.08).
  • The expression of these first three miRNAs was examined in a series of 5 normal thyroid, 11 hyperplastic nodules, 24 follicular adenoma, 27 classical papillary thyroid carcinoma, 5 follicular variant papillary thyroid carcinoma, 2 follicular carcinoma, and 10 encapsulated follicular lesions with partial nuclear features of papillary carcinoma.
  • Results showed miR-146b to be most consistently overexpressed in both classical papillary carcinoma and follicular variants, whereas all other groups showed lower expression at a similar level (P<0.001 for pair-wise comparisons between papillary carcinoma and all other groups).
  • Follicular lesions with partial features of papillary carcinoma all showed low miR-146b levels similar to other non-papillary carcinoma groups, suggesting that they are biologically distinctive from papillary carcinoma. miR-221 and miR-222 also showed higher expression in papillary carcinoma, but with substantial overlaps with the other groups.
  • When applied to 40 FNA samples of various lesions, only miR-146b and miR-222 persisted as distinguishing markers for papillary carcinoma.
  • We concluded that miRNAs, particularly miR-146b, might potentially be adjunct markers for diagnosing papillary thyroid carcinoma in both FNA and surgical pathology specimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary, Follicular / genetics. MicroRNAs / genetics. Molecular Diagnostic Techniques. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Nodule / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Biopsy. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Paraffin Embedding. RNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thyroid Gland / metabolism. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroidectomy


92. Wu PY, Huang CC, Chen HK, Chien CY: Adult thyroid-like low-grade nasopharyngeal papillary adenocarcinoma with thyroid transcription factor-1 expression. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2007 Nov;137(5):837-8
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  • [Title] Adult thyroid-like low-grade nasopharyngeal papillary adenocarcinoma with thyroid transcription factor-1 expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Nuclear Proteins / analysis. Transcription Factors / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17967658.001).
  • [ISSN] 0194-5998
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / thyroid nuclear factor 1
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93. Rezzónico JN, Rezzónico M, Pusiol E, Pitoia F, Niepomniszcze H: Increased prevalence of insulin resistance in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Metab Syndr Relat Disord; 2009 Aug;7(4):375-80
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  • [Title] Increased prevalence of insulin resistance in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Patients with insulin resistance (IR) have a higher prevalence of thyroid nodules.
  • In the present study, we present original data showing that patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) also have a higher frequency of IR.
  • The diagnosis of IR was made when the homeostasis model assesment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index was higher than 2.5.
  • IR was present in 56.3% of patient with papillary anol 25% of follicular thyroid carcinomas, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that such a high prevalence of IR would be an important risk factor for developing DTC, as it is well known with some other nonthyroid carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / epidemiology. Insulin Resistance. Obesity / complications. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 19320560.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-8518
  • [Journal-full-title] Metabolic syndrome and related disorders
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Metab Syndr Relat Disord
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Insulin
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94. Parameswaran R, Brooks S, Sadler GP: Molecular pathogenesis of follicular cell derived thyroid cancers. Int J Surg; 2010;8(3):186-93
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  • [Title] Molecular pathogenesis of follicular cell derived thyroid cancers.
  • Thyroid cancers are the most common endocrine malignancy.
  • Radiation exposure, family history of thyroid cancer and some inherited conditions are the most important predisposing factors for the development of thyroid cancer.
  • Three mitogenic signalling pathways have been described in the thyroid cell, which are influenced by various stimulatory and inhibitory hormones, growth factors and neurotransmitters.
  • Two theories have been described in thyroid cancer pathogenesis, the foetal cell carcinogenesis theory and the more common, multistep carcinogenesis theory.
  • The multistep carcinogenesis theory is now the accepted model in many human cancers, including thyroid cancer.
  • This results in the formation of differentiated thyroid cancers like the papillary, follicular or Hurthle cell cancers.
  • Based on this theory, follicular carcinomas are generated from follicular adenomas and papillary carcinomas from precursor cells generated from thyrocytes.
  • Anaplastic carcinoma may develop from papillary or follicular carcinoma by dedifferentiation.
  • In this review article, we highlight the molecular pathogenesis of thyroid tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / physiopathology. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / genetics. Adenoma, Oxyphilic / physiopathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / physiopathology. Humans


95. Akaishi J, Onda M, Okamoto J, Miyamoto S, Nagahama M, Ito K, Yoshida A, Shimizu K: Down-regulation of transcription elogation factor A (SII) like 4 (TCEAL4) in anaplastic thyroid cancer. BMC Cancer; 2006;6:260
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  • [Title] Down-regulation of transcription elogation factor A (SII) like 4 (TCEAL4) in anaplastic thyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) is one of the most aggressive human malignancies and appears to arise mainly from transformation of pre-existing differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC).
  • METHODS: To investigate the role of TCEAL4 in ATC carcinogenesis, we examined expression levels of TCEAL4 in ACLs as well as in other types of thyroid cancers and normal human tissue.
  • RESULTS: Expression of TCEAL4 was down-regulated in all 11 ACLs as compared to either normal thyroid tissues or papillary and follicular thyroid cancerous tissues.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Transcriptional Elongation Factors / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adult. Aged. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / metabolism. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cell Line, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. DNA, Complementary / genetics. Disease Progression. Down-Regulation. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms / metabolism. Neoplasms / pathology. Organ Specificity. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / isolation & purification. RNA, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / immunology. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thyroid Gland / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17076909.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / TCEAL4 protein, human; 0 / Transcriptional Elongation Factors
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1635733
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96. Sipos JA, Mazzaferri EL: The therapeutic management of differentiated thyroid cancer. Expert Opin Pharmacother; 2008 Oct;9(15):2627-37
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The therapeutic management of differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: The management of thyroid cancer is difficult because the tumors comprise a wide range of biologic behaviors, from small papillary thyroid microcarcinomas that pose little or no threat to survival for the patient, to anaplastic thyroid cancers that are arguably the most lethal tumor.
  • Although it may be difficult initially to determine at which end of the prognostic spectrum a patient resides, one can ordinarily estimate a patient's risk for tumor recurrence and mortality based on a triad of features as simple as the patient's age at the time of diagnosis, the tumor stage at presentation, and its initial response to therapy.
  • This is largely because randomized controlled trials are lacking as a result of the low incidence and generally favorable prognosis of the disease.
  • The treatment of these tumors rests on a fine balance of providing care that reflects the anticipated course of the disease without overtreating the patient or providing reassurance that is unfounded.
  • OBJECTIVE: To outline the treatment strategy for patients with differentiated thyroid cancer based on the available literature and to guide clinicians through a management algorithm utilizing patient and tumor characteristics.
  • METHODS: This review is limited to the treatment of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer - papillary and follicular thyroid cancer - and the standard therapy required for the majority of patients.
  • RESULTS/CONCLUSION: The treatment of differentiated thyroid cancer requires a multidisciplinary approach, involving an experienced surgeon, radiologists and an endocrinologist.
  • There are many unanswered questions in the management algorithm and ongoing research is needed to further define the best treatment strategy for patients with differentiated thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation. Combined Modality Therapy. Hormone Replacement Therapy. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Postoperative Complications. Radiotherapy Dosage. Thyroid Hormones / administration & dosage. Thyroidectomy. Thyrotropin / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 18803450.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-7666
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Pharmacother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Thyroid Hormones; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
  • [Number-of-references] 102
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97. Bukhari MH, Niazi S, Hanif G, Qureshi SS, Munir M, Hasan M, Naeem S: An updated audit of fine needle aspiration cytology procedure of solitary thyroid nodule. Diagn Cytopathol; 2008 Feb;36(2):104-12
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  • [Title] An updated audit of fine needle aspiration cytology procedure of solitary thyroid nodule.
  • This study was conducted to see the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) for solitary thyroid nodules and to compare our experience with that of other regions of the world.
  • It was a prospective cross sectional study conducted on 76 thyroid samples submitted and reported at the Department of Pathology, King Edward Medical University, Lahore.
  • There were 30 cases (39.47%) of benign lesions, comprising of colloid goiter, follicular adenoma, and diffuse hyperplasia.
  • On FNAC, 13 cases were declared as malignant (6 cases) or suggestive of malignancy (3 cases) or suspicious for malignancy [4 cases (5.26%)].
  • Only 9 cases (11.84%) were clearly committed as malignant lesions, comprising of papillary carcinoma, anaplastic carcinoma and suggestive of follicular carcinoma.
  • Comparison of malignant cases on histopathology (14 cases) was close to that of FNAC (13 cases).
  • In conclusion, we recommend this procedure in the light of views of other experts as a primary investigation of thyroid lesions.
  • We strongly recommend the suggestion that in a patient with one or more thyroid nodule, FNAC should be advised for every patient for exclusion of cancer.
  • As FNAC is inexpensive, sensitive, specific, and an accurate procedure it should be adapted as an initial investigation of thyroid diseases in all tertiary hospitals in developing countries like Pakistan.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / methods. Clinical Audit. Thyroid Nodule / diagnosis. Thyroid Nodule / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Cross-Sectional Studies. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pakistan. Prospective Studies. Sensitivity and Specificity. Thyroid Diseases / diagnosis. Thyroid Diseases / pathology. Thyroid Gland / pathology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 18181183.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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98. Shen WT, Wong TS, Chung WY, Wong MG, Kebebew E, Duh QY, Clark OH: Valproic acid inhibits growth, induces apoptosis, and modulates apoptosis-regulatory and differentiation gene expression in human thyroid cancer cells. Surgery; 2005 Dec;138(6):979-84; discussion 984-5
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  • [Title] Valproic acid inhibits growth, induces apoptosis, and modulates apoptosis-regulatory and differentiation gene expression in human thyroid cancer cells.
  • BACKGROUND: Among the most promising new therapies for thyroid cancer are the histone deacetylase inhibitors.
  • We hypothesized that VA would have antineoplastic effects on human thyroid cancer cells.
  • METHODS: We treated 1 papillary and 3 follicular thyroid cancer cell lines with VA (0.5-2 mmol/L) for 24 to 72 hours.
  • Cell proliferation was measured with a cell proliferation assay kit.
  • RESULTS: VA inhibited growth in all cell lines by 26% to 59% at 48 hours and up to 77% at 72 hours.
  • Sodium-iodide symporter and thyroglobulin messenger RNA expression were up-regulated by 93% to 370% in follicular cell lines but remained unchanged in the papillary cell line.
  • CONCLUSION: VA inhibits growth, induces apoptosis, and modulates apoptosis-regulatory and differentiation gene expression in thyroid cancer cells.
  • These findings suggest that VA may be useful clinically for patients with thyroid cancers of follicular cell origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Apoptosis / drug effects. Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology. Valproic Acid / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins / genetics. Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins / metabolism. Cell Culture Techniques. Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Symporters / genetics. Symporters / metabolism. Thyroglobulin / genetics. Thyroglobulin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16360381.001).
  • [ISSN] 0039-6060
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Symporters; 0 / sodium-iodide symporter; 614OI1Z5WI / Valproic Acid; 9010-34-8 / Thyroglobulin
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99. Yamanaka K, Ito Y, Okuyama N, Noda K, Matsumoto H, Yoshida H, Miyauchi A, Capurro M, Filmus J, Miyoshi E: Immunohistochemical study of glypican 3 in thyroid cancer. Oncology; 2007;73(5-6):389-94
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical study of glypican 3 in thyroid cancer.
  • In 123 patients with thyroid cancer, expression of glypican 3 (GPC3) was immunohistochemically investigated in tissue samples and the biological significance of GPC3 in thyroid cancer was examined.
  • GPC3 was scarcely expressed in the normal thyroid gland, but was dramatically enhanced in certain types of cancers: 100% in follicular carcinoma (20/20 cases) and 70% in papillary carcinoma (48/69 cases).
  • Expression of GPC3 in follicular carcinoma was significantly higher than that of follicular adenoma (p < 0.0019).
  • In contrast, GPC 3 was not expressed in 17 cases of anaplastic carcinoma.
  • A high expression of GPC3 mRNA was confirmed in cancer lesions, which were strongly positive for immunohistochemical staining.
  • In 69 cases of papillary carcinoma, GPC3 was expressed at an early stage, suggesting that GPC3 expression in thyroid cancer is an early event in developing papillary carcinoma.
  • Further studies are required to determine biological functions and molecular mechanisms underlying the upregulation of GPC3 in thyroid cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Glypicans / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics. Thyroid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Carcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Gene Amplification. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Staging. Reference Values. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Thyroid Gland / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 18511877.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / GPC3 protein, human; 0 / Glypicans
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100. Kent WD, Hall SF, Isotalo PA, Houlden RL, George RL, Groome PA: Increased incidence of differentiated thyroid carcinoma and detection of subclinical disease. CMAJ; 2007 Nov 20;177(11):1357-61
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  • [Title] Increased incidence of differentiated thyroid carcinoma and detection of subclinical disease.
  • BACKGROUND: Recent reports from North America and Europe have documented an annual increase in the incidence of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • METHODS: Using the Ontario Cancer Registry, we identified 7422 cases of differentiated thyroid carcinoma diagnosed from Jan.
  • The sample represented all Cancer Care Ontario regions.
  • RESULTS: As expected, the incidence of differentiated thyroid carcinoma increased over the 12-year period.
  • INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that more frequent use of medical imaging has led to an increased detection rate of small, subclinical tumours, which in turn accounts for the higher incidence of differentiated thyroid carcinoma.
  • This suggests that we need to re-evaluate our understanding of the trends in thyroid cancer incidence.
  • [MeSH-major] Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thyroid Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / epidemiology. Adult. Age Distribution. Carcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Papillary / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Ontario / epidemiology. Registries. Sex Distribution

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  • (PMID = 18025426.001).
  • [ISSN] 1488-2329
  • [Journal-full-title] CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association journal = journal de l'Association medicale canadienne
  • [ISO-abbreviation] CMAJ
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2072986
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