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1. Merriweather A, Guenzler V, Brenner M, Unnasch TR: Characterization and expression of enzymatically active recombinant filarial prolyl 4-hydroxylase. Mol Biochem Parasitol; 2001 Sep 3;116(2):185-97
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  • Adult and embryonic Brugia malayi are shown to be susceptible to inhibitors of vertebrate prolyl 4-hydroxylase, with exposed parasites exhibiting pathologies consistent with a disruption in cuticle biosynthesis.
  • Expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis and developmental polymerase chain reaction (PCR) studies demonstrated that Ov-phy-1 was expressed in L3 and adult parasites.
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Blotting, Southern. Brugia malayi / drug effects. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Female. Humans. Isoenzymes / genetics. Molecular Sequence Data. Open Reading Frames. Phylogeny. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Procollagen / metabolism. Pyrones / pharmacology. Recombinant Proteins / metabolism. Sequence Alignment

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  • (PMID = 11522351.001).
  • [ISSN] 0166-6851
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and biochemical parasitology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Biochem. Parasitol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ AF369787/ AF369788/ AF369789
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / N01-AI-65283
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Isoenzymes; 0 / Procollagen; 0 / Pyrones; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 500-05-0 / coumalic acid; EC 1.14.11.2 / Procollagen-Proline Dioxygenase
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2. Lee EJ, Petroni GR, Schiffer CA, Freter CE, Johnson JL, Barcos M, Frizzera G, Bloomfield CD, Peterson BA: Brief-duration high-intensity chemotherapy for patients with small noncleaved-cell lymphoma or FAB L3 acute lymphocytic leukemia: results of cancer and leukemia group B study 9251. J Clin Oncol; 2001 Oct 15;19(20):4014-22
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  • [Title] Brief-duration high-intensity chemotherapy for patients with small noncleaved-cell lymphoma or FAB L3 acute lymphocytic leukemia: results of cancer and leukemia group B study 9251.
  • PURPOSE: To define the activity and feasibility of brief-duration high-intensity chemotherapy for adults with small noncleaved, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (SNC) and the L3 variant of acute lymphocytic leukemia (L3 ALL).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Seventy-five adults with either SNC or L3 ALL (median age, 44 years) were treated with an aggressive regimen that consisted of one cycle of cyclophosphamide and prednisone followed by cycles containing either ifosfamide or cyclophosphamide; high-dose methotrexate, vincristine, dexamethasone, and either doxorubicin or etoposide/cytarabine; or intrathecal triple therapy with prophylactic CNS irradiation.
  • RESULTS: All 24 patients with L3 ALL and the 30 of 51 patients with SNC confirmed by central histologic review were included in this analysis.
  • Responses and toxicities were similar in the patients with both lymphoma and leukemia.
  • CONCLUSION: Aggressively delivered chemotherapy is potentially curative in as many as half of patients with SNC and the L3 ALL variant.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Central Nervous System. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Schedule. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Ifosfamide / therapeutic use. Infection / chemically induced. Injections, Spinal. Male. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Neutropenia / chemically induced. Prednisone / administration & dosage. Survival Analysis. Thrombocytopenia / chemically induced. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 11600602.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA31946
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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3. Murthy PK, Dixit S, Gaur RL, Kumar R, Sahoo MK, Shakya N, Joseph SK, Palne S, Gupta S: Influence of Brugia malayi life stages and BmAFII fraction on experimental Leishmania donovani infection in hamsters. Acta Trop; 2008 May;106(2):81-9
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  • The influence of live Brugia malayi parasites and a Sephadex G-200 fraction of the adult parasite extract (BmAFII) on the progression of Leishmania donovani infection was studied.
  • Inbred hamsters were first infected with B. malayi infective 3rd stage larvae (L3), adult worms or microfilariae (mf), and then with L. donovani amastigotes (Ld), or vice versa or received both the infections simultaneously; a group of animals were first immunized with BmAFII and then infected with Ld. L. donovani parasite burden was determined between 17 and 19 days post amastigote challenge (p.a.c.) and, in case of immunized animals, between 32 and 35 days p.a.c also.
  • Nitric oxide (NO) release from peritoneal macrophages and cellular proliferative responses of lymphnode cells were assessed in BmAFII-immunized animals given leishmania infection or no infection.
  • Leishmanial parasite burden was significantly reduced in animals exposed to filarial L3 before amastigote inoculation and in animals given filarial adult worms after or together with amastigotes.
  • Prior immunization of leishmania-infected animals with BmAFII also reduced the leishmanial parasite burden (17-19 days p.a.c.: >90%; 32-35 days p.a.c.: 60%).
  • These animals showed upregulation of NO release and cellular proliferative responses to promastigote antigen or BmAFII stimulation in vitro.
  • The findings show, for the first time, that B. malayi L3/adult worms or immunization with BmAFII inhibits progression of L. donovani infection in hamsters and this is associated with upregulation of NO and lymphocyte proliferative responses indicating that Th1 response might be responsible for this.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Proliferation. Cricetinae. Lymph Nodes / immunology. Lymphocytes / immunology. Macrophages, Peritoneal / immunology. Male. Nitric Oxide / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 18329620.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-706X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta tropica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Trop.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Helminth; 31C4KY9ESH / Nitric Oxide
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4. Dixon H, Johnston CE, Else KJ: Antigen selection for future anti-Trichuris vaccines: a comparison of cytokine and antibody responses to larval and adult antigen in a primary infection. Parasite Immunol; 2008 Sep;30(9):454-61
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  • [Title] Antigen selection for future anti-Trichuris vaccines: a comparison of cytokine and antibody responses to larval and adult antigen in a primary infection.
  • Child anthelminthic treatment programmes are being implemented but repeated treatments are costly, may prevent the development of acquired immunity and can lead to the development of drug resistant parasites.
  • Thus, the development of a vaccine which would lead to the acquisition of immunity at an earlier age and reduce community faecal egg output would be beneficial.
  • Development of subunit vaccines requires the identification of protective antigens and their formulation in a suitable adjuvant.
  • Subcutaneous vaccination with adult excretory-secretory products (ES) protects susceptible mouse strains from T. muris.
  • Larval stages may contain novel and more relevant antigens which when incorporated in a vaccine induce worm expulsion earlier in infection than the adult worm products.
  • This study finds negligible difference in the cellular and humoral immune response to T. muris adult and third stage larva(e) (L3) ES during a primary T. muris infection, but identifies high molecular weight proteins in both adult and L3 ES as potential vaccine candidates.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antibodies, Helminth / blood. Antibodies, Helminth / immunology. Immunoglobulin G / blood. Immunoglobulin G / immunology. Larva / immunology. Mice. Mice, Inbred AKR. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Vaccines / immunology

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  • (PMID = 18565148.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-3024
  • [Journal-full-title] Parasite immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Parasite Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / / 068028
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Helminth; 0 / Antigens, Helminth; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / Vaccines
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5. Barnes EH, Dobson RJ, Stein PA, Le Jambre LF, Lenane IJ: Selection of different genotype larvae and adult worms for anthelmintic resistance by persistent and short-acting avermectin/milbemycins. Int J Parasitol; 2001 May 15;31(7):720-7
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  • [Title] Selection of different genotype larvae and adult worms for anthelmintic resistance by persistent and short-acting avermectin/milbemycins.
  • To understand the factors that influence selection for anthelmintic resistance, it is necessary to examine the impact of drug treatment, particularly persistent drugs, on all phases of the worm life cycle.
  • The efficacy of various avermectin/milbemycin anthelmintics was determined against resident worms, incoming larvae (L3) and development of eggs in faecal culture.
  • Selection for resistance by IVM capsules occurred at the adult and L3 stages because of poor efficacy against these stages for all resistant genotypes.
  • However, the selective advantage of these surviving worms was reduced due to the low development of their eggs to L3 in faecal culture.
  • For MOX, selection for resistance predominantly occurred after treatment because of high efficacy against resident adult worms of all resistant genotypes but poor efficacy against resistant L3 ingested after drug administration.
  • Mean IVM efficacies against homozygous and heterozygous resistant adult worms were not different, and IVM capsule efficacy against incoming L3 was approximately 70% for all resistant genotypes, consistent with a dominant trait.
  • MOX was highly effective against adults of all resistant genotypes and approximately 76% effective against incoming L3 regardless of resistance genotype, also consistent with a dominant trait.
  • These results will enable the impact of persistent drugs on worm control and anthelmintic resistance to be estimated.
  • [MeSH-major] Anthelmintics / administration & dosage. Anti-Bacterial Agents / administration & dosage. Drug Resistance / genetics. Haemonchiasis / veterinary. Haemonchus / genetics. Ivermectin / administration & dosage. Ivermectin / analogs & derivatives. Sheep Diseases / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Animals. Delayed-Action Preparations. Female. Genotype. Larva / genetics. Macrolides. Male. Sheep

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  • (PMID = 11336754.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7519
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal for parasitology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Parasitol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anthelmintics; 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; 0 / Delayed-Action Preparations; 0 / Macrolides; 51570-36-6 / milbemycin; 70288-86-7 / Ivermectin; 73989-17-0 / avermectin
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6. Jiang XJ, Wang JS, Fang Q: [Gene expression of breast cancer resistance protein in adult acute lymphocytic leukemia and its clinical significance]. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi; 2008 Feb;16(1):31-4
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  • [Title] [Gene expression of breast cancer resistance protein in adult acute lymphocytic leukemia and its clinical significance].
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between the expressions of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) gene and drug resistance as well as prognosis in adult patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL).
  • Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect the expression of BCRP gene in 97 adult patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and 30 normal subjects.
  • In ALL subtypes BCRP gene expression of L3 type was distinctly higher than that of L(1), L(2) types.
  • In immune types the BCRP gene expression of B-ALL was higher than that of T cell type, especially in mature B cell type with obviously statistical significance (p<0.01).
  • It is concluded that the high expression of BCRP gene may induce clinical drug resistance, and may be an unfavorable factor for prognosis in adult patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters / metabolism. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Sub-Family G, Member 2. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18315895.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-2137
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo shi yan xue ye xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ABCG2 protein, human; 0 / ATP Binding Cassette Transporter, Sub-Family G, Member 2; 0 / ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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7. McVeigh P, Leech S, Marks NJ, Geary TG, Maule AG: Gene expression and pharmacology of nematode NLP-12 neuropeptides. Int J Parasitol; 2006 May 31;36(6):633-40
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  • DYRPLQFamide (1 nM-10 microM; n > or =6) produced contraction of innervated dorsal and ventral Ascaris body wall muscle preparations (10 microM, 6.8+/-1.9 g; 1 microM, 4.6+/-1.8 g; 0.1 microM, 4.1+/-2.0 g; 10 nM, 3.8+/-2.0 g; n > or =6), and also caused a qualitatively similar, but quantitatively lower contractile response (10 microM, 4.0+/-1.5 g, n=6) on denervated muscle strips.
  • Transcription was also identified in both L3 and adult stages of T. colubriformis, in which Tc-nlp-12 is expressed in a single tail neurone.
  • Conversely, As-nlp-12 is expressed in both head and tail tissue of adult female A. suum, suggesting species-specific differences in the transcription pattern of this gene.
  • [MeSH-major] Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins / metabolism. Helminth Proteins / metabolism. Nematoda / metabolism. Neuropeptides / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Ascaris suum / genetics. Ascaris suum / metabolism. Ascaris suum / physiology. Caenorhabditis elegans / genetics. Caenorhabditis elegans / metabolism. Caenorhabditis elegans / physiology. DNA, Complementary / genetics. DNA, Helminth / genetics. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Female. Gene Expression. Male. Molecular Sequence Data. Muscle Contraction / drug effects. Muscle Contraction / physiology. Tissue Culture Techniques. Transcription, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 16600246.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7519
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal for parasitology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Parasitol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ AY347872/ DQ186899
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins; 0 / DNA, Complementary; 0 / DNA, Helminth; 0 / Helminth Proteins; 0 / Neuropeptides; 0 / aspartyl-tyrosyl-arginyl-prolyl-leucyl-glutaminyl-phenylalaninamide
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8. Giménez-Pardo C, Martínez-Grueiro MM, Gómez-Barrio A, Rodríguez-Caabeiro F: Cholinesterase and phosphatase activities in adults and infective-stage larvae of levamisole-resistant and levamisole-susceptible isolates of Haemonchus contortus. Vet Res Commun; 2003 Dec;27(8):611-23
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  • Cholinesterase (ChE) and acid phosphatase (AP) activities, but not alkaline phosphatase activities, were detected in cytosolic and membrane-bound fractions of adult and infective-stage larvae of levamisole-resistant and levamisole-susceptible Haemonchus contortus.
  • In contrast to other gastrointestinal nematodes, the ChE activity was higher in L3 than in adults and, in both cases, was mainly associated with membranes.
  • Differences between resistant and susceptible L3 were observed in the response to inhibitors (cytosolic fraction) and in the enzymatic content (membrane-bound fraction).
  • Phosphatase activity was detected at acidic pH in all fractions, being higher in the adult than in the L3 stage.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Benzenaminium, 4,4'-(3-oxo-1,5-pentanediyl)bis(N,N-dimethyl-N-2-propenyl-), Dibromide / pharmacology. Cholinesterase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Cytosol / enzymology. Drug Resistance. Larva / enzymology. Octoxynol / pharmacology. Tetraisopropylpyrophosphamide / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 14672450.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-7380
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary research communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Res. Commun.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anthelmintics; 0 / Cholinesterase Inhibitors; 2880D3468G / Levamisole; 402-40-4 / Benzenaminium, 4,4'-(3-oxo-1,5-pentanediyl)bis(N,N-dimethyl-N-2-propenyl-), Dibromide; 513-00-8 / Tetraisopropylpyrophosphamide; 9002-93-1 / Octoxynol; EC 3.1.1.8 / Cholinesterases; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase; EC 3.1.3.2 / Acid Phosphatase
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9. Duffy MS, MacAfee N, Burt MD, Appleton JA: An aspartyl protease inhibitor orthologue expressed by Parelaphostrongylus tenuis is immunogenic in an atypical host. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol; 2002 Jul;9(4):763-70
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  • This parasite is the causative agent of a debilitating neurologic disease in atypical hosts, including domestic livestock.
  • In order to identify proteins of potential significance in the host-parasite relationship, a cDNA library was produced from adult P. tenuis mRNA.
  • Antibody that was generated against this recombinant protein of P. tenuis (Pt-API-1) detected the native protein in E/S products, in muscle and gonad, and on the surface of the cuticle of adult male and female P. tenuis.
  • The native protein was detected in internal structures of first-stage (L1) and third-stage (L3) larvae.
  • Reverse transcription-PCR confirmed expression of Pt-api-1 in L1, L3, and adult male and female worms.
  • Responses were sustained or biphasic in animals with patent infections, consistent with expression of Pt-API-1 by L1.
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Antibodies, Helminth / blood. DNA, Helminth / analysis. Female. Gene Library. Male. Molecular Sequence Data. Protease Inhibitors / chemistry. Protease Inhibitors / immunology. Sequence Alignment. Strongylida Infections / parasitology. Strongylida Infections / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 12093670.001).
  • [ISSN] 1071-412X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and diagnostic laboratory immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ AF277291
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Helminth; 0 / DNA, Helminth; 0 / Protease Inhibitors; EC 3.4.23.- / Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC120043
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10. Wang Z, Abubucker S, Martin J, Wilson RK, Hawdon J, Mitreva M: Characterizing Ancylostoma caninum transcriptome and exploring nematode parasitic adaptation. BMC Genomics; 2010;11:307
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • RESULTS: The generated transcripts from four developmental stages, infective L3, serum stimulated L3, adult male and adult female, covered 93% of the A. caninum transcriptome.
  • Examining the developmental expression profiles of A. caninum revealed major transitions in gene expression from larval stages to adult.
  • Adult males expressed the highest number of selectively expressed genes, but adult female expressed the highest number of selective parasitism-related genes.
  • Parasitism related genes were expressed more selectively in adult male and female worms.
  • The comprehensive analysis of digital expression profiles along with transcriptome comparisons enabled identification of a set of parasitism genes encoding secretory proteins in animal parasitic nematode.
  • This comprehensive comparative genomic and expression study substantially improves our understanding of the basic biology and parasitism of hookworms and, is expected, in the long run, to accelerate research toward development of vaccines and novel anthelmintics.
  • [MeSH-major] Adaptation, Biological / genetics. Ancylostoma / genetics. Ancylostoma / parasitology. Gene Expression Profiling
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Dogs. Female. Male. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide. Selection, Genetic. Vaccines

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  • (PMID = 20470405.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2164
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC genomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Genomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vaccines
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2882930
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