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1. Bhojwani D, Howard SC, Pui CH: High-risk childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma; 2009;9 Suppl 3:S222-30
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  • [Title] High-risk childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • Although most children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are cured, certain subsets have a high risk of relapse.
  • Infants with mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL)-rearranged ALL comprise a very poor-risk group wherein further intensification of chemotherapy causes significant toxicity.
  • Hybrid protocols incorporating drugs effective for acute myeloid leukemia could improve survival, a strategy being tested in international trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / diagnosis. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Glucocorticoids / therapeutic use. Humans. Infant. Neoplasm, Residual / drug therapy. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Recurrence. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19778845.001).
  • [ISSN] 1938-0712
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical lymphoma & myeloma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Lymphoma Myeloma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765-31; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Glucocorticoids
  • [Number-of-references] 92
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS163517; NLM/ PMC2814411
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2. Zhang B, Tie LJ, Ye QD, Gu LJ, Tang JY, Yuan XL, Shen LS: [Expression of the transcription factor PAX5 in childhood acute leukemic cells]. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi; 2006 Feb;14(1):6-10
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  • [Title] [Expression of the transcription factor PAX5 in childhood acute leukemic cells].
  • To investigate transcription factor PAX5 expression characteristics in childhood acute leukemic cells, expression levels of PAX5 and CD19 mRNA in 6 hematological tumor cell lines and bone marrow cells of 6 normal children, 58 de novo patients and 4 relapse acute leukemic children, including 39 cases of B-ALL, 10 cases of T-ALL and 13 cases of AML, were detected by a real-time RT-PCR.
  • The results showed that PAX5 and CD19 mRNA expression levels were 2.35% and 2.52% in Namalwa (B-cell lines) respectively, but almost not detectable in other T- and myeloid cell lines.
  • Among clinical samples, expression of PAX5 mRNA in B-ALL was significantly higher than that in T-ALL and AML (P = 0.029 and P = 0.013 respectively).
  • PAX5 expression was significantly lower in T-ALL and AML than that in normal controls.
  • The difference of PAX5 mRNA expression levels between T-ALL and AML was not significant.
  • Moreover, PAX5 mRNA expressions in de novo and relapse patients with B-ALL were significantly higher than those in remission (P = 0.011 and P = 0.006 respectively).

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  • (PMID = 16584581.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-2137
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo shi yan xue ye xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] CHI
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD19; 0 / B-Cell-Specific Activator Protein; 0 / PAX5 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Transcription Factors
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3. Liang DC, Chan TT, Lin KH, Lin DT, Lu MY, Chen SH, Liu HC, Lin MT, Lee MT, Shu SG, Chang TK, Chen JS, Hsiao CC, Hung IJ, Hsieh YL, Chen RL, Cheng SN, Chang WH, Lee CH, Lin KS: Improved treatment results for childhood acute myeloid leukemia in Taiwan. Leukemia; 2006 Jan;20(1):136-41
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  • [Title] Improved treatment results for childhood acute myeloid leukemia in Taiwan.
  • To improve treatment results for children with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML), we introduced a novel protocol, Taiwan Pediatric Oncology Group-AML-97A, for AML other than acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), for which modified conventional protocols were used.
  • From January 1, 1997, to December 31, 2002, 141 children younger than 17 years old with de novo AML were enrolled.
  • In total, 117 patients with non-APL AML were treated with induction therapy of idarubicin and cytarabine (Ara-C), postremission therapy with high-dose Ara-C - containing regimens for four monthly courses, and moderate-dose therapy with idarubicin and Ara-C for four monthly courses.
  • Stem cell transplantation was performed in 29 patients in first remission with a similar outcome as chemotherapy alone.
  • The remission rate in the AML-97A study was 90%, the 5-year survival 51 +/- 5.3% (s.e.) and the 5-year event-free survival 50 +/- 4.8%; for APL, these were 100%, 86 +/- 7.0, and 75 +/- 9.8%.
  • The AML-97A regimen was well tolerated.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / therapy. Stem Cell Transplantation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Remission Induction. Taiwan. Treatment Outcome


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4. Morsi H, Yong KL, Jewell AP: Preferential survival of acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells at 33 degrees C is associated with up-regulation of bcl-2. Leuk Lymphoma; 2006 Jun;47(6):1117-22
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  • [Title] Preferential survival of acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells at 33 degrees C is associated with up-regulation of bcl-2.
  • An important feature of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the risk of testicular relapse in affected males, which may occur months or years after induction of remission.
  • Acute myeloid leukemia cell lines incubated at 33 degrees C also showed increased survival and resistance to chemotherapeutic agents, but did not demonstrate upregulation of bcl-2.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation, Leukemic. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / metabolism. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 16840204.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2
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5. Hijiya N, Hudson MM, Lensing S, Zacher M, Onciu M, Behm FG, Razzouk BI, Ribeiro RC, Rubnitz JE, Sandlund JT, Rivera GK, Evans WE, Relling MV, Pui CH: Cumulative incidence of secondary neoplasms as a first event after childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. JAMA; 2007 Mar 21;297(11):1207-15
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cumulative incidence of secondary neoplasms as a first event after childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • CONTEXT: Little is known about the incidence of secondary neoplasms after 15 to 20 years in children and adolescents who were treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • OBJECTIVES: To investigate the cumulative incidence of secondary neoplasms in pediatric patients treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia over 30 years and to characterize late-occurring tumors.
  • DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: Retrospective study of 2169 patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated between 1962 and 1998 at St Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, Tenn, who achieved complete remission and had a median follow-up time of 18.7 years (range, 2.4-41.3 years).
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cumulative incidences of secondary neoplasms in first remission and standard incidence ratios of observed rates compared with rates of cancer development in the general US population.
  • RESULTS: Secondary neoplasms developed as the first event in 123 patients and comprised 46 myeloid malignancies, 3 lymphomas, 14 basal cell carcinomas, 16 other carcinomas, 6 sarcomas, 16 meningiomas, and 22 other brain tumors.
  • The cumulative incidence of each tumor type at 30 years was 2.19% (SE, 0.32%) for myeloid malignancy, 0.17% (SE, 0.10%) for lymphoma, 3.00% (SE, 0.59%) for brain tumor, 4.91% (SE, 1.04%) for carcinoma, and 0.57% (SE, 0.37%) for sarcoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The cumulative incidence of secondary neoplasms increases steadily over 30 years after treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • These results suggest that lifelong follow-up of acute lymphoblastic leukemia survivors is needed to ascertain the full impact of treatment and other leukemia-related factors on secondary neoplasm development.

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  • (PMID = 17374815.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3598
  • [Journal-full-title] JAMA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] JAMA
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-21765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-36401; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-51001; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-60419; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-71907; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-78224; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM-61393
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. MRD-AML-BFM Study Group, Langebrake C, Creutzig U, Dworzak M, Hrusak O, Mejstrikova E, Griesinger F, Zimmermann M, Reinhardt D: Residual disease monitoring in childhood acute myeloid leukemia by multiparameter flow cytometry: the MRD-AML-BFM Study Group. J Clin Oncol; 2006 Aug 1;24(22):3686-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Residual disease monitoring in childhood acute myeloid leukemia by multiparameter flow cytometry: the MRD-AML-BFM Study Group.
  • PURPOSE: Monitoring of residual disease (RD) by flow cytometry in childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) may predict outcome.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Five hundred forty-two specimens of 150 children enrolled in the AML-Berlin-Frankfurt-Muenster (BFM) 98 study were analyzed by four-color immunophenotyping at up to four predefined time points during treatment.
  • For each of the 12 leukemia-associated immunophenotypes and time points, a threshold level based on a previous retrospective analysis of another cohort of children with AML and on control bone marrows was determined.
  • Compared with commonly defined risk factors in the AML-BFM studies, flow cytometry does not provide additional information for outcome prediction, but may be helpful to evaluate the remission status at day 28.
  • [MeSH-major] Flow Cytometry. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / diagnosis. Neoplasm, Residual / diagnosis


7. Zhou M, Tang JY, Xue HL, Liu Y, Pan C, Chen J, Dong L, Shen SH: [Study on NPM1 gene mutations in childhood acute myeloid leukemia]. Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi; 2010 Jul;31(7):438-41
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  • [Title] [Study on NPM1 gene mutations in childhood acute myeloid leukemia].
  • OBJECTIVE: To examine the incidence and clinical significance of NPM1 mutations in childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients.
  • METHODS: NPM1 mutations of 70 newly diagnosed childhood AML were detected by high resolution melting (HRM) analysis on the LightCycler 480.
  • RESULTS: NPM1 mutations were identified in 32 (45.7%) of the 70 AML children.
  • In AML-ETO or PML-RARα positive groups, the incidence of NPM1 mutations was significant lower (P = 0.048).
  • There was no significant difference in response rates after induction therapy (P = 0.217), but the complete remission (CR) rate was higher in the NPM1-mutated group (81.3%).
  • CONCLUSION: NPM1 mutations were relatively common in our cohort of AML patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute. Nuclear Proteins


8. Tsukimoto I, Tawa A, Horibe K, Tabuchi K, Kigasawa H, Tsuchida M, Yabe H, Nakayama H, Kudo K, Kobayashi R, Hamamoto K, Imaizumi M, Morimoto A, Tsuchiya S, Hanada R: Risk-stratified therapy and the intensive use of cytarabine improves the outcome in childhood acute myeloid leukemia: the AML99 trial from the Japanese Childhood AML Cooperative Study Group. J Clin Oncol; 2009 Aug 20;27(24):4007-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Risk-stratified therapy and the intensive use of cytarabine improves the outcome in childhood acute myeloid leukemia: the AML99 trial from the Japanese Childhood AML Cooperative Study Group.
  • PURPOSE: To improve the prognosis in children with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) by introducing a dose-dense intensive chemotherapy regimen and an appropriate risk stratification system.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Two hundred forty children with de novo AML were treated with continuous cytarabine-based induction therapy and stratified to three risk groups based on the initial treatment response, age, and WBC at diagnosis and cytogenetics.
  • RESULTS: Two hundred twenty-seven children (94.6%) achieved a complete remission (CR).
  • CONCLUSION: A high survival rate, 75.6% at 5 years, was achieved for childhood with de novo AML in the AML99 trial.
  • The treatment strategy was well tolerated with only 1.7% induction death rate and 3.5% remission death rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Cytarabine / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy


9. Steiner M, Attarbaschi A, Dworzak M, Strobl H, Pickl W, Kornmüller R, Haas O, Gadner H, Mann G, Austrian Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster Study Group: Cytochemically myeloperoxidase positive childhood acute leukemia with lymphoblastic morphology treated as lymphoblastic leukemia. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2010 Jan;32(1):e4-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cytochemically myeloperoxidase positive childhood acute leukemia with lymphoblastic morphology treated as lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • SUMMARY: Cytochemical myeloperoxidase (MPO) positivity represents the gold standard for discrimination between lymphatic and myeloid blasts.
  • We present 5 patients with cytochemically MPO-positive acute leukemia classified as lymphoblastic by cytomorphology and lymphoblastic (n=3) or biphenotypic (n=2) by immunophenotyping, who entered first-line treatment for lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • The former 3 are in first remission and both with biphenotypic leukemia relapsed with acute myeloid leukemia.
  • The study primarily shows that cytochemical MPO expression in childhood acute leukemia revealing typical lymphoblastic morphology and phenotype does rarely exist.
  • Although a small number of patients studied, cytochemical MPO expression in acute leukemia does not seem to require myeloid leukemia treatment in case of otherwise lymphoblastic cytomorphology and phenotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / etiology. Peroxidase / analysis. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Immunophenotyping. Neoplasms, Second Primary. Recurrence. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome


10. Rubnitz JE, Lensing S, Razzouk BI, Pounds S, Pui CH, Ribeiro RC: Effect of race on outcome of white and black children with acute myeloid leukemia: the St. Jude experience. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2007 Jan;48(1):10-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effect of race on outcome of white and black children with acute myeloid leukemia: the St. Jude experience.
  • BACKGROUND: The association between race and outcome of treatment for childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has not been adequately studied.
  • PROCEDURE: We compared the clinical characteristics, biological features, and outcomes between white and black children with AML who were treated on five consecutive clinical protocols (1980-2002) at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital.
  • However, on our most recent trial (AML-97), there was a trend towards inferior outcome among black patients: the 5-year survival estimates were 55.6% +/- 12.3% and 27.3% +/- 13.5% for whites and blacks, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although we detected no differences in treatment outcome between white and black children with AML over the entire study period, black children appear to have worse outcomes than white children during more recent studies.
  • Improved treatment is needed for all children with AML.
  • [MeSH-major] African Americans. European Continental Ancestry Group. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Child. Child, Preschool. Clinical Trials as Topic. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Hospitals, Pediatric. Humans. Infant. Male. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16642489.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA-21765
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Pieters R, Schrappe M, De Lorenzo P, Hann I, De Rossi G, Felice M, Hovi L, LeBlanc T, Szczepanski T, Ferster A, Janka G, Rubnitz J, Silverman L, Stary J, Campbell M, Li CK, Mann G, Suppiah R, Biondi A, Vora A, Valsecchi MG: A treatment protocol for infants younger than 1 year with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (Interfant-99): an observational study and a multicentre randomised trial. Lancet; 2007 Jul 21;370(9583):240-50
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  • [Title] A treatment protocol for infants younger than 1 year with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (Interfant-99): an observational study and a multicentre randomised trial.
  • BACKGROUND: Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in infants younger than 1 year is rare, and infants with the disease have worse outcomes than do older children.
  • We initiated an international study to investigate the effects of a new hybrid treatment protocol with elements designed to treat both acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and acute myeloid leukaemia, and to identify any prognostic factors for outcome in infants.
  • Eligible patients were stratified for risk according to their peripheral blood response to a 7-day prednisone prophase, and then given a hybrid regimen based on the standard protocol for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, with some elements designed for treatment of acute myeloid leukaemia.
  • Before the maintenance phase, a subset of patients in complete remission were randomly assigned to receive either standard treatment or a more intensive chemotherapy course with high-dose cytarabine and methotrexate.
  • FINDINGS: In the 482 enrolled patients who underwent hybrid treatment, 260 (58%) were in complete remission at a median follow-up of 38 (range 1-78) months, and EFS at 4 years was 47.0% (SE 2.6, 95% CI 41.9-52.1).
  • Of 445 patients in complete remission after 5 weeks of induction treatment, 191 were randomised: 95 patients to receive a late intensification course, and 96 to a control group.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy

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  • [CommentIn] Lancet. 2007 Jul 21;370(9583):198-200 [17658376.001]
  • (PMID = 17658395.001).
  • [ISSN] 1474-547X
  • [Journal-full-title] Lancet (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00015873; ISRCTN/ ISRCTN24251487
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0300130
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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12. Xiong H, Zhang YD, Hu Q, Sun Y, Liu SY, Zhang LQ, Liu AG, Wang GL: [Biological characteristics of T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia in 23 children]. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi; 2010 Aug;12(8):605-8
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  • [Title] [Biological characteristics of T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia in 23 children].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the biological characteristics of childhood T-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and their clinical significance.
  • Myeloid antigen was expressed in 4 cases (17%).
  • CD3 expression was related with the complete remission rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / immunology

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  • (PMID = 20704789.001).
  • [ISSN] 1008-8830
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo dang dai er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of contemporary pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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13. Woods WG: Curing childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) at the half-way point: promises to keep and miles to go before we sleep. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2006 May 1;46(5):565-9
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  • [Title] Curing childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) at the half-way point: promises to keep and miles to go before we sleep.
  • Childhood and adolescent acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is traditionally one of the hardest childhood cancers to successfully treat and had an overall survival well under 10% in the 1960s.
  • (1) the role of aggressive induction therapy in not only improving CR rates but in post-remission outcomes; and (2) the role of aggressive post-remission therapy in further improving survival, with an emphasis on high-dose Ara C-based chemotherapy, BMT, and supportive care.
  • Some of the challenges that will lead to ongoing reduction of population-based mortality for AML through young adulthood include:.
  • (1) improving access of adolescents to pediatric AML therapy;.
  • (3) individualized therapy based on individual genetics and leukemia cell biology;.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Disease-Free Survival. Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Humans. Remission Induction. Transplantation, Autologous. Transplantation, Homologous. Treatment Outcome


14. Wen C, Ma FT, Wan WQ: [Expression of CREB/Bcl-2 in bone marrow mononuclear cells of children with acute leukemia]. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi; 2010 Mar;12(3):177-80
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  • [Title] [Expression of CREB/Bcl-2 in bone marrow mononuclear cells of children with acute leukemia].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the expression and role of cyclic-AMP response binding protein (CREB) and Bcl-2 in children with acute leukemia.
  • METHODS: Ninety-two children with acute leukemia (leukemia group) and 30 children with non-hematologic malignancies (control group) were enrolled.
  • RESULTS: The mRNA and protein expression of CREB and Bcl-2 in the leukemia group was significantly higher than that in the control group (p<0.01).
  • There were no significant differences in the expression of CREB and Bcl-2 between acute lymphoblastic leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia subgroups.
  • In the leukemia group, the mRNA and protein expression of CREB and Bcl-2 in the complete remission subgroup was significantly lower than that in the non-complete remission subgroup (p<0.01).
  • High mRNA expression of CREB and Bcl-2 in the leukemia group was positively correlated with peripheral blood leucocyte counts (r=0.62, 0.71 respectively, p<0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The expression of CREB and Bcl-2 may be correlated with the pathogenesis and clinical prognosis of childhood leukemia, however, their expression may not be associated with the classification of acute leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow Cells / metabolism. Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein / genetics. Leukemia / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. RNA, Messenger / analysis

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  • (PMID = 20350424.001).
  • [ISSN] 1008-8830
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo dang dai er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of contemporary pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CREB1 protein, human; 0 / Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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15. Sidhom I, Shaaban K, Soliman S, Ezzat S, El-Anwar W, Hamdy N, Yassin D, Salem S, Hassanein H, Mansour MT: Clinical significance of immunophenotypic markers in pediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst; 2008 Jun;20(2):111-20
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  • [Title] Clinical significance of immunophenotypic markers in pediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • AIM: To investigate the prevalence of the expression of CD34, CD10 and myeloid associated antigens (CD13/ CD33) in childhood T-ALL and to relate their presence to initial clinical and biologic features and early response to therapy.
  • No significant association was encountered between CD34, CD10 or myeloid antigen positivity and the presenting clinical features as age, sex, TLC and CNS leukemia.
  • CONCLUSIONS: CD34, CD10, CD13/CD33 expression, as well as T-cell maturation stages, may have prognostic significance in pediatric T-ALL as they have a significant impact on early clearance of leukemic cells detected by MRD day 15.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Neoplasm, Residual / diagnosis. Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / diagnosis. Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antigens, CD / metabolism. Antigens, CD13 / metabolism. Antigens, CD34 / metabolism. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / metabolism. Cell Differentiation. Child. Child, Preschool. Egypt. Female. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Infant. Male. Neprilysin / metabolism. Prognosis. Remission Induction. Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20029466.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-0362
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Egypt Natl Canc Inst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CD33 protein, human; 0 / Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3; EC 3.4.11.2 / Antigens, CD13; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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16. Olcay L, Aribaş BK, Gökçe M: A patient with acute myeloblastic leukemia who presented with conus medullaris syndrome and review of the literature. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2009 Jun;31(6):440-7
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  • [Title] A patient with acute myeloblastic leukemia who presented with conus medullaris syndrome and review of the literature.
  • In childhood, the conus medullaris syndrome owing to leukemia is rare.
  • Here, a 12-year-old boy with acute myeloblastic leukemia, maxillary mass, and conus medullaris syndrome is reported.
  • A biopsy from the maxillary mass revealed "granulocytic sarcoma."
  • Chemotherapy and local radiotherapy for both the face and the spine, yielded bone marrow remission and abatement in neurologic and radiologic findings, but he developed bone marrow relapse and died because of sepsis.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / complications. Spinal Cord Compression / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19648794.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3678
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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17. Kardos G, Zwaan CM, Kaspers GJ, de-Graaf SS, de Bont ES, Postma A, Bökkerink JP, Weening RS, van der Does-van den Berg A, van Wering ER, Korbijn C, Hählen K: Treatment strategy and results in children treated on three Dutch Childhood Oncology Group acute myeloid leukemia trials. Leukemia; 2005 Dec;19(12):2063-71
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  • [Title] Treatment strategy and results in children treated on three Dutch Childhood Oncology Group acute myeloid leukemia trials.
  • This report describes the long-term follow-up data of three consecutive Dutch Childhood Oncology Group acute myeloid leukemia (AML) protocols.
  • A total of 303 children were diagnosed with AML, of whom 209 were eligible for this report.
  • The first study was the AML-82 protocol.
  • Study AML-87 was based on the BFM-87 protocol, with prophylactic cranial irradiation in high-risk patients only, and without maintenance therapy.
  • The subsequent study AML-92/94 consisted of a modified BFM-93 protocol, that is, without maintenance therapy and prophylactic cranial irradiation.
  • Antileukemic efficacy was offset by an increase in the cumulative incidence of nonrelapse mortality, especially in remission patients, and survival did not improve (5-year pOS 44%).
  • Our results demonstrate that outcome in childhood AML is still unsatisfactory, and that further intensification of therapy carries the risk of enhanced toxicity.
  • Our patients are currently included in the MRC AML studies, based on the results of their AML 10 trial.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Protocols / standards. Leukemia, Myeloid / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Cranial Irradiation. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Recurrence. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16107896.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
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18. Ravindranath Y, Chang M, Steuber CP, Becton D, Dahl G, Civin C, Camitta B, Carroll A, Raimondi SC, Weinstein HJ, Pediatric Oncology Group: Pediatric Oncology Group (POG) studies of acute myeloid leukemia (AML): a review of four consecutive childhood AML trials conducted between 1981 and 2000. Leukemia; 2005 Dec;19(12):2101-16
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pediatric Oncology Group (POG) studies of acute myeloid leukemia (AML): a review of four consecutive childhood AML trials conducted between 1981 and 2000.
  • From 1981 to 2000, a total of 1823 children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) enrolled on four consecutive Pediatric Oncology Group (POG) clinical trials.
  • POG 8101 demonstrated that the induction rate associated with the 3+7+7 combination of daunorubicin, Ara-C, and 6-thioguanine (DAT) was greater than that associated with an induction regimen used to treat acute lymphoblastic leukemia (82 vs 61%; P=0.02).
  • The POG 9421 AML study evaluated high-dose Ara-C as part of the first induction course and the use of the multidrug resistance modulator cyclosporine.
  • Preliminary results showed that patients receiving both high-dose Ara-C for remission induction and the MDR modulator for consolidation had a superior outcome (5-year EFS estimate, 42+/-8.2%) than did patients receiving other treatment; however, the difference was not statistically significant.
  • These four studies demonstrate the importance of dose intensification of Ara-C in the treatment of childhood AML; cytogenetics as the single most prognostic factor and the unique curability of AML in children with Down's syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Protocols / standards. Leukemia, Myeloid / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Child. Child, Preschool. Cytarabine / therapeutic use. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Down Syndrome / complications. Down Syndrome / drug therapy. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Prognosis. Remission Induction / methods. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16136167.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-03161; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-05587; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-07431; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-11233; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-15525; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-15898; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-20549; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-25408; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-28383; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-28439; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-28476; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-29139; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-29293; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-29691; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-32053; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-33587; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-33603; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-33625; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-41573; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-69177; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-69428
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine
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19. Balamurugan S, Sugapriya D, Shanthi P, Thilaka V, Venkatadesilalu S, Pushpa V, Madhavan M: Multidrug resistance 1 gene expression and AgNOR in childhood acute leukemias. Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus; 2007 Dec;23(3-4):73-8
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  • [Title] Multidrug resistance 1 gene expression and AgNOR in childhood acute leukemias.
  • We have studied MDR1 expression and AgNORS in 41 cases of acute leukemia in children.
  • In this study, AgNOR counts in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) L2 subtype (FAB classification) were significantly higher as compared to the ALL L1 subtype.
  • Similarly, mean AgNOR count in the acute myeloid Leukemia (AML) M2 subtype was significantly higher as compared to the ALL L1 subtype.
  • However, there was no correlation between AgNOR and treatment outcome or between AgNOR counts and MDR1 expression in any of the subtypes of acute leukemia included in this series.
  • In AML, MDR1 gene expression was found to be related to reduced remission induction rates and hence poorer prognosis.
  • In ALL, our study has shown no difference in remission induction between MDR1 positive and MDR1 negative cases.
  • This would suggest that factors other than MDR1 may be of relevance in Pediatric ALL.

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  • (PMID = 23100919.001).
  • [ISSN] 0971-4502
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of hematology & blood transfusion : an official journal of Indian Society of Hematology and Blood Transfusion
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Hematol Blood Transfus
  • [Language] eng
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  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Acute leukemia / AgNOR / Multidrug Resistance 1 / P-glycoprotein
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20. Schmiegelow K, Al-Modhwahi I, Andersen MK, Behrendtz M, Forestier E, Hasle H, Heyman M, Kristinsson J, Nersting J, Nygaard R, Svendsen AL, Vettenranta K, Weinshilboum R, Nordic Society for Paediatric Haematology and Oncology: Methotrexate/6-mercaptopurine maintenance therapy influences the risk of a second malignant neoplasm after childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: results from the NOPHO ALL-92 study. Blood; 2009 Jun 11;113(24):6077-84
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  • [Title] Methotrexate/6-mercaptopurine maintenance therapy influences the risk of a second malignant neoplasm after childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: results from the NOPHO ALL-92 study.
  • Among 1614 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated with the Nordic Society for Paediatric Haematology and Oncology (NOPHO) ALL-92 protocol, 20 patients developed a second malignant neoplasm (SMN) with a cumulative risk of 1.6% at 12 years from the diagnosis of ALL.
  • Nine of the 16 acute myeloid leukemias or myelodysplastic syndromes had monosomy 7 (n = 7) or 7q deletions (n = 2).
  • This study indicates that the duration and intensity of 6MP/MTX maintenance therapy of childhood ALL may influence the risk of SMNs in childhood ALL.

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  • (PMID = 19224761.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-0020
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM028157; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / U01 GM061388; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01-GM28157; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / U01 GM61388
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] E7WED276I5 / 6-Mercaptopurine; EC 2.1.1.- / Methyltransferases; EC 2.1.1.67 / thiopurine methyltransferase; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2699230
  • [Investigator] Schmiegelow K; Hejl M; Østergård M; Schrøder H; Pihkala U; Ilanmaa E; Antila K; Korpela K; Vuorinen O; Perkkiö M; Kojo N; Nyman R; Pere M; Lanning M; Niemi A; Vuoristo A; Niemi S; Isotalo J; Laapas H; Mäkipernaa A; Salmi T; Varsamäki T; Kristinsson J; Zeller B; Danielsen O; Madsen B; Nielsen B; Stensvold K; Lund JH; Danielsen K; Brekke P; Stamnes O; Glomstein A; Widing E; Hapnes C; Stokland T; Kolmannskog S; Halvorsen B; Spangen S; Carlsson G; Bergkvist M; Skanka N; Korlén B; Dimberg A; Adrian BA; Mellander L; Aronson S; Jensen D; Winiarski J; Lagerwall A; Jonsson NO; Cervin T; Samuelsson U; Berg A; Nilsson H; Behrendtz M; Wiebe T; Ljung R; Tessin I; Ljungren CG; Dohlwitz A; Christensen HO; Ronge E; Berglund M; Björk O; Fransson D; Eriksson M; Forestier E; Kreuger A; Blomgren M; Rönnblad B; Eriksson B; Berg T; Hedling L; Forsberg T; Lindquist B; Kriström B; Hjalmars U
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21. Tavernier E, Le QH, de Botton S, Dhédin N, Bulabois CE, Reman O, Vey N, Lhéritier V, Dombret H, Thomas X: Secondary or concomitant neoplasms among adults diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and treated according to the LALA-87 and LALA-94 trials. Cancer; 2007 Dec 15;110(12):2747-55
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  • [Title] Secondary or concomitant neoplasms among adults diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and treated according to the LALA-87 and LALA-94 trials.
  • BACKGROUND: Second malignant neoplasms are a serious complication after successful treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
  • RESULTS: By February 2005 secondary or concomitant neoplasms were documented in 23 patients, including 9 acute myeloid leukemias (AML) or myelodysplasias (MDS), 4 non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL), 5 skin tumors, and 5 other solid tumors (1 lung cancer, 1 tongue carcinoma, 1 thymoma, 1 condrosarcoma, 1 histiocytosis).
  • There were 22 patients in first remission and 1 was in second remission.
  • However, the median OS in patients developing AML/MDS was 5.7 months.
  • The risk of secondary or concomitant neoplasm appeared higher than that of childhood ALL previously reported in the literature.
  • Considering the low survival rate of this large unselected adult ALL cohort (32% at 10 years) as compared with that observed in childhood ALL, the risk of second malignancy remains underestimated.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Second Primary / etiology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology


22. Brassesco MS, Montaldi AP, Gras DE, Camparoto ML, Martinez-Rossi NM, Scrideli CA, Tone LG, Sakamoto-Hojo ET: Cytogenetic and molecular analysis of MLL rearrangements in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia survivors. Mutagenesis; 2009 Mar;24(2):153-60
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  • [Title] Cytogenetic and molecular analysis of MLL rearrangements in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia survivors.
  • The successful treatment of paediatric malignancies by multimodal therapy has improved outcomes for children with cancer, especially those with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL).
  • Depending on dosage, 2-12% of patients treated with topoisomerase II inhibitors and/or alkylating agents develop treatment-related acute myeloid leukaemia characterized by translocations at 11q23.
  • Our goal was to study MLL rearrangements in peripheral lymphocytes using cytogenetic and molecular methods in order to evaluate the late effects of cancer therapy in patients previously treated for childhood ALL.
  • Our results indicate an increase in MLL aberrations in childhood ALL survivors years after completion of therapy.
  • Even though the biological significance of these rearrangements needs further investigation, they demonstrate a degree of genome instability, indicating the relevance of cytogenetic and molecular studies during the follow-up of patients in complete clinical remission.
  • [MeSH-major] Cytogenetic Analysis. Gene Rearrangement. Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein / genetics. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / genetics. Survivors

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  • (PMID = 19028982.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-3804
  • [Journal-full-title] Mutagenesis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mutagenesis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 149025-06-9 / Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 957E6438QA / Teniposide
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23. Cogulu O, Kosova B, Gunduz C, Karaca E, Aksoylar S, Erbay A, Karapinar D, Vergin C, Vural F, Tombuloglu M, Cetingul N, Ozkinay F: The evaluation of hTERT mRNA expression in acute leukemia children and 2 years follow-up of 40 cases. Int J Hematol; 2008 Apr;87(3):276-83
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  • [Title] The evaluation of hTERT mRNA expression in acute leukemia children and 2 years follow-up of 40 cases.
  • The aim of this study is to evaluate (1) the human telomerase-specific reverse transcriptase (hTERT) mRNA expression in childhood acute leukemia, (2) the association between the hTERT mRNA expression with the patients' characteristics and the known prognostic factors and (3) the correlation of the patients' survival with the initial hTERT mRNA value at diagnosis.
  • A total of 40 newly diagnosed patients consist of children [31 cases with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 9 cases with acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML)] were prospectively included into the study.
  • The highest hTERT mRNA value was observed in Pre B-cell ALL patients followed by B-cell ALL, T-cell ALL and AML.
  • The hTERT mRNA relative ratio difference between the ALL and AML groups was significant.
  • No significant difference was determined between the rate of complete remission and relapse of cases with the hTERT mRNA values in all malignancy groups.
  • Although DFS and OS was longer in AML patients with lower initial hTERT mRNA, the difference was not significant.
  • In conclusion, the hTERT mRNA expression values were not significantly associated with the known prognostic factors in children both with ALL and AML. hTERT mRNA value is a significant factor for childhood ALL at diagnosis in relation to the estimated survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Telomerase / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18293058.001).
  • [ISSN] 0925-5710
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 2.7.7.49 / TERT protein, human; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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24. Yeh TC, Liu HC, Wang LY, Chen SH, Lin WY, Liang DC: The development of a novel protocol for the treatment of de novo childhood acute myeloid leukemia in a single institution in Taiwan. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2007 Dec;29(12):826-31
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  • [Title] The development of a novel protocol for the treatment of de novo childhood acute myeloid leukemia in a single institution in Taiwan.
  • From November 1, 1995 to July 31, 2004, 49 children with de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML) were treated at our institution.
  • In total, 48 patients with de novo AML were enrolled in this study.
  • Forty-two patients with AML other than acute promyelocytic leukemia (non-APL) were treated consecutively with 2 novel protocols: Mackay Memorial Hospital (MMH)-AML-96, designed as a pilot phase, and Taiwan Pediatric Oncology Group (TPOG)-AML-97A, on the basis of MMH-AML-96 with minor modifications.
  • As of July 31, 2006, the remission rates were 79%, 92%, and 98% after 1, 2, and 3 courses of induction therapy, respectively.
  • The 5-year overall survival was 64%+/-6.9% (SE), and the 5-year event-free survival was 60%+/-7.1%; for non-APL AML, the rates were 62%+/-7.5% and 59%+/-7.6%; for APL, 83+/-15.2 and 67+/-19.3%.
  • Among the factors analyzed, a complete remission achieved after 1 course of induction therapy, lactate dehydrogenase <500 IU/L at diagnosis, patients without invasive fungal infection during chemotherapy, and male sex were associated with a favorable outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Tretinoin / therapeutic use


25. Mizushima Y, Taki T, Shimada A, Yui Y, Hiraumi Y, Matsubara H, Watanabe M, Watanabe K, Kamitsuji Y, Hayashi Y, Tsukimoto I, Kobayashi R, Horibe K, Tawa A, Nakahata T, Adachi S: Prognostic significance of the BAALC isoform pattern and CEBPA mutations in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia with normal karyotype: a study by the Japanese Childhood AML Cooperative Study Group. Int J Hematol; 2010 Jun;91(5):831-7
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  • [Title] Prognostic significance of the BAALC isoform pattern and CEBPA mutations in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia with normal karyotype: a study by the Japanese Childhood AML Cooperative Study Group.
  • High BAALC (brain and acute leukemia, cytoplasmic) gene expression may indicate an adverse prognosis for adults who have acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and a normal karyotype, but its prognostic significance for pediatric AML cases is unclear.
  • Newly diagnosed AML patients with normal karyotype who were treated by the Japanese Childhood AML Cooperative Treatment Protocol AML 99 were analyzed in terms of their BAALC expression levels (n = 29), BAALC isoforms (n = 29), and CEBPA mutations (n = 49).
  • All four patients have maintained complete remission for at least 5 years.
  • Thus, 1-5-6-8 isoform expression may be associated with an adverse prognosis in pediatric AML with normal karyotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Asian Continental Ancestry Group / genetics. CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins. Gene Expression Regulation, Leukemic. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / diagnosis. Mutation. Neoplasm Proteins


26. Tomizawa D, Tabuchi K, Kinoshita A, Hanada R, Kigasawa H, Tsukimoto I, Tsuchida M, Tokyo Children's Cancer Study Group: Repetitive cycles of high-dose cytarabine are effective for childhood acute myeloid leukemia: long-term outcome of the children with AML treated on two consecutive trials of Tokyo Children's Cancer Study Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2007 Aug;49(2):127-32
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  • [Title] Repetitive cycles of high-dose cytarabine are effective for childhood acute myeloid leukemia: long-term outcome of the children with AML treated on two consecutive trials of Tokyo Children's Cancer Study Group.
  • BACKGROUND: Various methods of intensive chemotherapy have contributed to an improved survival in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • We here report the long-term results of the two consecutive trials of Tokyo Children's Cancer Study Group (TCCSG), incorporating repetitive use of high-dose cytarabine (HD-Ara-C) based combination chemotherapy in post-remission phase.
  • PROCEDURE: A total of 216 eligible children with newly diagnosed AML were treated in the two consecutive multi-center trials of TCCSG, M91-13 and M96-14, from August 1991 to September 1998.
  • In M91-13 trial, patients received eight courses of intensive post-remission chemotherapy, including six HD-Ara-C containing courses, after remission-induction therapy.
  • RESULTS: The remission-induction rate was 88.8% and probability of 5-year Overall survival (OS) and event-free survival (EFS) were 62% (56-69% with 95% Confidence intervals (CIs)) and 56% (49-62%), respectively.
  • Among patients without Down syndrome (DS) or acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), the presence of t(8;21) or inv(16) was a significant good prognostic factor both in the univariate and multivariate analyses.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that repetitive use of HD-Ara-C was effective and safe for childhood AML.
  • However, further optimization of AML therapy is required.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Cytarabine / therapeutic use. Disease-Free Survival. Down Syndrome / complications. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / analogs & derivatives. Drug Administration Schedule. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Humans. Hydrocortisone / administration & dosage. Infant. Infection / etiology. Infection / mortality. Japan / epidemiology. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Mitoxantrone / administration & dosage. Remission Induction. Survival Analysis. Transplantation, Autologous. Transplantation, Homologous. Treatment Outcome. Tretinoin / administration & dosage. Vincristine / administration & dosage


27. Creutzig U, Zimmermann M, Dworzak M, Urban C, Henze G, Kremens B, Lakomek M, Bourquin JP, Stary J, Reinhardt D: Favourable outcome of patients with childhood acute promyelocytic leukaemia after treatment with reduced cumulative anthracycline doses. Br J Haematol; 2010 May;149(3):399-409
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  • [Title] Favourable outcome of patients with childhood acute promyelocytic leukaemia after treatment with reduced cumulative anthracycline doses.
  • Acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) treatment often includes high cumulative doses of anthracyclines, which can cause long-term cardiotoxicity.
  • Here, we report the favourable outcome in 81 paediatric APL patients treated according to the consecutive acute myeloid leukaemia-Berlin/Frankfurt/Muenster (AML-BFM) trials -93/-98/-2004 with an anthracycline-cytarabine regimen in combination with all-trans-retinoid acid (ATRA).
  • Overall survival was similar when comparing AML-BFM trial periods (trial 93: 88 +/- 8%, 98: 85 +/- 7% and 2004: 94 +/- 8%, P((logrank)) = 0.63).
  • Seventy-five (93%) patients achieved complete remission.
  • [MeSH-major] Anthracyclines / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20230404.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2141
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anthracyclines; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
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28. Dluzniewska A, Balwierz W, Armata J, Balcerska A, Chybicka A, Kowalczyk J, Matysiak M, Ochocka M, Radwanska U, Rokicka-Milewska R, Sonta-Jakimczyk D, Wachowiak J, Wysocki M: Twenty years of Polish experience with three consecutive protocols for treatment of childhood acute myelogenous leukemia. Leukemia; 2005 Dec;19(12):2117-24
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  • [Title] Twenty years of Polish experience with three consecutive protocols for treatment of childhood acute myelogenous leukemia.
  • Until 1983, results of treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) in Poland with different regimens were very poor.
  • In 1983, the Polish Pediatric Leukemia/Lymphoma Study Group introduced a unified treatment protocol--a modified version of BFM-83 protocol.
  • This led to an increase in the curability of AML from 15% to approximately 32%.
  • A new treatment protocol employing idarubicin in place of daunorubicin was introduced in 1998 and produced better initial responses, increase in the number of patients attaining remission after induction therapy and proportional increase of standard-risk patients.
  • Unsatisfactory treatment results in children classified into the high-risk group are principally due to the low remission rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Protocols / standards. Leukemia, Myeloid / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Cause of Death. Child. Child, Preschool. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Idarubicin / therapeutic use. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Poland. Remission Induction / methods. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16107894.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; ZRP63D75JW / Idarubicin
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29. Slats AM, Egeler RM, van der Does-van den Berg A, Korbijn C, Hählen K, Kamps WA, Veerman AJ, Zwaan CM: Causes of death--other than progressive leukemia--in childhood acute lymphoblastic (ALL) and myeloid leukemia (AML): the Dutch Childhood Oncology Group experience. Leukemia; 2005 Apr;19(4):537-44
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  • [Title] Causes of death--other than progressive leukemia--in childhood acute lymphoblastic (ALL) and myeloid leukemia (AML): the Dutch Childhood Oncology Group experience.
  • We analyzed causes of death, other than resistant disease or relapse, in 875 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 229 with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), treated on three different Dutch Childhood Oncology Group (DCOG) ALL and three AML protocols.
  • Overall, 23 (2.6%) ALL and 44 (19.2%) AML patients died.
  • Early death (ED, before remission was reached) occurred in nine ALL (1%) and thirty AML (13.1%) patients, including three and ten deaths before treatment was initiated.
  • Chemotherapy-related mortality in remission (CRM) occurred in nine ALL (1.1%) and eight AML (4.4%) patients.
  • For AML a decrease in ED was observed (from 26% to approximately 10%), but counter-balanced by an increase in CRM (from 3 to 8%), maybe related to the scheduling of intensification blocks in AML-92/94.
  • Including transplant-related mortality, death in CR rates in AML increased from 3 to 15% in the last study.
  • We conclude that mortality dropped favorably in ALL, but not in AML.
  • Especially for AML, effective but less toxic therapy and better supportive care guidelines need to be developed.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid / mortality. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Cause of Death. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Netherlands / epidemiology. Remission Induction


30. Hiçsönmez G: A novel approach to treatment in childhood acute myeloblastic leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome with high-dose methylprednisolone as a differentiation- and apoptosis-inducing agent of myeloid leukemic cells. Turk J Haematol; 2010 Mar 5;27(1):1-7
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  • [Title] A novel approach to treatment in childhood acute myeloblastic leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome with high-dose methylprednisolone as a differentiation- and apoptosis-inducing agent of myeloid leukemic cells.
  • [Transliterated title] Çocukluk yaşı akut myeloblastik lösemi ve myelodisplastik sendromunda myeloid lösemik hücrelerde farklılaşma ve apoptosisi sağlayan yüksek doz metilprednizolon ile yeni bir tedavi yaklaşımı.
  • Differentiation-inducing therapy with all-trans retinoic acid significantly improved the outcome in children with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL).
  • Based on the experimental studies in mice, we have shown that short-course high-dose methylprednisolone (HDMP) treatment can induce terminal differentiation of leukemic cells in children with various subtypes of acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML-M1,-M2,-M3,-M4,-M7).
  • It has also been shown to induce apoptosis of myeloid leukemic cells with or without differentiation.
  • Administration of HDMP as a single agent resulted in a rapid clinical improvement, a marked decrease in blast cells in both peripheral blood and bone marrow and dramatic decreases in the size of extramedullary leukemic mass in children with AML and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS).
  • Addition of HDMP to cytotoxic chemotherapy regimens increased the remission rate and improved the outcome in these children.

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  • (PMID = 27265790.001).
  • [ISSN] 1300-7777
  • [Journal-full-title] Turkish journal of haematology : official journal of Turkish Society of Haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Turk J Haematol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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31. Pearce JM, Sills RH: Consultation with the specialist: childhood leukemia. Pediatr Rev; 2005 Mar;26(3):96-104
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  • [Title] Consultation with the specialist: childhood leukemia.

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  • (PMID = 15741325.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-3347
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatrics in review
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Rev
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 0
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32. Koh KN, Park M, Kim BE, Im HJ, Park CJ, Jang S, Chi HS, Seo JJ: Prognostic significance of minimal residual disease detected by a simplified flow cytometric assay during remission induction chemotherapy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Korean J Pediatr; 2010 Nov;53(11):957-64
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  • [Title] Prognostic significance of minimal residual disease detected by a simplified flow cytometric assay during remission induction chemotherapy in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • PURPOSE: Our study attempted to determine the prognostic significance of minimal residual disease (MRD) detected by a simplified flow cytometric assay during induction chemotherapy in children with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL).
  • The flow cytometric MRD assay was based on the expression intensity of CD19/CD10/CD34 or aberrant expression of myeloid antigens by bone marrow nucleated cells.
  • RESULTS: Thirty-five patients (94.6%) had CD19-positive leukemic cells that also expressed CD10 and/or CD34, and 18 (48.6%) had leukemic cells with aberrant expression of myeloid antigens.

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  • (PMID = 21218018.001).
  • [ISSN] 2092-7258
  • [Journal-full-title] Korean journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3012276
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Acute / Childhood / Flow cytometry / Lymphoblastic leukemia / Minimal residual disease
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33. Hasle H, Alonzo TA, Auvrignon A, Behar C, Chang M, Creutzig U, Fischer A, Forestier E, Fynn A, Haas OA, Harbott J, Harrison CJ, Heerema NA, van den Heuvel-Eibrink MM, Kaspers GJ, Locatelli F, Noellke P, Polychronopoulou S, Ravindranath Y, Razzouk B, Reinhardt D, Savva NN, Stark B, Suciu S, Tsukimoto I, Webb DK, Wojcik D, Woods WG, Zimmermann M, Niemeyer CM, Raimondi SC: Monosomy 7 and deletion 7q in children and adolescents with acute myeloid leukemia: an international retrospective study. Blood; 2007 Jun 1;109(11):4641-7
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  • [Title] Monosomy 7 and deletion 7q in children and adolescents with acute myeloid leukemia: an international retrospective study.
  • Monosomy 7 (-7) and deletion 7q del(7q)] are rare in childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • We retrospectively collected data on 258 children with AML or refractory anemia with excess blasts in transformation (RAEB-T) and -7 or del(7q) with or without other cytogenetic aberrations +/- other].
  • Complete remission (CR) was achieved in fewer patients with -7 +/- other compared with del(7q) +/- other (61% versus 89%, P < .001).
  • Cytogenetic aberrations considered favorable in AML (8;21)(q22;q22), inv(16)(p13q22), t(15;17)(q22;q21), t(9;11)(p22;q23)] (n = 24) were strongly associated with del(7q) and a higher 5-year survival rate compared with del(7q) without favorable cytogenetics (75% versus 46%, P = .03).
  • Childhood AML with chromosome 7 aberrations represents a heterogeneous group of disorders with additional cytogenetic aberrations having a major prognostic impact which should be reflected in future risk-group stratification.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7. Gene Deletion. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / mortality. Monosomy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Chromosome Aberrations. Female. Humans. International Cooperation. Male. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Stem Cell Transplantation. Translocation, Genetic


34. Ziegler DS, Dalla Pozza L, Waters KD, Marshall GM: Advances in childhood leukaemia: successful clinical-trials research leads to individualised therapy. Med J Aust; 2005 Jan 17;182(2):78-81
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  • [Title] Advances in childhood leukaemia: successful clinical-trials research leads to individualised therapy.
  • In most cases, childhood leukaemia has a fetal origin, but multiple molecular events are required after birth for pre-leukaemic cells to progress to leukaemia.
  • Cure rates for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) now approach 80%.
  • A high level of minimal residual disease detected by polymerase chain reaction in patients with ALL in remission has profound prognostic importance and is the focus of a major Australian study attempting to prevent relapse in these children.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid / therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Bone Marrow Transplantation / adverse effects. Child. Cranial Irradiation / adverse effects. Humans. Leukemia / diagnosis. Leukemia / physiopathology. Leukemia / therapy. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 15651967.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-729X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Medical journal of Australia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. J. Aust.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 45
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35. Hu SY, Gu WY, Chen ZX, Wang XL, Cen JN, He HL, Chai YH, Chen CS: The significance of detecting WT1 expression in childhood acute leukemias. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2010 Nov;27(8):581-91
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  • [Title] The significance of detecting WT1 expression in childhood acute leukemias.
  • WT1 (Wilms' tumor gene 1) overexpression is implicated in the prognosis of acute leukemia.
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate WT1 expression and its clinical implication in childhood acute leukemia (AL) in Chinese population.
  • Bone marrow specimen from 200 children at different stages of acute leukemia and from 21 children without leukemia were studied.
  • The WT1 expression at diagnostic marrow specimen in both acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) was higher than control group, whereas WT1 expression in AML was higher than in ALL, and WT1 expression level in relapse in ALL increased more significantly than in AML.
  • The WT1 expression level showed positive correlation with the hypodiploidy and BCR-ABL fusion gene in acute leukemia.
  • A rapidly decrease of WT1 expression level predicted a good response to the induction therapy and low expression of WT1 correlates with remission status.
  • This study suggested that WT1 expression levels in acute leukemia can potentially be a marker for evaluating therapeutic efficacy, correlating with monitoring minimal residue disease, and predicting hematological relapse in children acute leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / genetics. WT1 Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20863155.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-0669
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / WT1 Proteins; EC 2.7.10.2 / Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl
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36. Jackowska T, Steczowicz M, Pawelec K, Pacholska J: [Congenital leukaemia and transient myeloproliferative disorder: diagnostic difficulties--case reports]. Med Wieku Rozwoj; 2006 Jul-Sep;10(3 Pt 1):595-601
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  • Despite great progress in the treatment of childhood leukaemia, prognosis is still poor.
  • He was treated according to BFM-96 for acute myeloblasts leukaemia protocol, but there was no remission and he died of progressive congenital leukaemia after 4 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Lymphoid / congenital. Leukemia, Lymphoid / diagnosis. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / congenital. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / diagnosis. Myeloproliferative Disorders / congenital. Myeloproliferative Disorders / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17317890.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Medycyna wieku rozwojowego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Wieku Rozwoj
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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37. Trobaugh-Lotrario AD, Kletzel M, Quinones RR, McGavran L, Proytcheva MA, Hunger SP, Malcolm J, Schissel D, Hild E, Giller RH: Monosomy 7 associated with pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS): successful management by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Bone Marrow Transplant; 2005 Jan;35(2):143-9
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  • [Title] Monosomy 7 associated with pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS): successful management by allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT).
  • Pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with monosomy 7 is associated with poor disease-free survival when treated by conventional chemotherapy, immunosuppression or supportive measures.
  • To better understand the curative potential of HSCT in these patients, all cases of AML and MDS with monosomy 7 treated by two transplant programs (1992 to present) were reviewed.
  • Primary diagnoses were MDS (N = 5), therapy-related MDS (N = 3), AML (N = 5) and therapy-related AML (N = 3).
  • Toxicity caused deaths of the five nonsurviving patients, four of whom were transplanted with active leukemia.
  • Allogeneic HSCT is effective therapy for childhood AML and MDS associated with monosomy 7, particularly for patients with AML in complete remission and MDS.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Leukemia, Myeloid / therapy. Monosomy. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Cause of Death. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease Management. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasms, Second Primary / mortality. Neoplasms, Second Primary / therapy. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Transplantation, Homologous. Treatment Outcome


38. Abdelhaleem M, Shago M, Sayeh E, Abla O: Childhood myeloid/natural killer precursor acute leukemia with novel chromosomal aberrations der(5)t(4;5)(q31;q31.3) and t(14;17)(q32;q23). Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2007 Oct 15;178(2):141-3
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  • [Title] Childhood myeloid/natural killer precursor acute leukemia with novel chromosomal aberrations der(5)t(4;5)(q31;q31.3) and t(14;17)(q32;q23).
  • We report a unique case of childhood acute leukemia.
  • The leukemia blasts had lymphoblastoid appearance and expressed CD33, CD13, CD34, CD4, CD7, and CD56.
  • The morphology and immunophenotype were most consistent with myeloid/natural killer precursor acute leukemia.
  • The blasts had a complex karyotype, including two chromosomal aberrations, der(5)t(4;5)(q31;q31.3) and t(14;17)(q32;q23), not previously described in childhood acute leukemia.
  • The patient achieved morphological remission following myeloid-based leukemia therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 5. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / genetics. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / pathology


39. Dincaslan HU, Yavuz G, Unal E, Tacyildiz N, Ikinciogullari A, Dogu F, Guloglu D, Yuksek N, Ertem U: Does serum soluble vascular endothelial growth factor levels have different importance in pediatric acute leukemia and malignant lymphoma patients? Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2010 Oct;27(7):503-16
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  • [Title] Does serum soluble vascular endothelial growth factor levels have different importance in pediatric acute leukemia and malignant lymphoma patients?
  • There are limited data related to childhood hematologic malignancies.
  • The aim of the study was to evaluate soluble VEGF (sVEGF) levels in children with acute leukemia and malignant lymphoma (ML) at diagnosis and in remission.
  • The levels of serum sVEGF were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 20 children with acute leukemia, 33 children with different histopathological subtypes of ML, and 20 healthy controls.
  • The levels of sVEGF at diagnosis (range 2 -1040 pg/mL; median 52 pg/mL) was significantly lower than in remission (range 136 -1960 pg/mL; median 630 pg/mL) in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) group (P = .018).
  • The sVEGF levels at diagnosis (range: 2 -640 pg/mL; median 89 pg/mL) was significantly lower compared to remission values (range: 116 -1960 pg/mL; median 136 pg/mL) in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (P = .002).
  • In ML group, including Burkitt's lymphoma (BL), T-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), and Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL), sVEGF levels at diagnosis were higher than remission levels, but there was no statistically significant difference (P >.05).
  • The authors noticed that sVEGF levels showed distinct behavioral pattern in different childhood malignancies at diagnosis and in remission.
  • In acute leukemia and ML patients, VEGF acts through different pathophysiological mechanisms, in both bone marrow (BM) angiogenesis and lymphoid tissue lymphangiogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Hodgkin Disease / blood. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / blood. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / blood. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / blood. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Remission Induction. Sensitivity and Specificity. Solubility

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  • (PMID = 20677920.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-0669
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors
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40. Bernard F, Bordigoni P, Simeoni MC, Barlogis V, Contet A, Loundou A, Thuret I, Leheup B, Chambost H, Play B, Auquier P, Michel G: Height growth during adolescence and final height after haematopoietic SCT for childhood acute leukaemia: the impact of a conditioning regimen with BU or TBI. Bone Marrow Transplant; 2009 Apr;43(8):637-42
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  • [Title] Height growth during adolescence and final height after haematopoietic SCT for childhood acute leukaemia: the impact of a conditioning regimen with BU or TBI.
  • We compared the impact of a conditioning regimen with BU (n=16) or fractionated TBI (n=42) on height growth during adolescence and final height (FH), in 58 adults transplanted for acute leukaemia before adolescence (younger than 9 for girls and 11 for boys, and prepubertal).
  • [MeSH-major] Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation / methods. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / physiopathology. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / physiopathology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy. Transplantation Conditioning / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Body Height. Child. Female. Growth Disorders / etiology. Humans. Male. Remission Induction. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome. Whole-Body Irradiation

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  • (PMID = 19011662.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5365
  • [Journal-full-title] Bone marrow transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bone Marrow Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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41. Zou Y, Wang H, Chen XJ, Wang SC, Zhang L, Chen YM, Zhu XF: [Study of clinical outcome and analysis of prognosis related factor in children with acute myeloid leukemia]. Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi; 2006 Sep;27(9):621-5
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  • [Title] [Study of clinical outcome and analysis of prognosis related factor in children with acute myeloid leukemia].
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyse the clinical outcome and the prognostic factor of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • METHODS: Disease-free survival (DFS), event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were estimated by Kaplan-Meier method and prognostic factors were evaluated by Cox regression with SPSS in 141 childhood AML in our hospital from August 1995 to July 2004.
  • The patients were divided into 2 groups: acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) as group A and AML other than APL as group B.
  • RESULTS: Of the 90 group B patients, 54.4% (49/90) achieved complete remission (CR) after one course chemotherapy , with a total CR rate of 76.7%.
  • The cumulative 5 year DFS and OS rate for group B patients were (28.4 +/- 9.0)% and (35.5 +/- 6.3)%, the 51 group A patients were (94.3 +/- 4.0)% and (81.4 +/- 5.7)%, and for total 141 AML patients were (56.9 +/- 6.3)% and (53.3 +/- 4.8)% respectively.
  • Multivariate analysis demonstrated that higher bone marrow blast cell percentage at diagnosis, CR after more than one course of chemotherapy and less than six courses of consolidation chemotherapy were risk prognostic factors in childhood AML other than APL (P < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: The prognosis of childhood APL is better, while of childhood t(8;21) AML is no better than other FAB subtypes.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17278430.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-2727
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua xue ye xue za zhi = Zhonghua xueyexue zazhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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42. Betts DR, Ammann RA, Hirt A, Hengartner H, Beck-Popovic M, Kuhne T, Nobile L, Caflisch U, Wacker P, Niggli FK: The prognostic significance of cytogenetic aberrations in childhood acute myeloid leukaemia. A study of the Swiss Paediatric Oncology Group (SPOG). Eur J Haematol; 2007 Jun;78(6):468-76
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  • [Title] The prognostic significance of cytogenetic aberrations in childhood acute myeloid leukaemia. A study of the Swiss Paediatric Oncology Group (SPOG).
  • In childhood-onset acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) the clinical value of karyotypic aberrations is now acknowledged, although there is still debate concerning the prognostic significance of some events.
  • To add to this knowledge, cytogenetic analysis was performed on a consecutive series of 84 childhood AML patients diagnosed in Switzerland.
  • The results support the importance of cytogenetic analysis in childhood AML, but show that further work is required in the classification of the poor prognosis aberrations.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Aberrations. Leukemia, Myeloid / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Incidence. Karyotyping. Male. Prognosis. Remission Induction. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 17419750.001).
  • [ISSN] 0902-4441
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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43. Chen YM, Liu TF, Ruan M, Zou Y, Chen XJ, Guo Y, Wang SC, Zhu XF: [Prognosis and chromosomal abnormalities in 79 children with t (8;21) acute myeloid leukemia]. Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao; 2009 Oct;31(5):542-6
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  • [Title] [Prognosis and chromosomal abnormalities in 79 children with t (8;21) acute myeloid leukemia].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the chromosomal abnormalities and evaluate the prognostic value of post-remission chemotherapy in children with t (8;21) acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • METHODS: The diagnosis of AML and its subtyping were performed using morphological, immunological, and cytogenetic methodologies in 79 children.
  • Allogeneic stem cell transplantation or 5-6 cycles of intensive chemotherapy was performed after remission therapy.
  • The complete remission (CR) rates were 81.7% (49/60) and 94.8% (55/58), respectively, after one and two cycles of induction chemotherapy.
  • Post-remission consolidation by high dose cytarabine (HDAC) was significantly superior to standard chemotherapy (66.7% vs. 27.3%, P = 0.03).
  • CONCLUSION: Most children with t (8;21) AML have additional chromosomal abnormalities, although they do not affect the prognosis and long-term survival.
  • Childhood t (8;21) AML usually has high CR rate with relatively good prognosis, and post-remission consolidation by HDAC can improve the survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Aberrations. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19968066.001).
  • [ISSN] 1000-503X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo yi xue ke xue yuan xue bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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44. Becton D, Dahl GV, Ravindranath Y, Chang MN, Behm FG, Raimondi SC, Head DR, Stine KC, Lacayo NJ, Sikic BI, Arceci RJ, Weinstein H, Pediatric Oncology Group: Randomized use of cyclosporin A (CsA) to modulate P-glycoprotein in children with AML in remission: Pediatric Oncology Group Study 9421. Blood; 2006 Feb 15;107(4):1315-24
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  • [Title] Randomized use of cyclosporin A (CsA) to modulate P-glycoprotein in children with AML in remission: Pediatric Oncology Group Study 9421.
  • Relapse is a major obstacle in the cure of acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • The Pediatric Oncology Group AML Study 9421 tested 2 different strategies to improve event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS).
  • Of the 282 children randomly assigned to receive standard DAT induction, 248 (87.9%) achieved remission compared to 253 (91%) of the 278 receiving high-dose DAT (P = ns).
  • Children with HLA-identical sibling donors who achieved a complete remission received an allogeneic bone marrow transplant as consolidation.
  • Of the 418 children who achieved remission and went on to consolidation with and without CsA, the DFS was 40.6% and 33.9%, respectively (P = .24).
  • Overexpression of P-gp was infrequent (14%) in this pediatric population.
  • In this study, intensifying induction with high-dose DAT and the addition of CsA to consolidation chemotherapy did not prolong the durations of remission or improve overall survival for children with AML.

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  • (PMID = 16254147.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA90916
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / P-Glycoprotein; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 83HN0GTJ6D / Cyclosporine; LJ2P1SIK8Y / Mitolactol
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1895393
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45. Mandrell BN, Pritchard M: Understanding the clinical implications of minimal residual disease in childhood leukemia. J Pediatr Oncol Nurs; 2006 Jan-Feb;23(1):38-44
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  • [Title] Understanding the clinical implications of minimal residual disease in childhood leukemia.
  • Improved laboratory techniques now allow a more sensitive detection of leukemia cells at designated intervals throughout therapy.
  • Using flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction, it is possible to detect 1 leukemic cell among 10(4) normal cells (1 leukemia cell in 10,000 normal cells), representing a 100-fold greater sensitivity than morphological examination in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
  • Recently, it has been shown that the molecular presence of persistent acute lymphoblastic leukemia at the end of remission therapy is a poor indicator of clinical outcome.
  • Now similar studies are being performed in acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • While the sensitivity using flow cytometry is less in AML than in ALL (able to detect 1 leukemic cell among 1000 normal cells in AML), persistent or minimal residual AML provides the clinician guidance with future treatment recommendations.
  • Therefore, it is imperative that the nurse have an understanding of the newer techniques to study residual leukemia and their clinical implications for patients and their families.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid / pathology. Neoplasm, Residual / pathology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16689404.001).
  • [ISSN] 1043-4542
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric oncology nursing : official journal of the Association of Pediatric Oncology Nurses
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Oncol Nurs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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46. Suzuki N, Yumura-Yagi K, Yoshida M, Hara J, Nishimura S, Kudoh T, Tawa A, Usami I, Tanizawa A, Hori H, Ito Y, Miyaji R, Oda M, Kato K, Hamamoto K, Osugi Y, Hashii Y, Nakahata T, Horibe K, Japan Association of Childhood Leukemia Study (JACLS): Outcome of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia with induction failure treated by the Japan Association of Childhood Leukemia study (JACLS) ALL F-protocol. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Jan;54(1):71-8
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  • [Title] Outcome of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia with induction failure treated by the Japan Association of Childhood Leukemia study (JACLS) ALL F-protocol.
  • BACKGROUND: Children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who fail to achieve complete remission (CR) after induction therapy (induction failure: IF) have a poor prognosis; however, there have been few prospective studies in patients with IF.
  • Twenty-three of these patients entered the F-protocol study, which mainly consisted of acute-myeloid-leukemia-oriented chemotherapy followed by scheduled hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT).
  • CONCLUSION: Acute-myeloid-leukemia-oriented chemotherapy followed by scheduled HCT is a promising treatment strategy for non-Ph(+) ALL patients with IF.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Philadelphia Chromosome. Prognosis. Prospective Studies. Remission Induction. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome


47. Guo X, Li Q, Zhu YP, Zhou CY, Gao J, Li XH, Pan LL, Li FY, Tian X, Liu HT: [Comparative study on clinical features between TEL-AML1 positive and negative childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi; 2007 Oct;24(5):560-3
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  • [Title] [Comparative study on clinical features between TEL-AML1 positive and negative childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia].
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of TEL-AML1 fusion gene in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and to compare the clinical features between TEL-AML1 positive and negative patients.
  • There were significant differences between TEL-AML1 positive and negative patients in hepatomegaly (2.75 cm vs. 4 cm below costal arch, P=0.006), splenomegaly (0 cm vs. 3 cm below costal arch, P < 0.001), initial white blood cell count (median 7.40 x 10(9)/L vs.18.70 x 10(9)/L, P=0.011), initial peripheral blood blast (median 2.45 x 10(9)/L vs.11.66 x 10(9)/L, P=0.013), hemoglobin level [(61.45 +/- 13.46) g/L vs. (75.89 +/- 23.11) g/L, P=0.003] and serum lactate dehydrogenase [(621.47 +/- 335.85) U/L vs.(1566.64 +/- 1720.45) U/L, P=0.020], while no differences were found between two groups in age, gender ratio, initial platelet count, percentage of blast in bone marrow, immunophenotypes and the expression of myeloid antigen CD13, CD33 and CD34.
  • Bone marrow examination on day 15 showed no difference in the rate of complete remission between TEL-AML1 positive and negative patients.
  • The load of leukemia cells in TEL-AML1 positive patients is significantly smaller than its counterparts, and the blast cells in TEL-AML1 positive patients are more sensitive to prednisone, indicating childhood ALL with TEL-AML1 fusion gene has a favorable prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit / genetics. Gene Fusion. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / genetics. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets / genetics. Repressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17922427.001).
  • [ISSN] 1003-9406
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue yi chuan xue za zhi = Zhonghua yixue yichuanxue zazhi = Chinese journal of medical genetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit; 0 / ETS translocation variant 6 protein; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets; 0 / RUNX1 protein, human; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 63231-63-0 / RNA; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone
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48. ter Bals E, Kaspers GJ: Treatment of childhood acute myeloid leukemia. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2005 Oct;5(5):917-29
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of childhood acute myeloid leukemia.
  • Childhood acute myeloid leukemia is rare, but accounts for a significant number of malignancy-related deaths in this age group.
  • Therefore, there is a need for further improved treatment of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia.
  • Subgroup-directed treatment has become a reality for acute myeloid leukemia in young children with Down's syndrome and in acute promyelocytic leukemia.
  • In addition to tailoring therapy according to biologic features and especially monitoring treatment by measurements of minimal residual disease, targeted therapy for subgroups with activating mutations in receptor tyrosine kinases will further optimize the treatment of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia.
  • Together with the development of many novel agents that have different mechanisms of action than the currently available anticancer agents, and improved supportive care, it is realistic that the prognosis of acute myeloid leukemia in children and adolescents will improve further in the next 5-10 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid / drug therapy. Stem Cell Transplantation
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Child. Clinical Trials as Topic. Cranial Irradiation. Down Syndrome / complications. Humans. Neoplasm, Residual. Prognosis. Quality of Life. Remission Induction. Risk Assessment. Transplantation, Homologous

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  • (PMID = 16221060.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 90
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49. Steinbach D, Gillet JP, Sauerbrey A, Gruhn B, Dawczynski K, Bertholet V, de Longueville F, Zintl F, Remacle J, Efferth T: ABCA3 as a possible cause of drug resistance in childhood acute myeloid leukemia. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Jul 15;12(14 Pt 1):4357-63
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  • [Title] ABCA3 as a possible cause of drug resistance in childhood acute myeloid leukemia.
  • BACKGROUND: A major issue in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: A newly developed microarray for the simultaneous quantification of 38 ABC transporter genes and Taqman real-time PCR was used to analyze the expression of ABC transporters in pediatric AML and healthy bone marrow.
  • RESULTS: Using the microarray, we identified four new ABC transporters, which were overexpressed in many AML samples compared with healthy bone marrow: ABCA2, ABCA3, ABCB2, and ABCC10.
  • The overexpression of these four genes was verified by real-time PCR in 42 samples from children with AML and 18 samples of healthy bone marrow.
  • The median expression of ABCA3 was three times higher in 21 patients who had failed to achieve remission after the first course of chemotherapy than in a well-matched group of 21 patients who had achieved remission at this stage (P = 0.023).
  • CONCLUSION: Our results show that ABCA2, ABCA3, ABCB2, and ABCC10 are overexpressed in childhood AML compared with healthy bone marrow.
  • [MeSH-major] ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters / physiology. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics


50. Rowe JM: Optimal management of adults with ALL. Br J Haematol; 2009 Feb;144(4):468-83
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  • The cure rate of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in adults remains unsatisfactory.
  • The remarkable progress in childhood ALL has not been replicated in adult ALL and approximately two thirds of patients younger than 60 years, and more than 90% of those over 60 years, are expected to succumb to their disease.
  • Over 80% of adults can achieve a complete remission; however, the majority of such patients relapse.
  • Prognostic factors have been more clearly defined, moving cytogenetics and molecular determinants forefront, much like acute myeloid leukaemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation / methods. Humans. Neoplasm, Residual. Prognosis. Remission Induction. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19055668.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2141
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 102
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51. Gorman MF, Ji L, Ko RH, Barnette P, Bostrom B, Hutchinson R, Raetz E, Seibel NL, Twist CJ, Eckroth E, Sposto R, Gaynon PS, Loh ML: Outcome for children treated for relapsed or refractory acute myelogenous leukemia (rAML): a Therapeutic Advances in Childhood Leukemia (TACL) Consortium study. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Sep;55(3):421-9
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  • [Title] Outcome for children treated for relapsed or refractory acute myelogenous leukemia (rAML): a Therapeutic Advances in Childhood Leukemia (TACL) Consortium study.
  • BACKGROUND: Current event-free survival (EFS) rates for children with newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) approach 50-60%.
  • This report highlights efforts to assess the response rates and survival outcomes after first or greater relapse in children with AML.
  • PROCEDURE: We performed a retrospective cohort review of pediatric patients with relapsed and refractory AML (rAML) previously treated at TACL institutions between the years of 1995 and 2004.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Prognosis. Recurrence. Remission Induction. Retreatment. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20658611.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K22 CA113557
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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52. Ribeiro RC, Razzouk BI, Pounds S, Hijiya N, Pui CH, Rubnitz JE: Successive clinical trials for childhood acute myeloid leukemia at St Jude Children's Research Hospital, from 1980 to 2000. Leukemia; 2005 Dec;19(12):2125-9
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  • [Title] Successive clinical trials for childhood acute myeloid leukemia at St Jude Children's Research Hospital, from 1980 to 2000.
  • Despite substantial progress in the management of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML), only about 50% of patients are cured by intensive chemotherapy.
  • From 1980 to 2000, 251 patients <15 years of age with newly diagnosed AML were enrolled on one of the five consecutive St Jude AML studies.
  • With the exception of one protocol (AML-83), outcomes improved in general over the two decades.
  • The estimated 5-year event-free survival (+/-s.e.) was 30.8+/-5.6% for AML-80; 11.1+/-4.3% for AML-83; 35.9+/-7.4% for AML-87; 43.5+/-6.2% for AML-91; and 45.0+/-11.1% for AML-97.
  • Resistant or relapsed AML caused the great majority of treatment failures.
  • Increasing the intensity of chemotherapy (AML-87) did not improve outcome, partially because of toxicity, nor did prolonging postremission therapy by adding sequential myeloablative (AML-80) or nonmyeloablative (AML-83) chemotherapy cycles.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Protocols / standards. Leukemia, Myeloid / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Remission Induction / methods. Survival Analysis. Treatment Failure. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16281077.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-21765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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53. Kang HJ, Lee JW, Kho SH, Kim MJ, Seo YJ, Kim H, Shin HY, Ahn HS: High transcript level of FLT3 associated with high risk of relapse in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia. J Korean Med Sci; 2010 Jun;25(6):841-5
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  • [Title] High transcript level of FLT3 associated with high risk of relapse in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia.
  • Identification of prognostic factors and risk-based post-remission therapy was proposed to improve the outcomes of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and a mutation of FLT3 has been reported to be a risk factor, especially for pediatric patients.
  • Recently, FLT3 expression level was implicated to have prognostic significance in adults, but little is known for childhood AML.
  • To define the prognostic significance, transcript level of FLT3 was analyzed in 52 pediatric AML patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3 / genetics

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  • [Cites] Med Pediatr Oncol. 1999 Dec;33(6):525-9 [10573574.001]
  • [Cites] N Engl J Med. 1996 May 30;334(22):1428-34 [8618581.001]
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  • (PMID = 20514303.001).
  • [ISSN] 1598-6357
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Korean Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2877222
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; FLT3 / Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / Pediatric Age / Transcript Level
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54. Anak S, Saribeyoglu ET, Bilgen H, Unuvar A, Karakas Z, Devecioglu O, Agaoglu L, Gedikoglu G: Allogeneic versus autologous versus peripheral stem cell transplantation in CR1 pediatric AML patients: a single center experience. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2005 Jun 15;44(7):654-9
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  • [Title] Allogeneic versus autologous versus peripheral stem cell transplantation in CR1 pediatric AML patients: a single center experience.
  • BACKGROUND: Treatment of childhood acute myelocytic leukemia (AML) in first remission, is still evolving.
  • PROCEDURE: Out of 81 pediatric patients with AML in first CR, 67 were biologically randomized for allogeneic (n = 31), autologous (n = 20), or peripheral stem cell transplant (n = 16) after completing consolidation treatment, with the remaining (n = 11) dropping out or receiving chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: In pediatric AML patients without a donor, autologous BMT or autologous PBSCT appears to be an effective treatment option with low transplant related mortality especially in less privileged countries where the chemotherapy only results are still low.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow Transplantation. Leukemia, Myeloid / therapy. Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Transplantation, Autologous. Transplantation, Homologous

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15700262.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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55. He J, Chen ZX, Xue YQ, Pan JL, He HL, Li JQ, Wu YF, Huang YP, Zhu LL: [Study on clinical and biological characteristics of childhood acute leukemia with MLL gene rearrangements]. Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi; 2005 Aug;26(8):477-80
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  • [Title] [Study on clinical and biological characteristics of childhood acute leukemia with MLL gene rearrangements].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical and laboratory features of childhood acute leukemia (AL) with MLL gene rearrangements.
  • METHODS: Sixteen of 298 cases of childhood AL with MLL rearrangements were studied by using MLL dual-color FISH, multiplex RT-PCR with 13 pairs of primers in combination with R banding karyotype analysis and cell immunophenotyping by flow cytometry.
  • RESULTS: Sixteen cases of childhood AL with MLL rearrangements accounted for 5.4% of 298 AL patients, and 56.3% of infant ALs.
  • Among these 16 patients, 11 were B-ALL, and 5 AML-M5, 3 of the latter were CD7+ and CD2+.
  • Of these 16 patients, 8 received chemotherapy and 7 of them achieved complete remission, while the other 8 patients gave up treatment.
  • Finding out MLL gene rearrangement is of most importance in guiding therapy and predicting prognosis in childhood AL.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Rearrangement. Leukemia / genetics. Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16383239.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-2727
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua xue ye xue za zhi = Zhonghua xueyexue zazhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 149025-06-9 / Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein
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56. Langebrake C, Klusmann JH, Wortmann K, Kolar M, Puhlmann U, Reinhardt D: Concomitant aberrant overexpression of RUNX1 and NCAM in regenerating bone marrow of myeloid leukemia of Down's syndrome. Haematologica; 2006 Nov;91(11):1473-80
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  • [Title] Concomitant aberrant overexpression of RUNX1 and NCAM in regenerating bone marrow of myeloid leukemia of Down's syndrome.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Myeloid leukemia of Down's syndrome (ML-DS) has characteristic biological features (e.g. expression of the truncated GATA1s), which are different from those of non-DS childhood acute myeloid leukemias (AML).
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed 134 bone marrow specimens from 64 children with ML-DS and non-DS AML during chemotherapy and 7 specimens from DS children with- out leukemia,who did not receive any chemotherapy,The specimens were analyzed by multiparameter flow cytometry and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for transcription factors involved in hematopoiesis.
  • RESULTS: Samples taken from children with ML-DS in complete remission during chemotherapy aberrantly expressed CD56 (NCAM) at the surface of monocytic and granulocytic cells.
  • Compared to non-DS AML cases,children with ML-DS had a statistically significant higher proportion of CD56+ cells in the CD33+ fraction: 71%+/-6% vs. 4%+/-1% (p<0.00001).
  • INTERPRETATION AND CONCLUSIONS: The combined overexpression of RUNX1 and NCAM during stress hematopoiesis in children with DS might be a key factor in the development of overt leukemia and/or in the growth advantage of the malignant GATA1s clone in ML- DS.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow Cells / metabolism. Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit / biosynthesis. Down Syndrome / metabolism. Leukemia, Myeloid / metabolism. Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 17043020.001).
  • [ISSN] 1592-8721
  • [Journal-full-title] Haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Haematologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit; 0 / Neural Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / RUNX1 protein, human
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57. Hou Y, Hu Q, Liu AG, Zhang LQ, Liu SY: [Expression of survivin and its location in bone marrow cells of childhood acute leukemia: relationship to therapeutic efficacy]. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Apr;8(2):101-4
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  • [Title] [Expression of survivin and its location in bone marrow cells of childhood acute leukemia: relationship to therapeutic efficacy].
  • METHODS: The expression of survivin protein was detected by immunohistochemical assay in bone marrow cells from 62 children with acute leukemia and 40 hospitalized children who did not have leukemia (Control group), and in a human acute T lymphocytic leukemia cell line (Molt-4 cells) treated in vitro with daunorubicin (DNR).
  • RESULTS: Survivin protein was expressed in 41.9% of the 62 children with acute leukemia but in only 5.0% of the Control group (chi(2)=16.66; P < 0.01).
  • The expression rate of survivin was 46.2% in cytoplasm and 53.9% in nucleus in the children with acute leukemia (chi(2)0.3077; P> 0.05).
  • However, the remission rate of patients in whom survivin expression was seen in the nucleus was significantly higher than that in patients in whom survivin was expressed in cytoplasm after chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Survivin may play an important role in the development and prognosis of childhood acute leukemia.
  • The different expression pattern of survivin in the cytoplasm and the nucleus may be associated with therapeutic efficacy and prognosis in acute leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow Cells / chemistry. Daunorubicin / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / metabolism. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16613699.001).
  • [ISSN] 1008-8830
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo dang dai er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of contemporary pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin
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58. Styczynski J, Toporski J, Wysocki M, Debski R, Chybicka A, Boruczkowski D, Wachowiak J, Wojcik B, Kowalczyk J, Gil L, Balwierz W, Matysiak M, Krawczuk-Rybak M, Balcerska A, Sonta-Jakimczyk D: Fludarabine, treosulfan and etoposide sensitivity and the outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in childhood acute myeloid leukemia. Anticancer Res; 2007 May-Jun;27(3B):1547-51
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  • [Title] Fludarabine, treosulfan and etoposide sensitivity and the outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in childhood acute myeloid leukemia.
  • BACKGROUND: The prognostic role of the ex vivo drug resistance profile has not yet been proved in childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • The aim of the study was the analysis of the impact of the ex vivo drug resistance profile in a cohort of 44 children with AML undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).
  • RESULTS: Children who relapsed after transplantation showed higher ex vivo resistance of the leukemic blasts to etoposide, mercaptopurine, thioguanine, fludarabine, mitoxantrone and treosulfan than those who stayed in remission.
  • CONCLUSION: The combined drug resistance profile to fludarabine, treosulfan and etoposide may be useful for better stratification of children with AML undergoing stem cell transplantation or to indicate the necessity for additional post-transplant therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Granulocyte Precursor Cells / drug effects. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Leukemia, Myeloid / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Busulfan / analogs & derivatives. Busulfan / pharmacology. Child. Child, Preschool. Etoposide / pharmacology. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Prognosis. Recurrence. Treatment Outcome. Vidarabine / analogs & derivatives. Vidarabine / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 17595774.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; CO61ER3EPI / treosulfan; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; G1LN9045DK / Busulfan; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine
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59. Rubnitz JE, Inaba H, Ribeiro RC, Pounds S, Rooney B, Bell T, Pui CH, Leung W: NKAML: a pilot study to determine the safety and feasibility of haploidentical natural killer cell transplantation in childhood acute myeloid leukemia. J Clin Oncol; 2010 Feb 20;28(6):955-9
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  • [Title] NKAML: a pilot study to determine the safety and feasibility of haploidentical natural killer cell transplantation in childhood acute myeloid leukemia.
  • PURPOSE To conduct a pilot study to determine the safety, feasibility, and engraftment of haploidentical natural killer (NK) cell infusions after an immunosuppressive regimen in children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS Ten patients (0.7 to 21 years old) who had completed chemotherapy and were in first complete remission of AML were enrolled on the Pilot Study of Haploidentical Natural Killer Cell Transplantation for Acute Myeloid Leukemia (NKAML) study.
  • With a median follow-up time of 964 days (range, 569 to 1,162 days), all patients remain in remission.
  • We propose to further investigate the efficacy of KIR-mismatched NK cells in a phase II trial as consolidation therapy to decrease relapse without increasing mortality in children with AML.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Immunotherapy. Killer Cells, Natural / transplantation. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy


60. Klingebiel T, Reinhardt D, Bader P, EBMT Paediatric Diseases Working Party: Place of HSCT in treatment of childhood AML. Bone Marrow Transplant; 2008 Oct;42 Suppl 2:S7-9
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  • [Title] Place of HSCT in treatment of childhood AML.
  • This short review focuses on the role of hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) in childhood AML.
  • However, published data and evidence-based reports recommend an unrelated or related transplantation in the situation of a renewed remission.
  • Data on haploidentical HSCT and on cord blood HSCT are still lacking in the case of AML.
  • [MeSH-major] Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Living Donors
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Clinical Trials as Topic. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Infant. Remission Induction. Siblings. Survival Rate. Transplantation, Autologous. Transplantation, Homologous

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  • (PMID = 18978749.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5365
  • [Journal-full-title] Bone marrow transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bone Marrow Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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61. Feltbower RG, Kinsey SE, Richards M, Shenton G, Michelagnoli MP, McKinney PA: Survival following relapse in childhood haematological malignancies diagnosed in 1974-2003 in Yorkshire, UK. Br J Cancer; 2007 Apr 10;96(7):1147-52
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  • [Title] Survival following relapse in childhood haematological malignancies diagnosed in 1974-2003 in Yorkshire, UK.
  • We examined population-based information on relapsed childhood haematological cancers, investigating factors that might influence both overall survival and survival following relapse among the 1177 children (0-14 years) diagnosed with a haematological malignancy in Yorkshire from 1974 to 2003, of whom 342 (29%) relapsed at least once.
  • Leukaemia patients from more deprived areas were significantly less likely to relapse (odds ratio=0.54, 95% confidence interval 0.32-0.93 for most deprived quintile vs least deprived quintile; P(trend)=0.06), especially those with acute myeloid leukaemia (P=0.04).
  • Length of first remission was a strong predictor of survival for leukaemia with a 46% reduced risk of death for every additional year of event-free survival.
  • This provides a baseline for future comparisons and demonstrates that relapsed childhood cancer need not imply a poor outcome.

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  • (PMID = 17342086.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2360123
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62. Ashfaq K, Yahaya I, Hyde C, Andronis L, Barton P, Bayliss S, Chen YF: Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of stem cell transplantation in the management of acute leukaemia: a systematic review. Health Technol Assess; 2010 Dec;14(54):iii-iv, ix-xi, 1-141
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  • [Title] Clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of stem cell transplantation in the management of acute leukaemia: a systematic review.
  • BACKGROUND: Acute leukaemia is a group of rapidly progressing cancers of bone marrow and blood classified as either acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) or acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL).
  • OBJECTIVES: A systematic overview of the best available evidence on the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of SCT in the treatment of acute leukaemia.
  • Included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and donor versus no donor (DvND) studies were mapped to the evidence covered in existing systematic reviews and meta-analyses according to a framework of 12 decision problems (DPs): DP1 related to SCT in adults with AML in first complete remission (CR1); DP2 to adults with AML in second or subsequent remission or with refractory disease (CR2+); DP3 to children with AML in CR1; DP4 to children with AML in CR2+; DP5 to adults with ALL in CR1; DP6 to adults with ALL in CR2+; DP7 to children with ALL in CR1; DP8 to children with ALL in CR2+; DP9 to comparison of different sources of stem cells in transplantation; DP10 to different conditioning regimens; DP11 to the use of purging in autologous SCT; and DP12 to the use of T-cell depletion in allogeneic SCT.
  • Although there is a wealth of information on costs and some information on cost-effectiveness of allogeneic SCT in adults with AML (DPs 1 and 2), there is very limited evidence on relative costs and cost-effectiveness for other DPs.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Bearing in mind the limitations, existing evidence suggests that sibling donor allogeneic SCT may be more effective than chemotherapy in adult AML (except in good-risk patients) in CR1, childhood AML in CR1 and adult ALL in CR1, and that autologous SCT is equal to or less effective than chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation / methods. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / surgery. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / surgery


63. Shimada A, Taki T, Kubota C, Itou T, Tawa A, Horibe K, Tsuchida M, Hanada R, Tsukimoto I, Hayashi Y, Japanese childhood AML cooperative study group: N822 mutation of KIT gene was frequent in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia patients with t(8;21) in Japan: a study of the Japanese childhood AML cooperative study group. Leukemia; 2007 Oct;21(10):2218-9
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  • [Title] N822 mutation of KIT gene was frequent in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia patients with t(8;21) in Japan: a study of the Japanese childhood AML cooperative study group.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / pathology. Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / physiology. Translocation, Genetic
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Marrow Cells / metabolism. Child. Exons. Humans. Japan. Oncogenes. Protein Structure, Tertiary. Remission Induction


64. Gratwohl A: Activity survey and historical perspective of autologous stem cell transplantation in Europe. Semin Hematol; 2007 Oct;44(4):220-6
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  • Initially developed as a tool to restore rapid remission or chronic phase in patients with advanced leukemia without a sibling donor, it evolved over the last three decades to be used as a standard tool in patients with malignancies that are responsive to high-dose chemoradiotherapy.
  • Autologous HSCTs are the standard of care for defined patients with lymphoid malignancies and for certain solid tumors of childhood.
  • They continue to be evaluated in acute myeloid leukemia and are being investigated in phase II and III studies for defined severe autoimmune disorders.

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  • (PMID = 17961720.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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65. Entz-Werle N, Suciu S, van der Werff ten Bosch J, Vilmer E, Bertrand Y, Benoit Y, Margueritte G, Plouvier E, Boutard P, Vandecruys E, Ferster A, Lutz P, Uyttebroeck A, Hoyoux C, Thyss A, Rialland X, Norton L, Pages MP, Philippe N, Otten J, Behar C, EORTC Children Leukemia Group: Results of 58872 and 58921 trials in acute myeloblastic leukemia and relative value of chemotherapy vs allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in first complete remission: the EORTC Children Leukemia Group report. Leukemia; 2005 Dec;19(12):2072-81
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  • [Title] Results of 58872 and 58921 trials in acute myeloblastic leukemia and relative value of chemotherapy vs allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in first complete remission: the EORTC Children Leukemia Group report.
  • The first EORTC (European Organization of Research and Treatment of Cancer) acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) pilot study (58872) was conducted between January 1988 and December 1991.
  • Out of 108 patients, 78% achieved complete remission (CR), and event-free survival (EFS) and survival rates (s.e., %) at 7 years were 40 (5) and 51% (6%), respectively.
  • It indicated that mitoxantrone could be substituted for conventional anthracyclines in the treatment of childhood AML without inducing cardiotoxicity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Protocols / standards. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Idarubicin / therapeutic use. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Mitoxantrone / therapeutic use. Remission Induction. Survival Rate. Transplantation, Homologous

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  • (PMID = 16136166.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5U10-CA11488-18; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5U10-CA11488-35
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone; ZRP63D75JW / Idarubicin
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66. Béné MC, Kaeda JS: How and why minimal residual disease studies are necessary in leukemia: a review from WP10 and WP12 of the European LeukaemiaNet. Haematologica; 2009 Aug;94(8):1135-50
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  • [Title] How and why minimal residual disease studies are necessary in leukemia: a review from WP10 and WP12 of the European LeukaemiaNet.
  • In leukemia, the resistant cells remaining in the bone marrow and/or peripheral blood constitute minimal residual disease and are detectable by highly sensitive assays when the patient appears to be in complete remission.
  • This notion is supported by a large body of data among chronic myeloid leukemia patients, but minimal residual disease detection and monitoring is increasingly applied to other types of leukemia, and is starting to be a factor in decision-making for some therapeutic trials in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • Here, from the solid ground of minimal residual disease detection in chronic myeloid leukemia, the current state of the art and development of molecular techniques in other leukemias and the growing field of multiparameter flow cytometry are reviewed in two separate parts reporting on the respective advances, advantages and pitfalls of these emerging methods.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia / diagnosis. Neoplasm, Residual / diagnosis


67. Barnard DR, Alonzo TA, Gerbing RB, Lange B, Woods WG, Children's Oncology Group: Comparison of childhood myelodysplastic syndrome, AML FAB M6 or M7, CCG 2891: report from the Children's Oncology Group. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2007 Jul;49(1):17-22
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  • [Title] Comparison of childhood myelodysplastic syndrome, AML FAB M6 or M7, CCG 2891: report from the Children's Oncology Group.
  • BACKGROUND: Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), acute erythroleukemia (FAB M6), and acute megakaryocytic leukemia (FAB M7) have overlapping features.
  • PROCEDURE: Children without Down syndrome or acute promyelocytic leukemia who were newly diagnosed with primary myelodysplastic syndrome or acute myeloid leukemia (AML) M6 or M7 were compared to children with de novo AML M0-M5.
  • RESULTS: The presentation and outcomes of the 132 children diagnosed with MDS (60 children), AML FAB M6 (19 children), or AML FAB M7 (53 children) were similar.
  • Children with AML FAB M7 were diagnosed at a significantly younger age (P = 0.001).
  • All three groups had significantly inferior overall survival (OS) (P < 0.001) and event free survival (P < 0.001) compared with the 748 children diagnosed with AML FAB M0-M5 when assessed from entry on study.
  • However, when assessed from successful completion of induction therapy, the 5-year OS (P = 0.090)(49.1 vs. 56.9%) and disease-free survival (DFS) (P = 0.113)(38.0 vs. 46.3%) therapy were not significantly different from other children with AML.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Childhood AML FAB M6 and AML M7 resemble MDS in presentation, poor induction success rates, and outcomes.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Erythroblastic, Acute / diagnosis. Leukemia, Megakaryoblastic, Acute / diagnosis. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Prognosis. Remission Induction. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome


68. Burmeister T, Gökbuget N, Schwartz S, Fischer L, Hubert D, Sindram A, Hoelzer D, Thiel E: Clinical features and prognostic implications of TCF3-PBX1 and ETV6-RUNX1 in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Haematologica; 2010 Feb;95(2):241-6
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  • [Title] Clinical features and prognostic implications of TCF3-PBX1 and ETV6-RUNX1 in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • BACKGROUND: The t(9;22) and t(4;11) chromosomal translocations, which generate the BCR-ABL and MLL-AF4 fusion genes, define high-risk subtypes of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in adults.
  • However, the prognostic impact of other rarer fusion genes is less well established in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia than in the childhood form.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: In the context of the German Multicenter Therapy Study Group for Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (GMALL) we used reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction to investigate 441 cases of BCR-ABL- and MLL-AF4-negative B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia for the TCF3-PBX1 (E2A-PBX1) and ETV6-RUNX1 (TEL-AML1) fusion transcripts generated by the t(1;19)(q23;p13.3) and t(12;21)(p13;q22) translocations.
  • Both are well-known molecular alterations in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia in which they have favorable prognostic implications.
  • At 2 years after diagnosis all the ETV6-RUNX1-positive patients were alive and in continuous complete remission, but their long-term outcome was negatively affected by late relapses.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to previous suggestions, adult patients with TCF3-PBX1-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia do not appear to have a worse outcome than their negative counterparts.
  • [MeSH-major] Oncogene Proteins, Fusion. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cell Line. Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit. Female. Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein. Prognosis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19713226.001).
  • [ISSN] 1592-8721
  • [Journal-full-title] Haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Haematologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit; 0 / MLL-AF4 fusion protein, human; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / TCF3-PBX1 fusion protein, human; 0 / TEL-AML1 fusion protein; 0 / abl-bcr fusion protein, human; 149025-06-9 / Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein; EC 2.7.10.2 / Fusion Proteins, bcr-abl
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2817026
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69. Sandlund JT, Pui CH, Zhou Y, Behm FG, Onciu M, Razzouk BI, Hijiya N, Campana D, Hudson MM, Ribeiro RC: Effective treatment of advanced-stage childhood lymphoblastic lymphoma without prophylactic cranial irradiation: results of St Jude NHL13 study. Leukemia; 2009 Jun;23(6):1127-30
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  • [Title] Effective treatment of advanced-stage childhood lymphoblastic lymphoma without prophylactic cranial irradiation: results of St Jude NHL13 study.
  • To further improve cure rates whereas minimizing long-term toxicity, we designed a protocol (NHL13) based on a regimen for childhood T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, which features intensive intrathecal chemotherapy for central -nervous system-directed therapy and excludes prophylactic cranial irradiation.
  • Out of the 41 patients, 39 (95%) achieved a complete remission.
  • Adverse events included two induction failures, one death from typhlitis during remission, three relapses and one secondary acute myeloid leukemia.

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  • (PMID = 19194463.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5551
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765; None / None / / P30 CA021765-31; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 21765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765-31
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; E7WED276I5 / 6-Mercaptopurine; EC 3.5.1.1 / Asparaginase; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS161582; NLM/ PMC2843413
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70. Rossi JG, Felice MS, Bernasconi AR, Ribas AE, Gallego MS, Somardzic AE, Alfaro EM, Alonso CN: Acute leukemia of dendritic cell lineage in childhood: incidence, biological characteristics and outcome. Leuk Lymphoma; 2006 Apr;47(4):715-25
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  • [Title] Acute leukemia of dendritic cell lineage in childhood: incidence, biological characteristics and outcome.
  • Considering that leukemias in childhood and in adults are different diseases, we describe three pediatric cases to help compare the biological characteristics, immunophenotype, clinical features, treatment response and incidence of this disease in both age groups.
  • From a total 1363 new patients with acute leukemia (AL), we report three cases with blasts of French - American - British L2 morphology, an absence of the most specific markers for myeloid, T or B lineage and lacking CD34, which led us to evaluate the blasts with an extensive panel of antibodies, including those related to the other putative pathways of lymphoid differentation: natural killer and DC.
  • All three children showed good response to acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) protocols, achieving complete remission even when one of the patients relapsed and received an allogeneic transplant.
  • [MeSH-major] Dendritic Cells / cytology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / diagnosis. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antigens, CD34 / biosynthesis. Cell Lineage. Child. Female. Humans. Immunophenotyping. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Incidence. Leukocytes, Mononuclear / metabolism. Male. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16690531.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34
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71. Stam RW, den Boer ML, Pieters R: Towards targeted therapy for infant acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Br J Haematol; 2006 Mar;132(5):539-51
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  • [Title] Towards targeted therapy for infant acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.
  • Despite the greatly improved treatment regimes for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in general, resulting in long-term survival in approximately 80% of cases, current therapies still fail in >50% of ALL cases diagnosed within the first year of life (i.e. in infants).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Age of Onset. Forecasting. Gene Rearrangement. Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase. Humans. Infant. Mutation. Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein / genetics. Prognosis. Remission Induction. Translocation, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 16445826.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MLL protein, human; 149025-06-9 / Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein; EC 2.1.1.43 / Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase
  • [Number-of-references] 139
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72. Kobayashi R, Tawa A, Hanada R, Horibe K, Tsuchida M, Tsukimoto I, Japanese childhood AML cooperative study group: Extramedullary infiltration at diagnosis and prognosis in children with acute myelogenous leukemia. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2007 Apr;48(4):393-8
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  • [Title] Extramedullary infiltration at diagnosis and prognosis in children with acute myelogenous leukemia.
  • BACKGROUND: Extramedullary infiltration (EMI) is an occasional clinical symptom in childhood acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), but there is considerable controversy regarding the prognostic significance of EMI in AML.
  • PROCEDURE: We evaluated the frequency and prognostic significance of EMI at diagnosis of AML in children.
  • RESULTS: Of 240 cases of de novo AML excluding children with Down syndrome and acute promyelocytic leukemia, 56 (23.3%) showed EMI at diagnosis.
  • The complete remission rate following induction chemotherapy was lower in patients with EMI.
  • CONCLUSIONS: CNS leukemia and EMI together with a WBC count of >100 x 10(9)/L at diagnosis of AML are high risk factors for relapse, and alternative treatment approaches for patients with these characteristics should be explored.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid / pathology. Leukemic Infiltration / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Myeloid / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone and Bones / pathology. Central Nervous System / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Disease-Free Survival. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gingiva / pathology. Humans. Hydrocortisone / administration & dosage. Idarubicin / administration & dosage. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Japan / epidemiology. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Orbit / pathology. Prognosis. Remission Induction. Skin / pathology. Testis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16550530.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; ZRP63D75JW / Idarubicin
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73. Rubnitz JE, Crews KR, Pounds S, Yang S, Campana D, Gandhi VV, Raimondi SC, Downing JR, Razzouk BI, Pui CH, Ribeiro RC: Combination of cladribine and cytarabine is effective for childhood acute myeloid leukemia: results of the St Jude AML97 trial. Leukemia; 2009 Aug;23(8):1410-6
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  • [Title] Combination of cladribine and cytarabine is effective for childhood acute myeloid leukemia: results of the St Jude AML97 trial.
  • Because cladribine can increase cytarabine triphosphate levels, we tested a cladribine-cytarabine combination in the St Jude AML97, trial in which this combination was administered before standard chemotherapy to 96 children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or myelodysplastic syndrome.
  • Thus, although there were trends toward better complete remission rates and overall survival for patients treated in arm B, the reduced efficacy of arm A may have been partially compensated by more intense timing of therapy for that group.
  • Our results suggest that cladribine in combination with continuous-infusion cytarabine is effective therapy for childhood AML.

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  • (PMID = 19242495.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5551
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765-30; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA-21765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 47M74X9YT5 / Cladribine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; EC 3.5.1.1 / Asparaginase; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS90802; NLM/ PMC2726271
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74. Castellino SM, Alonzo TA, Buxton A, Gold S, Lange BJ, Woods WG: Outcomes in childhood AML in the absence of transplantation in first remission--Children's Cancer Group (CCG) studies 2891 and CCG 213. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Jan;50(1):9-16
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  • [Title] Outcomes in childhood AML in the absence of transplantation in first remission--Children's Cancer Group (CCG) studies 2891 and CCG 213.
  • BACKGROUND: The majority of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients lack a matched-related bone marrow transplant (BMT) donor in first remission.
  • PROCEDURE: Disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), relapse-free survival (RFS), and post-relapse outcome were evaluated for children with de novo AML on CCG 213 and the standard timing (ST) and intensive timing (IT) induction arms of CCG 2891 who were randomized to (intent-to-treat, ITT) or who received (as-treated, AT) only chemotherapy intensification.
  • Overall survival for childhood AML in the absence of BMT in CR1 is influenced by duration of CR1 and by race.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Remission Induction. Survival Analysis. Survival Rate

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17252564.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 13539; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 98543
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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75. Jiang H, Gu LJ, Xue HL, Tang JY, Chen J, Pan C, Chen J, Xu C, Dong L, Zhou M: [Prognostic factors for childhood acute non-mature B-lymphoblastic leukemia]. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi; 2008 Jun;10(3):290-4
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  • [Title] [Prognostic factors for childhood acute non-mature B-lymphoblastic leukemia].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the prognostic factors for events-free survival (EFS) in children with acute non-mature B-lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • METHODS: One hundred and sixty-one children with newly diagnosed acute non-mature B-lymphoblastic leukemia received the ALL-XH-99 protocol treatment.
  • Their medical data, including clinical, biological and molecule features, early responses to treatment (bone marrow evaluation on the 19th day of induction therapy), minimal residual disease (MRD) in bone marrow after remission induction therapy, the risk grade of disease before the beginning of chemotherapy and the outcome, were retrospectively studied.
  • Immunophenotype, myeloid-associated antigen and the risk grade of disease were also related to the EFS (P<0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: WBC >or=50 x 10(9)/L, Cmu positive, BCR/ABL or MLL/AF4 positive and MRD positive have important prognostic values in childhood acute non-mature B-lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Burkitt Lymphoma / mortality. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Genes, abl. Humans. Infant. Male. Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein / genetics. Neoplasm, Residual. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics. Prognosis. Regression Analysis


76. Liu CF, Liu GL, Zhang LP, Cheng YF, Lu AD, Tian KG, Liu YR, Qin YZ: [Clinical significance of detection of AML1/ETO fusion transcripts in childhood AML using real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction]. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi; 2005 Feb;13(1):76-82
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  • [Title] [Clinical significance of detection of AML1/ETO fusion transcripts in childhood AML using real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction].
  • Fourteen AML1/ETO positive children out of 52 AML children were selected.
  • After six months, four out of them with constant low-level expression (10(-4) - 10(-6)) were in continuous complete hematological remission (CCR).
  • The AML1/ETO gene expression leveling off by 10(-5) - 10(-6) could be detected in 3 patients at their complete remission after 9 months.
  • It is concluded that real-time RT-PCR is a suitable approach for quantifying AML1/ETO transcripts in monitoring of AML patients with t(8;21) during/after chemotherapy and provides data of diagnostic relevance.

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  • (PMID = 15748440.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-2137
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo shi yan xue ye xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] CHI
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AML1-ETO fusion protein, human; 0 / Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion
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77. Meyer LH, Queudeville M, Eckhoff SM, Creutzig U, Reinhardt D, Karawajew L, Ludwig WD, Stahnke K, Debatin KM: Intact apoptosis signaling in myeloid leukemia cells determines treatment outcome in childhood AML. Blood; 2008 Mar 1;111(5):2899-903
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  • [Title] Intact apoptosis signaling in myeloid leukemia cells determines treatment outcome in childhood AML.
  • Recently we reported that intact apoptosis signaling is indicative of favorable outcome in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • Here we addressed this issue in 45 pediatric acute myeloid leukemia patients analyzing 2 core apoptogenic events: cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation.
  • Thus, the propensity to undergo apoptosis of leukemia cells is an important feature for favorable treatment outcome and may serve as an additional stratification tool for pediatric AML patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / pathology. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Signal Transduction
  • [MeSH-minor] Caspase 3 / metabolism. Child. Cytochromes c / metabolism. Disease-Free Survival. Enzyme Activation. Humans. Remission Induction. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18083847.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00111345
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9007-43-6 / Cytochromes c; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3
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78. Perel Y, Auvrignon A, Leblanc T, Michel G, Reguerre Y, Vannier JP, Dalle JH, Gandemer V, Schmitt C, Méchinaud F, Lejars O, Piguet C, Couillaud G, Pautard B, Landman-Parker J, Thuret I, Aladjidi N, Baruchel A, Leverger G, French LAME (Leucémie Aiguë Myéloblastique Enfant) Cooperative Group: Treatment of childhood acute myeloblastic leukemia: dose intensification improves outcome and maintenance therapy is of no benefit--multicenter studies of the French LAME (Leucémie Aiguë Myéloblastique Enfant) Cooperative Group. Leukemia; 2005 Dec;19(12):2082-9
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  • [Title] Treatment of childhood acute myeloblastic leukemia: dose intensification improves outcome and maintenance therapy is of no benefit--multicenter studies of the French LAME (Leucémie Aiguë Myéloblastique Enfant) Cooperative Group.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Protocols / standards. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Child. Child, Preschool. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Follow-Up Studies. France. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Remission Induction. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16121218.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
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79. Al-Tonbary Y, Mansour AK, Ghazy H, Elghannam DM, Abd-Elghaffar HA: Prognostic significance of foetal-like tyrosine kinase 3 mutation in Egyptian children with acute leukaemia. Int J Lab Hematol; 2009 Jun;31(3):320-6
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  • [Title] Prognostic significance of foetal-like tyrosine kinase 3 mutation in Egyptian children with acute leukaemia.
  • In children with acute myelogenous leukaemia (AML), internal tandem duplication of the Flt3 gene (Flt3/ITD) was previously reported and correlated to poor prognosis.
  • Limited data are available about childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL).
  • We analysed bone marrow specimens from 55 newly diagnosed acute leukaemia cases including 30 AML and 25 ALL by genomic PCR for the presence of Flt3/ITD and correlated its presence with clinical outcome.
  • Tandem duplication was found in 6/30(20%) AML cases: 2/8 M1, 1/8 M2, 2/6 M3, 1/6 M4 with loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in two cases.
  • Complete remission was achieved in 16.6% of cases with duplication vs. 45.8% in cases without duplication.
  • Failure to achieve induction remission was noted in 50% of cases with duplication vs. 29.1% in cases without duplication.
  • Patients with Flt3/ITD appear to be refractory to primary induction therapy, and for those who achieve remission, there is a high rate of relapse and death so there may be an association between this type of mutation and patient outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy. fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Egypt / epidemiology. Female. Gene Duplication. Gene Frequency / genetics. Humans. Infant. Male. Multivariate Analysis. Mutation / genetics. Prognosis. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18336585.001).
  • [ISSN] 1751-553X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of laboratory hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Lab Hematol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / FLT3 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3
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80. Tan RM, Quah TC, Aung L, Liang S, Kirk RC, Yeoh AE: Improved outcome in childhood acute myeloid leukemia in Singapore with the MRC AML 10 protocol. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2007 Mar;48(3):262-7
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  • [Title] Improved outcome in childhood acute myeloid leukemia in Singapore with the MRC AML 10 protocol.
  • BACKGROUND: The introduction of the United Kingdom Medical Research Council's 10th AML trial (MRC AML 10) protocol incorporating high-dose anthracycline therapy has improved outcome of children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • In this study, we review the results of childhood AML therapy in a Singapore university hospital over the last 17 years emphasizing toxicity and outcome.
  • PROCEDURE: Retrospective analysis revealed 34 children with AML between 1988 and 2003.
  • From September 1996, all but one of 15 children received MRC AML 10 treatment.
  • MRC AML 10-treated patients (n = 14) had significantly better 3-year overall, event-free, and disease-free survival (74% vs. 35%, 77% vs. 20%, 83% vs. 31%; P = 0.019, P = 0.002, and P = 0.010, respectively) and were likelier to achieve complete remission (CR) than non-MRC AML 10 patients (P = 0.102).
  • Among patients who achieved CR, MRC AML 10-treated patients were significantly more likely to achieve CR after only one cycle of chemotherapy (P = 0.016).
  • CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that MRC AML 10 treatment results in significantly superior survival, without excess toxicity.
  • Future studies should attempt to elucidate the relative importance of individual MRC AML 10 components and reduce the high cumulative anthracycline dose without compromising outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] 6-Mercaptopurine / administration & dosage. 6-Mercaptopurine / adverse effects. Acute Disease. Amsacrine / administration & dosage. Amsacrine / adverse effects. Azacitidine / administration & dosage. Azacitidine / adverse effects. Child. Child, Preschool. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Cytarabine / adverse effects. Daunorubicin / administration & dosage. Daunorubicin / adverse effects. Developing Countries. Disease-Free Survival. Drug Evaluation. Drug-Induced Liver Injury / etiology. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / adverse effects. Female. Gastrointestinal Diseases / chemically induced. Heart Diseases / chemically induced. Hematologic Diseases / chemically induced. Humans. Infant. Infection / etiology. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Methotrexate / adverse effects. Mitoxantrone / administration & dosage. Mitoxantrone / adverse effects. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Prednisone / adverse effects. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Singapore / epidemiology. Survival Analysis. Thioguanine / administration & dosage. Thioguanine / adverse effects. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage. Vincristine / adverse effects

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16602120.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 00DPD30SOY / Amsacrine; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BZ114NVM5P / Mitoxantrone; E7WED276I5 / 6-Mercaptopurine; FTK8U1GZNX / Thioguanine; M801H13NRU / Azacitidine; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin; MRC AML 10 protocol; POG-8498 protocol
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81. Walther JU, Pohl I, Rausch A, Fuehrer M: Proliferation studies on chromosome preparations of bone marrow in hematological disease. Oncol Rep; 2006 Oct;16(4):893-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The disorders studied were: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (N=107), chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) (N=166) and aplastic anemia in childhood (AA) (N=39).
  • The most important findings include: i) ALL: Immunological subtypes can be differentiated according to their proliferation profile; there is a striking difference between childhood and adult ALL in proliferation activity; most importantly initial proliferation is much higher in patients who will relapse than in those with stable remission.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow Cells / cytology. Chromosomes / ultrastructure. Hematologic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / metabolism. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16969511.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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82. de Jonge HJ, Weidenaar AC, Ter Elst A, Boezen HM, Scherpen FJ, Bouma-Ter Steege JC, Kaspers GJ, Goemans BF, Creutzig U, Zimmermann M, Kamps WA, de Bont ES: Endogenous vascular endothelial growth factor-C expression is associated with decreased drug responsiveness in childhood acute myeloid leukemia. Clin Cancer Res; 2008 Feb 1;14(3):924-30
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  • [Title] Endogenous vascular endothelial growth factor-C expression is associated with decreased drug responsiveness in childhood acute myeloid leukemia.
  • PURPOSE: We hypothesized that downstream effects of endogenous vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/VEGF receptor signaling on acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) cell survival resulted in increased in vitro cellular drug resistance and a longer time to kill most leukemic cells in vivo upon drug exposure.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In primary AML cells from pediatric patients, VEGFA and VEGFC mRNA expression and in vitro cellular resistance to nine cytotoxic drugs were studied.
  • As in vivo equivalents for in vitro drug resistance, in vivo AML blast reduction upon drug exposure, measured as blast cell reduction on day 15 in the bone marrow and as time in days from diagnosis to complete remission (CR) were used.
  • RESULTS: Increased endogenous VEGFC levels significantly correlated with increased in vitro resistance for six typical AML drugs in primary AML cells from pediatric patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest for the first time that higher endogenous VEGFC levels of AML cells are related to decreased in vitro and in vivo drug responsiveness.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18245556.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C
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83. Elliott MA, Litzow MR, Letendre LL, Wolf RC, Hanson CA, Tefferi A, Tallman MS: Early peripheral blood blast clearance during induction chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia predicts superior relapse-free survival. Blood; 2007 Dec 15;110(13):4172-4
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  • [Title] Early peripheral blood blast clearance during induction chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia predicts superior relapse-free survival.
  • In childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), a rapid decline of circulating leukemic blasts in response to induction chemotherapy or prednisone is one of the most important prognostic factors, not only for achieving remission but also for relapse-free survival (RFS).
  • However, in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) parameters of chemosensitivity have been restricted mainly to the rapidity of achievement of complete remission (CR) or the assessment of residual leukemic bone marrow blasts during aplasia.
  • We hypothesized that the time to circulating peripheral blood blast clearance, as a potential surrogate for in vivo chemosensitivity, would have prognostic relevance in AML also.
  • In a retrospective analysis of a cohort of 86 adult patients with AML receiving uniform induction and consolidation chemotherapy, we demonstrate that the time to clearance of circulating blasts during induction chemotherapy is an independent prognostic marker of RFS, superseding other known or established risk factors, including karyotype and number of inductions to achieve CR.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Blast Crisis / drug therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Remission Induction / methods. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Blood. 2008 Feb 1;111(3):1746-7 [18223180.001]
  • (PMID = 17909077.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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84. Gu LJ, Tie LJ, Xue HL, Tang JY, Chen J, Pan C, Chen J, Ye H, Wang YP, Dong L: [Analysis of prognostic variables in childhood acute myeloid leukemia]. Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi; 2006 Jan;27(1):10-3
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  • [Title] [Analysis of prognostic variables in childhood acute myeloid leukemia].
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the prognostic value of the biological features and therapy-related factors in childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • METHODS: From January 1998 to May 2003, 75 patients with newly diagnosed AML were enrolled on the protocol AML-XH-99.
  • Biological features at presentation [gender, age, white blood cells, platelet count, French-American-British (FAB) subtypes, cytogenetic abnormalities] and therapy-related factors [bone marrow (BM) blast cell counts at 48 h after the first induction course, complete remission (CR) rate after the first course of induction therapy] were analyzed.
  • Univariate analysis also demonstrated that the 5-year pEFS for patients with age < 1 year or > 10 years, platelet count < 20 x 10(9)/L, FAB M(5), hepatomegaly, BM blasts >or= 0.150 at 48 h after the first induction course and no response to the first induction course, central nervous system (CNS) leukemia was unfavorable, while the outcome of patients with cytogenetic abnormalities of t (8;.
  • 17) were better. (2) Multivariate analysis suggested that cytogenetic abnormality of t (15; 17), achieved CR after the first induction course and no CNS leukemia were independent favorable prognostic factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Aberrations. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy


85. Niewerth D, Creutzig U, Bierings MB, Kaspers GJ: A review on allogeneic stem cell transplantation for newly diagnosed pediatric acute myeloid leukemia. Blood; 2010 Sep 30;116(13):2205-14
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  • [Title] A review on allogeneic stem cell transplantation for newly diagnosed pediatric acute myeloid leukemia.
  • Survival of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has improved considerably over the past decades.
  • However, it remains controversial whether allo-SCT is superior to chemotherapy for children with newly diagnosed AML.
  • This review summarizes phase 3 clinical trials that compared allo-SCT with chemotherapy (including autologous SCT) in pediatric AML, excluding studies that did not use the intention-to-treat analysis or correct for time-to-transplantation.
  • Because allo-SCT also gives more severe side effects and results more often in secondary malignancies than chemotherapy, we do not recommend allo-SCT in first remission for pediatric AML in general.
  • Further research should focus on the possibility that subgroups might benefit from allo-SCT, aiming at further improvements in the prognosis of pediatric AML.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Stem Cell Transplantation
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Child. Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic. Cost-Benefit Analysis. Disease-Free Survival. Humans. Remission Induction. Survival Analysis. Transplantation, Autologous. Transplantation, Homologous. Treatment Outcome


86. Andreeva SV, Drozdova VD, Kavardakova NV: [Phenomenon of the evolution of clonal chromosomal abnormalities in childhood acute myeloid leukemia]. Tsitol Genet; 2010 May-Jun;44(3):41-52
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  • [Title] [Phenomenon of the evolution of clonal chromosomal abnormalities in childhood acute myeloid leukemia].
  • Analysis of chromosomal abnormalities in bone marrow cells in 116 children with diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) was performed.
  • Frequency of evolution of clonal chromosome abnormalities in AML constituted 42,3%.
  • The patients with clonal evolution died earlier, before reaching remission, that can be connected with heavy initial state and high frequency of relapse.
  • Identity of abnormal chromosome structure at diagnosis and relapse of disease can be an evidence of the influence of chemical agent on establishment of some types of evolution of chromosome abnormalities in leukemic cells in AML in children.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Aberrations. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics


87. Zarina RS, Nik-Hussein NN: Dental abnormalities of a long-term survivor of a childhood hematological malignancy: literature review and report of a case. J Clin Pediatr Dent; 2005;29(2):167-74
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  • [Title] Dental abnormalities of a long-term survivor of a childhood hematological malignancy: literature review and report of a case.
  • With the advancement in cancer therapy, there is an increase in the survival of many children with childhood haematological malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid / therapy. Survivors. Tooth Abnormalities / etiology. Tooth Root / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Child. Female. Growth Disorders / etiology. Humans. Remission Induction / methods

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  • (PMID = 15719924.001).
  • [ISSN] 1053-4628
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical pediatric dentistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Pediatr Dent
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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88. Johnston K, Vowels M, Carroll S, Neville K, Cohn R: Failure to lactate: a possible late effect of cranial radiation. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2008 Mar;50(3):721-2
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  • We conducted a retrospective review of the lactation experience of female survivors who received 24 Gy cranial radiotherapy as CNS prophylaxis for acute lymphoblastic leukemia in childhood prior to 1982 and who attend the Long-Term Follow-Up Clinic at Sydney Children's Hospital, Randwick, Australia.
  • All patients remain in remission.
  • These data suggest a high risk of failure of lactation in women treated during childhood with 24 Gy cranial irradiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Irradiation / adverse effects. Lactation Disorders / etiology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, High-Energy / adverse effects. Survivors
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Attitude of Health Personnel. Attitude to Health. Endocrine System Diseases / drug therapy. Endocrine System Diseases / etiology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Hormone Replacement Therapy. Human Growth Hormone / deficiency. Humans. Infant, Newborn. Lactation / physiology. Lactation / psychology. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / radiotherapy. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Complications / drug therapy. Pregnancy Complications / etiology. Retrospective Studies

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17763465.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone
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89. Brown P, McIntyre E, Rau R, Meshinchi S, Lacayo N, Dahl G, Alonzo TA, Chang M, Arceci RJ, Small D: The incidence and clinical significance of nucleophosmin mutations in childhood AML. Blood; 2007 Aug 1;110(3):979-85
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  • [Title] The incidence and clinical significance of nucleophosmin mutations in childhood AML.
  • Frameshift mutations in exon 12 of the nucleophosmin gene (NPM1) result in aberrant cytoplasmic localization of the NPM protein (NPMc(+)) and occur in 25% to 35% of adult acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • In adults with AML, NPMc(+) has been associated with normal karyotype, FLT3/ITD mutations, high remission induction rates, and improved survival (particularly in patients lacking FLT3/ITD).
  • NPMc(+) has not been well characterized in childhood AML.
  • This study examines the incidence and clinical significance of NPMc(+) in 295 children with newly diagnosed AML treated on a large cooperative group clinical trial (POG-9421).
  • We find that NPMc(+) is relatively uncommon in childhood AML (23 of 295 patients, 8%); and is significantly associated with FLT3/ITD mutations (P = .046), female sex (P = .029), older age (P = .047), and normal cytogenetics (P < .001).
  • We conclude that NPMc(+) is relatively rare in childhood AML, particularly in younger children.

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  • (PMID = 17440048.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K23 CA111728; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K23 CA 111728
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 117896-08-9 / nucleophosmin; EC 2.7.10.1 / FLT3 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1924773
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90. Zhang JH, Zheng YC, Wang YX, Zhang JY, Liu ZG: Laboratory study on near-tetraploid acute myelogenous leukemia of childhood. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Apr;11(4):263-6
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  • [Title] Laboratory study on near-tetraploid acute myelogenous leukemia of childhood.
  • Near-tetraploidy is a rare cytogenetic abnormality in myelocytic malignancies in children, and its significance is unknown.
  • To investigate the characteristics of near-tetraploidy in a child with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML-M4), bone marrow smears were prepared for morphological analysis.
  • Combined with morphological and immunophenotypic results, AML-M4 was confirmed.
  • The patient was given four cycles of chemotherapy, and finally achieved clinical remission.
  • However, the duration achieving the remission in the child was longer than AML children with normal karyotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Polyploidy
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Marrow Cells / pathology. Child. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Female. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19374808.001).
  • [ISSN] 1008-8830
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo dang dai er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of contemporary pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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91. Pui CH, Pei D, Sandlund JT, Ribeiro RC, Rubnitz JE, Raimondi SC, Onciu M, Campana D, Kun LE, Jeha S, Cheng C, Howard SC, Metzger ML, Bhojwani D, Downing JR, Evans WE, Relling MV: Long-term results of St Jude Total Therapy Studies 11, 12, 13A, 13B, and 14 for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leukemia; 2010 Feb;24(2):371-82
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  • [Title] Long-term results of St Jude Total Therapy Studies 11, 12, 13A, 13B, and 14 for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • Factors consistently associated with treatment outcome were age, leukocyte count, immunophenotype, DNA index, and minimal residual disease level after remission induction treatment.
  • Owing to concerns about therapy-related secondary myeloid leukemia and brain tumors, in our current trials we reserve the use of etoposide for patients with refractory or relapsed leukemia undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and cranial irradiation for those with CNS relapse.

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  • (PMID = 20010620.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5551
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA060419-13; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / U01 GM061393-06; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / U01 GM061393; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA051001-15; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA078224; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R37 CA036401-19; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R37 CA036401; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA36401; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA78224; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA060419; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA60419; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM61393; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765-31; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA078224-09; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA051001; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA036401; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA51001; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA060419
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS137362; NLM/ PMC2820159
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92. de Figueiredo AF, Mkrtchyan H, Liehr T, Soares Ventura EM, de Jesus Marques-Salles T, Santos N, Ribeiro RC, Abdelhay E, Macedo Silva ML: A case of childhood acute myeloid leukemia AML (M5) with a neocentric chromosome neo(1)(qter--&gt;q23 approximately 24::q23 approximately 24--&gt;q43--&gt;neo--&gt;q43--&gt;qter) and tetrasomy of chromosomes 8 and 21. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2009 Sep;193(2):123-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A case of childhood acute myeloid leukemia AML (M5) with a neocentric chromosome neo(1)(qter-->q23 approximately 24::q23 approximately 24-->q43-->neo-->q43-->qter) and tetrasomy of chromosomes 8 and 21.
  • Hyperdiploidy is rarely observed in childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • Described here is the case of a 2(1/2)-year-old girl with AML-M5 and 51 chromosomes characterized by double tetrasomy of chromosomes 8 and 21 and also a neocentric derivative chromosome neo(1)(qter-->q23 approximately 24::q23 approximately 24-->q43-->neo-->q43-->qter).
  • Little is known about the prognostic significance of these chromosomal abnormalities in childhood AML.
  • In the actual case, complete remission was achieved after chemotherapy, which continued for 7 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 21. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / genetics


93. Wang D, Tang YM, Xu XJ, Shen HQ, Qian BQ: [Determination of leukemia stem cells in childhood acute myeloid leukemia and its clinical significance]. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi; 2010 Aug;18(4):952-8
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  • [Title] [Determination of leukemia stem cells in childhood acute myeloid leukemia and its clinical significance].
  • The aim of this study was to detect the presence of human AML leukemia stem cells (LSC) in childhood patients with acute leukemia (AL) and analyze the correlation between LSC concentrations and minimal residual disease (MRD) levels in AML cases after remission.
  • The multi-parameter flow cytometry (FCM) and a panel of monoclonal antibody combination were used to detect the AML LSC or AML LSC immunophenotype-identical cell (AML LSC-IPIC) concentrations in childhood AML or ALL leukemia both at new diagnosis and at remission and correlated AML LSC to the MRD levels at different time points after remission.
  • The results indicated that the AML LSC or AML LSC-IPIC concentrations [in average 166 (range 14 - 1459)/100 000 mononuclear cells (MNCs)] in AML at initial diagnosis were significantly higher than those in ALL [7 (range 0 - 560)/100 000 MNCs, p < 0.017] and control [0 (range 0 - 6)/100 000 MNCs, p < 0.017], respectively.
  • The AML LSC concentrations in AML at non-CR were in average 36 (range 5 - 224)/100 000 MNCs.
  • No statistical difference (p > 0.05) was found between the AML LSC or AML LSC-IPIC concentrations in AML (in average 6 (range 0 - 41)/100, 000 MNCs) and ALL [10 (range 0 - 105)/100, 000 MNCs] after CR.
  • The significantly negative correlation was noticed between AML LSC concentrations and MRD levels.
  • It is concluded that the AML LSCs exist in newly diagnosed AML, which are significantly reduced when complete remission has achieved, but the low levels of these populations still remain.
  • The phenotypically similar (CD34(+)CD38⁻CD123(+)) AML LSC populations have also been found in the bone marrow from ALL patients, but their concentrations are not significantly different when CR has achieved.
  • The significantly negative correlation between AML LSC concentrations and MRD levels is observed in AML patients after remission.


94. Shah M, Agarwal B: Recent advances in management of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Indian J Pediatr; 2008 Aug;75(8):831-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Recent advances in management of acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common childhood malignancy.
  • AML has therapeutically been difficult to treat.
  • In 2001, the World Health Organization (WHO), in conjunction with the Society for Hematopathology and the European Association of Hematopathology, published a new classification for myeloid neoplasms.
  • A number of chromosomal abnormalities are used to predict outcome and stratify therapeutic risk groups in children with AML.
  • Recently, alterations in receptor tyrosine kinases, tyrosine phosphatases and in oncogenes such as RAS have been implicated in the pathogenesis of AML.
  • This article aims to review the recent development in diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of AML.
  • Better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of AML has led to the development of target-specific therapies.
  • The role of allogenic SCT, particularly whether it should be done during first CR or reserved for second remission, remains the most controversial issue in pediatric AML.
  • There is a need of collaboration with international pediatric cooperative oncology groups and definitive clinical trials in order to establish use of these newer molecules in pediatric populations.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Immunologic Factors / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Neoplasm, Residual / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD / blood. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / blood. Child. Child, Preschool. Humans. Prognosis. Remission Induction. Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3. fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3 / antagonists & inhibitors. fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18769895.001).
  • [ISSN] 0973-7693
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pediatr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / CD33 protein, human; 0 / Immunologic Factors; 0 / Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 3; EC 2.7.10.1 / fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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95. Liu Y, Tang SQ, Wang JW, Long H, Feng C, Zhang H: [Treatment of acute leukemia complicated by invasive aspergillosis in children]. Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Nov;11(11):901-4
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  • [Title] [Treatment of acute leukemia complicated by invasive aspergillosis in children].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the antifungal treatment and intensive chemotherapy in children with acute leukemia and invasive aspergillosis.
  • METHODS: The diagnosis and treatment of 4 cases of childhood acute leukemia complicated by invasive aspergillosis between July 2007 and July 2008 were studied retrospectively.
  • RESULTS: Three children who underwent remission induction chemotherapy for ALL and one who underwent consolidation chemotherapy for AML developed invasive aspergillosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antifungal Agents / therapeutic use. Aspergillosis / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / complications. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / complications

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  • (PMID = 20113657.001).
  • [ISSN] 1008-8830
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo dang dai er ke za zhi = Chinese journal of contemporary pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antifungal Agents
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96. Pitman SD, Huang Q: Granular acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a case report and literature review. Am J Hematol; 2007 Sep;82(9):834-7
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  • [Title] Granular acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a case report and literature review.
  • Authors report a rare case of granular acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in a 45-year-old woman with a history of multiple myeloma.
  • The patient's lymphoblasts contained large numbers of distinctive cytoplasmic granules closely mimicking heavily granulated myeloblasts in acute myeloid leukemia.
  • Granular ALL occurs approximately 2 to 7% in childhood populations but is extremely rare in adults.
  • Such cases may cause problematic distinction from myeloid differentiation and lead to misdiagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia.
  • Ten cases of adult granular acute lymphoblastic leukemia described to date in the literature were also reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Cytoplasmic Granules / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Dexamethasone / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Middle Aged. Multiple Myeloma / pathology. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CYTARABINE .
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  • [Copyright] 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc
  • (PMID = 17546641.001).
  • [ISSN] 0361-8609
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; CVAD protocol
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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97. Kudo K, Kojima S, Tabuchi K, Yabe H, Tawa A, Imaizumi M, Hanada R, Hamamoto K, Kobayashi R, Morimoto A, Nakayama H, Tsuchida M, Horibe K, Kigasawa H, Tsukimoto I, Japanese Childhood AML Cooperative Study Group: Prospective study of a pirarubicin, intermediate-dose cytarabine, and etoposide regimen in children with Do