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1. Finizio O, Pezzullo L, Rocco S, Bene L, De Rosa C, Nunziata GR, Mettivier V: Combination of all-trans-retinoic acid and gemtuzumab ozogamicin in an elderly patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia and severe cardiac failure. Acta Haematol; 2007;117(3):188-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Combination of all-trans-retinoic acid and gemtuzumab ozogamicin in an elderly patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia and severe cardiac failure.
  • All-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) combined with anthracyclines is currently the standard treatment for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL).
  • The patient obtained a complete hematological and molecular remission.
  • No adverse events were observed in every phase of treatment and the patient is still in complete continuous hematological and molecular remission 29 months from diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoglycosides / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Heart Failure / complications. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / complications. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Tretinoin / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans. Male. Remission Induction. Severity of Illness Index

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  • [Copyright] 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 17167240.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9662
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoglycosides; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / gemtuzumab; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
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2. Tanaka M, Fukushima N, Itamura H, Urata C, Yokoo M, Ide M, Hisatomi T, Tomimasu R, Sueoka E, Kimura S: Gangrenous cheilitis associated with all-trans retinoic acid therapy for acute promyelocytic leukemia. Int J Hematol; 2010 Jan;91(1):132-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Gangrenous cheilitis associated with all-trans retinoic acid therapy for acute promyelocytic leukemia.
  • A 67-year-old Japanese woman who presented with erythema on the abdomen and pancytopenia was found to have acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL).
  • She achieved complete remission and the gangrenous cheilitis slowly healed over the following 8 weeks.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Cheilitis / chemically induced. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Tretinoin / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 20035486.001).
  • [ISSN] 1865-3774
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Oxides; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide
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3. Ismail S, Ababneh N, Awidi A: Identification of atypical PML-RARA breakpoint in a patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia. Acta Haematol; 2007;118(3):183-7
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  • [Title] Identification of atypical PML-RARA breakpoint in a patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia.
  • Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) of the M3 subtype is characterized by translocation t(15;17) that generates the PML-RARA fusion gene.
  • The patient responded well to treatment and is now in complete remission.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17 / genetics. Exons / genetics. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / genetics. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics. Translocation, Genetic / genetics

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  • [Copyright] 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 17934255.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9662
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor alpha fusion oncoprotein
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4. Chen Y, Gu L, Zhou C, Wu X, Gao J, Li Q, Zhu Y, Jia C, Ma Z: Relapsed APL patient with variant NPM-RARalpha fusion responded to arsenic trioxide-based therapy and achieved long-term survival. Int J Hematol; 2010 May;91(4):708-10
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  • The t(5;17)/NPM-RARalpha is the second variant chromosomal translocation in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) to be characterized and also the second most plentiful variant translocation.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Arsenicals / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / genetics. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics. Oxides / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Recurrence. Remission Induction

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  • (PMID = 20405253.001).
  • [ISSN] 1865-3774
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / NPM-RARalpha protein, human; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / Oxides; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide
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5. Sanz MA, Montesinos P: Open issues on bleeding and thrombosis in acute promyelocytic leukemia. Thromb Res; 2010 Apr;125 Suppl 2:S51-4
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  • [Title] Open issues on bleeding and thrombosis in acute promyelocytic leukemia.
  • Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a distinct subtype of acute myeloid leukemia characterized by a specific genetic alteration, affecting the retinoic acid receptor-alpha (RAR-alpha), and leading to the accumulation of the promyelocytic blasts in the bone marrow and blood which is frequently associated with a life-threatening consumptive coagulopathy.
  • The body of biological information on APL establishes this leukemia as a unique entity that has to be promptly recognized to counteract the coagulopathy, especially in light of its striking response to treatment with all-trans retinoic acid.
  • In fact, the current standard for induction therapy results in extremely high antileukemic efficacy, achieving 90 to 95% complete remission rate.
  • However, while primary leukemia resistance has virtually disappeared as a cause of remission induction failure, death due to hemorrhage remains the major problem during the early treatment phase.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemorrhage / diagnosis. Hemorrhage / etiology. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / complications. Thrombosis / diagnosis. Thrombosis / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation / diagnosis. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation / epidemiology. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation / etiology. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation / therapy. Humans


6. Idres N, Marill J, Chabot GG: Regulation of CYP26A1 expression by selective RAR and RXR agonists in human NB4 promyelocytic leukemia cells. Biochem Pharmacol; 2005 Jun 1;69(11):1595-601
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  • [Title] Regulation of CYP26A1 expression by selective RAR and RXR agonists in human NB4 promyelocytic leukemia cells.
  • All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) can induce complete remission in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), but resistance to this treatment develops rapidly partly due to increased ATRA metabolism.
  • Among the cytochrome P450s (CYPs) involved in ATRA metabolism, the ATRA-inducible cytochrome P450 26A1 (CYP26A1) is particularly active although the molecular mechanisms involved in its regulation are not well defined in the target leukemia cells.
  • To study CYP26A1 expression and regulation in APL cells, we used the NB4 promyelocytic leukemia cell line.
  • To further define CYP26A1 induction mechanisms in the NB4 leukemia cells, we used RARs and RXR selective agonists.
  • In conclusion, we have shown that CYP26A1 induction is not essential for the granulocytic maturation of NB4 leukemia cells, and that CYP26A1 induction requires the activation of both RARalpha and RXR in these cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System / biosynthesis. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / enzymology. Receptors, Retinoic Acid / agonists. Retinoid X Receptors / agonists

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  • (PMID = 15896339.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-2952
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Retinoic Acid; 0 / Retinoid X Receptors; 0 / retinoic acid receptor alpha; 0 / retinoic acid receptor beta; 9035-51-2 / Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System; EC 1.14.14.1 / retinoic acid 4-hydroxylase
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7. Hao LC, Wang H, Zhang LZ: [Clinical observation and follow-up study on acute promyelocytic leukemia in childhood treated mainly with arsenic trioxide]. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi; 2005 Jul;43(7):534-5
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  • [Title] [Clinical observation and follow-up study on acute promyelocytic leukemia in childhood treated mainly with arsenic trioxide].
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Arsenicals / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Oxides / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Remission Induction / methods. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16083560.001).
  • [ISSN] 0578-1310
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Oxides; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide
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8. Adès L, Fenaux P: Is cytarabine required in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia? Curr Hematol Malig Rep; 2006 Jun;1(2):122-5
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  • [Title] Is cytarabine required in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia?
  • Until the late 1980s, chemotherapy with anthracyclines and cytarabine (AraC) was the only treatment approach for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), as for other types of acute myeloid leukemia.
  • Several groups have reported high rates of complete remission and low rates of relapse with ATRA and chemotherapy using anthracyclines alone, suggesting that AraC could be avoided in the chemotherapy of APL, reducing toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Cytarabine / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anthracyclines / administration & dosage. Anthracyclines / adverse effects. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / adverse effects. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Clinical Trials as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Middle Aged. Multicenter Studies as Topic. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome. Tretinoin / administration & dosage. Tretinoin / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 20425342.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-822X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current hematologic malignancy reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Hematol Malig Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anthracyclines; 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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9. Linker CA, Owzar K, Powell B, Hurd D, Damon LE, Archer LE, Larson RA, Cancer and Leukemia Group B: Auto-SCT for AML in second remission: CALGB study 9620. Bone Marrow Transplant; 2009 Sep;44(6):353-9
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  • [Title] Auto-SCT for AML in second remission: CALGB study 9620.
  • We studied the feasibility and efficacy of a two-step approach to Auto-SCT for patients with AML in second remission.
  • The most important prognostic factor was cytogenetics, with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) patients having a 5-year DFS of 67% compared with 16% for others.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Cytarabine / therapeutic use. Etoposide / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aging. Antigens, CD34 / analysis. Combined Modality Therapy / adverse effects. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Ideal Body Weight. Infusions, Intravenous. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Middle Aged. Remission Induction. Transplantation, Autologous. Treatment Outcome. Treatment Refusal. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19289999.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5365
  • [Journal-full-title] Bone marrow transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bone Marrow Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA02599; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA03927; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA04457; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA07968; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21060; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA26806; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA29165; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA31946; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA31983; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA33601; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA35279; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA41287; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA45808; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA47559; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA47577; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA60138; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA77406; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA77440; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA77658
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide
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10. Hu J, Liu YF, Wu CF, Xu F, Shen ZX, Zhu YM, Li JM, Tang W, Zhao WL, Wu W, Sun HP, Chen QS, Chen B, Zhou GB, Zelent A, Waxman S, Wang ZY, Chen SJ, Chen Z: Long-term efficacy and safety of all-trans retinoic acid/arsenic trioxide-based therapy in newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2009 Mar 3;106(9):3342-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term efficacy and safety of all-trans retinoic acid/arsenic trioxide-based therapy in newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia.
  • All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)/arsenic trioxide (ATO) combination-based therapy has benefitted newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) in short-term studies, but the long-term efficacy and safety remained unclear.
  • Eighty patients (94.1%) entered complete remission (CR).
  • [MeSH-major] Arsenicals / adverse effects. Arsenicals / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / diagnosis. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Oxides / adverse effects. Oxides / therapeutic use. Tretinoin / adverse effects. Tretinoin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19225113.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-6490
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AQP9 protein, human; 0 / Aquaporins; 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / Oxides; 0 / promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor alpha fusion oncoprotein; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2651325
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11. McNeely SC, Belshoff AC, Taylor BF, Fan TW, McCabe MJ Jr, Pinhas AR, States JC: Sensitivity to sodium arsenite in human melanoma cells depends upon susceptibility to arsenite-induced mitotic arrest. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol; 2008 Jun 1;229(2):252-61
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  • Arsenic induces clinical remission in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia and has potential for treatment of other cancers.

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  • (PMID = 18328521.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicology and applied pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P30 ES014443-01A1; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P30 ES014443; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES011314-05S1; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES011314-05; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P30ES014443; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P30 ES001247; United States / PHS HHS / / R01E S011314; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / T32ES011564; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / T32 ES011564; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / T32 ES011564-03; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P30ES001247; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES011564-03; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES013372-03; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / F30 ES013372-03; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R01 ES011314; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R01 ES011314-05S1; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R01 ES011314-05
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Arsenites; 0 / Sodium Compounds; 48OVY2OC72 / sodium arsenite
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS54377; NLM/ PMC2474465
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12. Gao Y, Camacho LH, Mehta K: Retinoic acid-induced CD38 antigen promotes leukemia cells attachment and interferon-gamma/interleukin-1beta-dependent apoptosis of endothelial cells: implications in the etiology of retinoic acid syndrome. Leuk Res; 2007 Apr;31(4):455-63
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  • [Title] Retinoic acid-induced CD38 antigen promotes leukemia cells attachment and interferon-gamma/interleukin-1beta-dependent apoptosis of endothelial cells: implications in the etiology of retinoic acid syndrome.
  • All-trans retinoic acid (RA) treatment of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) induces complete remission in more than 90% of the cases.
  • Importantly, RA-induced CD38 expression promoted strong attachment of leukemia cells to endothelial cells, and incubation of endothelial cells with either high concentration (100 ng/ml) of IFN-gamma alone or low concentration of IL-1beta and IFN-gamma (10 ng/ml, each) induced strong apoptotic responses as revealed by caspase-8 activation and DNA fragmentation.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD38 / metabolism. Apoptosis / drug effects. Endothelium, Vascular / pathology. Interferon-gamma / pharmacology. Interleukin-1beta / pharmacology. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / pathology. Tretinoin / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 16920192.001).
  • [ISSN] 0145-2126
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA092115; United States / PHS HHS / / P01 PA 55164
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interleukin-1beta; 0 / Receptors, Retinoic Acid; 31C4KY9ESH / Nitric Oxide; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma; EC 3.2.2.5 / Antigens, CD38
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13. Adès L, Chevret S, Raffoux E, de Botton S, Guerci A, Pigneux A, Stoppa AM, Lamy T, Rigal-Huguet F, Vekhoff A, Meyer-Monard S, Maloisel F, Deconinck E, Ferrant A, Thomas X, Fegueux N, Chomienne C, Dombret H, Degos L, Fenaux P, European Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia Group: Is cytarabine useful in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia? Results of a randomized trial from the European Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia Group. J Clin Oncol; 2006 Dec 20;24(36):5703-10
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  • [Title] Is cytarabine useful in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia? Results of a randomized trial from the European Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia Group.
  • PURPOSE: Several phase II studies have suggested that cytarabine (AraC) was not required in the treatment of newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) patients receiving all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), an anthracycline, and maintenance therapy, and we aimed at confirming this finding in a randomized trial.
  • RESULTS: Overall, 328 (96.5%) of 340 patients achieved complete remission (CR).
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cytarabine / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Daunorubicin / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Remission Induction. Survival Analysis. Tretinoin / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 17116939.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin
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14. Yanada M, Matsushita T, Asou N, Kishimoto Y, Tsuzuki M, Maeda Y, Horikawa K, Okada M, Ohtake S, Yagasaki F, Matsumoto T, Kimura Y, Shinagawa K, Iwanaga M, Miyazaki Y, Ohno R, Naoe T: Severe hemorrhagic complications during remission induction therapy for acute promyelocytic leukemia: incidence, risk factors, and influence on outcome. Eur J Haematol; 2007 Mar;78(3):213-9
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  • [Title] Severe hemorrhagic complications during remission induction therapy for acute promyelocytic leukemia: incidence, risk factors, and influence on outcome.
  • BACKGROUND: Even after the introduction of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), early hemorrhagic death remains a major cause of remission induction failure for acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL).
  • METHODS: To investigate severe hemorrhagic complications during remission induction therapy with respect to incidence, risk factors, and influence on outcome.
  • Results were analyzed for 279 patients enrolled in the APL97 study conducted by the Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group (JALSG).
  • Nine of them succumbed to an early death, while the remaining nine patients eventually achieved complete remission (CR).
  • [MeSH-major] Hemorrhage / etiology. Hemorrhage / pathology. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Remission Induction. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17241371.001).
  • [ISSN] 0902-4441
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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15. Yedjou CG, Brown E, Rogers C, Tchounwou PB: ASCORBIC ACID - MODULATION OF ARSENIC TRIOXIDE TOXICITY: IMPLICATION FOR THE CLINICAL TREATMENT OF ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. Met Ions Biol Med; 2008;10:413-418
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  • [Title] ASCORBIC ACID - MODULATION OF ARSENIC TRIOXIDE TOXICITY: IMPLICATION FOR THE CLINICAL TREATMENT OF ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA.
  • BACKGROUND: Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia (APL) is a subtype of acute leukemia which can affect people of any age.
  • Recent in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that arsenic trioxide (ATO) can induce clinical remission in de-novo and APL patients that have relapsed from conventional treatment.
  • AIM: The aim of this research was to study the modulatory effect of AA on ATO-induced oxidative stress in leukemia cells.

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  • (PMID = 26549974.001).
  • [ISSN] 1257-2535
  • [Journal-full-title] Metal ions in biology and medicine : proceedings of the ... International Symposium on Metal Ions in Biology and Medicine held ... = Les ions metalliques en biologie et en medecine : ... Symposium international sur les ions metalliques ...
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Met Ions Biol Med
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / G12 RR013459; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / G12 RR013459-010007
  • [Publication-type] JOURNAL ARTICLE
  • [Publication-country] France
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16. Kobayashi R, Tawa A, Hanada R, Horibe K, Tsuchida M, Tsukimoto I, Japanese childhood AML cooperative study group: Extramedullary infiltration at diagnosis and prognosis in children with acute myelogenous leukemia. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2007 Apr;48(4):393-8
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  • [Title] Extramedullary infiltration at diagnosis and prognosis in children with acute myelogenous leukemia.
  • BACKGROUND: Extramedullary infiltration (EMI) is an occasional clinical symptom in childhood acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), but there is considerable controversy regarding the prognostic significance of EMI in AML.
  • PROCEDURE: We evaluated the frequency and prognostic significance of EMI at diagnosis of AML in children.
  • RESULTS: Of 240 cases of de novo AML excluding children with Down syndrome and acute promyelocytic leukemia, 56 (23.3%) showed EMI at diagnosis.
  • The complete remission rate following induction chemotherapy was lower in patients with EMI.
  • A detailed analysis showed that patients with EMI with a WBC count at diagnosis of over 100 x 10(9)/L or infiltration into the central nervous system are likely to have a poor prognosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: CNS leukemia and EMI together with a WBC count of >100 x 10(9)/L at diagnosis of AML are high risk factors for relapse, and alternative treatment approaches for patients with these characteristics should be explored.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid / pathology. Leukemic Infiltration / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Myeloid / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone and Bones / pathology. Central Nervous System / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gingiva / pathology. Humans. Hydrocortisone / administration & dosage. Idarubicin / administration & dosage. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Japan / epidemiology. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Orbit / pathology. Prognosis. Remission Induction. Skin / pathology. Testis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16550530.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; ZRP63D75JW / Idarubicin
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17. Breccia M, Cimino G, Diverio D, Gentilini F, Mandelli F, Lo Coco F: Sustained molecular remission after low dose gemtuzumab-ozogamicin in elderly patients with advanced acute promyelocytic leukemia. Haematologica; 2007 Sep;92(9):1273-4
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  • [Title] Sustained molecular remission after low dose gemtuzumab-ozogamicin in elderly patients with advanced acute promyelocytic leukemia.
  • We report here a preliminary experience with gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO) used at low dosage (3 mg/m (2)) in 3 elderly patients with acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) who presented molecular relapse and were unfit for intensive chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoglycosides / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Humans. Male. Remission Induction

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  • (PMID = 17768126.001).
  • [ISSN] 1592-8721
  • [Journal-full-title] Haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Haematologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoglycosides; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / gemtuzumab
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18. Chim CS, Chan WW, Pang A, Kwong YL: Preferential methylation of Wnt inhibitory factor-1 in acute promyelocytic leukemia: an independent poor prognostic factor. Leukemia; 2006 May;20(5):907-9
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  • [Title] Preferential methylation of Wnt inhibitory factor-1 in acute promyelocytic leukemia: an independent poor prognostic factor.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carrier Proteins / metabolism. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / physiopathology. Repressor Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing. Azacitidine / pharmacology. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Humans. Methylation. Multivariate Analysis. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / drug effects. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Recurrence. Remission Induction. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Risk Factors. Sensitivity and Specificity. Survival Rate. Tretinoin / therapeutic use. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16525492.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Letter; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / WIF1 protein, human; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; M801H13NRU / Azacitidine
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19. Yoshino Y, Yuan B, Miyashita SI, Iriyama N, Horikoshi A, Shikino O, Toyoda H, Kaise T: Speciation of arsenic trioxide metabolites in blood cells and plasma of a patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia. Anal Bioanal Chem; 2009 Jan;393(2):689-97
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  • [Title] Speciation of arsenic trioxide metabolites in blood cells and plasma of a patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia.
  • Arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)) has been widely accepted as the second-best choice for the treatment of relapsed and refractory acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) patients.
  • To clarify the speciation of arsenic, the blood samples were collected at various time points from a patient with APL after remission induction therapy and during consolidation therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Arsenicals / blood. Arsenicals / metabolism. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / blood. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / metabolism. Oxides / blood. Oxides / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Humans. Male. Mass Spectrometry. Middle Aged. Recurrence. Remission Induction. Time Factors. Tretinoin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19009285.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-2650
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal Bioanal Chem
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Oxides; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide
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20. Ogasawara T, Yasuyama M, Kawauchi K: Therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome with monosomy 5 after successful treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (M2). Am J Hematol; 2005 Jun;79(2):136-41
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  • [Title] Therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome with monosomy 5 after successful treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (M2).
  • We describe a patient who developed myelodysplastic syndrome over 2 years after achieving complete remission of acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • The patient was treated in July 1998 with anthracycline, etoposide, and behenoyl cytarabine chemotherapy for AML (French-American-British classification, M2; World Health Organization classification, AML with maturation) and achieved complete remission.
  • The pancytopenia progressed rapidly, and he died 2 months after the diagnosis of MDS.
  • Therapy-related MDS and AML (t-MDS/t-AML) developing after treatment for acute leukemia is unusual; the primary leukemia associated with most cases of t-MDS/t-AML is acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 5. Cytarabine / analogs & derivatives. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / chemically induced. Monosomy. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / chemically induced. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / genetics


21. Farhat M, Venugopal P: Long-term remission of extramedullary relapse from acute promyelocytic leukemia after treatment with arsenic trioxide, intrathecal chemotherapy, and brain irradiation. Clin Adv Hematol Oncol; 2007 Apr;5(4):320-3; discussion 323-4
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  • [Title] Long-term remission of extramedullary relapse from acute promyelocytic leukemia after treatment with arsenic trioxide, intrathecal chemotherapy, and brain irradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Arsenicals / administration & dosage. Cranial Irradiation. Ear Neoplasms / therapy. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute. Oxides / administration & dosage. Sarcoma, Myeloid / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Daunorubicin / administration & dosage. Humans. Injections, Spinal. Male. Remission Induction. Tretinoin / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 17607291.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-0790
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical advances in hematology & oncology : H&O
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Adv Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Oxides; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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22. Barnard DR, Alonzo TA, Gerbing RB, Lange B, Woods WG, Children's Oncology Group: Comparison of childhood myelodysplastic syndrome, AML FAB M6 or M7, CCG 2891: report from the Children's Oncology Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2007 Jul;49(1):17-22
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  • BACKGROUND: Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), acute erythroleukemia (FAB M6), and acute megakaryocytic leukemia (FAB M7) have overlapping features.
  • PROCEDURE: Children without Down syndrome or acute promyelocytic leukemia who were newly diagnosed with primary myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) M6 or M7 were compared to children with de novo AML M0-M5.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Erythroblastic, Acute / diagnosis. Leukemia, Megakaryoblastic, Acute / diagnosis. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Prognosis. Remission Induction. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome


23. Classen CF, Teigler-Schlegel A, Röttgers S, Reinhardt D, Döhner K, Debatin KM: AML bearing the translocation t(11;17)(q23;q21): involvement of MLL and a region close to RARA, with no differentiation response to retinoic acid. Ann Hematol; 2005 Nov;84(12):774-80
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  • We describe a case of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) bearing the translocation t(11;17)(q23;q21).
  • The morphological phenotype represented a monoblastic leukemia, AML French-American-British (FAB) M5a.
  • Further analysis of the translocation revealed an involvement of the mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) gene and a region closely proximal to the retinoic acid (RA) receptor alpha (RARA) gene.
  • In acute promyelocytic leukemia, the translocation (15;17)(q22;q11-21) involving the RARA leads to a maturation arrest that can be overcome by RA, often inducing remission.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Cell Differentiation / drug effects. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17 / genetics. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Translocation, Genetic. Tretinoin / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD38 / biosynthesis. Cell Death / drug effects. Cell Death / genetics. Child. Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Leukemic / drug effects. Gene Expression Regulation, Leukemic / genetics. Hematopoietic Stem Cells / metabolism. Hematopoietic Stem Cells / pathology. Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase. Humans. Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein / genetics. Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / biosynthesis. Receptors, Retinoic Acid / genetics. Receptors, Retinoic Acid / metabolism. Receptors, Retinoic Acid / therapeutic use. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16044313.001).
  • [ISSN] 0939-5555
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / MLL protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Retinoic Acid; 0 / retinoic acid receptor alpha; 149025-06-9 / Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; EC 2.1.1.43 / Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; EC 3.2.2.5 / Antigens, CD38
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24. Gupta V, Yi QL, Brandwein J, Lipton JH, Messner HA, Schuh AC, Wells RA, Minden MD: Role of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) in the consolidation therapy of acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL). Leuk Res; 2005 Jan;29(1):113-4
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  • [Title] Role of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) in the consolidation therapy of acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL).
  • The role of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) in the consolidation therapy of acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) is undefined at present.
  • The 5-year overall and leukaemia-free survival of study patients was 82% (95% C.I.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Tretinoin / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Remission Induction. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 15541484.001).
  • [ISSN] 0145-2126
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
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25. Ostronoff M, Domingues MC, Ostronoff F, Matias C, Florêncio R, Matias K, Souto Maior AP, Sucupira A, Calixto R, Tagliari C: Reduced intensity conditioning allogeneic bone marrow transplantation following central nervous system (CNS) relapse of acute promyelocytic leukemia: evidence for a graft-versus-leukemia effect in the CNS. Am J Hematol; 2006 May;81(5):387-8
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  • [Title] Reduced intensity conditioning allogeneic bone marrow transplantation following central nervous system (CNS) relapse of acute promyelocytic leukemia: evidence for a graft-versus-leukemia effect in the CNS.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow Transplantation. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / etiology. Graft vs Leukemia Effect. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / surgery. Transplantation Conditioning / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Male. Recurrence. Remission Induction. Transplantation, Homologous


26. Santamaría C, Chillón MC, García-Sanz R, Balanzategui A, Sarasquete ME, Alcoceba M, Ramos F, Bernal T, Queizán JA, Peñarrubia MJ, Giraldo P, San Miguel JF, Gonzalez M: The relevance of preferentially expressed antigen of melanoma (PRAME) as a marker of disease activity and prognosis in acute promyelocytic leukemia. Haematologica; 2008 Dec;93(12):1797-805
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  • [Title] The relevance of preferentially expressed antigen of melanoma (PRAME) as a marker of disease activity and prognosis in acute promyelocytic leukemia.
  • BACKGROUND: The gene for preferentially expressed antigen of melanoma (PRAME) has been shown to be over-expressed in acute promyelocytic leukemia, but its actual incidence and clinical impact are still unknown.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied PRAME expression at diagnosis using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 125 patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia enrolled in the Spanish PETHEMA-96 (n=45) and PETHEMA-99 (n=80) clinical trials.
  • In addition, PRAME expression was evaluated as a marker of disease activity in 225 follow-up samples from 67 patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia.
  • RESULTS: At diagnosis, PRAME expression in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia was significantly higher (p<0.001) than in patients with non-M3 acute myeloid leukemia (n=213) and in healthy controls (n=10).
  • Furthermore, patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia with high PRAME expression had a favorable outcome.
  • Samples at remission showed PRAME levels similar to those in normal controls while samples at relapse over-expressed PRAME again.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Low PRAME expression defines a subgroup of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia with a short relapse-free survival.
  • This marker could be useful as a secondary marker for monitoring patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / analysis. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18815192.001).
  • [ISSN] 1592-8721
  • [Journal-full-title] Haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Haematologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / PRAME protein, human
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27. Okazuka K, Masuko M, Seki Y, Hama H, Honma N, Furukawa T, Toba K, Kishi K, Aizawa Y: Successful all-trans retinoic acid treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia in a patient with NPM/RAR fusion. Int J Hematol; 2007 Oct;86(3):246-9
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  • [Title] Successful all-trans retinoic acid treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia in a patient with NPM/RAR fusion.
  • Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is characterized by a reciprocal chromosomal translocation involving the gene for retinoic acid receptor alpha(RAR).
  • Some APL cases also involve rearrangements that fuse RAR to partner genes other than PML, including nucleophosmin (NPM), promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger (PLZF), nuclear mitotic apparatus (NUMA), and Stat5b, but the clinical characteristics of APL without PML-RAR have not been fully clarified.
  • Complete remission was achieved with ATRA monotherapy and was maintained for 18 months with consolidation chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Neoplasm Proteins. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion. Tretinoin / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17 / genetics. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Remission Induction. Renal Dialysis. Translocation, Genetic. Uremia / complications. Uremia / genetics. Uremia / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17988991.001).
  • [ISSN] 0925-5710
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / NPM-RARalpha protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / PLZF-RARalpha fusion protein, human; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
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28. Moreno Tejero ML, Lassaletta Atienza A, García Salido A, Sevilla Navarro J, Madero López L: [Arsenic trioxide treatment in a patient with recurrent acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL)]. An Pediatr (Barc); 2010 Jul;73(1):39-41
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  • [Title] [Arsenic trioxide treatment in a patient with recurrent acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL)].
  • Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a special subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with M3 morphology and specific chromosomal translocation t(15;17) with resultant leukemogenic PML-RARalpha fusion gene.
  • Its main characteristics are therapy response using all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) and its high rate of recovery; higher than other subtypes of acute myeloid leukemia.
  • Arsenic trioxide induces a high complete remission rate in patients having an APL relapse.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Arsenicals / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Oxides / therapeutic use

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20605542.001).
  • [ISSN] 1695-9531
  • [Journal-full-title] Anales de pediatría (Barcelona, Spain : 2003)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Pediatr (Barc)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Oxides; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide
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29. Jeddi R, Hdiji S, Kacem K, Ben Lakhal R, Aissaoui L, Ben Abid H, Belhadj Ali Z, Meddeb B: [Therapeutic results with apl 93 protocol in acute promyelocytic leukemia (34 cases)]. Tunis Med; 2006 Nov;84(11):717-20
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  • [Title] [Therapeutic results with apl 93 protocol in acute promyelocytic leukemia (34 cases)].
  • BACKGROUND: Acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) account for approximately 10% to 15% of all AML in most reports.
  • Clinical features includes the presence in 80% to 90% of patients of a severe hemorrhagic syndrome, a specific balanced translocation between chromosomes 15 and 17 with a fusion of a large pert of the retinoic acid receptor a gene (RARa) on chromosome 17 to a part of the promyelocytic leukaemia (PML) gene on chromosome 15.
  • AIM: of the study was to assess of the therapeutic management of APL 93 protocol in acute promyelocytic leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Anthracyclines / administration & dosage. Child. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17 / genetics. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pilot Projects. Receptors, Retinoic Acid. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Survival Analysis. Translocation, Genetic. Tretinoin / administration & dosage. Tunisia

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  • (PMID = 17294898.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anthracyclines; 0 / Receptors, Retinoic Acid; 0 / retinoic acid receptor alpha; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
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30. Yang L, Gong YP, Yang YM, Luo S: [A successful case of tanshinone II A treatment for relapsed acute promyelocytic leukemia after maintainance therapy of all-trans retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide]. Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban; 2010 Nov;41(6):1065-7
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  • [Title] [A successful case of tanshinone II A treatment for relapsed acute promyelocytic leukemia after maintainance therapy of all-trans retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide].
  • OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of Tanshinone II A (Tan II A) on acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) characterized by resistance to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO).
  • RESULTS: The patient reached morphologically complete remission after using Tan II A intravenously for 54 days.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Diterpenes, Abietane / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 21265116.001).
  • [ISSN] 1672-173X
  • [Journal-full-title] Sichuan da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Sichuan University. Medical science edition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Diterpenes, Abietane; 0 / Oxides; 03UUH3J385 / tanshinone; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; E7WED276I5 / 6-Mercaptopurine; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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31. Bradstock K: Chemotherapy for patients with acute myeloid leukemia in first remission. Curr Hematol Malig Rep; 2006 Jun;1(2):108-13
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  • [Title] Chemotherapy for patients with acute myeloid leukemia in first remission.
  • Although the majority of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) achieve a complete remission with induction chemotherapy, most will ultimately relapse.
  • Clinical trials have demonstrated that early intensive consolidation therapy with high-dose cytarabine can produce prolonged responses in up to 40% of patients in remission after standard induction therapy.
  • Autologous and allogeneic stem cell transplantation in first remission are also valid alternatives, but the value of low-dose maintenance treatment seems confined to acute promyelocytic leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Clinical Trials as Topic. Combined Modality Therapy. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Schedule. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Humans. Immunotherapy. Middle Aged. Multicenter Studies as Topic. Remission Induction

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  • (PMID = 20425340.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-822X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current hematologic malignancy reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Hematol Malig Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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32. Boban A, Radman I, Zadro R, Dubravcic K, Maretic T, Civljak R, Lisic M, Begovac J: Acute promyelocytic leukemia after whole brain irradiation of primary brain lymphoma in an HIV-infected patient. Eur J Med Res; 2009 Jan 28;14(1):42-3
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  • [Title] Acute promyelocytic leukemia after whole brain irradiation of primary brain lymphoma in an HIV-infected patient.
  • The occurrence of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) in HIV-infected patients has been reported in only five cases.
  • Here, we report a case of an HIV-patient who developed APL and upon treatment entered a complete remission.
  • We treated the patient with antiretroviral therapy and whole-brain irradiation, resulting in complete remission of the lymphoma.
  • Subsequent cytological and molecular ana?lysis of bone marrow demonstrated complete hematological and molecular remission.
  • The last follow-up 14 months later, showed sustained molecular APL remission.
  • In conclusion, we demonstrated that a complete molecular APL remission in an HIV-patient was achieved by using reduced-intensity treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / radiation effects. Brain Neoplasms / radiotherapy. HIV Infections / complications. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / etiology. Leukemia, Radiation-Induced / etiology. Lymphoma / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anti-Retroviral Agents / therapeutic use. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / methods. Bisexuality. Humans. Idarubicin / therapeutic use. Male. Remission Induction. Tretinoin


33. De Marchis ML, Ballarino M, Salvatori B, Puzzolo MC, Bozzoni I, Fatica A: A new molecular network comprising PU.1, interferon regulatory factor proteins and miR-342 stimulates ATRA-mediated granulocytic differentiation of acute promyelocytic leukemia cells. Leukemia; 2009 May;23(5):856-62
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  • [Title] A new molecular network comprising PU.1, interferon regulatory factor proteins and miR-342 stimulates ATRA-mediated granulocytic differentiation of acute promyelocytic leukemia cells.
  • In the acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) bearing the t(15;17), all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) treatment induces granulocytic maturation and complete remission of leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Differentiation. Granulocytes / cytology. Interferon Regulatory Factor-1 / genetics. Interferon-Stimulated Gene Factor 3, gamma Subunit / genetics. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / genetics. MicroRNAs / genetics. MicroRNAs / physiology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Trans-Activators / genetics. Tretinoin / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 19151778.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5551
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / EVL protein, human; 0 / IRF1 protein, human; 0 / IRF9 protein, human; 0 / Interferon Regulatory Factor-1; 0 / Interferon-Stimulated Gene Factor 3, gamma Subunit; 0 / MicroRNAs; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / proto-oncogene protein Spi-1; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
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34. Papanikolaou NA: Rational targeting in acute promyelocytic leukemia. In Vivo; 2010 Jan-Feb;24(1):21-7
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  • [Title] Rational targeting in acute promyelocytic leukemia.
  • Acute promyelocytic leukemia (ARL) is characterized by the nearly homogeneous expression of the fusion oncogenic protein PML-RARalpha and the testis-specific cyclin A1 protein, which are implicated in its pathogenesis.
  • PML-RARalpha binds all-trans retinoic acid with high affinity inducing granulocytic differentiation and remission.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Drug Delivery Systems. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Tretinoin / therapeutic use


35. Worch J, Ritter J, Frühwald MC: Presentation of acute promyelocytic leukemia as granulocytic sarcoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Mar;50(3):657-60
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  • [Title] Presentation of acute promyelocytic leukemia as granulocytic sarcoma.
  • This extramedullary tumor can present before, concurrent with or after the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia.
  • GS is extremely uncommon in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL).
  • As a proportion of patients never develop systemic disease, correct and timely diagnosis may be rather difficult, but is a prerequisite for optimal outcome.
  • GS should be considered in the differential diagnosis of children with unusual bone lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Diagnostic Errors. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / complications. Sarcoma, Myeloid / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Arthritis, Psoriatic / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / analysis. Osteolysis / etiology. Osteomyelitis / diagnosis. Remission Induction. Shoulder Pain / etiology. Tretinoin / administration & dosage

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17437290.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor alpha fusion oncoprotein; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
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36. Ohnishi K: PML-RARalpha inhibitors (ATRA, tamibaroten, arsenic troxide) for acute promyelocytic leukemia. Int J Clin Oncol; 2007 Oct;12(5):313-7
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  • [Title] PML-RARalpha inhibitors (ATRA, tamibaroten, arsenic troxide) for acute promyelocytic leukemia.
  • Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is characterized by generation of the PML-RARalpha fusion gene.
  • More than 90% of patients with APL achieve a complete remission (CR) with differentiation therapy consisting of ATRA combined with chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Arsenicals / therapeutic use. Benzoates / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / antagonists & inhibitors. Oxides / therapeutic use. Tetrahydronaphthalenes / therapeutic use. Tretinoin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17929112.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Benzoates; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / Oxides; 0 / Tetrahydronaphthalenes; 0 / promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor alpha fusion oncoprotein; 08V52GZ3H9 / tamibarotene; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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37. Isakson P, Bjørås M, Bøe SO, Simonsen A: Autophagy contributes to therapy-induced degradation of the PML/RARA oncoprotein. Blood; 2010 Sep 30;116(13):2324-31
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  • Treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) with all-trans retinoic acid and/or arsenic trioxide represents a paradigm in targeted cancer therapy because these drugs cause clinical remission by affecting the stability of the fusion oncoprotein promyelocytic leukemia (PML)/retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARA).
  • [MeSH-major] Autophagy / drug effects. Autophagy / physiology. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / metabolism. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / metabolism. Receptors, Retinoic Acid / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • [CommentIn] Blood. 2010 Sep 30;116(13):2200-1 [20884808.001]
  • (PMID = 20574048.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-0020
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / Oxides; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / Receptors, Retinoic Acid; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor alpha fusion oncoprotein; 0 / retinoic acid receptor alpha; 143220-95-5 / PML protein, human; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; EC 2.7.1.1 / MTOR protein, human; EC 2.7.1.1 / TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide
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38. Xin L, Wan-jun S, Zeng-jun L, Yao-zhong Z, Yun-tao L, Yan L, Chang-chun W, Qiao-chuan L, Ren-chi Y, Ming-zhe H, Jian-xiang W, Lu-gui Q: A survival study and prognostic factors analysis on acute promyelocytic leukemia at a single center. Leuk Res; 2007 Jun;31(6):765-71
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  • [Title] A survival study and prognostic factors analysis on acute promyelocytic leukemia at a single center.
  • This study was aimed to investigate the factors influencing long-term survival on patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia.
  • In total, 222 patients, 184 achieved complete remission (CR) with the CR rate of 82.88% and 22 patients died during early induction therapy with the early-death-rate of 10%.
  • Univariate and multivariate analysis of eight factors potentially influencing survival and prognosis were carried out with Log-Rank and Cox regression method, including sex, age, initial WBC count, the level of lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), first induction regimen, days from induction therapy to CR, post-remission therapy and the status of PML-RAR alpha fusion gene by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
  • Univariate analyses showed that initial WBC count, first induction regimen, days from induction therapy to CR, post-remission therapy regimen and the status of PML-RAR alpha in remission were important prognostic factors for long-term survival.
  • Multivariate study showed that only post-remission therapy regimen was associated with RFS and OS.
  • It is concluded that the post-remission treatment combining ATRA, As(2)O(3) and chemotherapy would significantly improve the long-term survival of APL patients achieving CR(1).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Arsenicals / administration & dosage. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics. Oxides / administration & dosage. Recurrence. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Survival Rate. Tretinoin / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 17007927.001).
  • [ISSN] 0145-2126
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / Oxides; 0 / promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor alpha fusion oncoprotein; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide
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39. Jurcic JG: Immunotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia. Curr Oncol Rep; 2005 Sep;7(5):339-46
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  • [Title] Immunotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia.
  • Although the humanized anti-CD33 antibody HuM195 has only modest activity against overt acute myeloid leukemia (AML), it can eliminate minimal residual disease in acute promyelocytic leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunotherapy / methods. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aminoglycosides / pharmacology. Antibodies, Monoclonal / pharmacology. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antigens, CD / chemistry. Antigens, CD45 / chemistry. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / chemistry. Bismuth / chemistry. Cell Adhesion Molecules / chemistry. Humans. Immunotoxins / chemistry. Radioimmunotherapy. Radioisotopes / chemistry. Recurrence. Remission Induction. Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3. T-Lymphocytes / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16091194.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-3790
  • [Journal-full-title] Current oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Oncol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoglycosides; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD33 protein, human; 0 / CD66 antigens; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / Immunotoxins; 0 / Radioisotopes; 0 / Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3; 93NS566KF7 / gemtuzumab; EC 3.1.3.48 / Antigens, CD45; U015TT5I8H / Bismuth
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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40. Ortega JJ, Madero L, Martín G, Verdeguer A, García P, Parody R, Fuster J, Molines A, Novo A, Debén G, Rodríguez A, Conde E, de la Serna J, Allegue MJ, Capote FJ, González JD, Bolufer P, González M, Sanz MA, PETHEMA Group: Treatment with all-trans retinoic acid and anthracycline monochemotherapy for children with acute promyelocytic leukemia: a multicenter study by the PETHEMA Group. J Clin Oncol; 2005 Oct 20;23(30):7632-40
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  • [Title] Treatment with all-trans retinoic acid and anthracycline monochemotherapy for children with acute promyelocytic leukemia: a multicenter study by the PETHEMA Group.
  • PURPOSE: To analyze the simultaneous combination of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and anthracycline monochemotherapy for children with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL).
  • Sixty-one children (92%) achieved complete remission (CR).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] 6-Mercaptopurine / administration & dosage. Adolescent. Anthracyclines / administration & dosage. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Idarubicin / administration & dosage. Incidence. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Prognosis. Remission Induction. Risk Factors. Survival Rate. Tretinoin / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 16234524.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anthracyclines; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; E7WED276I5 / 6-Mercaptopurine; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; ZRP63D75JW / Idarubicin
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41. Braess J, Spiekermann K, Staib P, Grüneisen A, Wörmann B, Ludwig WD, Serve H, Reichle A, Peceny R, Oruzio D, Schmid C, Schiel X, Hentrich M, Sauerland C, Unterhalt M, Fiegl M, Kern W, Buske C, Bohlander S, Heinecke A, Baurmann H, Beelen DW, Berdel WE, Büchner T, Hiddemann W: Dose-dense induction with sequential high-dose cytarabine and mitoxantone (S-HAM) and pegfilgrastim results in a high efficacy and a short duration of critical neutropenia in de novo acute myeloid leukemia: a pilot study of the AMLCG. Blood; 2009 Apr 23;113(17):3903-10
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  • [Title] Dose-dense induction with sequential high-dose cytarabine and mitoxantone (S-HAM) and pegfilgrastim results in a high efficacy and a short duration of critical neutropenia in de novo acute myeloid leukemia: a pilot study of the AMLCG.
  • Dose density during early induction has been demonstrated to be one of the prime determinants for treatment efficacy in acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • Of 172 de novo AML patients (excluding acute promyelocytic leukemia), 61% reached a complete remission, 22% a complete remission with incomplete peripheral recovery, 7% had persistent leukemia, 10% died (early death) resulting in an overall response rate of 83%.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cytarabine / therapeutic use. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Mitoxantrone / therapeutic use. Neutropenia / chemically induced

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  • (PMID = 19131552.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-0020
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 143011-72-7 / Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor; 3A58010674 / pegfilgrastim; BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone; PVI5M0M1GW / Filgrastim
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42. Lafayette TC, Coser VM, Brûlé AO, Coser PL, Pereira WV: External auditory canal and middle ear relapse of acute promyelocytic leukemia treated with arsenic trioxide: case report and review of the literature. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2010 Apr;32(3):229-32
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  • [Title] External auditory canal and middle ear relapse of acute promyelocytic leukemia treated with arsenic trioxide: case report and review of the literature.
  • Extramedullary involvement occurs infrequently in acute promyelocytic leukemia and is said to be more common after treatment with all-trans retinoic acid.
  • A patient with cytogenetically and molecularly confirmed acute promyelocytic leukemia developed isolated extramedullary relapse in the auditory canal and middle ear 4 years and 9 months after initial diagnosis, while in hematologic and molecular remission, successfully treated with arsenic trioxide alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Arsenicals / therapeutic use. Ear Canal / pathology. Ear Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ear, Middle / pathology. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Oxides / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 20186102.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3678
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Oxides; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide
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43. Luo XQ, Ke ZY, Huang LB, Guan XQ, Zhang YC, Zhang XL: Improved outcome for Chinese children with acute promyelocytic leukemia: a comparison of two protocols. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2009 Sep;53(3):325-8
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  • [Title] Improved outcome for Chinese children with acute promyelocytic leukemia: a comparison of two protocols.
  • OBJECTIVE: Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is now highly curable, except in many developing countries.
  • METHODS: The diagnosis was based on the FAB classification and detection of PML-RAR alpha rearrangement.
  • The treatment failures were: six patients abandoned treatment (37.5%), two who died of intracranial hemorrhage at diagnosis (6.3%) and sepsis in remission (6.3%) respectively, and two who relapsed (12.5%).
  • Treatment failures included: one who died of intracranial hemorrhage at diagnosis (7.1%) and one who relapsed (7.1%).
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • [CommentIn] Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2009 Sep;53(3):303-5 [19544375.001]
  • (PMID = 19422024.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anthracyclines; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
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44. Fenaux P, Wang ZZ, Degos L: Treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia by retinoids. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol; 2007;313:101-28
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  • [Title] Treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia by retinoids.
  • We review the role of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL).
  • Combination treatment probably also reduces the incidence of initial failures, and complete remission (CR) rates greater than 90% are now regularly reported in large multicenter trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Tretinoin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17217041.001).
  • [ISSN] 0070-217X
  • [Journal-full-title] Current topics in microbiology and immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
  • [Number-of-references] 132
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45. Liang DC, Chan TT, Lin KH, Lin DT, Lu MY, Chen SH, Liu HC, Lin MT, Lee MT, Shu SG, Chang TK, Chen JS, Hsiao CC, Hung IJ, Hsieh YL, Chen RL, Cheng SN, Chang WH, Lee CH, Lin KS: Improved treatment results for childhood acute myeloid leukemia in Taiwan. Leukemia; 2006 Jan;20(1):136-41
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  • [Title] Improved treatment results for childhood acute myeloid leukemia in Taiwan.
  • To improve treatment results for children with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML), we introduced a novel protocol, Taiwan Pediatric Oncology Group-AML-97A, for AML other than acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), for which modified conventional protocols were used.
  • Stem cell transplantation was performed in 29 patients in first remission with a similar outcome as chemotherapy alone.
  • The remission rate in the AML-97A study was 90%, the 5-year survival 51 +/- 5.3% (s.e.) and the 5-year event-free survival 50 +/- 4.8%; for APL, these were 100%, 86 +/- 7.0, and 75 +/- 9.8%.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / therapy. Stem Cell Transplantation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Remission Induction. Taiwan. Treatment Outcome


46. Pacilli L, Lo Coco F, Ramadan SM, Giannì L, Pingi A, Remotti D, Majolino I: Promyelocytic sarcoma of the spine: a case report and review of the literature. Adv Hematol; 2010;2010:137608
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  • [Title] Promyelocytic sarcoma of the spine: a case report and review of the literature.
  • It can be present before, concurrently with, or after the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia.
  • MS is extremely uncommon in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL).
  • The patient presented with neurologic symptoms due to a paravertebral mass of MS after 7 years of complete remission.
  • Systemic treatment was also given with combined arsenic trioxide and all-trans retinoic acid and the patient was able to achieve a second prolonged clinical and molecular remission.

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  • [ISSN] 1687-9112
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in hematology
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47. Xu SN, Chen JP, Liu JP, Xia Y: [Arsenic trioxide in combination with all-trans retinoic acid for acute promyelocytic leukemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis]. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao; 2009 Nov;7(11):1024-34
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  • [Title] [Arsenic trioxide in combination with all-trans retinoic acid for acute promyelocytic leukemia: a systematic review and meta-analysis].
  • BACKGROUND: The studies have demonstrated that arsenic trioxide (ATO) in combination with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) takes effects in treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) through different underlying mechanisms.
  • DATA EXTRACTION AND ANALYSIS: Related data concerning complete remission rate, overall survival rate, and disease free survival rate, time to complete remission, relapse rate, mortality and adverse reactions were extracted independently by two reviewers.
  • Compared with ATO monotherapy, ATO plus ATRA could improve time to complete remission and relapse rate of newly diagnosed APL, but could not improve the complete remission rate, disease free survival rate, mortality and liver dysfunction of relapsed APL patients based on meta-analysis and sensitivity analysis.
  • Compared with ATRA monotherapy, ATO plus ATRA shortened the time to complete remission, improved the disease free survival rate and relapse rate, but increased the incidence of edema during the treatment.
  • Compared with chemotherapy with ATO plus ATRA, ATO plus ATRA could improve the complete remission rate, relapse rate, mortality and adverse reactions.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Arsenicals / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Oxides / therapeutic use. Tretinoin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19912733.001).
  • [ISSN] 1672-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhong xi yi jie he xue bao = Journal of Chinese integrative medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Review
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Oxides; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide
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48. Wethkamp N, Klempnauer KH: Daxx is a transcriptional repressor of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta. J Biol Chem; 2009 Oct 16;284(42):28783-94
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  • Co-expression of promyelocytic leukemia protein abrogated the repressive effect of Daxx on C/EBPbeta as well as the direct interaction of Daxx and C/EBPbeta, presumably by re-recruiting Daxx to PML-oncogenic domains.
  • In acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cells, C/EBPbeta activity is known to be required for all-trans-retinoic acid-induced cell differentiation and disease remission.
  • Overall, our data identify Daxx as a new negative regulator of C/EBPbeta and provide first clues for a link between abrogation of Daxx-C/EBPbeta complex formation and APL remission.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing. Animals. Cell Differentiation. Fibroblasts / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation. HeLa Cells. Humans. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / metabolism. Nuclear Proteins. Phosphorylation. Protein Structure, Tertiary. Quail. Tretinoin / metabolism. p300-CBP Transcription Factors / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19690170.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-351X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of biological chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biol. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta; 0 / DAXX protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; EC 2.3.1.48 / p300-CBP Transcription Factors
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2781424
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49. Sahu GR, Jena RK: Significance of intracellular arsenic trioxide for therapeutic response in acute promyelocytic leukemia. Am J Hematol; 2005 Feb;78(2):113-6
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  • [Title] Significance of intracellular arsenic trioxide for therapeutic response in acute promyelocytic leukemia.
  • Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) is an effective drug for treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and malignant tumors.
  • Cell lines and cell strains of leukemia and solid cancer cells were treated with different concentrations of As2O3, and the concentrations were compared to apoptosis detected by FITC-annexin V and propidium iodide (PI) double staining.
  • These results indicate that different leukemia and solid carcinoma cell lines have different intracellular arsenic concentrations, which correlate with different sensitivities to As2O3 in clinical treatment.
  • Novel techniques by maintaining continuous low but effective arsenic levels inside the target leukemic cells in APL may improve the complete remission rate and overall survival with minimum cost and drug toxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Arsenicals / pharmacokinetics. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / pathology. Oxides / pharmacokinetics


50. Oravcova I, Czako B, Demeckova E, Demitrovicova L, Greksak R, Kotoucek P, Mego M, Mikuskova E, Richterova K, Al Sabti F, Mistrik M: Treatment of newly diagnosed patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia with modified spanish treatment protocol. Neoplasma; 2010;57(3):270-9
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  • [Title] Treatment of newly diagnosed patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia with modified spanish treatment protocol.
  • The results of treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia, when combination ATRA + chemotherapy is used in induction and maintainance therapy and risk adapted strategy applied in consolidation, improved at present time.
  • 29 (90.6%) patients achieved complete hematologic remission, 2 (6.3 %) molecular relapses were observed, death was observed in 4 patients (12.5%).
  • Current recommendations for treatment with risk-adapted strategy for patients with newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia resulted in our patients group to comparable outcome and good compliance like in other published studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20353280.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2685
  • [Journal-full-title] Neoplasma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neoplasma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
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51. Fox E, Razzouk BI, Widemann BC, Xiao S, O'Brien M, Goodspeed W, Reaman GH, Blaney SM, Murgo AJ, Balis FM, Adamson PC: Phase 1 trial and pharmacokinetic study of arsenic trioxide in children and adolescents with refractory or relapsed acute leukemia, including acute promyelocytic leukemia or lymphoma. Blood; 2008 Jan 15;111(2):566-73
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  • [Title] Phase 1 trial and pharmacokinetic study of arsenic trioxide in children and adolescents with refractory or relapsed acute leukemia, including acute promyelocytic leukemia or lymphoma.
  • Arsenic trioxide (ATO) induces remission in 85% of adults with refractory acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL).
  • We conducted a phase 1 trial of ATO in children (median age 13 y, range, 2-19) with refractory leukemia.
  • Patients with APL (n=13) received 0.15 mg/kg per day, and patients with other types of leukemia received 0.15 mg/kg per day (n=2) or 0.2 mg/kg per day (n=4).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacokinetics. Arsenicals / pharmacokinetics. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Lymphoma / drug therapy. Oxides / pharmacokinetics

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  • (PMID = 17959855.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00020111
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA097452; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / UM1 CA097452; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA97452; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Oxides; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2200837
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52. Webber BA, Cushing MM, Li S: Prognostic significance of flow cytometric immunophenotyping in acute myeloid leukemia. Int J Clin Exp Pathol; 2008;1(2):124-33
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  • [Title] Prognostic significance of flow cytometric immunophenotyping in acute myeloid leukemia.
  • The prognostic significance of flow cytometric immunophenotyping (FCI) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has been controversial.
  • Among those, 78 cases were in remission (M:F=44/34; mean age of 48.9 years) and 131 had relapse (M:F=71/60; mean age of 51.3 years).
  • The expression of CD34, HLA-DR or a combination of both was significantly different between the remission and relapse groups for all AML as well as AML without t(15;17).
  • Complex cytogenetic abnormalities were more likely associated with relapse group than with remission group, but were not statistically significant after excluding AML with t(15;17).

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  • (PMID = 18784805.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-2625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical and experimental pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Clin Exp Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2480555
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Flow cytometric immunophenotyping / acute myeloid leukemia / acute promyelocytic leukemia / chromosome translocation / cytogenetics / prognosis
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53. Tarkanyi I, Dudognon C, Hillion J, Pendino F, Lanotte M, Aradi J, Ségal-Bendirdjian E: Retinoid/arsenic combination therapy of promyelocytic leukemia: induction of telomerase-dependent cell death. Leukemia; 2005 Oct;19(10):1806-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Retinoid/arsenic combination therapy of promyelocytic leukemia: induction of telomerase-dependent cell death.
  • Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is efficiently treated with a cell differentiation inducer, all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA).
  • Such long-term low-dose combinatorial therapy strategies, developed also to avoid acute side effects, reinforce the notion that the antitelomerase strategy, based on a combination of active agents, should now be considered and evaluated not only in APL but also in other malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Apoptosis / drug effects. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Telomerase / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Arsenicals / administration & dosage. Humans. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / metabolism. Oxides / administration & dosage. Remission Induction. Telomere / metabolism. Tretinoin / administration & dosage. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16107885.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / Oxides; 0 / promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor alpha fusion oncoprotein; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide
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54. Martini V, Minotti C, Breccia M, De Angelis G, Buffolino S, Mariella M, Lo-Coco F, Avvisati G, Cimino G: Prolonged molecular remission in a newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukaemia with a severe cardiomyopathy using low-dose gemtuzumab ozogamicin and all-trans retinoic acid. Ann Hematol; 2007 Apr;86(4):295-7
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  • [Title] Prolonged molecular remission in a newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukaemia with a severe cardiomyopathy using low-dose gemtuzumab ozogamicin and all-trans retinoic acid.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoglycosides / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Cardiomyopathies / complications. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Tretinoin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Arsenicals / therapeutic use. Drug Therapy, Combination. Echocardiography. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics. Oxides / therapeutic use. Remission Induction. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17136541.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0584
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoglycosides; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / Oxides; 0 / gemtuzumab; 0 / promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor alpha fusion oncoprotein; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide
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55. Wang ZY, Chen QS: [Present status in studying immunotherapy for acute leukemia and its perspective--Editorial]. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi; 2005 Apr;13(2):169-73
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  • [Title] [Present status in studying immunotherapy for acute leukemia and its perspective--Editorial].
  • One of the important approaches for further prolonging remission duration and eradicating minimal residual disease in acute leukemia is immunotherapy.
  • Four kinds of immunotherapy for acute leukemia are under investigation:.
  • (1) monoclonal antibodies, among them, Mylotarg (cytotoxic antibiotic calicheamicin linked to CD33 Mab) is given for the treatment of refractory or relapsed acute myeloid leukemia and molecular relapse in acute promyelocytic leukemia with good results, Campath-1H (antiCD52 Mab) is administered in the treatment of prolymphocytic leukemia and Rituximab (anti-CD20 Mab) in B-PLL with high complete remission rates.
  • Other Mabs under preclinical and clinical trials include anti-IL-2 receptor Mab for the treatment of acute T lymphocytic leukemia, anti-220 kD Mab-6G7 for acute leukemias, recombinant immune toxin BL22 (anti-CD22) for hairy cell leukemia and Mabs labeled with radio-isotopes for different types of acute leukemias;.
  • (4) leukemia vaccines of several different formulations including antigen-specific, leukemia cell-based, leukemia antigen-pulsed dendritic cell (DC) and leukemia-derived DC vaccines, the latter two formulations are more attractive.
  • In conclusion, up to now, the most effective example of immunotherapy in acute leukemia is provided by the administration of Mabs, and the majority of other approaches in immunotherapy for acute leukemia although promising, need further studies.

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  • (PMID = 15854271.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-2137
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo shi yan xue ye xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] CHI
  • [Publication-type] Editorial; English Abstract
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Cancer Vaccines
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56. Nabhan C, Radhakrishnan A: Aplastic anemia surfacing after treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia: The Dameshek riddle. Clin Adv Hematol Oncol; 2009 Oct;7(10):672-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Aplastic anemia surfacing after treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia: The Dameshek riddle.
  • [MeSH-major] Anemia, Aplastic / chemically induced. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Remission Induction


57. de Botton S, Fawaz A, Chevret S, Dombret H, Thomas X, Sanz M, Guerci A, San Miguel J, de la Serna J, Stoppa AM, Reman O, Stamatoulas A, Fey M, Cahn JY, Sotto JJ, Bourhis JH, Parry A, Chomienne C, Degos L, Fenaux P: Autologous and allogeneic stem-cell transplantation as salvage treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia initially treated with all-trans-retinoic acid: a retrospective analysis of the European acute promyelocytic leukemia group. J Clin Oncol; 2005 Jan 1;23(1):120-6
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  • [Title] Autologous and allogeneic stem-cell transplantation as salvage treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia initially treated with all-trans-retinoic acid: a retrospective analysis of the European acute promyelocytic leukemia group.
  • PURPOSE: To retrospectively determine the outcome of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) patients who underwent autologous or allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (SCT) during second complete remission.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Of 122 relapsing patients included in two successive multicenter APL trials who achieved hematological second complete remission (generally after a salvage regimen of all-trans-retinoic acid [ATRA] combined with chemotherapy), 73 (60%) received allogeneic (n = 23) or autologous (n = 50) SCT.
  • CONCLUSION: These retrospective data suggest that autologous SCT is very effective in APL relapsing after treatment with ATRA if performed in molecular remission.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / therapy. Salvage Therapy. Stem Cell Transplantation. Tretinoin / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Transplantation, Autologous. Transplantation, Homologous. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15534358.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
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58. Samochatova EV, Maschan AA, Aleĭnikova OV, Bespalova AV, Baĭdil'dina DD, Dubrovina ME, Fleĭshman EV, Nasedkina TV, Rumiantsev SA, Rumiantsev AG: [Long-term results of combined treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia in children and adolescents with gene therapy]. Ter Arkh; 2007;79(7):26-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Long-term results of combined treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia in children and adolescents with gene therapy].
  • AIM: To analyse the results of treatment of children and adolescents with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) including polychemotherapy and ATRA (protocols APL 93, 98 and 2003).
  • RESULTS: For prognosis of the disease important are initial characteristics of the patient and the time of the tumor regress assessed by molecular methods--establishment of molecular remission and molecular recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Receptors, Retinoic Acid / genetics. Transcription, Genetic / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 17802786.001).
  • [ISSN] 0040-3660
  • [Journal-full-title] Terapevticheskiĭ arkhiv
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ter. Arkh.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Retinoic Acid; 0 / retinoic acid receptor alpha
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59. Gündüz E, Akay OM, Durak B, Gülbaş Z: Therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome following acute promyelocytic leukemia and biphenotypic acute leukemia following stem cell transplantation in the same patient. Turk J Haematol; 2007 Jun 5;24(2):85-7
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  • [Title] Therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome following acute promyelocytic leukemia and biphenotypic acute leukemia following stem cell transplantation in the same patient.
  • Therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia is a rare event and the prognosis is poor.
  • We present a young patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia who developed myelodysplastic syndrome 52 months after complete remission.
  • She underwent allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell transplantation but relapsed with biphenotypic leukemia after five months.
  • To our knowledge, this is the first case to relapse with acute biphenotypic leukemia after allogeneic peripheral stem cell transplantation for therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome following acute promyelocytic leukemia.

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  • (PMID = 27263623.001).
  • [ISSN] 1300-7777
  • [Journal-full-title] Turkish journal of haematology : official journal of Turkish Society of Haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Turk J Haematol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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60. Aribi A, Kantarjian HM, Estey EH, Koller CA, Thomas DA, Kornblau SM, Faderl SH, Laddie NM, Garcia-Manero G, Cortes JE: Combination therapy with arsenic trioxide, all-trans retinoic acid, and gemtuzumab ozogamicin in recurrent acute promyelocytic leukemia. Cancer; 2007 Apr 1;109(7):1355-9
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  • [Title] Combination therapy with arsenic trioxide, all-trans retinoic acid, and gemtuzumab ozogamicin in recurrent acute promyelocytic leukemia.
  • BACKGROUND: From 20% to 30% of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) who are treated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) develop recurrent disease.
  • Patients received ATO 0.15 mg/kg intravenously until they achieved a bone marrow complete remission (CR).
  • All 7 evaluable patients achieved molecular remission.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aminoglycosides / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Arsenicals / administration & dosage. Humans. Middle Aged. Oxides / administration & dosage. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome. Tretinoin / administration & dosage

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 American Cancer Society.
  • (PMID = 17326049.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoglycosides; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Oxides; 0 / gemtuzumab; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide
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61. Wahlin A, Billström R, Björ O, Ahlgren T, Hedenus M, Höglund M, Lindmark A, Markevärn B, Nilsson B, Sallerfors B, Brune M: Results of risk-adapted therapy in acute myeloid leukaemia. A long-term population-based follow-up study. Eur J Haematol; 2009 Aug;83(2):99-107
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  • [Title] Results of risk-adapted therapy in acute myeloid leukaemia. A long-term population-based follow-up study.
  • In 1997-2003, a protocol for treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) (except promyelocytic leukaemia) was activated in four Swedish health care regions covering 50% of the national population.
  • Induction failures accounted for 55 patients; 16 early deaths eight of whom had white blood cell (WBC) >100 at diagnosis, and 39 refractory disease.
  • Thus, complete remission (CR) rate was 80%.
  • Median survival time from diagnosis in the whole group was 27 months and 4-yr overall survival (OS) rate was 44%.
  • (ii) a risk-adapted therapy aiming at early allogeneic SCT in patients with a high risk of relapse is hampered by induction deaths, refractory disease, and early relapses; and (iii) high WBC count at diagnosis is confirmed as a strong risk factor for early death but not for relapse.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Population Surveillance. Stem Cell Transplantation / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 19385987.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0609
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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62. Ghaffari SH, Rostami S, Bashash D, Alimoghaddam K, Ghavamzadeh A: Real-time PCR analysis of PML-RAR alpha in newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukaemia patients treated with arsenic trioxide as a front-line therapy. Ann Oncol; 2006 Oct;17(10):1553-9
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  • [Title] Real-time PCR analysis of PML-RAR alpha in newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukaemia patients treated with arsenic trioxide as a front-line therapy.
  • BACKGROUND: Recently, patients with acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) have experienced significant clinical gains after treatment with arsenic trioxide.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Of 95 newly diagnosed APL patients, 85 patients who achieved complete remission (CR) were sequentially evaluated during a 4-60 month period by conventional RT-PCR.

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  • (PMID = 16831853.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / Oxides; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 0 / promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor alpha fusion oncoprotein; EC 1.1.1.49 / Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide
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63. Mathews V, George B, Lakshmi KM, Viswabandya A, Bajel A, Balasubramanian P, Shaji RV, Srivastava VM, Srivastava A, Chandy M: Single-agent arsenic trioxide in the treatment of newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia: durable remissions with minimal toxicity. Blood; 2006 Apr 1;107(7):2627-32
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  • [Title] Single-agent arsenic trioxide in the treatment of newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia: durable remissions with minimal toxicity.
  • Arsenic trioxide, as a single agent, has proven efficacy in inducing molecular remission in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL).
  • Complete hematologic remission was achieved in 86.1%.
  • Patients presenting with a white blood cell (WBC) count lower than 5 x 10(9)/L and a platelet count higher than 20 x 10(9)/L at diagnosis (n = 22 [30.6%]) have an excellent prognosis with this regimen (EFS, OS, and DFS of 100%).
  • After remission induction, this regimen was administered on an outpatient basis.
  • Additionally, this regimen has minimal toxicity and can be administered on an outpatient basis after remission induction.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Arsenicals / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Oxides / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Partial Thromboplastin Time. Platelet Count. Remission Induction. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome


64. Kohno A, Morishita Y, Iida H, Yanada M, Uchida T, Hamaguchi M, Sawa M, Sugiura I, Yamamoto K, Mizuta S, Sao H, Naoe T, Miyamura K, Nagoya Blood and Marrow Transplantation Group: Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute promyelocytic leukemia in second or third complete remission: a retrospective analysis in the Nagoya Blood and Marrow Transplantation Group. Int J Hematol; 2008 Mar;87(2):210-6
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  • [Title] Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute promyelocytic leukemia in second or third complete remission: a retrospective analysis in the Nagoya Blood and Marrow Transplantation Group.
  • Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is the most curable subtype of acute myeloid leukemia.
  • Second complete remission (CR2) can be easily achieved with several therapeutic options even after relapse.
  • Three autografted patients and one allografted patient relapsed, and one autografted patient and five allografted patients died without leukemia relapse.
  • [MeSH-major] Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy

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  • [Cites] Blood. 1997 Aug 1;90(3):1321-5 [9242568.001]
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  • (PMID = 18301963.001).
  • [ISSN] 0925-5710
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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65. Chim CS, Kwong YL: Adverse prognostic impact of CDKN2B hyper-methylation in acute promyelocytic leukemia. Leuk Lymphoma; 2006 May;47(5):815-25
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  • [Title] Adverse prognostic impact of CDKN2B hyper-methylation in acute promyelocytic leukemia.
  • The use of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has markedly improved the survival of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), making it potentially curable.
  • However, the identification of prognostic markers predictive of durable remission remains an important aspect in risk-adjusted treatment algorithms.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p15 / genetics. DNA Methylation. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16753865.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDKN2B protein, human; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p15
  • [Number-of-references] 71
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66. Chen H, MacDonald RC, Li S, Krett NL, Rosen ST, O'Halloran TV: Lipid encapsulation of arsenic trioxide attenuates cytotoxicity and allows for controlled anticancer drug release. J Am Chem Soc; 2006 Oct 18;128(41):13348-9
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  • Arsenic trioxide (ATO, As2O3) is emerging as a front line agent for treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia with giving a complete remission rate of 83-95%.

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  • (PMID = 17031934.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-7863
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Chemical Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Chem. Soc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM 054111; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA 060553; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U54 CA 119341
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Capsules; 0 / Lipids; 0 / Liposomes; 0 / Oxides; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide
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67. Chou WC, Dang CV: Acute promyelocytic leukemia: recent advances in therapy and molecular basis of response to arsenic therapies. Curr Opin Hematol; 2005 Jan;12(1):1-6
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  • [Title] Acute promyelocytic leukemia: recent advances in therapy and molecular basis of response to arsenic therapies.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: While arsenic has long been known as a poison and environmental carcinogen, its dramatic effect in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has made its mechanism of action a topic of intense interest.
  • ATO) for 30 to 40 days can lead to complete remission in about 85% of patients with newly diagnosed or relapsed APL.
  • The combination of all-trans retinoic acid and ATO in patients with newly diagnosed APL has yielded more durable remission than monotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Arsenicals / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Oxides / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 15604884.001).
  • [ISSN] 1065-6251
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr. Opin. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / Oxides; 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide
  • [Number-of-references] 63
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68. Cen D, Hu G, Zhou Y, Yang L, Chen S, Schmidt CA, Li Y: Enhancement of specific cellular immune response induced by DNA vaccines encoding PML-RARalpha and hIL-2 genes. Hematology; 2010 Apr;15(2):88-95
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  • A DNA vaccine encoding PML-RAR alpha fusion gene is thought to be a promising approach for acute promyelocytic leukemia patients to enhance immune responses after attaining complete remission.

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  • (PMID = 20423569.001).
  • [ISSN] 1607-8454
  • [Journal-full-title] Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hematology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interleukin-2; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 0 / Vaccines, DNA; 0 / promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor alpha fusion oncoprotein; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma
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69. Muta T, Kato K, Oku S, Nawata R, Takase K, Henzan H, Arima F, Eto T: Successful mobilization of peripheral blood stem cells in an acute promyelocytic leukemia patient after gemtuzumab ozogamicin. Bone Marrow Transplant; 2007 Aug;40(3):287-8
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  • [Title] Successful mobilization of peripheral blood stem cells in an acute promyelocytic leukemia patient after gemtuzumab ozogamicin.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoglycosides / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Mobilization. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / therapy. Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation. Transplantation Conditioning
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Remission Induction. Transplantation, Autologous

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  • (PMID = 17502892.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-3369
  • [Journal-full-title] Bone marrow transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bone Marrow Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoglycosides; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / gemtuzumab
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70. Wang T, Qiu JY, Yu CF, Ma XL, Jia XP, Wang YP, Liu HX, Lin YH, Tong CR, Lu DP: [Analysis of variant translocation der ins (17; 15) in patient with APL by G-banding technique and interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization]. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi; 2009 Jun;17(3):537-40
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  • To investigate the biological characteristics of the variant translocation der ins (17;15) in a patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), the conventional G-banding technique, interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (int-FISH), RT-PCR, gene scanning, gene sequence and flow cytometry were performed.
  • This patient got complete remission by using combined chemotherapy, and survives with continuous complete remission during following up for 1 year.

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  • (PMID = 19549359.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-2137
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo shi yan xue ye xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] CHI
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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71. Prakash B, Parikh PM, Pal SK: Herbo-mineral ayurvedic treatment in a high risk acute promyelocytic leukemia patient with second relapse: 12 years follow up. J Ayurveda Integr Med; 2010 Jul;1(3):215-8
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  • [Title] Herbo-mineral ayurvedic treatment in a high risk acute promyelocytic leukemia patient with second relapse: 12 years follow up.
  • Initially treated with ATRA, he achieved hematological remission on day 60, but cytogenetically the disease persisted.
  • The patient received induction and consolidated chemotherapy with Daunorubicin and Cytarabine combination from 12.01.96 to 14.05.96, following which he achieved remission.
  • The patient was given two cycles of chemotherapy with Idarubicine and Etoposide, after which he achieved remission.
  • The patient achieved complete disease remission with the alternative treatment without any adverse side effects.

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  • (PMID = 21547051.001).
  • [ISSN] 0976-2809
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Ayurveda and integrative medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ayurveda Integr Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3087364
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Ayurveda / herbo-mineral / relapse acute promyelocytic leukemia
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72. Wang GJ, Li W, Cui JW, Gao SJ, Yao C, Jiang ZY, Song YQ, Yuan CJ, Yang Y, Liu ZL: [Therapeutic effects of combination of arsenic trioxide with low-dose all-trans retinoic acid on induction of remission acute promyeloeytic leukemia]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2005 Apr 27;85(16):1093-6
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  • [Title] [Therapeutic effects of combination of arsenic trioxide with low-dose all-trans retinoic acid on induction of remission acute promyeloeytic leukemia].
  • OBJECTIVE: To observe the therapeutic efficacy and side effects of arsenic trioxide (As2O3)combined with low-dose all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on remission induction in newly-diagnosed and relapsed patients with acute promyeloeytic leukemia (APL).
  • The complete remission (CR) rate, period to CR, incidence of early death and side effects were observed in the three groups.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Arsenicals / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Oxides / administration & dosage. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome. Tretinoin / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 16029564.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Oxides; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide
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73. Gale RE, Hills R, Kottaridis PD, Srirangan S, Wheatley K, Burnett AK, Linch DC: No evidence that FLT3 status should be considered as an indicator for transplantation in acute myeloid leukemia (AML): an analysis of 1135 patients, excluding acute promyelocytic leukemia, from the UK MRC AML10 and 12 trials. Blood; 2005 Nov 15;106(10):3658-65
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  • [Title] No evidence that FLT3 status should be considered as an indicator for transplantation in acute myeloid leukemia (AML): an analysis of 1135 patients, excluding acute promyelocytic leukemia, from the UK MRC AML10 and 12 trials.
  • Fetal liver tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3) internal tandem duplications (ITDs) are powerful adverse prognostic indicators for relapse in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) but the most efficacious therapy for FLT3/ITD(+) patients is currently unknown.
  • We evaluated outcome according to FLT3/ITD status in 1135 adult patients treated according to United Kingdom Medical Research Council (UK MRC) AML protocols: 141 received an autograft, and 170 received a matched sibling allograft in first complete remission (CR).
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor. Gene Duplication. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Stem Cell Transplantation. fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Case-Control Studies. Female. Great Britain. Humans. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / genetics. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / metabolism. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / therapy. Male. Meta-Analysis as Topic. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. Recurrence. Transplantation, Autologous. Transplantation, Homologous


74. Kornblau SM, Singh N, Qiu Y, Chen W, Zhang N, Coombes KR: Highly phosphorylated FOXO3A is an adverse prognostic factor in acute myeloid leukemia. Clin Cancer Res; 2010 Mar 15;16(6):1865-74
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  • [Title] Highly phosphorylated FOXO3A is an adverse prognostic factor in acute myeloid leukemia.
  • PURPOSE: The Forkhead transcription factors (FOXO) are tumor suppressor genes regulating differentiation, metabolism, and apoptosis that functionally interact with signal transduction pathways shown to be deregulated and prognostic in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML).
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We used reverse-phase protein array methods to measure the level of total and phosphoprotein expression of FOXO3A, in leukemia-enriched protein samples from 511 newly diagnosed AML patients.
  • Levels of total FOXO3A were higher at relapse compared with diagnosis.
  • Patients with High levels of pFOXO3A or PT-FOXO3A had higher rates of primary resistance and shorter remission durations, which combine to cause an inferior survival experience (P = 0.0002).
  • [MeSH-major] Forkhead Transcription Factors / metabolism. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / metabolism. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Antigens, CD34 / metabolism. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Phosphorylation. Prognosis. Protein Array Analysis. Remission Induction. Survival Rate. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20215543.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA108631
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / FOXO3 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS378348; NLM/ PMC3385949
  •  go-up   go-down


75. Kondo M, Nakabayashi Y, Sugiyama A, Tominaga T, Shinohara K: A case of acute promyelocytic leukemia showing transient thrombocytosis caused by increased interleukin-6 and thrombopoietin after treatment with all-trans retinoic acid and chemotherapy. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2009 May;36(5):827-30
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  • [Title] A case of acute promyelocytic leukemia showing transient thrombocytosis caused by increased interleukin-6 and thrombopoietin after treatment with all-trans retinoic acid and chemotherapy.
  • A patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia(APL)treated with all-trans retinoic acid(ATRA)and chemotherapy for remission induction developed marked thrombocytosis after bone marrow recovery.
  • Thrombocytosis also occurred after post remission chemotherapies, although the degree of thrombocytosis gradually decreased.
  • However, the plasma level of TPO was markedly elevated at the nadir after post remission chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Interleukin-6 / blood. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Thrombocytosis / drug therapy. Thrombopoietin / blood. Tretinoin / therapeutic use


76. Yoo SJ, Seo EJ, Lee JH, Seo YH, Park PW, Ahn JY: A complex, four-way variant t(15;17) in acute promyelocytic leukemia. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2006 Jun;167(2):168-71
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  • [Title] A complex, four-way variant t(15;17) in acute promyelocytic leukemia.
  • Complex variant 15;17 translocations are increasingly recognized in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL).
  • A complete remission was attained with a course of conventional chemotherapy including ATRA.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / genetics. Translocation, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 16737919.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-4608
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
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77. Ralph SJ: Arsenic-based antineoplastic drugs and their mechanisms of action. Met Based Drugs; 2008;2008:260146
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  • Arsenic-based compounds have become accepted agents for cancer therapy providing high rates of remission of some cancers such as acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL).

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  • (PMID = 18431449.001).
  • [ISSN] 0793-0291
  • [Journal-full-title] Metal-based drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Met Based Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2292810
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78. Vega-Ruiz A, Faderl S, Estrov Z, Pierce S, Cortes J, Kantarjian H, Ravandi F: Incidence of extramedullary disease in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia: a single-institution experience. Int J Hematol; 2009 May;89(4):489-96
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  • [Title] Incidence of extramedullary disease in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia: a single-institution experience.
  • Using current treatment regimens, over 90% of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia will achieve complete remission (CR).
  • [MeSH-major] Hematologic Diseases / complications. Hematologic Diseases / drug therapy. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / complications. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy

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  • [ISSN] 1865-3774
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS633724; NLM/ PMC4199302
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79. Dalal BI, Bruyere H, Barnett MJ: Significance of persistent Auer rods and cytogenetic abnormality after first cycle of therapy for acute promyelocytic leukaemia. Br J Haematol; 2007 Jun;137(5):385
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  • [Title] Significance of persistent Auer rods and cytogenetic abnormality after first cycle of therapy for acute promyelocytic leukaemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow Examination. Chromosome Aberrations. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / genetics. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Marrow / pathology. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17. Cytarabine / therapeutic use. Daunorubicin / therapeutic use. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics. Remission Induction. Translocation, Genetic. Tretinoin / therapeutic use

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  • [CommentIn] Br J Haematol. 2008 Sep;142(6):998-1000 [18544082.001]
  • (PMID = 17374141.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor alpha fusion oncoprotein; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin
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80. Kanegane H, Nomura K, Abe A, Makino T, Ishizawa S, Shimizu T, Naoe T, Miyawaki T: Spontaneous regression of aleukemic leukemia cutis harboring a NPM/RARA fusion gene in an infant with cutaneous mastocytosis. Int J Hematol; 2009 Jan;89(1):86-90
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  • [Title] Spontaneous regression of aleukemic leukemia cutis harboring a NPM/RARA fusion gene in an infant with cutaneous mastocytosis.
  • Aleukemic leukemia cutis has been rarely reported in infant leukemia.
  • This report describes a 6-month-old boy with aleukemic leukemia cutis, which regressed without any treatments within 6 months.
  • Interestingly, a cytogenetic analysis disclosed a leukemia clone with the karyotype of 46, XY, t(5;17)(q35;q12), which generated nucleophosmin (NPM)-retinoic acid receptor alpha fusion (RARA) fusion transcripts.
  • The patient simultaneously had cutaneous mastocytosis, which also disappeared with the leukemia cutis.
  • The present case is partially compatible with systemic mastocytosis with an associated clonal hematologic non-mast cell lineage disorder, proposed by the WHO classification, and it is also suggestive of the initiation or early stage of acute promyelocytic leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia / complications. Mastocytosis, Cutaneous / complications. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics. Remission, Spontaneous
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Infant. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute. Male

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  • (PMID = 19052694.001).
  • [ISSN] 1865-3774
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / NPM-RARalpha protein, human; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion
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81. Sanz MA, Montesinos P, Vellenga E, Rayón C, de la Serna J, Parody R, Bergua JM, León A, Negri S, González M, Rivas C, Esteve J, Milone G, González JD, Amutio E, Brunet S, García-Laraña J, Colomer D, Calasanz MJ, Chillón C, Barragán E, Bolufer P, Lowenberg B: Risk-adapted treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia with all-trans retinoic acid and anthracycline monochemotherapy: long-term outcome of the LPA 99 multicenter study by the PETHEMA Group. Blood; 2008 Oct 15;112(8):3130-4
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  • [Title] Risk-adapted treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia with all-trans retinoic acid and anthracycline monochemotherapy: long-term outcome of the LPA 99 multicenter study by the PETHEMA Group.
  • A previous report of the Programa de Estudio y Tratamiento de las Hemopatías Malignas (PETHEMA) Group showed that a risk-adapted strategy combining all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and anthracycline monochemotherapy for induction and consolidation in newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia results in an improved outcome.
  • Patients achieving complete remission received 3 courses of consolidation followed by maintenance with ATRA and low-dose chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anthracyclines / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Tretinoin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18664623.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-0020
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anthracyclines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
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82. Parovichnikova EN, Savchenko VG, Kliasova GA, Isaev VG, Sokolov AN, Kulikov SM, Ustinova EN, Gribanova EO, Ryzhko VV, Khoroshko ND, Kravchenko SK, Galstian GM, Konstantinova TS, Zagoskina TP, Ziuzgin IS, Kaplanov KD, Moskov VI, Sokolova IV, Anchukova LV, Lapin VA, Loginov AB, Tumakov VA, Korobkin AV, Miliutina GI, Samoĭlova OS, Tikunova TS, Pristupa AS, Kondakova EV, Domnikova NP, Gavrilova LV, Obidina NA, Porokhina OV, Rekhtman GB, Mashchuk VN, Khuazheva NK, Kaporskaia TS, Golubeva ME, Maksimov AG, Ploskikh MA, Men'shakova SN, Mal'tsev VI, Rossiev VA, Pilipenko GI: [Toxicity of different treatment protocols for acute myeloid leukemias in adults: the results of four Russian multicenter studies]. Ter Arkh; 2010;82(7):5-11
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  • [Title] [Toxicity of different treatment protocols for acute myeloid leukemias in adults: the results of four Russian multicenter studies].
  • AIM: To comparatively analyze the toxicity of 4 treatment protocols in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), which were used in the Russian multicenter center in 1992 to 2009.
  • The analysis excluded patients with acute promyelocytic leukemias who were recruited in the AML-92 and AML-95 studies.
  • RESULTS: The baseline clinical and laboratory parameters in the patients enrolled in the studies in different years slightly differ in the count of leukocytes at the onset of the disease and in the level of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH): the recent studies revealed a larger number of high-risk group patients (leukocytes more than 30 10(9)(/l; LDH more than 500 units) possibly due to the later diagnosis of AML.
  • Remission mortality decreased from 18 to 10-13%.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / blood. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Disease-Free Survival. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Humans. L-Lactate Dehydrogenase / blood. Leukocyte Count. Leukocytes / cytology. Leukopenia / blood. Leukopenia / chemically induced. Leukopenia / epidemiology. Neutrophils / cytology. Opportunistic Infections / blood. Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology. Opportunistic Infections / etiology. Platelet Transfusion. Remission Induction. Russia

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  • (PMID = 20853602.001).
  • [ISSN] 0040-3660
  • [Journal-full-title] Terapevticheskiĭ arkhiv
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ter. Arkh.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.1.1.27 / L-Lactate Dehydrogenase
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83. Zayed A, Couban S, Hayne O, Sparavalo N, Shawwa A, Sadek I, Greer W: Acute promyelocytic leukemia: a novel PML/RARalpha fusion that generates a frameshift in the RARalpha transcript and ATRA resistance. Leuk Lymphoma; 2007 Mar;48(3):489-96
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  • [Title] Acute promyelocytic leukemia: a novel PML/RARalpha fusion that generates a frameshift in the RARalpha transcript and ATRA resistance.
  • Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is characterized by increased promyelocytes in the marrow that harbor a t(15;17) and promyelocyte leukemia (PML)/RARalpha fusion gene.
  • Differentiation of promyelocytes and remission is achieved with all transretinoic acid (ATRA) therapy usually in combination with chemotherapy.
  • This report describes a patient with the t(15;17) who did not respond typically to ATRA and IDAC induction chemotherapy, although achieved and remains in complete remission five years following induction and one consolidation with high dose cytarabine (HIDAC).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / genetics. Frameshift Mutation. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / genetics. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics. Receptors, Retinoic Acid / genetics. Tretinoin / therapeutic use

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  • [CommentIn] Leuk Lymphoma. 2007 Mar;48(3):443-4 [17454578.001]
  • (PMID = 17454588.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / Receptors, Retinoic Acid; 0 / promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor alpha fusion oncoprotein; 0 / retinoic acid receptor alpha; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
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84. Lengfelder E, Haferlach C, Saussele S, Haferlach T, Schultheis B, Schnittger S, Ludwig WD, Staib P, Aul C, Grüneisen A, Kern W, Reichle A, Serve H, Berdel WE, Braess J, Spiekermann K, Wörmann B, Sauerland MC, Heinecke A, Hiddemann W, Hehlmann R, Büchner T, German AML Cooperative Group: High dose ara-C in the treatment of newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia: long-term results of the German AMLCG. Leukemia; 2009 Dec;23(12):2248-58
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  • [Title] High dose ara-C in the treatment of newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia: long-term results of the German AMLCG.
  • The objective of this study for newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) was to evaluate the efficacy of an intensified double induction chemotherapy including high dose ara-C (HD) and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) followed by consolidation and 3 years maintenance therapy.
  • In the low/intermediate (n=105) vs high (n=37) WBC group, the rates of complete remission were 95.2 vs 83.8%, of induction death were 4.8 vs 16.2% (P=0.05) and of molecular remission were 87.5 vs 91.3% (P=1).
  • [MeSH-major] Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Germany. Humans. Longitudinal Studies. Lymphocyte Count. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Remission Induction. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Tretinoin / administration & dosage. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19741727.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5551
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
  • [Investigator] Ittel T; Fuss H; Mayr A; Grüneisen A; Arnold R; Dörken B; Maschmeyer G; Notter M; Thiel E; Ludwig WD; Schöndube D; Weh AJ; Zumsprekel A; Teschendorf C; Stechstor M; Trenn G; Wörmann B; Hertenstein B; Thomssen H; Peyn A; Pielken H; Hindahl H; Wehmeyer A; Heyll A; Flasshove M; Karow J; Aul C; Giagounidis; Fuchs R; Schlegel F; Seeber S; Meckenstock G; Giagounidis G; Haase D; Trümper L; Griesinger F; Gropp C; Depenbusch R; Eimermacher H; Schütte W; Haak U; Braumann D; Balleisen L; Kirchner H; Lange JG; Schmitz-Hübner U; Fauser A; Fricke HJ; Wolf M; Ritter B; Kneba M; Hallek M; Staib P; Dormann A; Frieling T; Planker M; Hartmann F; Middeke H; Gründgens C; Constantin C; Niederle N; Wagner T; Fetscher S; Schmielau J; Uppenkamp M; Hoffmann M; Hehlmann R; Lengfelder E; Schwonzen M; Spangenberg H; Graeven D; Kohl D; Heuer T; Emmerich B; Dengler R; Schlag B; Hiddemann W; Nibler K; Fleckenstein D; Büchner T; Berdel WE; Serve H; Hartlapp J; Hegge T; Peceny R; Koch O; Innig G; Südhoff T; Wagner T; Reichle A; Andreesen R; Gassmann W; Gaska T; Frickhofen N; Fuhr HG; Kreibich U; Schott G; Sommer S; Zschille W
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85. Zhou J, Zhang Y, Li J, Li X, Hou J, Zhao Y, Liu X, Han X, Hu L, Wang S, Zhao Y, Zhang Y, Fan S, Lv C, Li L, Zhu L: Single-agent arsenic trioxide in the treatment of children with newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia. Blood; 2010 Mar 4;115(9):1697-702
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  • [Title] Single-agent arsenic trioxide in the treatment of children with newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia.
  • The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy and safety of treatment of pediatric acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) with single-agent arsenic trioxide (ATO).
  • A total of 19 children (< or = 15 years of age) with newly diagnosed APL were treated with single-agent ATO for remission induction and postremission therapy.
  • Seventeen of the children (89.5%) achieved complete hematologic remission, and 2 early deaths occurred from intracranial hemorrhage.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Arsenicals / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Oxides / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Karyotyping. Male. Neutropenia / chemically induced. Remission Induction. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 20029047.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-0020
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Oxides; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide
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86. Martínez-Mancilla M, Zafra-de la Rosa G, Reynoso-Gómez E, Astudillo-de la Vega H, Nambo-Lucio Mde J, Benítez-Bribiesca L, Martínez-Avalos A, Rivera-Luna R, Gariglio P: [Molecular hemato-oncology and new specific treatment strategies for leukemia]. Gac Med Mex; 2006 Mar-Apr;142(2):145-50
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  • [Title] [Molecular hemato-oncology and new specific treatment strategies for leukemia].
  • Leukemia-associated fusion genes are detected in a significant proportion of newly diagnosed cases, where genes encoding transcription factors are usually found at one of the breakpoints.
  • This HDAC-dependent transcriptional repression appears as a common pathway in the development of leukemia and could constitute an important target for new therapeutic agents.
  • In addition, the administration of low molecular weight drugs for human leukemia treatment based on this knowledge brings about a significant long-term clinical remission and an acceptable risk of toxic effects that should increase the cure rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / genetics. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16711549.001).
  • [ISSN] 0016-3813
  • [Journal-full-title] Gaceta médica de México
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gac Med Mex
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.5.1.98 / Histone Deacetylases
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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87. Liang JY, Wu DP, Liu YJ, Ma QF, Gong JX, Zhu MQ, Xue YQ, Chen ZX: [The clinical and laboratory features of acute promyelocytic leukemia: an analysis of 513 cases]. Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi; 2008 May;47(5):389-92
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  • [Title] [The clinical and laboratory features of acute promyelocytic leukemia: an analysis of 513 cases].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical and laboratory features of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL).
  • Before treatment, the median level of WBC was 4.3 x 10(9)/L and the detection rate of abnormal promyelocyte on blood film was 85.8%; with immunophenotypic detection, the expression levels of CD117, CD34, HLA-DR, CD7, CD14 and CD19 in APL were found to be lower and the expression levels of CD2, CD33 and MPO higher than those in other subtypes of acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) (both P < 0.01).
  • In a relatively long clinical follow-up, we found that the complete remission (CR) rate in APL patients was 84.7%, incidence of DIC was 13.4% and five-year survival rate was 30.7%.
  • The median count of WBC in CR group was lower than that non-remission group (P < 0.01).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Comprehensive evaluation of MICM could be of important significance in the diagnosis and prognosis judgment for APL patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / genetics. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / immunology

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  • (PMID = 18953948.001).
  • [ISSN] 0578-1426
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua nei ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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88. Zhou GB, Zhang J, Wang ZY, Chen SJ, Chen Z: Treatment of acute promyelocytic leukaemia with all-trans retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide: a paradigm of synergistic molecular targeting therapy. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci; 2007 Jun 29;362(1482):959-71
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  • [Title] Treatment of acute promyelocytic leukaemia with all-trans retinoic acid and arsenic trioxide: a paradigm of synergistic molecular targeting therapy.
  • However, we can gain some insight into how this can be done by looking back over the 50-year history of taming acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL).
  • APL is the M3 type of acute myeloid leukaemia characterized by an accumulation of abnormal promyelocytes in bone marrow, a severe bleeding tendency and the presence of the chromosomal translocation t(15;17) or variants.
  • APL was considered the most fatal type of acute leukaemia five decades ago and the treatment of APL was a nightmare for physicians.
  • The first breakthrough came from the use of anthracyclines which improved the complete remission (CR) rate, though the 5-year overall survival could only be attained in a small proportion of patients.
  • Of note, both ATRA and ATO trigger catabolism of the PML-RARalpha fusion protein which is the key player in APL leukaemogenesis generated from t(15;17), targeting the RARalpha (retinoic acid receptor alpha) or promyelocytic leukaemia (PML) moieties, respectively.
  • Strikingly, a clearance of PML-RARalpha transcript in an earlier and more thorough manner, and a higher quality remission and survival in newly diagnosed APL are achieved when ATRA is combined with ATO, as compared to either monotherapy, making APL a curable disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Arsenicals / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Oxides / therapeutic use. Tretinoin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17317642.001).
  • [ISSN] 0962-8436
  • [Journal-full-title] Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond., B, Biol. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Oxides; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide
  • [Number-of-references] 90
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2435563
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89. Estey E, Garcia-Manero G, Ferrajoli A, Faderl S, Verstovsek S, Jones D, Kantarjian H: Use of all-trans retinoic acid plus arsenic trioxide as an alternative to chemotherapy in untreated acute promyelocytic leukemia. Blood; 2006 May 1;107(9):3469-73
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  • [Title] Use of all-trans retinoic acid plus arsenic trioxide as an alternative to chemotherapy in untreated acute promyelocytic leukemia.
  • We examined whether combining all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO) might be an alternative to ATRA plus chemotherapy in untreated acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL).
  • Twenty-five low-risk patients (white blood cell [WBC] count less than 10 x 10(9)/L [10,000/microL]) received ATRA (45 mg/m(2) daily) and ATO (0.15 mg/kg daily, beginning day 10 of ATRA), and in complete remission (CR) received ATO plus ATRA, without chemotherapy, unless they were reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-positive 3 months from CR date or had molecular relapse.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Arsenicals / administration & dosage. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Oxides / administration & dosage. Tretinoin / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Aminoglycosides / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal / administration & dosage. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Female. Humans. Leukocyte Count. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Remission Induction

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  • (PMID = 16373661.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoglycosides; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / Oxides; 0 / gemtuzumab; 0 / promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor alpha fusion oncoprotein; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide
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90. Ruiz-Argüelles GJ, Morales-Toquero A, Gómez-Rangel JD, López-Martínez B, Ruiz-Delgado GJ, Reyes-Núñez V: Treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia: a single institution experience. Rev Invest Clin; 2005 May-Jun;57(3):415-9
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  • [Title] Treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia: a single institution experience.
  • The results of the treatment of 14 patients with promyelocytic leukemia (PML) treated with all trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), combined chemotherapy (CT) and prophylactic prednisone are reported; the median age was 30 years (range 7 - 49).
  • A complete remission (CR) was obtained in 13 / 14 patients (93%).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Tretinoin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] 6-Mercaptopurine / administration & dosage. Administration, Oral. Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Leukocyte Count. Life Tables. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Mexico / epidemiology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / blood. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / blood. Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Prospective Studies. Remission Induction. Transplantation, Autologous

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  • (PMID = 16187701.001).
  • [ISSN] 0034-8376
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de investigación clínica; organo del Hospital de Enfermedades de la Nutrición
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev. Invest. Clin.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor alpha fusion oncoprotein; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; E7WED276I5 / 6-Mercaptopurine; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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91. Cashin R, Burry L, Peckham K, Reynolds S, Seki JT: Acute renal failure, gastrointestinal bleeding, and cardiac arrhythmia after administration of arsenic trioxide for acute promyelocytic leukemia. Am J Health Syst Pharm; 2008 May 15;65(10):941-6
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  • [Title] Acute renal failure, gastrointestinal bleeding, and cardiac arrhythmia after administration of arsenic trioxide for acute promyelocytic leukemia.
  • PURPOSE: The case of a patient who developed acute renal failure, gastrointestinal bleeding, and cardiac arrhythmia after receiving arsenic trioxide for the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is described.
  • Complete remission was accomplished with three cycles of i.v. daunorubicin for 3 days and oral tretinoin for 28 days.
  • After 19 months in remission, she was noted to have increased bruising and blood test values consistent with APL relapse.
  • CONCLUSION: An 84-year-old woman developed acute renal failure, gastrointestinal bleeding, and cardiac arrhythmia after receiving arsenic trioxide for the treatment of APL.
  • [MeSH-major] Acute Kidney Injury / chemically induced. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Arrhythmias, Cardiac / chemically induced. Arsenicals / adverse effects. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / chemically induced. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Oxides / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 18463343.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-2900
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of health-system pharmacy : AJHP : official journal of the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Health Syst Pharm
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Oxides; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide
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92. Vivanco-Hidalgo RM, Gimeno E, Gálvez A, Rodríguez-Campello A: [Isolated relapse in the central nervous system during cytologic and hematologic remission in a patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia]. Neurologia; 2010 Apr;25(3):200-1
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  • [Title] [Isolated relapse in the central nervous system during cytologic and hematologic remission in a patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia].
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Central Nervous System / pathology. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Humans. Idarubicin / therapeutic use. Male. Recurrence. Remission Induction. Tretinoin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 20492869.001).
  • [ISSN] 0213-4853
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurología (Barcelona, Spain)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurologia
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; ZRP63D75JW / Idarubicin
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93. Ferrara F: Acute promyelocytic leukemia: what are the treatment options? Expert Opin Pharmacother; 2010 Mar;11(4):587-96
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Acute promyelocytic leukemia: what are the treatment options?
  • IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD: Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) represents a paradigm of therapeutic success in clinical hematology.
  • Since the introduction of all-trans-retinoic-acid in the early 1980s, complete remission rates exceed 90% and the cure rate is > 70%.
  • AREAS COVERED IN THIS REVIEW: The aim of this article is to focus on still controversial issues in the management of APL, such as the role of arsenic trioxide as front-line therapy, the management of older unfit patients, the potential utility of gemtuzumab-ozogamycin and the effectiveness (if any) of maintenance therapy for patients in molecular remission.
  • In addition, the possibility of reducing the intensity of post-remission therapy, which is associated with substantial morbidity in potentially cured patients, is discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Arsenicals / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Oxides / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Aminoglycosides / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Humans. Remission Induction. Secondary Prevention. Tretinoin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 20163270.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-7666
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Pharmacother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoglycosides; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Oxides; 0 / gemtuzumab; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide
  • [Number-of-references] 75
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94. Mantadakis E, Samonis G, Kalmanti M: A comprehensive review of acute promyelocytic leukemia in children. Acta Haematol; 2008;119(2):73-82
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  • [Title] A comprehensive review of acute promyelocytic leukemia in children.
  • The outcome of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has substantially improved since the successful introduction of tretinoin, and nowadays combining tretinoin with chemotherapy is potentially curative for at least 70-75% of patients with newly diagnosed APL.
  • In most pediatric series, APL represents < or = 10% of childhood acute myelogenous leukemia.
  • Recent data indicate that > or = 2 negative RT-PCR assays for PML/RARalpha on bone marrow performed at least 1 month apart after completing therapy are strongly associated with long-term remissions, while conversion to PCR positivity for PML/RARalpha during remission is highly predictive of impending relapse.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / diagnosis. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / therapy

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  • [Copyright] 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 18285695.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9662
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 70
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95. Snijder S, Mellink CH, van der Lelie H: Translocation (2;11)(q37;q23) in therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome after treatment for acute promyelocytic leukemia. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2008 Jan 15;180(2):149-52
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  • [Title] Translocation (2;11)(q37;q23) in therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome after treatment for acute promyelocytic leukemia.
  • Treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) with a combination of anthracycline-based chemotherapy and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) leads to very high rates of complete remission and survival.
  • There are only a limited number of publications on the development of therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myeloid leukemia during follow-up of APL.
  • Twenty months after diagnosis, however, conventional cytogenetics revealed a complex karyotype with a translocation involving 11q23 and loss of chromosomes 7q and Xq.
  • This case stresses the importance of conventional karyotyping to be performed on a regular basis in all treated APL patients for the early detection of chromosomal aberrations that indicate the development of therapy-related MDS or acute myeloid leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 2. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / etiology. Neoplasms, Second Primary. Translocation, Genetic


96. Bonati A, Rizzoli V, Lunghi P: Arsenic trioxide in hematological malignancies: the new discovery of an ancient drug. Curr Pharm Biotechnol; 2006 Dec;7(6):397-405
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  • Currently, Arsenic Trioxide (ATO) is considered the treatment of choice for patients with relapsed acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL).
  • Recently, a durable remission with minimal toxicity by single agent ATO or ATO + ATRA in newly diagnosed APL was reported by different groups.
  • These regimens have minimal toxicity and can be administered on an outpatient basis after remission induction, thus they could become a real, less toxic and more economic option to ATRA + anthracyclines in particular in low risk APL, or in patients that cannot undergo chemotherapy because of age or comorbid conditions and in patients that refuse chemotherapy.
  • On the contrary, results of clinical trials to treat non-APL acute myeloid leukemia (AML) were disappointing.
  • Our pre-clinical studies showed that ATO is capable to induce cell death in acute leukemia cells but the apoptotic function is limited since it can induce also a mechanism of cell defense by activating pro-survival molecules such as MEK-ERK, Bcl-xL, Bcl-2.


97. Morimatsu Y, Matsubara S, Hirose N, Ohkuchi A, Izumi A, Ozaki K, Ozawa K, Suzuki M: Acute promyelocytic leukemia: an unusual cause showing prolonged disseminated intravascular coagulation after placental abruption. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2008 Mar;277(3):267-70
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  • [Title] Acute promyelocytic leukemia: an unusual cause showing prolonged disseminated intravascular coagulation after placental abruption.
  • We closely observed her, and at the 58th day postpartum, blast cells appeared in the peripheral blood and she was diagnosed with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL).
  • The close observation after delivery enabled us to make the prompt diagnosis/treatment, leading to the complete remission.
  • CONCLUSION: APL should be added to the list of differential diagnosis when DIC persists even after prompt delivery and appropriate anti-DIC treatment after placental abruption.
  • [MeSH-major] Abruptio Placentae / etiology. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation / etiology. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17713776.001).
  • [ISSN] 0932-0067
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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98. Kang HJ, Hong SH, Kim IH, Park BK, Han KS, Cho HI, Shin HY, Ahn HS: Prognostic significance of FLT3 mutations in pediatric non-promyelocytic acute myeloid leukemia. Leuk Res; 2005 Jun;29(6):617-23
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prognostic significance of FLT3 mutations in pediatric non-promyelocytic acute myeloid leukemia.
  • This is the first study of FLT3 mutations in pediatric non-promyelocytic AML patients that received the same treatment scheme in single institute.
  • Patients with FLT3/ITD relapsed early after complete remission even after receiving bone marrow transplantation from a matched related donor with little BuCy conditioning.
  • New therapeutic scheme such as stem cell transplantation with more intensive conditioning just after complete remission could be applied in pediatric non-promyelocytic AML patients with the FLT3/ITD mutation.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15863200.001).
  • [ISSN] 0145-2126
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / FLT3 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3
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99. Jácomo RH, Melo RA, Souto FR, de Mattos ER, de Oliveira CT, Fagundes EM, Bittencourt HN, Bittencourt RI, Bortolheiro TC, Paton EJ, Bendlin R, Ismael S, Chauffaille Mde L, Silva D, Pagnano KB, Ribeiro R, Rego EM: Clinical features and outcomes of 134 Brazilians with acute promyelocytic leukemia who received ATRA and anthracyclines. Haematologica; 2007 Oct;92(10):1431-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical features and outcomes of 134 Brazilians with acute promyelocytic leukemia who received ATRA and anthracyclines.
  • Out of 134 patients treated with ATRA and anthracyclines, only 91 (67.9%) achieved remission because 43 (32%) died during induction.
  • [MeSH-major] Anthracyclines / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / pathology. Tretinoin / therapeutic use


100. Ferrara F, Finizio O, Izzo T, Riccardi C, Criscuolo C, Carbone A, Borlenghi E, Rossi G: Autologous stem cell transplantation for patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia in second molecular remission. Anticancer Res; 2010 Sep;30(9):3845-9
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  • [Title] Autologous stem cell transplantation for patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia in second molecular remission.
  • Relapse still occurs in approximately 20-30% of patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and, after achievement of second complete remission (CR), the optimal strategy is still controversial.
  • We describe therapeutic results from a series of 13 patients autografted in second molecular remission (MR) by a molecular negative apheresis product.
  • In all patients, the disease was confirmed at the molecular level and all had received the GIMEMA/AIDA protocol, achieving molecular remission at the end of consolidation.
  • In all cases, molecular evaluation of the apheresis product was negative for the promyelocytic leukemia/retinoic acid receptor alpha gene.
  • [MeSH-major] Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation / methods. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Salvage Therapy / methods

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  • (PMID = 20944181.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-7530
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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