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1. Ovanin-Rakić A, Mahovlić V, Audy-Jurković S, Barisić A, Skopljanac-Macina L, Jurić D, Rajhvajn S, Ilić-Forko J, Babić D, Folnović D, Kani D: Cytology of cervical intraepithelial glandular lesions. Coll Antropol; 2010 Jun;34(2):401-6
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  • Cytological criteria for the identification of glandular intraepithelial lesions (GIL) have not yet been fully described, especially for the precursors of adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), thus these lesions may frequently remain unrecognized.
  • The aim of the study was to achieve the most appropriate cytologic diagnosis of intraepithelial lesions of endocervical columnar epithelium, analyzing the cytology findings in patients with histologically verified AIS and GIL (I, II).
  • In terms of differential diagnosis, cytology showed higher accuracy in predicting lesion severity vs. type of epithelial alteration (75.6% vs. 55.3%) and abnormalities of columnar epithelium (95.7%; vs. 74.2%).
  • Continuous improvement in cervical specimens and cytodiagnostic skills, better understanding of intraepithelial adenocarcinoma and precursors, and their inclusion in the classification of cytologic and histologic findings are expected to upgrade the detection of these lesions, and to reduce the invasive cervical adenocarcinoma morbidity and mortality.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Vaginal Smears

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  • (PMID = 20698109.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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2. Shintaku M, Kushima R, Abiko K: Colloid carcinoma of the intestinal type in the uterine cervix: mucin immunohistochemistry. Pathol Int; 2010 Feb;60(2):119-24
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  • [Title] Colloid carcinoma of the intestinal type in the uterine cervix: mucin immunohistochemistry.
  • A case of colloid carcinoma (gelatinous carcinoma) of the intestinal type in the uterine cervix is reported along with the findings of an immunohistochemical study of intracytoplasmic mucus of the neoplastic cells.
  • Colloid carcinoma is a very rare variant of mucus-producing adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix and probably a heterogeneous group that consists of neoplasms of different histogeneses, that is, neoplasms of endocervical, gastric, and intestinal origins.
  • Results of the immunohistochemical studies in the present case showed that neoplastic cells produced mucus of the large intestine type, thus verifying the presence of a distinct subtype of colloid carcinoma of the cervix that shows the intestinal phenotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Mucin-2 / biosynthesis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20398197.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MUC2 protein, human; 0 / MUC5AC protein, human; 0 / MUC6 protein, human; 0 / Mucin 5AC; 0 / Mucin-2; 0 / Mucin-6
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3. Saglam A, Bozdag G, Kuzey GM, Kuçukali T, Ayhan A: Four synchronous female genital malignancies: the ovary, cervix, endometrium and fallopian tube. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2008 Jun;277(6):557-62
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  • OBJECTIVE: To present a unique case of a 63 year-old woman with coexistent adenocarcinoma of the ovary, endometrium, cervix and fallopian tube.
  • Furthermore, the focal endometrial irregularity at the left uterine cornus turned out to be a well differentiated endometrial carcinoma of the endometrioid type with <1/3 myometrial invasion.
  • The pale infiltrative lesion in the cervix also turned out to be an adenocarcinoma of the endocervical type with deep stromal invasion and areas of diffuse glandular dysplasia and in-situ glandular neoplasia at the periphery.
  • Besides, several sections from the left fallopian tube uncovered diffuse dysplasia in the lining epithelium and a focus of adenocarcinoma with papillary and cribriform pattern.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Fallopian Tube Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


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4. Hao H, Tsujimoto M, Tsubamoto H, Komori S, Hirota S: Immunohistochemical phenotype of the urinary bladder endocervicosis: comparison with normal endocervix and well-differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma of uterine cervix. Pathol Int; 2010 Jul;60(7):528-32
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical phenotype of the urinary bladder endocervicosis: comparison with normal endocervix and well-differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma of uterine cervix.
  • The mass was removed and histology revealed a haphazard proliferation of endocervical-type mucinous glands scattered through the muscularis propria of bladder wall.
  • Immunohistochemical phenotype of these glands was compared with three normal uterine endocervices and two cases of well-differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix.
  • On the other hand, only glands of well-differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma expressed human gastric mucin and showed high proliferative index of Ki-67.
  • Furthermore, diffuse distribution of estrogen and progesterone receptors, lack of human gastric mucin and low proliferative activity were distinct features for endocervicosis compared to well-differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Adult. Cesarean Section. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Phenotype. Pregnancy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


5. Biscotti CV, Ray N: Papanicolaou tests associated with cervical mucosal endometriosis: an analysis of cellular features and comparison to endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Aug;38(8):551-4
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  • [Title] Papanicolaou tests associated with cervical mucosal endometriosis: an analysis of cellular features and comparison to endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • Endometrium directly sampled from endocervical mucosal endometriosis can mimic endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) in Papanicolaou (Pap) tests.
  • Pap test samples from patients known to have endocervical mucosal endometriosis were compared with samples containing AIS.
  • By comparison, only one (8%) AIS case had endometrial-type stroma.


6. Kusanagi Y, Kojima A, Mikami Y, Kiyokawa T, Sudo T, Yamaguchi S, Nishimura R: Absence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) detection in endocervical adenocarcinoma with gastric morphology and phenotype. Am J Pathol; 2010 Nov;177(5):2169-75
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  • [Title] Absence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) detection in endocervical adenocarcinoma with gastric morphology and phenotype.
  • A subset of endocervical-type mucinous adenocarcinomas (ACs) of the uterine cervix exhibit a gastric phenotype and morphology, as reported in cases of minimal deviation AC in which the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) has been rarely detected.
  • To investigate the HPV-independent pathway of carcinogenesis in cases of gastric-type AC, we investigated the common high-risk HPV (hr-HPV) status in 52 nonsquamous cell carcinomas, using a PCR-based typing method and immunohistochemistry of p16INK4a (a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that is overexpressed in both cancerous and precancerous cervical tissue, making it an ideal biomarker for cervical cancer cases).
  • Using novel morphological criteria, seven of 52 (13.5%) carcinomas were designated as gastric-type ACs, all of which were negative for both hr-HPV DNA and p16INK4a.
  • Nongastric-type ACs were frequently positive for both hr-HPV DNA (90%, 28/31) and p16INK4a (94%, 29/31) with adenosquamous and neuroendocrine carcinomas demonstrating the presence of hr-HPV DNA in 86% (6/7) and 83% (5/6) of cases, respectively.
  • Our data suggests that gastric-type AC appears to represent an oncogenic hr-HPV-independent neoplasm and therefore is a potential pitfall of HPV DNA testing and vaccination.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / virology. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology


7. Sasajima Y, Mikami Y, Kaku T, Kiyokawa T, Ohishi Y, Hamada T, Sasaki T, Fujita H, Moriya T, Kasamatsu T, Tsuda H: Gross features of lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia in comparison with minimal-deviation adenocarcinoma and stage Ib endocervical-type mucinous adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. Histopathology; 2008 Oct;53(4):487-90
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  • [Title] Gross features of lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia in comparison with minimal-deviation adenocarcinoma and stage Ib endocervical-type mucinous adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


8. Yahata T, Nishino K, Kashima K, Sekine M, Fujita K, Sasagawa M, Honma S, Kodama S, Tanaka K: Conservative treatment of stage IA1 adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix with a long-term follow-up. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2010 Aug;20(6):1063-6
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  • [Title] Conservative treatment of stage IA1 adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix with a long-term follow-up.
  • OBJECTIVES: The adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix tends to arise in women of childbearing age.
  • Conservative treatment by conization is an alternative to a hysterectomy that allows future pregnancy; however, much less is known about the management of adenocarcinoma because of its rarity and relatively short time frame of follow-up.
  • METHODS: All patients diagnosed to have FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) stage IA1 cervical adenocarcinoma between 1990 and 2004 with more than 5 years' follow-up at 2 institutions were reviewed.
  • All tumors were endocervical-type adenocarcinoma, and all tumors were grade 1.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although further studies on the management of microinvasive cervical adenocarcinoma are desirable, conization seems to be acceptable treatment modality for patients with stage IA1 cervical adenocarcinoma who desire to preserve their fertility.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Conization / methods. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20683418.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Vang R, Gown AM, Barry TS, Wheeler DT, Ronnett BM: Ovarian atypical proliferative (borderline) mucinous tumors: gastrointestinal and seromucinous (endocervical-like) types are immunophenotypically distinctive. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2006 Jan;25(1):83-9
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  • [Title] Ovarian atypical proliferative (borderline) mucinous tumors: gastrointestinal and seromucinous (endocervical-like) types are immunophenotypically distinctive.
  • Immunohistochemical studies were performed to compare the expression patterns of cytokeratins 7 and 20 (CK7, CK 20), estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER, PR), CA-125, mesothelin, and WT-1 in 28 tumors of gastrointestinal type and 12 tumors of seromucinous type.
  • Both gastrointestinal and seromucinous type tumors had a high frequency of CK7 expression (93% and 100%, respectively).
  • The gastrointestinal type tumors were characterized by frequent expression of CK20 (86%) and CDX2 (39%), infrequent expression of CA-125 (11%) and mesothelin (7%), and lack of expression of ER, PR, and WT-1.
  • In contrast, the seromucinous type tumors were characterized by frequent expression of ER (100%), PR (67%), CA-125 (92%), and mesothelin (83%), infrequent expression of WT-1 (8%), and lack of expression of CK20 and CDX2.
  • The former are characterized by expression of markers of gastrointestinal-type differentiation (CK20 and CDX2), whereas the latter are characterized by expression of "müllerian-type" markers (ER, PR, CA-125, and mesothelin).
  • Expression of the latter markers in the seromucinous tumors, which also are expressed in pure serous tumors, and lack of expression of gastrointestinal-type markers, combined with the clinicopathologic features these tumors share with pure serous tumors, support the concept that this subtype is more closely related to serous than gastrointestinal type mucinous tumors and justify the designation "seromucinous. "
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16306790.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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10. Yahata T, Numata M, Kashima K, Sekine M, Fujita K, Yamamoto T, Tanaka K: Conservative treatment of stage IA1 adenocarcinoma of the cervix during pregnancy. Gynecol Oncol; 2008 Apr;109(1):49-52
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  • [Title] Conservative treatment of stage IA1 adenocarcinoma of the cervix during pregnancy.
  • This report describes the preliminary results of treating stage IA1 cervical adenocarcinoma by cervical conization during pregnancy.
  • METHODS: All patients diagnosed to have FIGO stage IA1 cervical adenocarcinoma between 1990 and 2006 were reviewed and patients diagnosed during pregnancy were identified.
  • RESULTS: Sixteen patients with stage IA1 cervical adenocarcinoma were identified.
  • The histology showed that all of the tumors were endocervical type adenocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: These preliminary data suggest that patients with FIGO stage IA1 cervical adenocarcinoma may be treated conservatively by cervical conization during pregnancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / surgery. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery


11. Mayun AA, Nggada HA, Audu BM, Pindiga UH, Khalil MI, Musa AB: Histopathological analysis of non-squamous cell malignancies of the uterine cervix in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Afr J Med Med Sci; 2008 Dec;37(4):369-73
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  • Out of the 59 non-squamous cervical cancers, 42(71.2%) were endocervical-type adenocarcinomas, while serous papillary, clear cell, and adenosquamous carcinomas comprised 2(3.4%) cases each.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


12. Rabban JT, McAlhany S, Lerwill MF, Grenert JP, Zaloudek CJ: PAX2 distinguishes benign mesonephric and mullerian glandular lesions of the cervix from endocervical adenocarcinoma, including minimal deviation adenocarcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Feb;34(2):137-46
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  • [Title] PAX2 distinguishes benign mesonephric and mullerian glandular lesions of the cervix from endocervical adenocarcinoma, including minimal deviation adenocarcinoma.
  • The differential diagnosis of exuberant mesonephric hyperplasia includes minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the cervix, a tumor with deceptively bland morphology for which no reliable diagnostic biomarkers currently exist.
  • We hypothesized that PAX2 may also be expressed in mesonephric lesions of the cervix and may distinguish mesonephric hyperplasia from minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the cervix.
  • We demonstrated that PAX2 was strongly and diffusely expressed in mesonephric remnants (6 of 6) and in mesonephric hyperplasia (18 of 18); however, no expression was noted in mesonephric adenocarcinoma (0 of 1).
  • PAX2 was expressed in normal endocervical glands (including tunnel clusters and Nabothian cysts) (86 of 86), lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia (5 of 5), tubal/tuboendometrioid metaplasia (8 of 8), and cervical endometriosis (13 of 14).
  • In contrast, only 2 cases of endocervical adenocarcinoma were positive for PAX2 [invasive adenocarcinoma of the minimal deviation type (0 of 5), usual type (1 of 22), and endometrioid type (1 of 1)].
  • Adjacent adenocarcinoma in situ, as well as cases of pure adenocarcinoma in situ (0 of 6), were also PAX2 negative.
  • PAX2 expression in the 2 positive endocervical adenocarcinomas was patchy and weak.
  • These results suggest that PAX2 immunoreactivity may be useful to (1) distinguish mesonephric hyperplasia from minimal deviation adenocarcinoma, (2) to distinguish lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia from minimal deviation adenocarcinoma, and (3) to distinguish endocervical tubal metaplasia or cervical endometriosis from endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Mesonephros / pathology. Mullerian Ducts / pathology. PAX2 Transcription Factor / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis


13. Vang R, Gown AM, Barry TS, Wheeler DT, Ronnett BM: Immunohistochemistry for estrogen and progesterone receptors in the distinction of primary and metastatic mucinous tumors in the ovary: an analysis of 124 cases. Mod Pathol; 2006 Jan;19(1):97-105
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  • Immunohistochemical studies were performed on 124 mucinous tumors, including 52 primary ovarian tumors (30 atypical proliferative (borderline) mucinous tumors of gastrointestinal type, 11 atypical proliferative (borderline) mucinous tumors of seromucinous (endocervical-like) type, and 11 invasive mucinous carcinomas of usual (gastrointestinal) type) and 72 metastatic mucinous carcinomas in the ovary (primary sites: colorectum (24), pancreas (13), endocervix (eight), stomach (four), gallbladder/bile duct (four), appendix (four), and unknown (15)).
  • All atypical proliferative mucinous tumors of gastrointestinal type, primary ovarian mucinous carcinomas, and metastatic mucinous carcinomas were negative for ER and PR with the exception of three metastatic endocervical adenocarcinomas which exhibited only weak expression of ER without PR.
  • All atypical proliferative mucinous tumors of seromucinous type expressed ER to some degree and seven had some expression of PR.
  • Immunohistochemical assessment of hormone receptor expression is of no value in distinguishing the common types of primary ovarian mucinous tumors (atypical proliferative mucinous tumors of gastrointestinal type and mucinous carcinomas of usual type) from the vast majority of mucinous carcinomas metastatic to the ovary.
  • The above observations on hormone receptor expression in primary ovarian mucinous tumors support the concept that atypical proliferative (borderline) mucinous tumors of gastrointestinal and seromucinous (endocervical-like) types are distinctive tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Receptors, Progesterone / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16294196.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone
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14. Miller B, Dunn J, Dalrymple J, Krivak TC: Pelvic sidewall adenocarcinoma after definitive therapy for cervical adenocarcinoma in situ. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Nov;99(2):489-92
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  • [Title] Pelvic sidewall adenocarcinoma after definitive therapy for cervical adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • BACKGROUND: Traditionally, hysterectomy is considered definitive therapy for cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) in women beyond childbearing.
  • CASE: A 45-year-old gravida 2, para 2 patient presented with cervical dysplasia and on pathology review of the large loop excision procedure cervical adenocarcinoma in situ was diagnosed.
  • Final pathology revealed adenocarcinoma in situ with negative margins.
  • A CT-guided biopsy of the mass was consistent with invasive adenocarcinoma of the endocervical type.
  • Despite undergoing definitive surgery, a residual focus of disease may remain leading to invasive adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Pelvic Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery


15. Hart WR: Mucinous tumors of the ovary: a review. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2005 Jan;24(1):4-25
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  • The borderline tumors may be of intestinal type or mullerian (endocervical-like) type.
  • The intestinal-type tumors are by far the most common.
  • Rarely, distinct mural nodules of reactive or neoplastic type are found in the cystic wall of a mucinous tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Cystadenoma, Mucinous / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15626914.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 88
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16. Hadzisejdć I, Krasević M, Haller H, Grahovac B: Distribution of human papillomavirus types in different histological subtypes of cervical adenocarcinoma. Coll Antropol; 2007 Apr;31 Suppl 2:97-102
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  • [Title] Distribution of human papillomavirus types in different histological subtypes of cervical adenocarcinoma.
  • Little information is available regarding distribution of HPV types in different histological subtypes of adenocarcinoma (AC).
  • Thus, in this study we examined the frequency of high-risk (hr) HPV types in AC, adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and adenosquamous carcinoma (ADSQ).
  • A total of 102 cases of primary cervical adenocarcinoma (26 AIS and 76 invasive AC) obtained from pathology files from 1995-2006 were histologically subtyped.
  • Our results demonstrated that endocervical type occupied the major subtype of AC (22/66) followed by ADSQ (17/66) where as in the group of AIS endocervical type (12/23) was followed by intestinal type of AIS (7/23).
  • We found HPV 18 type to be the most predominant type in AIS (11/21) and AC (17/60) followed by HPVof undeternmined type in AIS (3/21) and HPV 16 in AC (9/60) as the sole viral type.
  • HPV 18 was most frequently detected type in all histological subtypes of AIS and AC.
  • The most prevalent HPV type in ADSQ was HPV-16 followed by HPV 33 as single type.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Papillomaviridae / classification. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


17. Saitoh M, Hayasaka T, Ohmichi M, Kurachi H, Motoyama T: Primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the vagina: possibility of differentiating from metastatic adenocarcinomas. Pathol Int; 2005 Jun;55(6):372-5
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  • [Title] Primary mucinous adenocarcinoma of the vagina: possibility of differentiating from metastatic adenocarcinomas.
  • Herein is reported a case of primary vaginal mucinous adenocarcinoma with an interesting mucin profile, presumably arising from a lesion of adenosis in a patient without in utero exposure to diethylstilbesterol (DES).
  • The histological features of the vaginal intramural tumor found in this patient resembled those of mucinous adenocarcinoma of the endocervical type.
  • Therefore, it was necessary to determine whether or not the tumor was metastatic from an occult cervical adenocarcinoma.
  • However, the adenocarcinoma cells of the present case did not contain sulfomucin at all, being different from most mucinous adenocarcinoma cells of the endocervical type.
  • Moreover, there were foci of adenosis adjacent to the adenocarcinoma foci, which also did not contain sulfomucin.
  • These findings indicate that the mucinous adenocarcinoma arose from vaginal adenosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mucin 5AC. Mucin-1 / analysis. Mucin-2. Mucin-6. Mucins / analysis. Neoplasm Metastasis. Vagina / chemistry. Vagina / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15943796.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MUC2 protein, human; 0 / MUC5AC protein, human; 0 / MUC6 protein, human; 0 / Mucin 5AC; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Mucin-2; 0 / Mucin-6; 0 / Mucins
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18. Kałuzyński A, Olszak A, Smolarz B, Kowalczyk A, Kulig A: [Cervical glandular intraepithelial neoplasia topography and the risk of conisation]. Ginekol Pol; 2005 Oct;76(10):763-9
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  • OBJECTIVES: The frequency of endocervical adenocarcinoma is increasing in comparison with squamous cell carcinoma and it presents a very difficult diagnostic and therapeutic problem.
  • The coexistence of pre-invasive lesions in squamous epithelium and endocervical columnar cell were investigated.
  • The lesions in endocervical glandular cells of CIGN-type were distributed from the distance up to 14 mm from the surface of cervix.


19. Schmidt D, Horn LC, Kommoss F: [Histopathology of squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix]. Pathologe; 2005 Jul;26(4):255-61
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  • [Title] [Histopathology of squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix].
  • The most frequent type of invasive cancer of the cervix is squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Among the various forms of adenocarcinoma, the mucinous subtype is the most frequent, either as endocervical or interstinal subtype.
  • Great concern in daily diagnosis causes the adenoma malignum (minimal deviation adenocarcinoma), since this type of adenocarcinoma demonstrates only minor cytological atypia and greatly resembles the different types of endocervical glandular hyperplasia.A report on a cervical carcinoma should always include the typing and grading of the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


20. Kawauchi S, Kusuda T, Liu XP, Suehiro Y, Kaku T, Mikami Y, Takeshita M, Nakao M, Chochi Y, Sasaki K: Is lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia a cancerous precursor of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma?: a comparative molecular-genetic and immunohistochemical study. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Dec;32(12):1807-15
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  • [Title] Is lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia a cancerous precursor of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma?: a comparative molecular-genetic and immunohistochemical study.
  • Although lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia (LEGH) was originally described as a distinct hyperplastic glandular lesion of the uterine cervix, recent studies have raised a question that LEGH may be a cancerous precursor of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) and other mucinous adenocarcinomas (MACs) of the uterine cervix.
  • In the present study, we studied LEGH, MDA, and MAC by using molecular-genetic and immunohistochemical methods for chromosomal imbalance, microsatellite instability, human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, and gastric pyloric-type mucin secretion to clarify their relationship.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


21. Kojima A, Mikami Y, Sudo T, Yamaguchi S, Kusanagi Y, Ito M, Nishimura R: Gastric morphology and immunophenotype predict poor outcome in mucinous adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 May;31(5):664-72
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  • [Title] Gastric morphology and immunophenotype predict poor outcome in mucinous adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix.
  • Endocervical-type mucinous adenocarcinoma (ECA) of the uterine cervix is defined as a tumor composed of cells resembling those of the endocervical glands, but recent studies have demonstrated that a minority of ECAs displays a gastric immunophenotype.
  • Fifty-three cases of mucinous adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix (37 FIGO stage IB, 4 stage IIA, and 12 stage IIB) were reviewed and reevaluated using a newly established morphologic criteria for distinguishing gastric type adenocarcinoma, which was defined as a tumor showing clear and/or pale eosinophilic and voluminous cytoplasm, with distinct cell borders.
  • Following the current World Health Organization scheme (2003), 47 tumors (89%) were classified as ECA, 1 (2%) as intestinal type, 1 (2%) as mixed endocervical and intestinal type, and 4 (8%) as minimal deviation adenocarcinoma.
  • Twelve of 47 (26%) ECAs and all 4 minimal deviation adenocarcinomas, reclassified as gastric type using the novel criteria, were frequently positive for HIK1083 with a rate of 75% (12/16), whereas only 11% (4/37) of nongastric tumors were positive.
  • There was no significant difference in MUC6 reactivity between gastric and nongastric type tumors (31%, 5/16 vs. 16%, 6/37; P=0.4).
  • Patients with gastric-type adenocarcinomas had a significantly decreased 5-year disease-specific survival rate (30 vs. 77%; P<0.0001), and the gastric type morphology was related to a significant risk for disease recurrence compared with the nongastric type (P=0.001; HR, 4.5; 95% confidence interval, 1.42-14.2).
  • Mucinous adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix with gastric immunophenotype can be a distinct morphologic variant showing an aggressive clinical course.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Gastric Mucosa / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17460448.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Gastric Mucins
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22. Sullivan LM, Smolkin ME, Frierson HF Jr, Galgano MT: Comprehensive evaluation of CDX2 in invasive cervical adenocarcinomas: immunopositivity in the absence of overt colorectal morphology. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Nov;32(11):1608-12
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  • Ten of the 15 (67%) endometrioid tumors had positive nuclear staining, compared with 7 of the 33 (21%) endocervical "usual-type" carcinomas, and 7 of the 33 (21%) remaining subtypes (adenosquamous, glassy cell, clear cell, serous, villoglandular, enteric).
  • The frequency of nuclear staining for the endometrioid subtype was significantly different compared with that for the endocervical and other subtypes (P=0.003).
  • Our results indicate that cervical adenocarcinomas can show nuclear immunopositivity for CDX2 even in the absence of overt morphologic features of colorectal differentiation.
  • The frequency and pattern of CDX2 staining in the more common histologic subtypes of cervical adenocarcinoma (endocervical usual-type and endometrioid) is parallel to that which is seen for adenocarcinomas of the upper gastrointestinal tract and pancreaticobiliary system.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Intestine, Large / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18753946.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDX2 protein, human; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins
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23. Stewart J 3rd, Bevans-Wilkins K, Ye C, Kurtycz DF: Clear-cell endocervical adenocarcinoma in a 19-year-old woman. Diagn Cytopathol; 2006 Dec;34(12):839-42
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  • [Title] Clear-cell endocervical adenocarcinoma in a 19-year-old woman.
  • The incidence of adenocarcinoma of the cervix is increasing within the US, but this diagnostic category is not typically associated with teenaged patients.
  • A report on a case of a 19-year-old woman, with no history of diethylbestrol exposure in uteri, diagnosed with clear-cell endocervical adenocarcinoma is made.
  • Human papilloma virus (HPV) high-risk type results were negative in this particular case.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


24. McCluggage WG, Shah R, Connolly LE, McBride HA: Intestinal-type cervical adenocarcinoma in situ and adenocarcinoma exhibit a partial enteric immunophenotype with consistent expression of CDX2. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Jan;27(1):92-100
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  • [Title] Intestinal-type cervical adenocarcinoma in situ and adenocarcinoma exhibit a partial enteric immunophenotype with consistent expression of CDX2.
  • Most cases of cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and adenocarcinoma are of the usual or endocervical type.
  • However, intestinal types of AIS and adenocarcinoma exist.
  • With an intestinal-type adenocarcinoma in the cervix, the question may arise as to whether one is dealing with a primary cervical neoplasm or direct or secondary spread from an intestinal adenocarcinoma.
  • In organs such as the ovary, urinary bladder, esophagus, and gallbladder, intestinal-type glandular epithelium often expresses enteric markers, but this has hardly been studied in the cervix.
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate whether intestinal-type AIS and adenocarcinoma in the cervix express enteric markers and to ascertain whether these antibodies are of value in the distinction from a metastatic intestinal adenocarcinoma.
  • We compared the immunophenotype of these lesions with that of usual-type AIS and adenocarcinomain the cervix.
  • Cases included were AIS of usual type (n = 6), primary cervical adenocarcinoma of usual type (n = 6), AIS of intestinal type (n = 21), primary cervical adenocarcinoma of intestinal type (n = 3), primary cervical adenocarcinoma with signet ring cells (n = 2), and colorectal adenocarcinoma involving the cervix (n = 5).
  • Usual-type AIS was always diffusely CK7 positive, typically diffusely CEA and p16 positive, and always CK20 negative.
  • Intestinal-type AIS was diffusely CK7 positive (all cases) and typically CK20 negative and diffusely CEA and p16 positive.
  • In addition, usual-type AIS adjacent to intestinal type was CDX2 positive in 13 of 21 cases.
  • The 3 cases of primary cervical intestinal-type adenocarcinoma were diffusely CK7 positive, focally or diffusely positive with CK20 and CDX2, and focally positive with CEA.
  • Intestinal types of cervical AIS and adenocarcinoma exhibit a partial enteric immunophenotype, usually with diffuse expression of CDX2 and, in some cases, staining with CK20.
  • Although there is immunophenotypic overlap, focal staining with CK20 together with diffuse CK7 and sometimes p16 positivity helps to distinguish intestinal types of cervical adenocarcinoma from involvement by a colorectal adenocarcinoma; CEA and CDX2 are of no value in this regard.
  • CDX2 positivity in usual-type AIS adjacent to intestinal type and in occasional cases of pure usual-type AIS may be a reflection of early intestinal differentiation before this is morphologically apparent.
  • Using a set of cases of AIS diagnosed in a single institution over a 7-year period (77 usual type; 13 intestinal type), intestinal type was more likely to be associated with early invasive adenocarcinoma than usual type (31% vs 17%), suggesting that intestinal differentiation may be a risk factor for invasion in premalignant cervical glandular lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Homeodomain Proteins / biosynthesis. Intestinal Neoplasms / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18156982.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CDX2 protein, human; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / Keratin-7
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25. Kos M, Sarkanj-Golub R, Cupić H, Balicević D: [The correlation of inflammation and epithelial changes in the Pap smears of cervix uteri]. Acta Med Croatica; 2005;59(4):297-302
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  • AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the number and type of cytologic abnormalities of uterine cervix classified according to Zagreb 1990, on routinely examined Pap smears during the 6-year period, and to investigate the connection of these abnormalities with lower genital tract infections.
  • Endocervical adenocarcinoma was cytologically diagnosed in only 0.0055% of all Pap smears examined.


26. Jenkins D: A review of cross-protection against oncogenic HPV by an HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted cervical cancer vaccine: importance of virological and clinical endpoints and implications for mass vaccination in cervical cancer prevention. Gynecol Oncol; 2008 Sep;110(3 Suppl 1):S18-25
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  • HPV-18 and -45, along with HPV-16, are found in over 90% of endocervical adenocarcinomas.
  • HPV-45 is the third most frequent HPV type in cervical carcinoma and adenocarcinoma.
  • Both of these factors complicate the interpretation of type-specific, vaccine-induced protection against cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) lesions, in which other HPV DNA types are found along with HPV-16 and -18.
  • The prevention of persistent infections by individual types such as HPV-45 provides specific information on the protection against that type, using an alternative endpoint that relates to both precancer and cancer development.
  • Together with sustained protection against HPV-16 and -18, protection against HPV-45 could offer an additional effect on invasive cervical cancer and may have an important impact on endocervical adenocarcinoma, which is not effectively prevented by screening and is becoming increasingly important in young women.


27. Togami S, Nomoto M, Higashi M, Goto M, Yonezawa S, Tsuji T, Batra SK, Douchi T: Expression of mucin antigens (MUC1 and MUC16) as a prognostic factor for mucinous adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix. J Obstet Gynaecol Res; 2010 Jun;36(3):588-97
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  • [Title] Expression of mucin antigens (MUC1 and MUC16) as a prognostic factor for mucinous adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix.
  • AIM: Only limited data are available regarding mucin antigen expression in adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix.
  • METHODS: Fifty-two patients with mucinous adenocarcinoma of the endocervical type were enrolled for making clear implication of the mucin antigens.
  • RESULTS: The majority of mucinous adenocarcinoma showed overexpression of MUC1 and MUC16.
  • CONCLUSION: The expressions of MUC1 and/or MUC16 may be available as independent prognostic factors for the endocervical type of mucinous adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. CA-125 Antigen / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Mucin-1 / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


28. Aximu D, Azad A, Ni R, Colgan T, Nanji S: A pilot evaluation of a novel immunohistochemical assay for topoisomerase II-alpha and minichromosome maintenance protein 2 expression (ProEx C) in cervical adenocarcinoma in situ, adenocarcinoma, and benign glandular mimics. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 Mar;28(2):114-9
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  • [Title] A pilot evaluation of a novel immunohistochemical assay for topoisomerase II-alpha and minichromosome maintenance protein 2 expression (ProEx C) in cervical adenocarcinoma in situ, adenocarcinoma, and benign glandular mimics.
  • The histopathologic distinction of cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and invasive adenocarcinoma (AC) from some benign endocervical lesions can be challenging.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Antigens, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. Cell Cycle Proteins / biosynthesis. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / biosynthesis. DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Nuclear Proteins / biosynthesis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19188825.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Reagent Kits, Diagnostic; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM2 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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29. Dubé V, Roy M, Plante M, Renaud MC, Têtu B: Mucinous ovarian tumors of Mullerian-type: an analysis of 17 cases including borderline tumors and intraepithelial, microinvasive, and invasive carcinomas. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2005 Apr;24(2):138-46
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  • [Title] Mucinous ovarian tumors of Mullerian-type: an analysis of 17 cases including borderline tumors and intraepithelial, microinvasive, and invasive carcinomas.
  • Mullerian-type mucinous tumors (MMTs) of the ovary are characterized by a papillary architecture similar to that of serous tumors and a content of endocervical-like mucinous epithelium.
  • The latter may be admixed with other mullerian-type epithelia, including those of serous, endometrioid, and squamous types, and indifferent eosinophilic epithelial cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Mixed Tumor, Mullerian / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15782070.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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30. Mansor S, McCluggage WG: Cervical adenocarcinoma resembling breast lobular carcinoma: a hitherto Undescribed Variant of Primary Cervical Adenocarcinoma. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2010 Nov;29(6):594-9
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  • [Title] Cervical adenocarcinoma resembling breast lobular carcinoma: a hitherto Undescribed Variant of Primary Cervical Adenocarcinoma.
  • Most cervical adenocarcinomas are of the so-called usual or endocervical type, and consist entirely or predominantly of glandular formations.
  • We describe 3 cases of an unusual morphologic variant of cervical adenocarcinoma largely composed of bland epithelial cells, with occasional intracytoplasmic lumina, arranged in a variety of architectural patterns, including diffuse, small glandular, insular, trabecular, and Indian file arrangements.
  • In all cases, there was a minor superficial component of well-differentiated adenocarcinoma, suggesting that the component that resembled breast lobular carcinoma, arose from the differentiated neoplasm.
  • All cases were diffusely p16-positive, and 2 that underwent human papillomavirus testing contained high-risk oncogenic human papillomavirus, type 16 and 18 in 1 case each.
  • In all cases, there was loss of e-cadherin membranous immunoreactivity in the areas resembling breast lobular carcinoma, a similar pattern of staining to that seen in the latter neoplasm and possibly accounting for the morphologic features.
  • In reporting these cases, we highlight an unusual morphologic variant of cervical adenocarcinoma closely resembling breast lobular carcinoma and which may have an aggressive behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


31. Nofech-Mozes S, Khalifa MM, Ismiil N, Dubé V, Saad RS, Sun P, Seth A, Ghorab Z: Detection of HPV-DNA by a PCR-based method in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue from rare endocervical carcinoma types. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2010 Jan;18(1):80-5
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  • [Title] Detection of HPV-DNA by a PCR-based method in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue from rare endocervical carcinoma types.
  • Cervical serous, clear cell, and small cell carcinomas differ from the conventional endocervical adenocarcinoma in their clinical characteristics.
  • High-risk HPV-DNA tested positive in 3 out of 4 serous carcinomas, 2 out of 3 cervical clear cell carcinomas, and all 5 cases of small cell carcinoma and the mixed cell type.
  • Our report documents HPV status in a series of archival unusual types of adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix.
  • Despite their unique clinical setting and morphologic appearance, the majority of these tumors likely share a common HPV-mediated carcinogenic pathway.

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  • (PMID = 19625948.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-4058
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied immunohistochemistry & molecular morphology : AIMM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Fixatives; 0 / Reagent Kits, Diagnostic; 1HG84L3525 / Formaldehyde
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32. Chu PG, Lau SK, Weiss LM, Jiang Z: Intestinal type of mucinous borderline tumor arising from mixed epithelial and stromal tumor of kidney. Virchows Arch; 2009 Oct;455(4):389-94
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  • [Title] Intestinal type of mucinous borderline tumor arising from mixed epithelial and stromal tumor of kidney.
  • The cysts were lined by a various types of epithelium, including single layer of flat, cuboidal and mucinous epithelium, urothelium, intestinal epithelium, and endocervical epithelium.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19756727.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2307
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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33. Koo YJ, Lee JE, Hong SR, Kwon YS: Co-occurrence of an adenoma malignum and an endocervical-type adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix in a woman with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. J Gynecol Oncol; 2010 Sep;21(3):203-6
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  • [Title] Co-occurrence of an adenoma malignum and an endocervical-type adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix in a woman with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome.
  • We report a rare co-occurrence of an adenoma malignum and an adenocarcinoma in a 30-year-old woman with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome.
  • A pelvic examination and an MRI revealed the co-occurrence of a 4×5 cm protruding adenocarcinoma of FIGO stage Ib2 based on a punch biopsy and a 4.5×5.7 cm multilocular cystic mass above the solid cancer.
  • Pathologic findings were consistent with adenocarcinoma (40%) and adenoma malignum (60%) confined to the cervix.

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  • (PMID = 20922146.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-0399
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gynecol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2948231
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adenocarcinoma / Adenoma malignum / Peutz-Jeghers syndrome
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34. Wheeler DT, Kurman RJ: The relationship of glands to thick-wall blood vessels as a marker of invasion in endocervical adenocarcinoma. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2005 Apr;24(2):125-30
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  • [Title] The relationship of glands to thick-wall blood vessels as a marker of invasion in endocervical adenocarcinoma.
  • The recognition of early invasion in endocervical adenocarcinomas can be difficult.
  • We evaluated the proximity of endocervical glands and their pattern of infiltration in relation to thick-wall blood vessels as potential markers of invasion in a series of invasive endocervical adenocarcinomas removed by cone biopsy or hysterectomy.
  • Routinely stained slides were examined from 50 invasive endocervical adenocarcinomas (37 of usual type and 13 of minimal deviation type), 26 noninvasive lesions (14 cases of adenocarcinoma in situ, 7 cases of hyperplasia, 4 cases of tunnel clusters, 1 adenomyoma), and 20 normal cervices, including 7 with deep nabothian cysts.
  • In conclusion, close proximity of glands to thick-wall blood vessels (distance from the closest gland to a thick-wall vessel less than or equal to the thickness of the vessel wall) seems to be a useful feature in the diagnosis of invasive endocervical adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor. Cervix Uteri / blood supply. Neoplasm Invasiveness / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


35. Cambruzzi E, Zettler CG, Alexandre CO: Expression of Ki-67 and squamous intraepithelial lesions are related with HPV in endocervical adenocarcinoma. Pathol Oncol Res; 2005;11(2):114-20
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  • [Title] Expression of Ki-67 and squamous intraepithelial lesions are related with HPV in endocervical adenocarcinoma.
  • To estimate the association between human papillomavirus (HPV) status and the expression of p53, Ki-67 and bcl-2 in cases of endocervical adenocarcinoma, and the relation with squamous intraepithelial lesions (SIL) and age, 229 cases were selected, treated between 1995 and 2003 in the Hospital Nossa Senhora da Conceiçao.
  • The joint occurrence of endocervical adenocarcinoma and SIL were estimated too.
  • The presence of HPV, especially type 18 in endocervical adenocarcinoma suggests that this agent can be an important cofactor in the development and progression of glandular neoplasms of the uterine cervix.
  • The joint occurrence of endocervical adenocarcinoma and SIL may support this hypothesis.
  • HPV may promote an increased proliferation index in endocervical adenocarcinoma, shown by the expression of Ki-67.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / virology. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Papillomaviridae / pathogenicity. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 15999157.001).
  • [ISSN] 1219-4956
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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36. Vang R, Gown AM, Barry TS, Wheeler DT, Yemelyanova A, Seidman JD, Ronnett BM: Cytokeratins 7 and 20 in primary and secondary mucinous tumors of the ovary: analysis of coordinate immunohistochemical expression profiles and staining distribution in 179 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Sep;30(9):1130-9
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  • We report analysis of both coordinate expression profiles and staining distribution in 179 rigorously classified mucinous tumors in the ovary, including 53 primary tumors [35 atypical proliferative (borderline) mucinous tumors of gastrointestinal type and 18 invasive mucinous carcinomas] and 126 secondary tumors [28 colorectal adenocarcinomas, 54 appendiceal tumors (23 adenocarcinomas, 31 low-grade adenomatous mucinous tumors associated with pseudomyxoma peritonei), 14 pancreatic adenocarcinomas, 8 endocervical adenocarcinomas, 5 gastric adenocarcinomas, 4 gallbladder/biliary tract adenocarcinomas, and 13 adenocarcinomas of unknown primary sites).
  • A CK7+/CK20+ immunoprofile was the most common profile in primary ovarian tumors (74%), upper gastrointestinal tract tumors (78%), and endocervical tumors (88%) but was occasionally observed in lower intestinal tract tumors (colorectal: 11%; appendiceal: 13% of low-grade tumors, 35% of carcinomas).
  • A CK7-/CK20+ immunoprofile was the most common profile in lower intestinal tract tumors (79%) and was uncommon in upper gastrointestinal tract tumors (9%), rarely seen in primary ovarian tumors (4%), and not seen in endocervical tumors.
  • A CK7+/CK20- profile was observed in some primary ovarian (23%), upper gastrointestinal tract (13%), and endocervical tumors (13%) but not in lower intestinal tract tumors.
  • For CK7+ tumors, staining distribution was very frequently diffuse (>50% of tumors cells positive) in primary ovarian, upper gastrointestinal tract, and endocervical tumors, whereas staining distribution was often focal (<50% of tumors cells positive) when present in colorectal and appendiceal carcinomas but not in low-grade appendiceal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / chemistry. Keratins / analysis. Ovarian Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / chemistry. Coloring Agents. Female. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / chemistry. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratin-20. Keratin-7. Pseudomyxoma Peritonei / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 16931958.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / KRT20 protein, human; 0 / KRT7 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / Keratin-7; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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37. Meng ZL, Guo LN, Luo YF, Cao JL, Wan JW, Liu TH: [Role of HPV DNA detection and p16(INK4A) protein expression in diagnosis of endocervical adenocarcinoma]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2007 Dec;36(12):810-3
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  • [Title] [Role of HPV DNA detection and p16(INK4A) protein expression in diagnosis of endocervical adenocarcinoma].
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the significance of p16(INK4A) protein expression and positivity for HPV DNA in distinguishing between endocervical and endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • METHODS: Expression of p16(INK4A) protein in 30 cases of endocervical adenocarcinoma and 10 cases of endometrial adenocarcinoma was assessed by immunohistochemistry.
  • In-situ hybridization for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA was also performed in 20 cases of endocervical adenocarcinoma and 10 cases of endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • RESULTS: The positive rate for p16(INK4A) in endocervical adenocarcinoma was 70% (21/30), as compared with 30% (3/10) in endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • The tumor cells in endocervical adenocarcinoma showed diffuse and strong expression of p16(INK4A) protein with both cytoplasmic and nuclear staining.
  • In contrast, the endometrial adenocarcinoma cells showed patchy and weak expression of p16(INK4A).
  • On the other hand, HPV DNA (type 16 or 18) was detected by in-situ hybridization in 9 (45%) of the 20 cases of endocervical adenocarcinoma and none of the 10 cases of endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The expression of p16(INK4A) protein is significantly higher in endocervical adenocarcinoma than in endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • This expression pattern can serve as a useful immunohistochemical marker in the differential diagnosis. p16(INK4A) protein immunohistochemistry appears to be more sensitive than HPV DNA testing in distinguishing between endocervical and endometrial adenocarcinoma, especially in biopsy or curettage specimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / genetics. DNA, Viral / analysis. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Human papillomavirus 16 / genetics. Human papillomavirus 18 / genetics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18346352.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / DNA, Viral
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38. Smedts F, Ramaekers FC, Hopman AH: The two faces of cervical adenocarcinoma in situ. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2010 Jul;29(4):378-85
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  • [Title] The two faces of cervical adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • In order of frequency, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), combined adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS)/CIN lesions, and solitary AIS are the most prevalent premalignant lesions of the uterine cervix.
  • As the morphologic distinction of these subtypes is not always straightforward, we performed an immunophenotyping analysis to establish distinguishing profiles for each of these squamous and glandular progenitor lesions of cervical carcinoma.
  • We conclude that 2 phenotypically distinct types of AIS can be identified, that is, AIS with a reserve cell marker phenotype and AIS with an endocervical glandular phenotype.
  • These observations support the view that reserve cells are capable of bidirectional premalignant transformation, that is, into CIN and reserve cell-type AIS, as well as combined AIS/CIN.
  • The endocervical type of AIS is probably a result of the unidirectional transformation of progenitor cells within the glandular cell compartment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20567153.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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39. Saad RS, Ismiil N, Dubé V, Nofech-Mozes S, Khalifa MA: CDX-2 expression is a common event in primary intestinal-type endocervical adenocarcinoma. Am J Clin Pathol; 2009 Oct;132(4):531-8
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  • [Title] CDX-2 expression is a common event in primary intestinal-type endocervical adenocarcinoma.
  • We studied the expression of cytokeratin (CK) 7, CK20, CDX-2, and p16 in 119 cervical adenocarcinomas (65 usual type [50 invasive; 15 in situ], 37 intestinal type [21 invasive; 16 in situ], 10 endometrioid, 5 adenosquamous, and 2 signet-ring carcinomas) in comparison with 55 cases of rectal adenocarcinomas.
  • CDX-2 was expressed in all cases of rectal adenocarcinoma and in 46 cervical adenocarcinomas (38.7%): usual type, 10 (15%); intestinal type, 31 (84%); endometrioid type, 5 (50%); adenosquamous and signet-ring types, 0 (0%).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / physiopathology. Homeodomain Proteins / biosynthesis. Trans-Activators / biosynthesis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 19762530.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-7722
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / Trans-Activators; 156560-97-3 / Cdx-2-3 protein
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40. Vang R, Vinh TN, Burks RT, Barner R, Kurman RJ, Ronnett BM: Pseudoinfiltrative tubal metaplasia of the endocervix: a potential form of in utero diethylstilbestrol exposure-related adenosis simulating minimal deviation adenocarcinoma. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2005 Oct;24(4):391-8
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  • [Title] Pseudoinfiltrative tubal metaplasia of the endocervix: a potential form of in utero diethylstilbestrol exposure-related adenosis simulating minimal deviation adenocarcinoma.
  • We report three cases of unusual tubal-type endocervical glandular proliferations simulating minimal deviation adenocarcinoma in women with a history of in utero diethylstilbestrol (DES) exposure.
  • The lesions were characterized by haphazard glandular proliferations extending from 3.4 to 6.1 mm into the endocervical stroma and to the margins of excision in all cases.
  • The glandular epithelium displayed extensive tubal-type differentiation in all cases.
  • The proliferations lacked features of mucinous and tubo-endometrioid types of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Diethylstilbestrol / adverse effects. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 16175088.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 731DCA35BT / Diethylstilbestrol
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41. Nofech-Mozes S, Khalifa MA: Endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ, serous type. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 Mar;28(2):140-1
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  • [Title] Endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ, serous type.

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  • (PMID = 19188821.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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42. Rooker D, Baalbergen A, Helmerhorst TJ: [A falsely reassuring cervical smear in adenocarcinoma of the external os]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2008 Apr 26;152(17):977-80
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  • [Title] [A falsely reassuring cervical smear in adenocarcinoma of the external os].
  • 3 women with only mild changes in cervical smears were later found to be suffering from cervical adenocarcinoma.
  • After 3 colposcopic examinations with biopsies and 2 loop electrosurgical excision procedures of the cervix which showed no histological signs of malignancy, diagnostic conization revealed an adenocarcinoma of the endocervix.
  • Adenocarcinoma was diagnosed after conization.
  • A severe abnormal smear with glandular atypia was followed by colposcopical biopsies and conization, which revealed an endocervical adenocarcinoma.
  • Adenocarcinoma is a rare type of cervical cancer: III cases out of 584 patients with cervical cancer in 2003 in the Netherlands.
  • Screening may be enhanced by combining cytology with testing for high-risk HPV types, notably type 18.
  • If cervical cytology shows persistent atypical glandular cells with no conclusive histological result, then due to the endocervical localisation of the lesions adenocarcinoma can only be excluded by conization.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Cervix Uteri / cytology. Papanicolaou Test. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vaginal Smears / methods


43. Chew K, Rooney PH, Cruickshank ME, Murray GI: Laser capture microdissection and PCR for analysis of human papilloma virus infection. Methods Mol Biol; 2005;293:295-300
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  • Human papilloma virus (HPV) infection is considered one of the main factors involved in the pathogenesis of endocervical adenocarcinoma.
  • However, the cellular location of HPV in this type of tumor is controversial.
  • We have developed a method to determine the presence of HPV type 16 in endocervical cancer cells using laser capture microdissection followed by DNA extraction and qualitative polymerase chain reaction.
  • Our results show that HPV type 16 is present in endocervical adenocarcinoma cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / virology. Lasers. Microdissection / methods. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Papillomavirus Infections / virology. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 16028428.001).
  • [ISSN] 1064-3745
  • [Journal-full-title] Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Methods Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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44. Silverman JF, Zhu B, Liu Y, Lin X: Distinctive immunohistochemical profile of mucinous cystic neoplasms of pancreas, ovary and lung. Histol Histopathol; 2009 01;24(1):77-82
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  • The IHC profile of ovarian intestinal type MCN is similar to that of pancreatic MCNs, except for lower frequency of CDX-2 expression (29% vs. 67%).
  • Ovarian endocervical like MCNs are positive for CA-125 (100%) and CK7 (100%), while are negative for CDX-2, PDX-1 and CK20.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19012247.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-5848
  • [Journal-full-title] Histology and histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histol. Histopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0 / CDX2 Transcription Factor; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 protein
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45. Simionescu C, Georgescu CV, Mărgăritescu C, Niculescu M: Diagnosis problems in a case of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the cervix. Rom J Morphol Embryol; 2006;47(3):245-9
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  • [Title] Diagnosis problems in a case of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the cervix.
  • We present the diagnostic problems in a case of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the cervix.
  • Histopathologic exam of the tumor, made on serial sections, revealed a dense and profound proliferation of the glandular structures that were lined by endocervical type epithelia with minimal cellular and nuclear atypia.
  • The aspect suggested the diagnosis of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma endocervical type; in order to confirm the diagnosis we immunohistochemical investigate the tumor for CEA, CA125, Ki67, ER and PR.
  • We can conclude that all these markers are useful in the diagnosis, excluding the benign endocervical lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis


46. Azueta A, Gatius S, Matias-Guiu X: Endometrioid carcinoma of the endometrium: pathologic and molecular features. Semin Diagn Pathol; 2010 Nov;27(4):226-40
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  • Endometrioid carcinoma of the endometrium is the most common type of endometrial carcinoma.
  • The main differential diagnosis includes endocervical adenocarcinoma, atypical polypoid adenomyoma, malignant mixed Müllerian tumors, and metastatic tumors to the endometrium.
  • Six different molecular features are frequent in this type of tumor, including microsatellite instability, and mutations in PTEN, k-RAS, PIK3CA, FGFR2 and CTNNB1.

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  • (PMID = 21309258.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-2570
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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47. Dainty LA, Krivak TC, Webb JC, Zahn CM, Elkas JC, Chernofsky MR, Rose GS, Maxwell GL: Diffuse laminar endocervical glandular hyperplasia: a case report. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2009 Aug;19(6):1091-3
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  • [Title] Diffuse laminar endocervical glandular hyperplasia: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Diffuse laminar endocervical glandular hyperplasia is extremely rare with only 14 cases reported in the literature.
  • Diffuse laminar endocervical glandular hyperplasia is a benign lesion that is easily confused with malignancy.
  • Colposcopic-directed cervical biopsies were diagnosed as adenocarcinoma, suggestive of minimal deviation adenocarcinoma.
  • Final pathology revealed diffuse laminar endocervical glandular hyperplasia.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Diffuse laminar endocervical glandular hyperplasia is an uncommon histological type of pseudoneoplastic glandular lesions that may be found in the cervix, and this entity should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a potentially malignant endocervical glandular lesion.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Hyperplasia / pathology. Postpartum Period. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Young Adult


48. Sultana N, Kiyani N: Histopathological features of endometrial carcinoma. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak; 2005 Sep;15(9):539-42
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  • Bleeding per vaginum was the commonest feature and endometrioid adenocarcinoma was the commonest histological type.
  • Vascular invasion, endocervical invasion and adnexal involvement were evident in a small number of cases.
  • Patients (<40 years) had endometrioid type of endometrial carcinoma, grade-1, and FIGO stage-1.
  • In patients of more than 50 years of age even with stage-1, an increased frequency of deep myometrial invasion and less differentiated tumors, adnexal involvement, endocervical invasion, positive peritoneal cytology, vascular invasion and lymph nodes metastasis found.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16181572.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-386X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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49. Balci S, Saglam A, Usubutun A: Primary signet-ring cell carcinoma of the cervix: case report and review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2010 Mar;29(2):181-4
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  • Mucinous adenocarcinoma of the cervix has 5 subtypes: endocervical, intestinal, signet-ring cell, minimal deviation, and villoglandular.
  • Herein we report a 53-year-old woman with cervical adenocarcinoma with signet-ring cell morphology.
  • DNA extraction from paraffin-embedded tissue revealed the presence of human papilloma virus (HPV) type 18, which supports the cervical origin of the tumor.


50. Terada T: Simultaneous squamous cell carcinoma in situ and adenocarcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix in a 36-year-old Japanese woman. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2010 Mar;281(3):527-30
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  • [Title] Simultaneous squamous cell carcinoma in situ and adenocarcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix in a 36-year-old Japanese woman.
  • INTRODUCTION: Simultaneous occurrence of squamous cell carcinoma in situ (SIS) and adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) is very rare in Japan.
  • The AIS showed tubular or cribriform apparent AIS of mixed endocervical and intestinal type.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


51. Hirschowitz L, Sen C, Murdoch J: Primary endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the cervix with widespread squamous metaplasia--a potential diagnostic pitfall. Diagn Pathol; 2007;2:40
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  • [Title] Primary endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the cervix with widespread squamous metaplasia--a potential diagnostic pitfall.
  • BACKGROUND: Uterine or endocervical biopsies that contain endometrioid adenocarcinoma with widespread squamous metaplasia are usually of endometrial origin.
  • The presence of squamous metaplasia is said to be helpful in distinguishing endocervical from endometrial adenocarcinomas in small biopsy samples.
  • Biopsy of a friable lesion in the proximal endocervical canal revealed an endocervical adenocarcinoma of endometrioid type with widespread squamous metaplasia.
  • The latter feature initially raised the possible diagnosis of a primary endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • However, immunohistochemical marker studies indicated a diagnosis of primary endocervical adenocarcinoma of endometrioid type and this was confirmed at hysterectomy.
  • CONCLUSION: Squamous differentiation is not well documented in endocervical adenocarcinomas of endometrioid type and, when widespread, may represent a diagnostic pitfall for pathologists.
  • Interpretation of small biopsies from the endocervical canal on the basis of morphology alone may lead to misdiagnosis and inappropriate surgical management.

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  • (PMID = 17961245.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2116996
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52. Mikami Y, Kiyokawa T, Moriya T, Sasano H: Immunophenotypic alteration of the stromal component in minimal deviation adenocarcinoma ('adenoma malignum') and endocervical glandular hyperplasia: a study using oestrogen receptor and alpha-smooth muscle actin double immunostaining. Histopathology; 2005 Feb;46(2):130-6
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  • [Title] Immunophenotypic alteration of the stromal component in minimal deviation adenocarcinoma ('adenoma malignum') and endocervical glandular hyperplasia: a study using oestrogen receptor and alpha-smooth muscle actin double immunostaining.
  • AIMS: To define the phenotypic alteration of the stromal component in association with destructive invasion which is a crucial feature in distinguishing minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) from benign endocervical glandular lesions.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: We studied endocervical glandular hyperplasias including non-specific-type (NEGH) (n = 3) and lobular-type (LEGH) (n = 8), and minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA) (n = 11), well-differentiated endocervical adenocarcinoma of usual-type (WDA) (n = 11), and adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) (n = 6) of the cervix, by double immunostaining for oestrogen receptor (ER) and alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) using peroxidase- and alkaline phosphatase-polymer methods, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Actins / analysis. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


53. Paczos TA, Ackers S, Odunsi K, Lele S, Mhawech-Fauceglia P: Primary vaginal adenocarcinoma arising in vaginal adenosis after CO2 laser vaporization and 5-fluorouracil therapy. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2010 Mar;29(2):193-6
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  • [Title] Primary vaginal adenocarcinoma arising in vaginal adenosis after CO2 laser vaporization and 5-fluorouracil therapy.
  • A biopsy performed at the time of the second laser procedure revealed endocervical-type well-differentiated adenocarcinoma, associated with VAIN III.
  • The vaginectomy specimen showed residual adenocarcinoma associated with VAIN-III and extensive vaginal adenosis with free resection margins.
  • This is the second reported case in the literature of adenocarcinoma arising in vaginal adenosis after 5-fluorouracil.
  • Herein, we highlight these important findings and shed some light on the pathogenesis of vaginal adenosis and the subsequent development of vaginal adenocarcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 20173507.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA108456
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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54. Jiang L, Malpica A, Deavers MT, Guo M, Villa LL, Nuovo G, Merino MJ, Silva EG: Endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterine corpus involving the cervix: some cases probably represent independent primaries. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2010 Mar;29(2):146-56
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  • [Title] Endometrial endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterine corpus involving the cervix: some cases probably represent independent primaries.
  • The immunohistochemical studies showed some differences between the endometrial and endocervical adenocarcinomas in 8 of the 12 cases, independent of differing or similar histologic features.
  • Clonality studies showed differences between the adenocarcinoma in the endometrium and the endocervix in 7 cases, including 5 cases with different histologic appearances; 2 cases had similar loss of heterozygosity patterns.
  • In conclusion, as suggested by clonality studies, coexisting endometrial and endocervical carcinomas with different histologic features are most likely independent neoplasms.
  • Endometrial and endocervical carcinomas that have similar appearances can represent either the same neoplasm or independent primaries.
  • IHC studies may not be helpful for synchronous endometrial and endocervical tumors, especially those of endometrioid type.
  • HPV studies are important to identify endocervical tumors associated with high-risk HPV.
  • However, endometrial tumors involving the cervix and endocervical tumors unrelated to HPV are both negative for high-risk HPV.

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  • (PMID = 20173500.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / RNA, Viral
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55. Sanati S, Huettner P, Ylagan LR: Role of ProExC: a novel immunoperoxidase marker in the evaluation of dysplastic squamous and glandular lesions in cervical specimens. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2010 Jan;29(1):79-87
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  • Nine low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 35 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion, 23 squamous metaplasia, and 14 adenocarcinoma in situ specimens were retrieved from our hospital files.
  • ProExC had sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value of 89%, 100%, 100%, and 82%, respectively, for distinguishing high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion from squamous metaplasia, and 93%, 100%, 100%, and 98%, respectively, for distinguishing adenocarcinoma in situ from reactive benign endocervix.
  • ProExC is a valuable marker for distinguishing dysplastic squamous and endocervical lesions of the cervix from squamous metaplasia in histologic sections.
  • ProExC may eventually be used in conjunction with morphologic and human papillomavirus evaluation for better classification of indeterminate cervical lesions in Papanicolaou smears.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antigens, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. Cell Cycle Proteins / biosynthesis. DNA Topoisomerases, Type II / biosynthesis. DNA-Binding Proteins / biosynthesis. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2. Nuclear Proteins / biosynthesis. Sensitivity and Specificity. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19952938.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM2 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA Topoisomerases, Type II; EC 5.99.1.3 / DNA topoisomerase II alpha
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56. Elishaev E, Gilks CB, Miller D, Srodon M, Kurman RJ, Ronnett BM: Synchronous and metachronous endocervical and ovarian neoplasms: evidence supporting interpretation of the ovarian neoplasms as metastatic endocervical adenocarcinomas simulating primary ovarian surface epithelial neoplasms. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Mar;29(3):281-94
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Synchronous and metachronous endocervical and ovarian neoplasms: evidence supporting interpretation of the ovarian neoplasms as metastatic endocervical adenocarcinomas simulating primary ovarian surface epithelial neoplasms.
  • The vast majority of endocervical adenocarcinomas are high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV)-related neoplasms, characterized by p16 expression and frequent loss of hormone receptor expression, which infrequently metastasize to the ovaries.
  • We report 10 cases of endocervical adenocarcinomas with ovarian metastases in which the ovarian tumors simulated primary ovarian surface epithelial neoplasms.
  • The ovarian metastases presented concurrently with the primary endocervical tumors in 5 cases, subsequent to the endocervical tumors in 3 cases, and prior to diagnosis of the endocervical tumors in 2 cases.
  • In all cases, the ovarian tumors were initially diagnosed as or thought to represent independent primary ovarian surface epithelial tumors (atypical proliferative [borderline] tumors or well-differentiated carcinomas of endometrioid or mucinous type).
  • The endocervical tumors ranged in size from microscopic foci to 3 cm, with depth of invasion ranging from 0.2 to 1.5 cm; in 2 cases, the invasive foci qualified as microinvasive according to Federation Internationale de Gynecologie et d'Obstetrique staging criteria for cervical carcinoma.
  • Adenocarcinoma in situ was identified in all tumors.
  • In all cases, the paired endocervical and ovarian tumors contained identical HPV types.
  • Two of the minimally invasive endocervical tumors were initially interpreted as adenocarcinoma in situ and not recognized as unequivocally invasive even when evaluated in conjunction with the histologically identical ovarian tumors.
  • Endocervical adenocarcinomas, including some qualifying as microinvasive, can metastasize to the ovaries and simulate primary ovarian surface epithelial neoplasms.
  • The presence of HPV DNA in these ovarian tumors confirms that they are metastatic endocervical adenocarcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


57. Kietpeerakool C, Srisomboon J, Prompittayarat W, Kanjanavaha P, Peuwsai R, Dheerakul C: Can adenocarcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix be predicted before cervical conization? Asian Pac J Cancer Prev; 2006 Oct-Dec;7(4):522-4
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  • [Title] Can adenocarcinoma in situ of the uterine cervix be predicted before cervical conization?
  • This study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of the Papanicolaou (Pap) smear, colposcopically-directed biopsy (CDB), and endocervical curettage (ECC) in preconization detection of adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) of the uterine cervix.
  • Women, whose cervical conization specimens contained adenocarcinoma in situ without any associated invasive lesion at Chiang Mai University Hospital between March 1998 and March 2006, were reviewed.
  • Glandular abnormality was detected by Pap smears in 22 women (43.1%).
  • In total, glandular abnormality was suspected in 31 women (60.8%) preoperatively.
  • According to the histological type of AIS, glandular abnormality suspected from preoperative evaluation was noted in 20 women (70.4%) who had pure AIS.
  • Among women with mixed AIS/HSIL, only 12 women (50.0%) had preoperative evaluation suggesting glandular abnormality.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Conization. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis


58. Tsuda H, Mikami Y, Kaku T, Hasegawa T, Akiyama F, Ohishi Y, Sasajima Y, Kasamatsu T: Reproducible and clinically meaningful differential diagnosis is possible between lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia and 'adenoma malignum' based on common histopathological criteria. Pathol Int; 2005 Jul;55(7):412-8
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  • [Title] Reproducible and clinically meaningful differential diagnosis is possible between lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia and 'adenoma malignum' based on common histopathological criteria.
  • The aim of the present study was to determine if the differential diagnosis between lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia (LEGH) and minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA), or 'adenoma malignum', is reproducible when clear criteria for these two lesions are given.
  • A total of 44 proliferative endocervical glandular lesions were collected, for which differential diagnosis from MDA was considered to be necessary.
  • Seven observers independently classified these 44 lesions into LEGH, LEGH with adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), MDA, or common cervical adenocarcinoma, according to the following criteria: LEGH was non-invasive proliferation of endocervical glandular cells without any obvious adenocarcinoma component.
  • MDA was very well-differentiated endocervical-type mucinous adenocarcinoma composed mostly of LEGH-looking glands but containing the component of obviously invasive adenocarcinoma.
  • The level increased to almost perfect (kappa = 0.928) between the group of non-invasive lesions consisting of LEGH and LEGH with AIS and the other group of invasive lesions comprising MDA and common adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


59. Eisenkop SM, Spirtos NM, Lin WM, Felix J: Laparoscopic modified radical hysterectomy: a strategy for a clinical dilemma. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Feb;96(2):484-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of laparoscopic modified radical (type 2) hysterectomy when cervical cancer cannot be excluded or documented preoperatively.
  • METHODS: Between 1996 and 2004, 50 patients with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN III) or adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) involvement of cone endocervical margins and/or endocervical curettings, who were not candidates for observation or repeat conization, underwent laparoscopy to perform a modified radical hysterectomy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma in Situ / surgery. Female. Humans. Laparoscopy / methods. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 15661239.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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60. Ferchichi L, Rammeh-Rommani S, Ben Hammouda S, Sfar R, Farah F, Ben Jilani S, Zermani R: [Endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix associated with mucinous ovarian cystadenocarcinoma]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil; 2006 May;34(5):410-2
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  • [Title] [Endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix associated with mucinous ovarian cystadenocarcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Association d'un adénocarcinome du col de type endométrioïde à un cystadénocarcinome mucineux de l'ovaire.
  • The pathologic findings of the hysterectomy specimen with bilateral salpingoophorectomy showed an ovarian mucinous cystadenocarcinoma associated with an endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix.
  • The mucinous cystadenocarcinoma represents the third most common type of ovarian carcinoma.
  • In the literature, this tumor had been found in association with endocervical adenocarcinoma or with minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (adenoma malignum) of the uterine cervix.
  • However, its association with an endometrioid adenocarcinoma, to our knowledge, has not been reported.


61. Kalyanasundaram K, Ganesan R, Perunovic B, McCluggage WG: Diffusely infiltrating endometrial carcinomas with no stromal response: report of a series, including cases with cervical and ovarian involvement and emphasis on the potential for misdiagnosis. Int J Surg Pathol; 2010 Apr;18(2):138-43
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  • Endometrial carcinomas, particularly of endometrioid type, can invade the myometrium or cervix without eliciting a stromal desmoplastic or inflammatory response and have been referred to as diffusely infiltrating endometrial carcinomas.
  • Several of the cases were seen in consultation and the pattern of infiltration raised a number of differential diagnoses, both benign and malignant, depending on the site of tumor involvement, including adenomyosis, adenomyoma, primary endocervical glandular lesions, cervical mesonephric remnants, endometriosis or tuboendometrioid metaplasia, and ovarian cortical inclusion cysts.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


62. Sonoda Y, Chi DS, Carter J, Barakat RR, Abu-Rustum NR: Initial experience with Dargent's operation: the radical vaginal trachelectomy. Gynecol Oncol; 2008 Jan;108(1):214-9
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  • Histologic type included: squamous, 24; adenocarcinoma, 16; adenosquamous, 3.
  • Two patients (5%) underwent completion hysterectomy due to extensive endocervical disease.

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  • (PMID = 17996284.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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63. Lin X, Lindner JL, Silverman JF, Liu Y: Intestinal type and endocervical-like ovarian mucinous neoplasms are immunophenotypically distinct entities. Appl Immunohistochem Mol Morphol; 2008 Oct;16(5):453-8
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  • [Title] Intestinal type and endocervical-like ovarian mucinous neoplasms are immunophenotypically distinct entities.
  • Ovarian mucinous neoplasm (OMN) is traditionally classified as either intestinal type or endocervical-like subtypes.
  • In this study, we investigated 14 intestinal type OMNs (borderline and adenocarcinoma) and 12 endocervical-like OMNs (borderline and adenocarcinoma) for their expression of PDX-1, CDX-2, CA-125, CK7, CK20, WT-1, D2-40, and TTF-1.
  • The intestinal type OMNs were positive for PDX-1 (100%), CK7 (100%), CK20 (100%), CDX-2 (29%), whereas were negative for CA-125.
  • The endocervical-like OMNs were positive for CA-125 (100%) and CK7 (100%), whereas were negative for CK20, PDX-1, and CDX-2.
  • All of the intestinal type and endocervical-like OMNs as well as metastatic colorectal adenocarcinomas were negative for WT-1, D2-40, and TTF-1.
  • Our results demonstrated that the intestinal type and endocervical-like OMNs are immunophenotypically distinct entities.
  • The 2 subtypes can be separated from metastatic colorectal adenocarcinoma by the different immunohistochemical profile of PDX-1, CA-125, CK7, CK20, and CDX-2.
  • In the work-up of mucinous adenocarcinoma in the ovary or abdominal cavity, caution should be exercised in interpreting the possible primary site on the basis of the immunohistochemical profiles.


64. Kushida Y, Haba R, Kadota K, Doi T, Ishikawa M, Hirakawa E, Kira M: Composite mucinous and granulosa cell tumor of the ovary. Pathol Int; 2005 Dec;55(12):797-801
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Many of the cysts were lined with a benign mucinous epithelium of the endocervical type, and solid areas contained a proliferation of granulosa cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Ovarian Cancer.
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  • (PMID = 16287496.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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65. Howlett RI, Marrett LD, Innes MK, Rosen BP, McLachlin CM: Decreasing incidence of cervical adenocarcinoma in Ontario: is this related to improved endocervical Pap test sampling? Int J Cancer; 2007 Jan 15;120(2):362-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Decreasing incidence of cervical adenocarcinoma in Ontario: is this related to improved endocervical Pap test sampling?
  • These reductions have been specific to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and have not included adenocarcinoma (AC).
  • The intent of this article is to examine trends in cervical adenocarcinoma incidence in Ontario over a 20-year period in relation to screening practices.
  • Age-standardized incidence rates were calculated overall, by broad age groups and by morphological type (SCC and AC).
  • From the mid- to late-1990s, instructions were distributed to clinicians, reinforcing the importance of dual specimen collection (i.e., using both spatula and endocervical brush).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Mass Screening / standards. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology. Vaginal Smears / standards


66. Quddus MR, Zhang C, Sung CJ, Ramos D, Lawrence WD: Intraepithelial mucinous carcinoma arising in an endocervical-type mucinous polypoid adenomyoma of the uterine corpus: a case report. J Reprod Med; 2005 Aug;50(8):643-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intraepithelial mucinous carcinoma arising in an endocervical-type mucinous polypoid adenomyoma of the uterine corpus: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Benign endocervical-type mucinous adenomyoma arising in the uterine corpus is a rare entity.
  • We report a case of intraepithelial mucinous adenocarcinoma arising in an endocervical-type mucinous adenomyoma of the uterine corpus in a previously healthy woman.
  • Endometrial curettage showed multiple polypoid tissue fragments, each composed of glands lined with tall columnar endocervical-type mucinous epithelium lying within a background of endometrial-type stroma and smooth muscle fibers.
  • The mucinous glandular epithelium showed a spectrum of architectural and cytologic changes ranging from benign to severe atypia and occasional back-to-back cribriform glands, consistent with adenocarcinoma.
  • A diagnosis was made of intraepithelial adenocarcinoma arising in a mucinous adenomyoma in the uterine corpus.
  • CONCLUSION: Endocervical-type mucinous adenomyoma, although previously reported as a benign entity, may contain areas of adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / diagnosis. Adenomyoma / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16220776.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-7758
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Reprod Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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