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Items 1 to 54 of about 54
1. Zeeshan-ud-din, Ahsan A: Vaginal clear cell adenocarcinoma with associated Müllerian duct anomalies, renal agenesis and situs inversus: report of a case with no known in-utero exposure with diethyl stilboestrol. J Pak Med Assoc; 2009 Aug;59(8):568-70
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. DIETHYLSTILBESTROL .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Vaginal clear cell adenocarcinoma with associated Müllerian duct anomalies, renal agenesis and situs inversus: report of a case with no known in-utero exposure with diethyl stilboestrol.
  • A 27 year old female presented with two months history of continuous vaginal bleeding.
  • On evaluation, she was diagnosed as a case of vaginal clear cell adenocarcinoma (VCCA) along with associated Müllerian duct anomalies including didelphys uterus with double vagina; left sided renal agenesis and situs inversus.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / diagnosis. Kidney / abnormalities. Mullerian Ducts / pathology. Situs Inversus / diagnosis. Vaginal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinogens / toxicity. Diethylstilbestrol / toxicity. Female. Humans. Pregnancy. Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects. Uterus / abnormalities. Vagina / abnormalities


2. Verloop J, van Leeuwen FE, Helmerhorst TJ, van Boven HH, Rookus MA: Cancer risk in DES daughters. Cancer Causes Control; 2010 Jul;21(7):999-1007
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. DIETHYLSTILBESTROL .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cancer risk in DES daughters.
  • OBJECTIVE: We examined long-term risk of cancer in women exposed to diethylstilbestrol (DES) in utero.
  • Cancer incidence was assessed through linkage with the Dutch pathology database (PALGA) and the Netherlands Cancer Registry and compared with the Dutch female population.
  • No overall increased risk of cancer was found (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] = 1.01; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.91, 1.13).
  • The risk of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina and cervix (CCA) was statistically significantly increased (SIR = 24.23; 95% CI = 8.89, 52.74); the elevated risk persisted above 40 years of age.
  • No excess risks were found for other sites, including breast cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Except for an elevated risk of CCA, persisting at older ages, and an increased risk of melanoma at young ages, we found no increased risk of cancer.
  • Longer follow-up is warranted to examine cancer risk at ages when cancer occurs more frequently.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / epidemiology. Diethylstilbestrol / adverse effects. Nuclear Family. Vaginal Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 20204493.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7225
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer causes & control : CCC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Causes Control
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogens, Non-Steroidal; 731DCA35BT / Diethylstilbestrol
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2883094
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3. Dasanu CA, Herzog TJ: Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the ovary associated with in utero diethylstilbestrol exposure: case report and clinical overview. Medscape J Med; 2009;11(1):6
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  • [Title] Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the ovary associated with in utero diethylstilbestrol exposure: case report and clinical overview.
  • BACKGROUND: Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina and cervix were previously shown to be tumors occurring in female offspring exposed prenatally to diethylstilbestrol.
  • This report describes the first clinical case of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the ovary linked to early diethylstilbestrol exposure in utero.
  • She underwent surgery and staging that revealed clear cell adenocarcinoma confined to the left ovary.
  • CONCLUSION: Our case is consistent with clear cell adenocarcinoma, probably related to diethylstilbestrol exposure in utero.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / chemically induced. Diethylstilbestrol / adverse effects. Ovarian Neoplasms / chemically induced. Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects / chemically induced

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  • (PMID = 19295927.001).
  • [ISSN] 1934-1997
  • [Journal-full-title] Medscape journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Medscape J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 731DCA35BT / Diethylstilbestrol
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2654676
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4. Hayashi M, Tsuchiya H, Yamamoto N, Karita M, Shirai T, Nishida H, Takeuchi A, Tomita K: Caffeine-potentiated chemotherapy for metastatic carcinoma and lymphoma of bone and soft tissue. Anticancer Res; 2005 May-Jun;25(3c):2399-405
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  • RESULTS: Primary tumors were diagnosed as breast cancer, adenocarcinoma of the lung, clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and gastric cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Caffeine / pharmacology. Carcinoma / drug therapy. Lymphoma, B-Cell / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / drug therapy. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Drug Synergism. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / drug therapy. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Stomach Neoplasms / drug therapy. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology. Vaginal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16080466.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3G6A5W338E / Caffeine
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5. Alipour P, Arjmandi K, Hallaji F: Vaginal clear cell adenocarcinoma with early pulmonary metastasis in a child. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2008 Sep;25(7):679-84
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Vaginal Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Vaginal clear cell adenocarcinoma with early pulmonary metastasis in a child.
  • Although a few cases of vaginal clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCAC) have been reported in the ages under 14, they have presented in a much more aggressive form than the CCAC cases in higher ages and parenchymal pulmonary metastasis are known to occur following the primary tumor.
  • This is a case report of a primary vaginal CCAC in an 8.6-year-old girl with no history of DES exposure who presented with vaginal bleeding and abdominal pain and the imaging signs of pulmonary metastasis at the presentation.
  • Diagnostic imaging modalities should be considered for any child complaining of vaginal bleeding, due to limitation of vaginal examination.
  • Chest X-ray is recommended at the time of diagnosis of CCAC and at follow-up sessions for early diagnosis of pulmonary metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / radiography. Lung Neoplasms / radiography. Vaginal Neoplasms / radiography

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  • (PMID = 18850481.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-0669
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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6. Gunnell AS, Ylitalo N, Sandin S, Sparén P, Adami HO, Ripatti S: A longitudinal Swedish study on screening for squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma: evidence of effectiveness and overtreatment. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2007 Dec;16(12):2641-8
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  • [Title] A longitudinal Swedish study on screening for squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma: evidence of effectiveness and overtreatment.
  • BACKGROUND: Organized Papanicolaou (Pap) screening has markedly reduced the incidence of cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • However, the potential for overtreatment of precursor lesions is quite high for SCC, and the effectiveness of Pap screening for prevention of cervical adenocarcinoma is questionable.
  • METHODS: Using the nationwide, virtually complete Swedish Cancer Register, we analyzed standardized incidence rates for SCC in situ (CIS), SCC, adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) and adenocarcinoma, between 1968 and 2002.
  • For each county, we calculated Spearman correlations between incidence of in situ lesions and incidence of invasive cancer, 5, 10, and 15 years later.
  • A similar benefit was not apparent for adenocarcinoma.
  • For adenocarcinoma and AIS, similar analyses gave corresponding estimates of 1.17 for the 5-year and 1.08 for the 10-year lag periods.
  • CONCLUSION: Our data confirm the effectiveness of Pap smear screening in reducing the incidence of SCC, but suggest no clear benefit on adenocarcinoma.
  • Our data also suggest that relaxed histopathologic criteria for diagnosis of cervical CIS may increase its recorded incidence with no measurable benefit in the reduction of invasive cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Carcinoma in Situ / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Papanicolaou Test. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology. Vaginal Smears


7. Sato K, Fukata H, Kogo Y, Ohgane J, Shiota K, Mori C: Neonatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol alters expression of DNA methyltransferases and methylation of genomic DNA in the mouse uterus. Endocr J; 2009;56(1):131-9
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. DIETHYLSTILBESTROL .

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  • Perinatal exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) can have numerous adverse effects on the reproductive organs later in life, such as vaginal clear-cell adenocarcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 18997445.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogens, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Transcription Factors; 731DCA35BT / Diethylstilbestrol; EC 2.1.1.37 / DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferase
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8. Hentati D, Belghith B, Kochbati L, Driss M, Maalej M: Clear cell carcinoma of the uterus. Tunis Med; 2010 Apr;88(4):230-3
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  • [Title] Clear cell carcinoma of the uterus.
  • AIM: The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics and outcome of patients presenting with clear cell carcinoma (CCC) of the endometrium treated in a single institution.
  • The mean age at diagnosis was 64 years (50 to 84 yers).
  • After a median follw up of 32 months, 4 patients presented with recurrences: one vaginal recurrence, two cases of pelvic and abdominal recurrence and abdominal recurrence in one patient.
  • CONCLUSION: Extrauterine extension is frequent at diagnosis and not correlated to classical risk factors observed in endometrioid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20446254.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
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9. Renaud MC, Plante M, Grégoire J, Roy M: Primitive clear cell carcinoma of the vagina treated conservatively. J Obstet Gynaecol Can; 2009 Jan;31(1):54-6
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Vaginal Cancer.

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  • [Title] Primitive clear cell carcinoma of the vagina treated conservatively.
  • BACKGROUND: Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina is rare tumour that is usually treated aggressively.
  • We report a case of clear cell adenocarcinoma in which conservative treatment using new technology was successfully completed.
  • CASE: A 19-year-old woman with a biopsy proven clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina was referred to our clinic.
  • Colposcopic examination and pelvic MRI confirmed a superficial vaginal lesion.
  • Fertility-sparing surgery, comprising radical local vaginal excision, laparoscopy, sentinel node mapping, pelvic node dissection, and omentectomy, was planned.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / surgery. Fertility. Vaginal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19208284.001).
  • [ISSN] 1701-2163
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology Canada : JOGC = Journal d'obstétrique et gynécologie du Canada : JOGC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Obstet Gynaecol Can
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
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10. Mahdavi A, Shamshirsaz AA, Peiretti M, Zakashansky K, Idrees MT, Nezhat F: Laparoscopic management of vaginal clear cell adenocarcinoma arising in pelvic endometriosis: case report and literature review. J Minim Invasive Gynecol; 2006 May-Jun;13(3):237-41
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Vaginal Cancer.

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  • [Title] Laparoscopic management of vaginal clear cell adenocarcinoma arising in pelvic endometriosis: case report and literature review.
  • Vaginal clear cell adenocarcinoma arising from pelvic endometriosis has not been reported in the literature.
  • We report a case of a 50-year-old woman with stage I clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina who was found to have endometriosis adjacent to the vaginal tumor.
  • She was treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiation, laparoscopically assisted radical vaginal hysterectomy, radical upper vaginectomy, and pelvic lymphadenectomy followed by combination chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / surgery. Endometriosis / complications. Endometriosis / surgery. Vaginal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16698533.001).
  • [ISSN] 1553-4650
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of minimally invasive gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Minim Invasive Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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11. Shah C, Pizer E, Veljovich DS, Drescher CW, Peters WA 3rd, Paley PJ: Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina in a patient with vaginal endometriosis. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 Dec;103(3):1130-2
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  • [Title] Clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina in a patient with vaginal endometriosis.
  • Physical examination revealed a 2-cm polypoid lesion at the posterior vaginal apex, which was found to be a moderately differentiated invasive adenocarcinoma.
  • Final pathology at the time of definitive surgery demonstrated a clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina arising in vaginal endometriosis.
  • CONCLUSION: Vaginal endometriosis may lead to the development of cancer.
  • We report a case of clear cell malignancy arising in vaginal endometriosis, adding to only seven cases previously reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / diagnosis. Endometriosis / diagnosis. Vaginal Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged


12. Uehara T, Onda T, Sasajima Y, Sawada M, Kasamatsu T: A case of vaginal clear cell adenocarcinoma complicated with congenital anomalies of the genitourinary tract and metanephric remnant without prenatal diethylstilbestrol exposure. J Obstet Gynaecol Res; 2010 Jun;36(3):681-5
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Vaginal Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A case of vaginal clear cell adenocarcinoma complicated with congenital anomalies of the genitourinary tract and metanephric remnant without prenatal diethylstilbestrol exposure.
  • Vaginal clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCA) is well known to be associated with prenatal diethylstilbestrol exposure.
  • We present a vaginal CCA with congenital anomalies of the genitourinary tract without prenatal diethylstilbestrol exposure.
  • The examination revealed CCA at the anterior vagina and congenital anomalies.
  • Macroscopically, bicornuate uterus, vaginal septum and left ureteral agenesis were found.
  • Microscopically, vaginal CCA coexisted with adenosis and both metanephric and mesonephric remnants.
  • The vaginal CCA was supposed to derive from coexisting adenosis.
  • Relations between congenital anomalies of the genitourinary tract and vaginal adenocarcinoma were suspected, resultantly.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / complications. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Urogenital Abnormalities / complications. Vaginal Neoplasms / complications. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20598057.001).
  • [ISSN] 1447-0756
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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13. van Dijck JA, Doorduijn Y, Bulten JH, Verloop J, Massuger LF, Kiemeney BA: [Vaginal and cervical cancer due to diethylstilbestrol (DES); end epidemic]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2009;153:A366
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  • [Title] [Vaginal and cervical cancer due to diethylstilbestrol (DES); end epidemic].
  • [Transliterated title] Vagina- en cervixcarcinoom door diëthylstilbestrol (des). Einde epidemie.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the current situation regarding the epidemic of clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina and the uterine cervix (CCAC) in relation to the exposure in utero to diethylstilbestrol (DES).
  • METHODS: Patients with CCAC of the uterine cervix or vagina born after 1946 and diagnosed in the period 1969-2005, were identified through the Nationwide network and registry of histo- and cytopathology in the Netherlands and from 2003 onwards through the Netherlands Cancer Registry.
  • For the patients who did not provide consent, only the date of diagnosis and age at diagnosis were known (n = 10).
  • Age at diagnosis varied from 8-54 years (mean: 28 years).
  • The mean age at diagnosis was 24 years for exposed patients compared to 32 years for non-exposed patients.
  • CONCLUSION: Since 2000, the incidence of CCAC of the vagina and cervix has decreased markedly compared to the situation in the 1980s and 1990 s.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / epidemiology. Diethylstilbestrol / adverse effects. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology. Vaginal Neoplasms / epidemiology


14. van der Aa MA, Helmerhorst TJ, Siesling S, Riemersma S, Coebergh JW: Vaginal and (uncommon) cervical cancers in the Netherlands, 1989-2003. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2010 May;20(4):638-45
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  • [Title] Vaginal and (uncommon) cervical cancers in the Netherlands, 1989-2003.
  • BACKGROUND: The clinical and prognostic evaluation of cervical and vaginal tumors other than squamous cell and adenocarcinomas is hampered by the low incidence, and clinical and epidemiological studies on these uncommon tumors are scarce.
  • Having close affinity with the pathology laboratories, the Netherlands Cancer Registry offers a great opportunity to study frequency, stage, treatment, and survival of uncommon tumors in the cervix and vagina and separately, the clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina and cervix.
  • METHODS: All invasive cervical tumors (n = 10,570) and all in situ and invasive vaginal tumors (n = 778) diagnosed in the Netherlands during 1989-2003 were selected from the Netherlands Cancer Registry.
  • Age, stage at diagnosis, and treatment were described for each histological subgroup to find differences between common and uncommon tumors, including 5-year relative survival rates.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-five patients (3%) with cervical cancer subsequently developed a vaginal tumor (during 1989-2003), and 19 of these patients underwent hysterectomy for their cervical cancer.
  • A significantly worse prognosis was found for patients with small cell neuroendocrine cervical tumors and for patients with vaginal melanomas.
  • Patients with clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina and cervix were found across all age categories.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The less common histological types of cervical and vaginal cancers were clearly different from squamous cell carcinomas, especially with respect to age at diagnosis and survival rates.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / mortality. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / mortality. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / mortality. Vaginal Neoplasms / mortality

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  • (PMID = 20686385.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Matthews KS, Numnum TM, Conner MG, Barnes M 3rd: Fertility-sparing radical abdominal trachelectomy for clear cell adenocarcinoma of the upper vagina: a case report. Gynecol Oncol; 2007 Jun;105(3):820-2
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Vaginal Cancer.

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  • [Title] Fertility-sparing radical abdominal trachelectomy for clear cell adenocarcinoma of the upper vagina: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCA) of the vagina is traditionally treated with radical surgical resection with tailored postoperative radiation when indicated.
  • CASE: A 22 year old female was diagnosed with clinical stage I vaginal clear cell adenocarcinoma in the left fornix abutting the cervix.
  • CONCLUSION: For patients with CCA of the upper vagina, where removal of the cervix is necessary, a radical trachelectomy with upper vaginectomy should be considered to conserve fertility.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / surgery. Fertility. Vaginal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17399769.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Nagarsheth NP, Harrison M, Kalir T, Rahaman J: Malignant pericardial effusion with cardiac tamponade in a patient with metastatic vaginal adenocarcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 May-Jun;16(3):1458-61
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  • [Title] Malignant pericardial effusion with cardiac tamponade in a patient with metastatic vaginal adenocarcinoma.
  • Malignant pericardial effusion with cardiac tamponade is a rare manifestation of metastatic gynecological cancer.
  • A 35-year-old female was diagnosed with clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina.
  • Metastatic adenocarcinoma of the vagina can present with malignant pericardial effusion with cardiac tamponade.
  • Therefore, gynecologists and gynecological oncologists need to be familiar with the diagnosis and management of this disease process.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / secondary. Cardiac Tamponade / etiology. Pericardial Effusion / etiology. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Fatal Outcome. Female. Heart Neoplasms / diagnosis. Heart Neoplasms / secondary. Humans. Pericardiocentesis / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16803549.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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17. Lin LM, Sciubba DM, Gallia GL, Sosnowski J, Weingart JD: Diethylstilbestrol (DES)-induced clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina metastasizing to the brain. Gynecol Oncol; 2007 Apr;105(1):273-6
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  • [Title] Diethylstilbestrol (DES)-induced clear cell adenocarcinoma of the vagina metastasizing to the brain.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary vaginal clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCA) is a rare gynecological malignancy occurring predominantly in young females with a history of diethylstilbestrol exposure in utero.
  • Vaginal CCA commonly metastasizes to the lungs and the supraclavicular lymph nodes; however we present a rare case of diethylstilbestrol-induced vaginal CCA with cerebral metastases.
  • CASE DESCRIPTION: A 43-year-old woman with prenatal diethylstilbestrol exposure and history of vaginal CCA treatment 8 years prior to current presentation noted new onset headache and dizziness.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This case report highlights the necessity of close extended follow-up in patients with a history of vaginal CCA and demonstrates the potential for spread of primary vaginal CCA to the brain.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / chemically induced. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Diethylstilbestrol / adverse effects. Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects. Vaginal Neoplasms / chemically induced

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  • (PMID = 17292458.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 731DCA35BT / Diethylstilbestrol
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18. Novoa Vargas A, Grados García C, Bustillos de Cima R, Malagón Millán B: [Vagina cancer in a young woman exposed to diethylstilbestrol: case report and literature review]. Ginecol Obstet Mex; 2005 Dec;73(12):666-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Vagina cancer in a young woman exposed to diethylstilbestrol: case report and literature review].
  • [Transliterated title] Cáncer de vagina en una mujer joven expuesta a dietilestilbestrol: caso clínico y revisión de la bibliografía.
  • We analyzed a 20 year-old patient case exposed in utero to diethylstilbestrol, as probably predisposed factor in vaginal cancer.
  • The histopathological report of the incisional biopsy was clear cell vaginal adenocarcinoma, stage III, widespread to the pelvic wall, with metastasis to regional lymph nodes, and lack of distant metastasis.
  • We decided surgical management: protocolized laparotomy, peritoneal washing, retroperitoneal node biopsies and a radical hysterectomy, Piver III, with two thirds parts of vagina.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / chemically induced. Diethylstilbestrol / adverse effects. Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects. Vaginal Neoplasms / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hysterectomy. Lymphatic Metastasis. Pregnancy. Prognosis. Radiography, Abdominal. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Vagina / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16583845.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9041
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginecología y obstetricia de México
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginecol Obstet Mex
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 731DCA35BT / Diethylstilbestrol
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19. Stewart J 3rd, Bevans-Wilkins K, Ye C, Kurtycz DF: Clear-cell endocervical adenocarcinoma in a 19-year-old woman. Diagn Cytopathol; 2006 Dec;34(12):839-42
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  • [Title] Clear-cell endocervical adenocarcinoma in a 19-year-old woman.
  • The incidence of adenocarcinoma of the cervix is increasing within the US, but this diagnostic category is not typically associated with teenaged patients.
  • A report on a case of a 19-year-old woman, with no history of diethylbestrol exposure in uteri, diagnosed with clear-cell endocervical adenocarcinoma is made.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cytodiagnosis / methods. Female. Humans. Risk Factors. Vaginal Smears


20. Yabushita H, Kanyama K, Sekiya R, Noguchi M, Wakatsuki A: Clear-cell adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix in a 17-year-old adolescent. Int J Clin Oncol; 2008 Dec;13(6):552-4
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  • [Title] Clear-cell adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix in a 17-year-old adolescent.
  • This report describes the case of the youngest Japanese person to be diagnosed with endocervical clearcell adenocarcinoma.
  • In September 2005, a 17-year-old female adolescent visited a physician because of vaginal bleeding.
  • Vaginal examination showed a bleeding tumor approximately 1.5 cm in size protruding from the cervical os.
  • The cytological finding of the uterine cervix was positive for malignancy, and the histological diagnosis by punch biopsy was clear-cell adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix.
  • The pathological diagnosis was clear-cell adenocarcinoma of the cervix (PT1b1NR0M0).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19093185.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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21. Guiou M, Hall WH, Konia T, Scudder S, Leiserowitz G, Ryu JK: Primary clear cell adenocarcinoma of the rectovaginal septum treated with concurrent chemoradiation therapy: a case report. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2008 Sep-Oct;18(5):1118-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary clear cell adenocarcinoma of the rectovaginal septum treated with concurrent chemoradiation therapy: a case report.
  • Primary clear cell adenocarcinoma of the rectovaginal septum is rare and typically emerges in the setting of endometriosis.
  • We report a case of a 52-year-old woman with clear cell adenocarcinoma of the rectovaginal septum presenting with vaginal hemorrhage.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / radiotherapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Vaginal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Vaginal Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 17986241.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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22. Kwon YS, Nam JH, Choi G: Clear cell adenocarcinoma arising in endometriosis of a previous episiotomy site. Obstet Gynecol; 2008 Aug;112(2 Pt 2):475-7
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  • [Title] Clear cell adenocarcinoma arising in endometriosis of a previous episiotomy site.
  • CASE: A 42-year-old woman presented with a palpable mass, 2.5 cm in size, just inside the posterior commissure of the vagina, at the site of a previous episiotomy for a vaginal delivery.
  • Biopsy revealed a clear cell adenocarcinoma arising in endometriosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / etiology. Endometriosis / complications. Episiotomy / adverse effects. Iatrogenic Disease. Vulvar Neoplasms / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18669770.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-7844
  • [Journal-full-title] Obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Fakiris AJ, Henderson M, Lo SS, Look KY, Cardenes HR: Intraperitoneal radioactive phosphorus (32P) and vaginal brachytherapy as adjuvant treatment for uterine papillary serous carcinoma and clear cell carcinoma: the Indiana University experience. Brachytherapy; 2010 Jan-Mar;9(1):61-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intraperitoneal radioactive phosphorus (32P) and vaginal brachytherapy as adjuvant treatment for uterine papillary serous carcinoma and clear cell carcinoma: the Indiana University experience.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcomes of surgically staged patients with Stage I-IIIA uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) and clear cell carcinoma (CCC) of the uterus treated at Indiana University with intraperitoneal (32)P and vaginal brachytherapy.
  • Subsequently, high dose rate (HDR) vaginal cuff brachytherapy was delivered to a total dose of 2100 cGy in three fractions prescribed to 0.5 cm depth.
  • RESULTS: Intraperitoneal (32)P was administered at a median of 4 weeks from surgery, followed by vaginal brachytherapy.
  • There were 4 patients with recurrent disease: 2 initially relapsed intraperitoneally, 1 in the distal vagina, and 1 had a scar recurrence.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Adjuvant therapy for UPSC and CCC with intraperitoneal (32)P and vaginal brachytherapy after adequate surgical staging and maximal cytoreduction is well tolerated and appears to be effective.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / radiotherapy. Brachytherapy / methods. Carcinoma, Papillary / radiotherapy. Phosphorus Radioisotopes / administration & dosage. Uterine Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 American Brachytherapy Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20129252.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-1449
  • [Journal-full-title] Brachytherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brachytherapy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Phosphorus Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals
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24. Salihoğlu Y, Keskin N, Topuz S, Küçücük S, Iyibozkurt C: Analysis of vaginal recurrences in stage I endometrial adenocarcinoma. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2007;28(4):313-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Analysis of vaginal recurrences in stage I endometrial adenocarcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk of vaginal recurrence in Stage 1 endometrial cancer and treatment morbidity associated with different therapeutic approaches MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between 1995 and 2005, 341 patients with clinical Stage I endometrial cancer were treated at Istanbul Medical Faculty.
  • When there was superficial myometrial invasion postoperative vaginal vault radiation was used, and if deep myometrial invasion was present, external pelvic radiation was given.
  • Nine patients (6.25%) developed recurrent disease, three of whom had vaginal recurrences.
  • All three vaginal recurrences were small and diagnosed at routine follow-up exam within 51 months of primary therapy.
  • CONCLUSION: This selective treatment protocol for patients with Stage I endometrial cancer avoided radiation entirely in 38% of the patients while achieving a very low rate of vaginal recurrence and good overall survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Vagina / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17713101.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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25. Tan YT, Zhang X, Lin ZQ, Chen Q, Wang LJ, Zhang BZ: [Primary clear cell carcinoma of the cervix: report of five cases and review of the literature]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2008 Feb;43(2):120-3
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  • [Title] [Primary clear cell carcinoma of the cervix: report of five cases and review of the literature].
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the clinical diagnostic and therapeutic characteristics, prognostic factors of patients with primary clear cell carcinoma of the cervix.
  • METHODS: The clinical, pathologic and follow-up data of patients with primary clear cell carcinoma of the cervix treated in our hospital from Jan 2003 to Dec 2006 were collected and analyzed retrospectively.
  • RESULTS: Five patients with primary clear cell carcinoma of the cervix were treated (1 case stage I b1, 2 of stage I b2, 1 of stage IIa, 1 of stage IVa).
  • The primary symptom was mostly irregularly vaginal bleeding (3/5) and clinical type was predominantly (4/5) endophytic growth.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Primary clear cell carcinoma of the cervix may be unrelated to HPV infection.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. CA-125 Antigen / blood. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology


26. Kato N, Toukairin M, Asanuma I, Motoyama T: Immunocytochemistry for hepatocyte nuclear factor-1beta (HNF-1beta): a marker for ovarian clear cell carcinoma. Diagn Cytopathol; 2007 Apr;35(4):193-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunocytochemistry for hepatocyte nuclear factor-1beta (HNF-1beta): a marker for ovarian clear cell carcinoma.
  • Recent microarray studies have shown that the expression of hepatocyte nuclear factor-1beta (HNF-1beta) was significantly up-regulated in clear cell carcinoma (CCC) of the ovary.
  • We designed an experimental study using three CCC cell lines to evaluate the influence of alcohol fixation or air drying on immunocytochemistry for HNF-1beta.
  • Each cell line was cultured on chamber slides or transplanted into the abdominal cavity of nude mice, then the slides or ascites smears of nude mice were immunostained with or without microwave-mediated epitope retrieval.
  • In contrast, two serous adenocarcinoma cell lines never showed immunoreactivity.
  • HNF-1beta is likely to be helpful for the diagnosis of CCC in the peritoneal fluid.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-beta / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Alcohols. Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Fixatives. Heating. Humans. Mice. Microwaves. Papanicolaou Test. Tissue Fixation / methods. Vaginal Smears

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17351940.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Alcohols; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Fixatives; 138674-15-4 / Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-beta
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27. Abu-Rustum NR, Su W, Levine DA, Boyd J, Sonoda Y, Laquaglia MP: Pediatric radical abdominal trachelectomy for cervical clear cell carcinoma: a novel surgical approach. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Apr;97(1):296-300
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pediatric radical abdominal trachelectomy for cervical clear cell carcinoma: a novel surgical approach.
  • INTRODUCTION: Clear cell carcinoma of the cervix and vagina is rare in the pediatric population.
  • Radical abdominal or vaginal trachelectomy and pelvic lymph node dissection is a new technique utilized in adult women with early cervical cancer who wish to retain fertility.
  • METHODS: Due to the narrow vaginal anatomy in pediatric patients, a vaginal approach is not possible, and an abdominal approach is performed.
  • The resection includes the cervix, upper vagina, parametrium, and paracolpos.
  • RESULTS: Two girls aged 6 and 8 years and without history of DES exposure presented with vaginal bleeding.
  • Biopsies demonstrated clear cell cancer stage IB1 in both patients.
  • They underwent radical abdominal trachelectomy and bilateral pelvic lymph node dissection along with anastomosis of uterine isthmus to upper vagina.
  • Intraoperative frozen-section analysis confirmed negative uterine and vaginal margins.
  • CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first report of radical abdominal trachelectomy in the pediatric age group and it is likely to include the youngest patient with clear cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix not associated with DES exposure.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / surgery. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures / methods. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15790482.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Thomas M, Mariani A, Wright JD, Madarek EO, Powell MA, Mutch DG, Podratz KC, Dowdy SC: Surgical management and adjuvant therapy for patients with uterine clear cell carcinoma: a multi-institutional review. Gynecol Oncol; 2008 Feb;108(2):293-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical management and adjuvant therapy for patients with uterine clear cell carcinoma: a multi-institutional review.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the role of surgical staging, adjuvant therapy, and cytoreduction in uterine clear cell carcinoma (UCCC).
  • METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted at 2 major gynecologic cancer centers of all primary UCCC between 1982 and 2004.
  • Radiation (RT) improved PFS (67 vs. 36%, p=0.02), and reduced pelvic sidewall recurrences (18 vs. 53%, p=0.04) and vaginal failures (VF) (7 vs. 35%, p=0.04) for 45 patients at risk for LF (positive nodes or suboptimal LND).
  • Vaginal brachytherapy may be adequate adjuvant therapy for stages I and II UCCC confirmed by systematic LND.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / therapy. Uterine Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18096208.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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29. Silva EG, Young RH: Endometrioid neoplasms with clear cells: a report of 21 cases in which the alteration is not of typical secretory type. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Aug;31(8):1203-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Endometrioid neoplasms with clear cells: a report of 21 cases in which the alteration is not of typical secretory type.
  • The presence of clear cells in genital tract neoplasms often reflexly prompts the diagnosis of a clear cell tumor but clear cells may be seen in many other neoplasms.
  • In this report, we describe various clear cell morphologies, some possibly related to the secretory variant, but others not, and all potentially the source of significant diagnostic difficulty.
  • Most had an adnexal mass (13) or abdominal swelling (4), but 4 presented with vaginal bleeding.
  • In 18 of the tumors at least one-third of the cells had clear cytoplasm and 3 had only clear cells.
  • The clear cytoplasm varied from foamy to empty and the nuclei had a variable location, basilar, central, and apical.
  • The clear cells were associated with squamous differentiation in only 1 case in which the change appeared hydropic.
  • By immunohistocytochemistry, the clear cells were focally positive for epithelial markers in most cases but in some cases one or more of these immunostains were negative.
  • Tubulocystic, solid, and papillary patterns of clear cell carcinoma were absent.
  • The distinction from clear cell carcinoma depends on awareness of this unusual variant of endometrioid neoplasia and a lack of the distinctive patterns of clear cell carcinoma; at this time, special studies, including immunohistochemistry, do not aid significantly although certainly negative reactions, such as for thyroglobulin protein (arguing against clear cell struma ovarii) may play a role in some differential diagnostic considerations.
  • There are prognostic and therapeutic implications in the distinction with clear cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [ErratumIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2007 Oct;31(10):1628
  • (PMID = 17667544.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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30. Valenzuela P, Ramos P, Redondo S, Cabrera Y, Alvarez I, Ruiz A: Endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the ovary and endometriosis. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol; 2007 Sep;134(1):83-6
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  • [Title] Endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the ovary and endometriosis.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Twenty-two patients with endometrioid ovarian cancer were included in the review.
  • The three of them had a clear-cell carcinoma component.
  • The presence of a clear-cell component was significantly greater in patients with endometriosis than in patients without endometriosis Each patient had a different clinical presentation: increase in abdominal perimeter, post-menopausal vaginal haemorrhage and hypermenorrhea.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / etiology. Endometriosis / complications. Ovarian Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] CA-125 Antigen / blood. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 16844279.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2115
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-125 Antigen
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31. Mulvany NJ, Mitchell G, Allen DG: Adenocarcinoma cells in Pap smears. Pathology; 2009;41(5):411-8
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  • [Title] Adenocarcinoma cells in Pap smears.
  • The cell arrangement, pattern of cell spread and the smear background reflect the pathway by which the malignant cells involve the cervix.
  • Consideration of all of these points in conjunction with an appreciation of the classical cytomorphology of endometrioid, serous and clear cell carcinomas should allow a correct diagnosis of extrauterine adenocarcinoma with a high degree of probability.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Genital Neoplasms, Female / diagnosis. Papanicolaou Test. Vaginal Smears

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  • (PMID = 19900079.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3931
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 106
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32. Jolly S, Vargas C, Kumar T, Weiner S, Brabbins D, Chen P, Floyd W, Martinez AA: Vaginal brachytherapy alone: an alternative to adjuvant whole pelvis radiation for early stage endometrial cancer. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Jun;97(3):887-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Vaginal brachytherapy alone: an alternative to adjuvant whole pelvis radiation for early stage endometrial cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: Postoperative management of early stage adenocarcinoma of the endometrium remains controversial.
  • We reviewed and compared our results treating early stage endometrial adenocarcinoma using hypofractionated high dose rate (HDR) vaginal brachytherapy (VB) alone with the results of the GOG-99.
  • METHODS: From 1992 to 2002, 243 endometrial cancer patients were treated with TAH/BSO and selective lymph node dissection followed by adjuvant radiotherapy (RT).
  • Of these, 50 FIGO stage I-II (occult) adenocarcinoma (no clear cell or serous papillary) of the endometrium were managed with HDR hypofractionated VB as monotherapy using Iridium-192 to a dose of 30 Gy in 6 fractions twice weekly prescribed to a depth of 5 mm and median length of 4 cm.
  • In our study, one patient failed in the vagina alone and a second patient failed in the vagina and pelvis.
  • In the GOG-99, the vagina as a component of locoregional failure was also the most common failure site in the no RT arm 77.8% (n = 14) and in the RT arm 100% (n = 3).
  • CONCLUSION: Stage I-II (occult) endometrial adenocarcinoma treated with postoperative HDR vaginal brachytherapy has similar overall survival, locoregional failure rates, and cumulative recurrence rates to standard fractionation external beam pelvic RT with the benefit of much lower toxicity rates and shorter overall treatment time.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Brachytherapy / methods. Endometrial Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 15943991.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. Sutton G, Axelrod JH, Bundy BN, Roy T, Homesley H, Lee RB, Gehrig PA, Zaino R: Adjuvant whole abdominal irradiation in clinical stages I and II papillary serous or clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium: a phase II study of the Gynecologic Oncology Group. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 Feb;100(2):349-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adjuvant whole abdominal irradiation in clinical stages I and II papillary serous or clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium: a phase II study of the Gynecologic Oncology Group.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate outcome in patients with clinical stage I/II papillary serous (PS) or clear cell (CC) endometrial carcinoma treated with whole abdominal radiotherapy.
  • RESULTS: Among 21 PS patients (median age: 68 years), one refused therapy, and another received a non-protocol vaginal boost.
  • Among treated patients who DOD, sites of recurrence included lung (2), lung/vagina (1), abdomen/pelvis (1), vagina (1), and abdomen (2).
  • Among patients who DOD, sites of recurrence included lung (1), vagina (1), and unknown (1).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Papillary / radiotherapy. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / radiotherapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 16213007.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 12477; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 12482; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 12484; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 12534; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 13630; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 13633; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 15975; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 16386; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 16938; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 21720; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 21946; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 23073; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 23501; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 23765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 27469; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 28160; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 34477; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 35640; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 37535; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 37569; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 40296
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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34. Staats PN, Clement PB, Young RH: Primary endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the vagina: a clinicopathologic study of 18 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Oct;31(10):1490-501
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary endometrioid adenocarcinoma of the vagina: a clinicopathologic study of 18 cases.
  • Vaginal adenocarcinoma is the second most common primary cancer of the vagina, yet there has been very little study of most subtypes other than clear cell carcinoma.
  • We reviewed 18 cases of primary vaginal endometrioid adenocarcinoma, in our experience the second most common subtype.
  • Most presented with vaginal bleeding, and had had a prior hysterectomy.
  • The tumors were at the vaginal apex in 10 cases, in the posterior wall in 3, the lateral wall in 3, and the anterior wall in 1.
  • On microscopic examination, each of the tumors had a pure or predominant component of typical endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
  • Vaginal endometriosis was identified in 14 cases, and is important in indicating a primary vaginal tumor, rather than secondary spread from the endometrium.
  • Other subtypes of adenocarcinoma (such as serous when the tumor has a papillary pattern) and atypical forms of endometriosis, including polypoid endometriosis, are the most common other differential diagnostic considerations.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Endometriosis / complications. Endometriosis / pathology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17895749.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. Costa S, Negri G, Sideri M, Santini D, Martinelli G, Venturoli S, Pelusi C, Syrjanen S, Syrjanen K, Pelusi G: Human papillomavirus (HPV) test and PAP smear as predictors of outcome in conservatively treated adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) of the uterine cervix. Gynecol Oncol; 2007 Jul;106(1):170-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Human papillomavirus (HPV) test and PAP smear as predictors of outcome in conservatively treated adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) of the uterine cervix.
  • OBJECTIVE: The present study assessed (i) the clinical outcome of patients with conservatively treated cervical adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS), (ii) the accuracy of diagnosing AIS by cytology, colposcopy and histology, as well as (iii) the performance of cervical cytology and HPV testing in detection of residual or recurrent disease after conservatively treated AIS.
  • Twenty four patients (57.1%) had AIS as a pure lesions and 18 combined with squamous cell lesion (four had invasive SCC).
  • In four patients, an adenocarcinoma (AdCa) stage IA1 was diagnosed during the follow-up.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that HR-HPV test in conjunction with cytology offers clear advantages over single cytology in monitoring the women conservatively treated for cervical AIS.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / virology. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Papillomavirus Infections / virology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoma in Situ. Conization. DNA, Viral / analysis. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Papanicolaou Test. Papillomaviridae / genetics. Predictive Value of Tests. Treatment Outcome. Vaginal Smears

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  • (PMID = 17481701.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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36. Mulligan AM, Plotkin A, Rouzbahman M, Soslow RA, Gilks CB, Clarke BA: Endometrial giant cell carcinoma: a case series and review of the spectrum of endometrial neoplasms containing giant cells. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Aug;34(8):1132-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Endometrial giant cell carcinoma: a case series and review of the spectrum of endometrial neoplasms containing giant cells.
  • Poorly differentiated endometrial carcinomas of specific type include the rarely reported endometrial carcinoma with a malignant giant cell component [endometrial giant cell carcinoma (GCC)].
  • The patients ranged in age from 53 to 83 years, presenting with vaginal bleeding, anemia, or a pelvic mass.
  • Four of the 5 tumors contained areas of endometrial adenocarcinoma of usual type, with a variable giant cell component.
  • The conventional cell types present included 1 case with clear cell carcinoma (30% of tumor volume), 2 with high-grade endometrioid carcinoma (50% and 70% of tumor volume, respectively) and 1 with serous histology (10% of tumor volume).
  • One was composed exclusively of giant cell carcinoma.
  • The giant cell component in all cases consisted of poorly cohesive nests of bizarre multinucleated giant cells with mononuclear tumor cells.
  • A striking peritumoral and intratumoral inflammatory cell infiltrate composed of lymphocytes, plasma cells and focal eosinophils, and neutrophils was present and emperipolesis was noted in 4 of the 5 cases.
  • One patient in whom the tumor was exclusively of the giant cell type, developed lung metastasis 4 years after diagnosis and 1 patient is disease free after 14 years.
  • Here, we present a series of endometrial carcinomas containing a component of GCC and discuss the spectrum of giant cell-containing uterine neoplasms.
  • At this time, however, the cumulative data on endometrial GCC are limited and the prognostic significance of the presence and the extent of a giant cell component in endometrial carcinoma remains uncertain.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Carcinoma, Giant Cell / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Giant Cells / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20588176.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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37. Koizumi T, Bando S, Kanda K, Inai T: [Two cases of primary female urethral cancer]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2007 Sep;98(6):790-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Two cases of primary female urethral cancer].
  • Herein, we report two cases of female urethral cancer.
  • Histopathological examination of transperineal biopsy specimens from both patients suggested clear cell adenocarcinoma in case 1 and squamous cell carcinoma in case 2.
  • Both cases underwent total urethrectomy with partial resection of the vaginal wall and cystostomy urinary diversion.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / surgery. Aged. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Middle Aged. Radiotherapy Dosage. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 17929463.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5287
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; CF regimen
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38. Bats AS, Metzger U, Le Frere-Belda MA, Brisa M, Lecuru F: Malignant transformation of Gartner cyst. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2009 Dec;19(9):1655-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Vaginal cysts are common lesions that include Gartner cysts, which develop from the wolffian duct remnants in the vaginal wall.
  • Our case was diagnosed upon evaluation of vaginal bleeding in a 67-year-old woman.
  • Histologic examination showed a clear cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Cysts / pathology. Vaginal Diseases / pathology. Wolffian Ducts / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Aged. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Urogenital Neoplasms / diagnosis. Urogenital Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19955954.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. Deligdisch L, Pénault-Llorca F, Schlosshauer P, Altchek A, Peiretti M, Nezhat F: Stage I ovarian carcinoma: different clinical pathologic patterns. Fertil Steril; 2007 Oct;88(4):906-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • RESULT(S): Twenty-two cases (29%) were serous papillary carcinomas and 54 were nonserous carcinomas (71%) (40 endometrioid, 10 clear cell, and 4 mixed endometrioid and clear cell carcinomas).
  • Most patients with serous papillary carcinoma presented with asymptomatic pelvic masses; patients with nonserous carcinomas presented with pelvic pain or abnormal vaginal bleeding with or without pelvic mass.
  • CONCLUSION(S): Over two thirds of stage I ovarian carcinomas were nonserous, and were diagnosed because of associated symptoms: pelvic pain with endometriosis and/or adnexal masses, or vaginal bleeding from endometrial pathology.
  • Serous papillary carcinomas were often asymptomatic and diagnosed during follow-up evaluations in breast cancer patients.
  • The risk of ovarian and endometrial malignancy should be taken into consideration during evaluation of patients with endometriosis and breast cancer histories.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17920404.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-5653
  • [Journal-full-title] Fertility and sterility
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fertil. Steril.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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40. Tedeschi CA, Rubin M, Krumholz BA: Six cases of women with diethylstilbestrol in utero demonstrating long-term manifestations and current evaluation guidelines. J Low Genit Tract Dis; 2005 Jan;9(1):11-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In the late 1960s, an association was made with an increased incidence of clear cell adenocarcinoma in young women exposed in utero to DES.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / chemically induced. Adult. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / chemically induced. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Complications / chemically induced. Pregnancy, Ectopic / chemically induced. Time Factors. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / chemically induced. Vaginal Neoplasms / chemically induced

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  • (PMID = 15870516.001).
  • [ISSN] 1089-2591
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of lower genital tract disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Low Genit Tract Dis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 731DCA35BT / Diethylstilbestrol
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41. Martínez-Monge R, Nagore G, Cambeiro M, Garrán C, Villafranca E, Jurado M: Intravaginal 1-week high-dose-rate brachytherapy alone for Stages I-II endometrial cancer. Brachytherapy; 2007 Jul-Sep;6(3):195-200
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intravaginal 1-week high-dose-rate brachytherapy alone for Stages I-II endometrial cancer.
  • METHODS AND MATERIALS: From December 1999 to February 2005, 50 patients with International federation of gynecology and obstetrics Stages IA-IIB endometrioid endometrial adenocarcinoma were treated with total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy followed by postoperative HDR brachytherapy alone.
  • No vaginal or pelvic recurrences have been observed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results reported in this study are in agreement with previous reports of postoperative HDR brachytherapy alone in early-stage endometrial cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / radiotherapy. Brachytherapy / methods. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / radiotherapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Feasibility Studies. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hysterectomy. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Ovariectomy / methods. Postoperative Care / methods. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant / methods. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Vagina

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  • (PMID = 17681240.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-4721
  • [Journal-full-title] Brachytherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brachytherapy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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42. Gangopadhyay M, Raha K, Sinha SK, De A, Bera P, Pati S: Endodermal sinus tumor of the vagina in children: a report of two cases. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2009 Jul-Sep;52(3):403-4
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  • [Title] Endodermal sinus tumor of the vagina in children: a report of two cases.
  • Malignant tumors of the vagina in infants and children are rare, with primary germ cell tumor (endodermal sinus tumor [EST]) being rarer, which carries a dismal prognosis.
  • This tumor is often clinically mistaken as botryoid rhabdomyosarcoma and, on histopathological examination, is often misdiagnosed as clear cell adenocarcinoma.
  • Two cases of EST of the vagina in infants aged 9 and 17 months are reported.
  • Both the patients presented with bleeding per vagina and clinically and by ultrasonography were diagnosed as sarcoma botryoides.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / diagnosis. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Vaginal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Fatal Outcome. Female. Hemorrhage / etiology. Histocytochemistry. Humans. Infant. Treatment Outcome. Vagina / pathology. alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19679975.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5130
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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43. Lauver D, Nelles KK, Hanson K: The health effects of diethylstilbestrol revisited. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs; 2005 Jul-Aug;34(4):494-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The health effects of diethylstilbestrol revisited.
  • Although diethylstilbestrol has not been prescribed commonly for more than 25 years, its effects on the health of exposed persons are still important.
  • In this article, we summarize current information about the major health effects of diethylstilbestrol exposure and delineate implications for nurses.
  • Nurses can help to identify persons at risk from prior diethylstilbestrol exposure, facilitate comprehensive assessments of persons exposed to diethylstilbestrol, and share current information about diethylstilbestrol.

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  • (PMID = 16020417.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-2175
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of obstetric, gynecologic, and neonatal nursing : JOGNN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens; 731DCA35BT / Diethylstilbestrol
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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44. Jolly S, Vargas CE, Kumar T, Weiner SA, Brabbins DS, Chen PY, Floyd W, Martinez AA: The impact of age on long-term outcome in patients with endometrial cancer treated with postoperative radiation. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 Oct;103(1):87-93
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The impact of age on long-term outcome in patients with endometrial cancer treated with postoperative radiation.
  • PURPOSE: Endometrial cancer is the most commonly diagnosed gynecologic malignancy in the United States.
  • We reviewed our institution's experience to assess the effect of age in a population of endometrial cancer patients treated with surgery and adjuvant radiation therapy.
  • METHODS: From 1992-2002, 243 endometrial cancer patients underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy and adjuvant radiation.
  • Forty-nine patients with stage I-II (occult) endometrial adenocarcinoma (no clear cell or serous papillary) were treated postoperatively with vaginal intracavitary high-dose rate (HDR) brachytherapy alone using Iridium-192 (median dose 30 Gy) to a median length of 4 cm.
  • Forty-eight patients with stage I-III endometrial adenocarcinoma (no clear cell or papillary serous) were treated with postoperative pelvic RT (median dose 45 Gy) and intracavitary HDR brachytherapy (median dose 20 Gy).
  • One hundred forty-six patients underwent postoperative whole abdomino-pelvic irradiation (WAPI) secondary to unfavorable histology (clear cell or serous papillary) or two of the following: deep myometrial invasion, grade 3, or FIGO stage III.
  • Of these failures, 15% (15/102) were age < or =63 years and 32% (45/141) were age >63 years at diagnosis (P = 0.02).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Older endometrial cancer (age >63 years) patients have a significantly decreased overall survival, cause-specific survival, and greater risk of recurrence following postoperative RT independent of other prognostic factors and/or treatment technique.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Endometrial Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16545441.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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45. Hajek RA, King DW, Hernández-Valero MA, Kaufman RH, Liang JC, Chilton JA, Edwards CL, Wharton JT, Jones LA: Detection of chromosomal aberrations by fluorescence in situ hybridization in cervicovaginal biopsies from women exposed to diethylstilbestrol in utero. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 Jan-Feb;16(1):318-24
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. DIETHYLSTILBESTROL .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Epidemiologic studies have associated estrogens with human neoplasms such as those in the endometrium, cervix, vagina, breast, and liver.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / chemically induced. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adult. Biopsy, Needle. Case-Control Studies. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Incidence. Probability. Reference Values. Risk Assessment. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tissue Culture Techniques. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / chemically induced. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Vaginal Neoplasms / chemically induced. Vaginal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16445652.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA 16672; United States / NIMHD NIH HHS / MD / P60 MD 00503; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 44591; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 69375A-05S4; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / T32 HD 07324; United States / ODCDC CDC HHS / CC / U48 CCU 619515-01
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 731DCA35BT / Diethylstilbestrol
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46. Norimatsu Y, Kouda H, Kobayashi TK, Moriya T, Yanoh K, Tsukayama C, Miyake Y, Ohno E: Utility of thin-layer preparations in the endometrial cytology: evaluation of benign endometrial lesions. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2008 Apr;12(2):103-11
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  • (1) number of endometrial epithelial cell clumps;.
  • (2) presence of TLC > CCP cases on number of epithelial cell clumps;.
  • (6) presence of a clear background;.
  • (8) presence of blood vessel of length more than diameter of a field in object x20 glasses in TLC. (1) In all phases, the number of epithelial cell clumps per a unit area of a preparation of TLC is greater than in CCP. (2) Cells (condensed cluster of stromal cells and metaplastic clumps with irregular protrusion-containing condensed stromal cluster) of useful and adequate numbers for a diagnosis of EGBD were observed in TLC. (3) In all phases, TLC was significantly higher than CCP on the appearance of a clear background. (4) The proliferative endometrium and secretory endometrium were highly significant in comparison with atrophic endometrium and EGBD, respectively, in terms of the occurrence of a blood vessel of length more than diameter of a field in object x20 glasses.
  • Therefore, TLC preparation is a useful tool for the accurate and reliable diagnosis of normal endometrial phase and EGBD, because the preparation area is confined and identification of the target cell clumps is easy.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrium / pathology. Histocytological Preparation Techniques. Specimen Handling / methods. Uterine Diseases / diagnosis. Vaginal Smears / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Atrophy / pathology. Cell Proliferation. Endometrial Neoplasms / metabolism. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Humans. Menstrual Cycle / physiology. Middle Aged. Reproducibility of Results

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  • (PMID = 18325470.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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47. Signorelli M, Lissoni AA, Cormio G, Katsaros D, Pellegrino A, Selvaggi L, Ghezzi F, Scambia G, Zola P, Grassi R, Milani R, Giannice R, Caspani G, Mangioni C, Floriani I, Rulli E, Fossati R: Modified radical hysterectomy versus extrafascial hysterectomy in the treatment of stage I endometrial cancer: results from the ILIADE randomized study. Ann Surg Oncol; 2009 Dec;16(12):3431-41
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  • [Title] Modified radical hysterectomy versus extrafascial hysterectomy in the treatment of stage I endometrial cancer: results from the ILIADE randomized study.
  • BACKGROUND: Five percent to 20% of stage I endometrial cancer patients undergoing total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy develop vaginal and pelvic recurrences.
  • METHODS: Eligible patients (n = 520) with stage I endometrial cancer were randomized to class I or class II hysterectomy.
  • RESULTS: The median length of parametria and vagina removed were 15 and 5 vs. 20 mm and 15 mm for class I and class II hysterectomy, respectively (P > 0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Class II hysterectomy did not improve locoregional control and survival compared to class I hysterectomy, but when an adequate vaginal cuff transection is not feasible with class I hysterectomy, a modified radical hysterectomy allows to obtain an optimal vaginal and pelvic control of disease with a minimal increase in surgical morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / surgery. Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / surgery. Carcinoma, Adenosquamous / surgery. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / surgery. Endometrial Neoplasms / surgery. Hysterectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 19834767.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
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48. Brown AK, Gillis S, Deuel C, Angel C, Glantz C, Dubeshter B: Abnormal cervical cytology: a risk factor for endometrial cancer recurrence. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2005 May-Jun;15(3):517-22
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  • [Title] Abnormal cervical cytology: a risk factor for endometrial cancer recurrence.
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between cervical cytology, histologic type, and risk of endometrial cancer recurrence.
  • Papillary serous and clear cell carcinomas were considered high-risk histologies.
  • Thirty-nine (9%) patients developed recurrent endometrial cancer.
  • For endometrioid adenocarcinoma, abnormal cervical cytology occurred in 61% and 7% recurred, while with high-risk histologies, 84% had abnormal cervical cytology and 19% recurred (P < 0.05).
  • Abnormal cervical cytology is associated with increased risk of endometrial cancer recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Papanicolaou Test. Vaginal Smears


49. Lotan TL, Tefs K, Schuster V, Miller J, Manaligod J, Filstead A, Yamada SD, Krausz T: Inherited plasminogen deficiency presenting as ligneous vaginitis: a case report with molecular correlation and review of the literature. Hum Pathol; 2007 Oct;38(10):1569-75
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  • Microscopically, the vagina, cervix, endometrium, ovaries, and parametrial tissues showed innumerable deposits of paucicellular hyaline material with adjacent inflammation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17889676.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9001-91-6 / Plasminogen
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50. Siow TR, Yeo MC, Khoo-Tan HS, Yap SP, Soong YL, Chua EJ, Soh LT, Lim YK, Chia YN, Yam KL: Stage 1C grade 3 endometrial cancer: the KK Hospital gynaecological oncology group experience. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2010 Dec;20(9):1557-62
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  • [Title] Stage 1C grade 3 endometrial cancer: the KK Hospital gynaecological oncology group experience.
  • OBJECTIVE: It is our standard of care to include pelvic lymph node dissection (PLND) in the staging of endometrial cancer, followed by adjuvant vaginal vault brachytherapy.
  • We report our experience and outcome of patients with stage 1C grade 3 endometrial cancer from KK Hospital Singapore.
  • METHODS: Records of patients with a diagnosis of stage 1C grade 3 endometrial cancer (based on the 1988 FIGO [International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics] staging system) from 1995 to 2008 were retrospectively reviewed.
  • RESULTS: A total of 31 cases were reviewed; 29 had sufficient records to be analyzed, of which one was excluded as she had a second primary cancer (breast).
  • All but 1 case received postoperative vaginal vault brachytherapy.
  • Eight of 10 patients with nonendometrioid adenocarcinoma (eg, clear cell) histology also received adjuvant chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: Pelvic lymph node dissection and vaginal vault brachytherapy seem to be effective in preventing locoregional recurrences, with few associated adverse effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21119369.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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51. International Collaboration of Epidemiological Studies of Cervical Cancer, Appleby P, Beral V, Berrington de González A, Colin D, Franceschi S, Goodill A, Green J, Peto J, Plummer M, Sweetland S: Carcinoma of the cervix and tobacco smoking: collaborative reanalysis of individual data on 13,541 women with carcinoma of the cervix and 23,017 women without carcinoma of the cervix from 23 epidemiological studies. Int J Cancer; 2006 Mar 15;118(6):1481-95
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  • Tobacco smoking has been classified as a cause of cervical cancer, but the effect of different patterns of smoking on risk is unclear.
  • The International Collaboration of Epidemiological Studies of Cervical Cancer has brought together and combined individual data on 13,541 women with and 23,017 women without cervical carcinoma, from 23 epidemiological studies.
  • Current smokers had a significantly increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix compared to never smokers (RR = 1.60 (95% CI: 1.48-1.73), p<0.001).
  • There was increased risk for past smokers also, though to a lesser extent (RR = 1.12 (1.01-1.25)), and there was no clear trend with time since stopping smoking (p-trend = 0.6).
  • There was no association between smoking and adenocarcinoma of the cervix (RR = 0.89 (0.74-1.06) and 0.89 (0.72-1.10) for current and past smokers respectively), and the differences between the RRs for smoking and squamous cell and adenocarcinoma were statistically significant (current smoking p<0.001 and past smoking p = 0.01).
  • In current smokers, the RR of squamous cell carcinoma increased with increasing number of cigarettes smoked per day and also with younger age at starting smoking (p<0.001 for each trend), but not with duration of smoking (p-trend = 0.3).
  • Eight of the studies had tested women for cervical HPV-DNA, and in analyses restricted to women who tested positive, there was a significantly increased risk in current compared to never smokers for squamous cell carcinoma (RR = 1.95 (1.43-2.65)), but not for adenocarcinoma (RR = 1.06 (0.14-7.96)).
  • In summary, smokers are at an increased risk of squamous cell but not of adenocarcinoma of the cervix.
  • The risk of squamous cell carcinoma increases in current smokers with the number of cigarettes smoked per day and with younger age at starting smoking.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Contraceptives, Oral / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. International Cooperation. Logistic Models. Middle Aged. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / virology. Parity. Pregnancy. Risk Factors. Vaginal Smears

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  • (PMID = 16206285.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contraceptives, Oral
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52. Marchiolè P, Cittadini G, Sala P, Moioli M, Mathevet P, Capaccio E, Costantini S: Pre- and post-operative work-up in patients affected by early cervical cancer and eligible for fertility-sparing treatment: role of MRI with saline hydrocolpos. Abdom Imaging; 2010 Jun;35(3):271-9
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  • [Title] Pre- and post-operative work-up in patients affected by early cervical cancer and eligible for fertility-sparing treatment: role of MRI with saline hydrocolpos.
  • Nowadays young women affected by early invasive uterine cervical cancer (stage IA2-IB1) may be offered a fertility-sparing treatment: the radical trachelectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection.
  • This procedure consists in surgical removal of cervix uteri, proximal parametrial tissue, and vaginal cuff.
  • Gynecologist oncologist needs an imaging modality that can accurately value the tumoral diameter and which can demonstrate proximal extension of tumor to ensure surgical clear resection margins (especially the cranial one).
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a very useful examination in pre-operative study of women affected by early cervical cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / surgery. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Catheterization. Conization. Female. Fertility. Humans. Isotonic Solutions. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Patient Selection. Sodium Chloride


53. Abu-Rustum NR, Chi DS, Leitao M, Oke EA, Hensley ML, Alektiar KM, Barakat RR: What is the incidence of isolated paraaortic nodal recurrence in grade 1 endometrial carcinoma? Gynecol Oncol; 2008 Oct;111(1):46-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVES: To describe the incidence of isolated paraaortic nodal recurrences in patients with a final diagnosis of grade 1 endometrial carcinoma initially treated with surgery.
  • Patients with any papillary serous or clear cell carcinoma, leiomyosarcoma, endometrial stromal sarcoma, squamous carcinoma, or adenosarcoma were excluded.
  • 1) pelvic (including vaginal and other soft tissue pelvic sites);.
  • Final grade distribution included: grade 1 endometrial adenocarcinoma, 310 (21%); grade 2, 578 (40%); grade 3, 481 (33%); and incomplete, 84 (5.8%).
  • None of the isolated paraaortic recurrences occurred in patients with a final diagnosis of grade 1 carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This large series of endometrial carcinoma patients initially treated with surgery confirms that isolated paraaortic nodal recurrence in women with a final diagnosis of grade 1 endometrial carcinoma is extremely rare.

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  • (PMID = 18657853.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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54. Shepherd ES, Lowe DA, Shepherd JH: Targeted selective trachelo-colpectomy for preservation of fertility in a young woman with vaginal clear cell carcinoma. J Obstet Gynaecol; 2010 May;30(4):420-1
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  • [Title] Targeted selective trachelo-colpectomy for preservation of fertility in a young woman with vaginal clear cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / surgery. Fertility. Vaginal Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Vagina / pathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20455712.001).
  • [ISSN] 1364-6893
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology : the journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Obstet Gynaecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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