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1. Duval M, Klein JP, He W, Cahn JY, Cairo M, Camitta BM, Kamble R, Copelan E, de Lima M, Gupta V, Keating A, Lazarus HM, Litzow MR, Marks DI, Maziarz RT, Rizzieri DA, Schiller G, Schultz KR, Tallman MS, Weisdorf D: Hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation for acute leukemia in relapse or primary induction failure. J Clin Oncol; 2010 Aug 10;28(23):3730-8
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  • [Title] Hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation for acute leukemia in relapse or primary induction failure.
  • PURPOSE: Patients with acute leukemia refractory to induction or reinduction chemotherapy have poor prognoses if they do not undergo hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Overall, 2,255 patients who underwent transplantation for acute leukemia in relapse or with primary induction failure after myeloablative conditioning regimen between 1995 and 2004 were reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research.
  • RESULTS: The 3-year overall survival (OS) rates were 19% for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and 16% for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
  • For ALL, survival was worse with the following: first refractory or second or greater relapse, > or = 25% marrow blasts, cytomegalovirus-seropositive donor, and age of 10 years or older.
  • HSCT during relapse can achieve long-term survival in selected patients with acute leukemia.

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  • (PMID = 20625136.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / U01 HL069294; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U24 CA076518
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2917308
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2. Votava T, Topolcan O, Holubec L Jr, Cerna Z, Sasek L, Finek J, Kormunda S: Changes of serum thymidine kinase in children with acute leukemia. Anticancer Res; 2007 Jul-Aug;27(4A):1925-8
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  • [Title] Changes of serum thymidine kinase in children with acute leukemia.
  • Our main goal was to determine the significance of elevated TK levels as a relapse marker during follow-up with child patients suffering from acute leukemia.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: TK serum levels in 38 children with acute leukemia (34 lymphoblastic, 4 myeloblastic) were determined using radio-receptor analysis (RRA, Immunotech, Prague, USA).
  • RESULTS: Our results showed that TK serum levels at the time of diagnosis were extremely high (78-5826 U/l, median value 403 U/l, normal < 8 U/l), while in remission TK serum levels were much lower (5-80 U/l, median value 31 U/l).
  • During relapse of acute leukemia (5 cases), TK levels increased considerably to measurements between 120-800 U/l (median value 324 U/l).
  • The study showed that the elevation of TK serum levels during follow-up was a helpful marker for the recognition of an early stage of relapse and in some cases occurred as early as one month before the appearance of clinical signs.
  • CONCLUSION: While TK serum levels were helpful in predicting relapse during follow-up, it is necessary to note that they did not correlate with prognosis in our group of patients during the time of the initial diagnosis of acute leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Leukemia / blood. Leukemia / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / blood. Thymidine Kinase / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Blood Sedimentation. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Ferritins / blood. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunoassay. Infant. Male. Prognosis. ROC Curve. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 17649797.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 9007-73-2 / Ferritins; EC 2.7.1.21 / Thymidine Kinase
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3. Bayram I, Erbey F, Kömür M, Kibar F, Tanyeli A: Flow cytometry results at diagnosis and relapse in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev; 2010;11(5):1321-4
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  • [Title] Flow cytometry results at diagnosis and relapse in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • INTRODUCTION: Several studies have focused on the immunophenotype of the leukemic population at the time of relapse compared to that observed at diagnosis.
  • OBJECTIVE: The question of whether differences exist between surface antigens levels on blasts at the time of diagnosis and at relapse in cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was addressed.
  • RESULTS: The most frequently detected five antigens were I2 (n=21), CD10 (n=17), CD41 (n=16), CD2 (n=14) and CD7/CD19 (n=13/n=13) at the time of diagnosis and CD41 (n=21), I2 (n=20), CD10 (n=14), CD19 (n=16) and CD2 (n=12) at the time of relapse.
  • There was a significant difference only between CD41 levels at the time of diagnosis and at the time of relapse (p=0.041).
  • CONCLUSION: We found changes in antigen expressions at the time of relapse in ALL patients.
  • This condition ought to be evaluated with reference to prognosis of leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / genetics. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 21198285.001).
  • [ISSN] 2476-762X
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention : APJCP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD
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4. Othman S: Thyroiditis mimicking relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Gallium-67 scan suggested the diagnosis. Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol; 2010 Jul;31(3):94-5

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  • [Title] Thyroiditis mimicking relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia: Gallium-67 scan suggested the diagnosis.
  • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common form of leukemia in childhood and accounts for 85% of cases.
  • Thyroid disease has been reported to have a strong association with acute leukemia.
  • We report a case of a 13-year-old female patient who presented with fever and suspected disease relapse after a period of disease remission; however, gallium-67 citrate whole body scan suggested the diagnosis of thyroiditis.

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  • (PMID = 21206717.001).
  • [ISSN] 0975-2129
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of medical and paediatric oncology : official journal of Indian Society of Medical & Paediatric Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3009443
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Acute lymphoblastic leukemia / gallium-67 scan / thyroiditis
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5. Shildkrot Y, Onciu M, Hoehn ME, Wilson MW: Mixed-phenotype acute leukemia relapse in the iris. J AAPOS; 2010 Oct;14(5):453-4
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  • [Title] Mixed-phenotype acute leukemia relapse in the iris.
  • Mixed-phenotype acute leukemia is a rare condition with no previously reported intraocular involvement.
  • We present clinical, radiologic, and cytologic findings of leukemic intraocular relapse in a 23-month-old girl, with lineage switch presenting as conjunctivitis after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20863726.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-3933
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J AAPOS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MLL-AF10 fusion protein, human; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 149025-06-9 / Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein
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6. Zhang H, Luo XQ, Zhang P, Huang LB, Zheng YS, Wu J, Zhou H, Qu LH, Xu L, Chen YQ: MicroRNA patterns associated with clinical prognostic parameters and CNS relapse prediction in pediatric acute leukemia. PLoS One; 2009;4(11):e7826
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  • [Title] MicroRNA patterns associated with clinical prognostic parameters and CNS relapse prediction in pediatric acute leukemia.
  • BACKGROUND: Recent reports have indicated that microRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in malignancies, and regulations in the progress of adult leukemia.
  • The role of miRNAs in pediatric leukemia still needs to be established.
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the aberrantly expressed miRNAs in pediatric acute leukemia and demonstrate miRNA patterns that are pediatric-specific and prognostic parameter-associated.
  • Importantly, we identified a "miRNA cascade" associated with central nervous system (CNS) relapse in ALL.
  • Additionally, miRNA patterns associated with prednisone response, specific risk group, and relapse of ALL were also identified.
  • CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There are existing pediatric-associated and prognostic parameter-associated miRNAs that are independent of cell lineage and could provide therapeutic direction for individual risk-adapted therapy for pediatric leukemia patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / diagnosis. Leukemia / diagnosis. Leukemia / pathology. MicroRNAs

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  • (PMID = 19915715.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MicroRNAs
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2773830
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7. Li X, Du W, Liu W, Li X, Li H, Huang SA: Comprehensive flow cytometry phenotype in acute leukemia at diagnosis and at relapse. APMIS; 2010 May;118(5):353-9
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  • [Title] Comprehensive flow cytometry phenotype in acute leukemia at diagnosis and at relapse.
  • Multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) plays a vital role in the detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) and diagnosis of relapse in acute leukemia.
  • Thirteen patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and 12 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) were immunophenotyped by MFC at diagnosis and at relapse using a comprehensive panel of monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) to 27 antigens and CD45/SSC gating.
  • In 23 of 25 patients (92.3%), changes in at least one of progenitor-associated, myeloid and lymphoid antigens between diagnosis and relapse were observed.
  • Multiple panels of three or more McAbs are likely to be required in the monitoring of MRD and diagnosis of relapse in acute leukemia by MFC.
  • [MeSH-major] Flow Cytometry / methods. Immunophenotyping / methods. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / diagnosis. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / immunology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / diagnosis. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / immunology

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  • (PMID = 20477810.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0463
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm
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8. Kroeger H, Jelinek J, Estécio MR, He R, Kondo K, Chung W, Zhang L, Shen L, Kantarjian HM, Bueso-Ramos CE, Issa JP: Aberrant CpG island methylation in acute myeloid leukemia is accentuated at relapse. Blood; 2008 Aug 15;112(4):1366-73
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  • [Title] Aberrant CpG island methylation in acute myeloid leukemia is accentuated at relapse.
  • DNA methylation of CpG islands around gene transcription start sites results in gene silencing and plays a role in leukemia pathophysiology.
  • Its impact in leukemia progression is not fully understood.
  • We performed genomewide screening for methylated CpG islands and identified 8 genes frequently methylated in leukemia cell lines and in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML): NOR1, CDH13, p15, NPM2, OLIG2, PGR, HIN1, and SLC26A4.
  • We assessed the methylation status of these genes and of the repetitive element LINE-1 in 30 patients with AML, both at diagnosis and relapse.
  • Abnormal methylation was found in 23% to 83% of patients at diagnosis and in 47% to 93% at relapse, with CDH13 being the most frequently methylated.
  • DNA methylation levels increased at relapse in 25 of 30 (83%) patients with AML.
  • These changes represent much larger epigenetic dysregulation, since methylation microarray analysis of 9008 autosomal genes in 4 patients showed hypermethylation ranging from 5.9% to 13.6% (median 8.3%) genes at diagnosis and 8.0% to 15.2% (median 10.6%) genes in relapse (P < .001).

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  • (PMID = 18523155.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-0020
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA108631; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA100632; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5P01CA108631-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5P50CA100632-05
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2515110
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9. Henderson MJ, Choi S, Beesley AH, Sutton R, Venn NC, Marshall GM, Kees UR, Haber M, Norris MD: Mechanism of relapse in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Cell Cycle; 2008 May 15;7(10):1315-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mechanism of relapse in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • Relapse following initial chemotherapy remains a barrier to survival in approximately 20% of children suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
  • Recently, to investigate the mechanism of relapse, we analysed clonal populations in 27 pairs of matched diagnosis and relapse ALL samples using PCR-based detection of multiple antigen receptor gene rearrangements.
  • These clonal markers revealed the emergence of apparently new populations at relapse in 13 patients.
  • In those cases where the new 'relapse clone' could be detected in the diagnosis population, there was a close correlation between length of first remission and quantity of the relapse clone in the diagnosis sample.
  • A shorter length of time to first relapse correlated with a higher quantity of the relapsing clone at diagnosis.
  • This observation, together with demonstrated differential chemosensitivity between sub-clones at diagnosis, indicates that relapse in ALL patients may commonly involve selection of a minor intrinsically resistant sub-clone that is undetectable by routine PCR-based methods.
  • From a clinical perspective, relapse prediction may be improved with strategies to detect minor potentially resistant sub-clones early during treatment, hence allowing intensification of therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Gene Rearrangement / genetics. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / diagnosis. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 18418081.001).
  • [ISSN] 1551-4005
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Cycle
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers; 0 / Receptors, Antigen
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10. Lipton J, Joffe S, Ullrich NJ: CNS relapse of acute myelogenous leukemia masquerading as pseudotumor cerebri. Pediatr Neurol; 2008 Nov;39(5):355-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] CNS relapse of acute myelogenous leukemia masquerading as pseudotumor cerebri.
  • An 18-year-old man in remission from acute myelogenous leukemia 3 years after a bone marrow transplant presented with signs of pseudotumor cerebri, including headache, visual changes, and papilledema.
  • He was diagnosed with an isolated central nervous system relapse of acute myeloid leukemia.
  • Although the precise etiology remains elusive, this case demonstrates that pseudotumor cerebri must remain within the differential diagnosis after other complications are excluded, particularly in persons with underlying hematologic malignancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / complications. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / diagnosis. Pseudotumor Cerebri / diagnosis. Pseudotumor Cerebri / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Recurrence


11. Petersen WC, Schlis KD, Braverman RS, Carlson I, Liang X, Wang M: Pseudohypopyon: Extramedullary relapse of acute myelogenous leukemia with poor prognosis. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2009 Jul;52(7):885-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pseudohypopyon: Extramedullary relapse of acute myelogenous leukemia with poor prognosis.
  • She was diagnosed with acute myelogenous leukemia.
  • Towards the end of her second course of induction she developed pseudohypopyon in each eye on consecutive days, heralding a central nervous system relapse.
  • [MeSH-major] Anterior Chamber / pathology. Eye Diseases / diagnosis. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Cytarabine / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Infant. Injections, Spinal. Prognosis. Suppuration / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19090546.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine
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12. Rubnitz J, Inaba H, Ribeiro R, Pounds S, Pui C, Leung W: Pilot study of haploidentical natural killer cell transplantation in childhood acute myeloid leukemia. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):10034

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pilot study of haploidentical natural killer cell transplantation in childhood acute myeloid leukemia.
  • We hypothesized that the transplantation of purified haploidentical NK cells may be a safe and effective form of consolidation therapy that will reduce the risk of relapse among children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who are not treated with HSCT.
  • RESULTS: The 10 patients had a median age of 2.5 years (range, 8 months to 21 years) and a median leukocyte count of 62 x 10<sup>9</sup>/L (range, 4 to 487) at diagnosis.

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  • (PMID = 27962581.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. McHayleh WM, Redner R, Sehgal R, Raptis A, Agha M, Natale J, Luong T, Schlesselman JJ, Foon K, Boyiadzis M: Etoposide and mitoxantrone in newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia patients with persistent leukemia after a course of induction therapy with cytarabine and idarubicin. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):7073

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Etoposide and mitoxantrone in newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia patients with persistent leukemia after a course of induction therapy with cytarabine and idarubicin.
  • : 7073 Background: The goal of induction chemotherapy in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is complete remission with restoration of normal bone marrow.
  • If residual leukemia is present after the first course of induction therapy, patients receive a second course identical to the first or receive a non-cross resistant antileukemic regimen.
  • Univariate and multivariate associations between patient characteristics and complete response (CR) were assessed by logistic regression, with overall- and relapse-free survival estimated by Kaplan-Meier analysis.
  • Lower CR rate was associated with unfavorable cytogenetic risk status at diagnosis and higher percent blasts prior to treatment with mitoxantrone and etoposide.
  • The 29 patients who achieved CR received postremission therapy: 16 of these eventually relapsed, while 4 others died without evidence of relapse.
  • Median duration of relapse-free survival in these 29 patients was 11.0 months (95% CI: 9.0-19.3 months).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that the combination of etoposide and mitoxantorne is an active and well-tolerated regimen as second-course therapy in newly diagnosed AML patients who have persistent leukemia after a first course of induction therapy with cytarabine and idarubicin.

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  • (PMID = 27961456.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Morris B, Khan R, Ledet D, Howell C, Pui C, Hudson M, Ness K: Neurological morbidity in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):9529

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Neurological morbidity in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
  • This remarkable success is attributed in part to intensive central nervous system (CNS)-directed therapy that effectively prevents CNS relapse.
  • METHODS: After obtaining IRB approval, all long-term ALL survivors (≥ 5 years since diagnosis) aged 6-28 years who remained active patients at our institution were identified.

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  • (PMID = 27964517.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Ayan I, Kebudi R, Ozger H, Yaman Agaoglu F, Gorgun O, Bilgic B, Eralp L, Dizdar Y, Darendeliler E: Childhood osteosarcoma: Evaluation of 94 cases. A single institution study. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):10040

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: Between January 1990 and December 2006, 94 children (53 male, 41 female) with a median age of 13 (5-16) years and a histopathologic diagnosis of osteosarcoma were treated with an institutional chemotherapy regimen comprising of 6 courses (3 pre-, 3 postoperatively) of epirubicin (90 mg/m2), cisplatin(100 mg/m2), and ifosfamide(2 g/m2 × 3 days) every 3 weeks.
  • 26 patients died; 20 of disease, 5 of toxicity, and 1 of second malignancy (acute myeloid leukemia).
  • A total of 33 patients experienced relapse and/or progression at a median of 9 months (range 0-40 months).
  • 10 year OS for 18 patients (11 metastatic at diagnosis) who progressed during preoperative chemotherapy was 13 % vs. 75 % for those who didnot have progressive disease (p< 0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The presence of metastases at diagnosis was the most significant characteristic influencing outcome.

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  • (PMID = 27962466.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Liu YR, Chang Y, Fu JY, Cheng YF, Zhang LP, Li LD, Wang H, Liu GL, Chen SS, Huang XJ, Lu DP: [Comparison of the immunophenotype of patients with B lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia at diagnosis and relapse]. Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi; 2006 May;27(5):335-8
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  • [Title] [Comparison of the immunophenotype of patients with B lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia at diagnosis and relapse].
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the leukemia-associated immunophenotypes (LAIP) in patients with B lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) at diagnosis and relapse, and investigate its implications for minimal residual disease (MRD) detection.
  • METHODS: The immunophenotype of leukemia cells from 410 newly diagnosed and 6 relapsed patients with B-ALL were detected by four to six antibody combination, mainly CD34/CD10/CD45/CD19 of 4-color CD45/SSC gating flow cytometry (FCM).
  • Immunophenotypic changes occurred in 9 relapsed patients (including 8 hematological relapse and 1 central nerves system relapse) when analyzed by paired samples analysis at diagnosis vs at relapse: 4 cases showed CD45 down-modulation and 2 up-modulation; 4 CD34 down-modulation and 2 CD10 up-modulation, while the expression of CD19 remained no change.
  • MRD was observed in all 7 cases of hematological relapse 2 - 4 months before relapse, and the immunophenotype of MRD cells was the same as that in relapse.
  • CONCLUSION: A high frequency of immunophenotypic changes occurred at relapse and even in MRD before relapse, however the accuracy of MRD monitoring seemed not affected by the FCM strategy used in this investigation.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunophenotyping / methods. Neoplasm, Residual / pathology. Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16875586.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-2727
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua xue ye xue za zhi = Zhonghua xueyexue zazhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD19; 0 / Antigens, CD34; EC 3.1.3.48 / Antigens, CD45; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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17. McCormick SR, McCormick MJ, Grutkoski PS, Ducker GS, Banerji N, Higgins RR, Mendiola JR, Reinartz JJ: FLT3 mutations at diagnosis and relapse in acute myeloid leukemia: cytogenetic and pathologic correlations, including cuplike blast morphology. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 Aug;134(8):1143-51
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  • [Title] FLT3 mutations at diagnosis and relapse in acute myeloid leukemia: cytogenetic and pathologic correlations, including cuplike blast morphology.
  • CONTEXT: Acquired mutations in the fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 gene (FLT3) adversely impact relapse risk after chemotherapy in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • The FLT3 mutation status may differ at diagnosis and relapse, suggesting a potential role in chemoresistance, yet few reports have addressed the cytogenetic and pathologic correlates of FLT3 mutations in relapsed AML.
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine FLT3 mutations at diagnosis and relapse in a cohort of adult patients with chemoresistant AML and to correlate mutation status with multiple variables.
  • DESIGN: We retrospectively determined FLT3 internal tandem duplication (FLT3/ITD) and FLT3 tyrosine kinase domain mutations in 50 diagnosis/relapse pairs.
  • RESULTS: In 11 of 50 patients (22%) the FLT3 mutation status differed at relapse and diagnosis, with a trend toward gain of FLT3/ITD (n = 7) and loss of FLT3 tyrosine kinase domain (n = 5) mutations.
  • FLT3-mutated AMLs correlated with the World Health Organization 2008 subtype, AML, not otherwise specified, hyperproliferative features at diagnosis and relapse, and cytogenetic evolution.
  • Four of 7 patients with relapse-only FLT3/ITD mutations exhibited cuplike blasts at relapse after being noncuplike at diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In addition to well-known correlates in pretreatment specimens, FLT3 mutation status has pathologic and cytogenetic significance at relapse.
  • A shift to cuplike blast morphology at relapse may herald emergence of a previously undetected FLT3/ITD mutation.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Duplication. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 20670134.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / FLT3 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3
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18. Dorantes-Acosta E, Arreguin-Gonzalez F, Rodriguez-Osorio CA, Sadowinski S, Pelayo R, Medina-Sanson A: Acute myelogenous leukemia switch lineage upon relapse to acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a case report. Cases J; 2009;2:154

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Acute myelogenous leukemia switch lineage upon relapse to acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a case report.
  • Acute leukemia, the most common form of cancer in children, accounts for approximately 30% of all childhood malignancies, with acute lymphoblastic leukemia being five times more frequent than acute myeloid leukemia.
  • Lineage switch is the term that has been used to describe the phenomenon of acute leukemias that meet the standard French-American-British system criteria for a particular lineage (either lymphoid or myeloid) upon initial diagnosis, but meet the criteria for the opposite lineage at relapse.
  • Many reports have documented conversions of acute lymphoblastic leukemia to acute myeloid leukemia.
  • Here, we report the case of a 4-year-old child with acute myeloid leukemia, which upon relapse switched to acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

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  • [Cites] Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2008 Apr;4(2):327-36 [18728851.001]
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  • (PMID = 19946525.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2783110
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19. Grier DD, Eskew A, White T, McLean TW: An unusual case of acute myeloid leukemia: late isolated testicular relapse followed by isolated central nervous system relapse. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2010 Dec 1;55(6):1231-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An unusual case of acute myeloid leukemia: late isolated testicular relapse followed by isolated central nervous system relapse.
  • Testicular relapse of acute myeloid leukemia without bone marrow involvement is a rare event.
  • We describe a case of an 18-year-old male who had an isolated testicular relapse 86 months (7.2 years) from original diagnosis.
  • Fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry were used to establish the diagnosis of a relapse rather than a new leukemic process.
  • This patient had a 7.2-year period between original diagnosis and the testicular relapse of acute myeloid leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20589624.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5017
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; FTK8U1GZNX / Thioguanine; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin
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20. Liu J, Wu DS, Zhang S, Yan CH, Zhou Y, Zhang YD, Qi ZH: [Relation between the expression of sIL-2R and the relapse in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia]. Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao; 2005 Jun 18;37(3):249-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Relation between the expression of sIL-2R and the relapse in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia].
  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the relation of the serum level of sIL-2R in relapse patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
  • METHODS: With ELISA, we determined the levels of sIL-2R of 48 patients with ALL after their first diagnoses, complete remission 1 and relapse.
  • The levels of sIL-2R of 30 patients from complete remission 1 to relapse were monitored.
  • RESULTS: The levels of sIL-2R were higher in the relapse group and first diagnosed group than in the control.
  • The levels of sIL-2R were higher in the relapse group and first diagnosed group than in the complete remission 1 group.
  • When we determined the levels of sIL-2R dynamically, we found that after complete remission, the levels of sIL-2R decreased, however, before one month of hematological relapse, the levels of sIL-2R increased.
  • CONCLUSION: Monitor of the level of sIL-2R can predict impending relapse of patients with ALL and is helpful to early diagnosis of relapse.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / blood. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / metabolism. Receptors, Interleukin-2 / blood

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  • (PMID = 15968312.001).
  • [ISSN] 1671-167X
  • [Journal-full-title] Beijing da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Peking University. Health sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Beijing Da Xue Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Interleukin-2
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21. Maruyama T, Yamamoto S, Nojima M, Morita N, Tanizawa T, Shima H: Extramedullary relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in childhood to the prostate. Int J Urol; 2007 May;14(5):447-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Extramedullary relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in childhood to the prostate.
  • He had a past history of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), which subsided in response to chemotherapy at 3 years of age.
  • Bone marrow puncture and cerebrospinal fluid aspiration revealed no leukemic cells, resulting in a diagnosis of extramedullary relapse of ALL in the prostate.
  • In spite of left orchiectomy, irradiation and additional chemotherapy, he died of bone marrow relapse and multiple organ failure.
  • Extramedullary relapse of ALL in the prostate is very rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology


22. de Botton S, Sanz MA, Chevret S, Dombret H, Martin G, Thomas X, Mediavilla JD, Recher C, Ades L, Quesnel B, Brault P, Fey M, Wandt H, Machover D, Guerci A, Maloisel F, Stoppa AM, Rayon C, Ribera JM, Chomienne C, Degos L, Fenaux P, European APL Group, PETHEMA Group: Extramedullary relapse in acute promyelocytic leukemia treated with all-trans retinoic acid and chemotherapy. Leukemia; 2006 Jan;20(1):35-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Extramedullary relapse in acute promyelocytic leukemia treated with all-trans retinoic acid and chemotherapy.
  • We analyzed the incidence, presenting features, risk factors of extramedullary (EM) relapse occurring in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) treated with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and chemotherapy by using a competing-risk method.
  • Nine relapses involved the central nervous system (CNS) and one the skin, of which two were isolated EM relapse.
  • The 3-year cumulative incidence of EM disease at first relapse was 5.0%.
  • Univariate analysis identified age <45 years (P=0.05), bcr3 PML-RARalpha isoform (P= 0.0003) and high WBC counts (> or = 10,000/ mm3) (P<0.0001) as risk factors for EM relapse.
  • Patients with EM relapse had a poorer outcome since median survival from EM relapse was 6.7 months as compared to 26.3 months for isolated BM relapse (P=0.04).
  • In conclusion, EM relapse in APL occurs more frequently in patients with increased WBC counts (> or = 10,000/mm3) and carries a poor prognosis.
  • Whether CNS prophylaxis should be systematically performed in patients with WBC > or = 10,000/mm3 at diagnosis remains to be established.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Tretinoin / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16307026.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
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23. Nakasone H, Kida M, Iki S, Usuki K: Lower leukocytes at initial diagnosis may predict poor outcome of very late relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leuk Res; 2008 Apr;32(4):659-64
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Lower leukocytes at initial diagnosis may predict poor outcome of very late relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • We have reported a rare case of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) recurring 19 years after the first presentation.
  • Since 1984, 36 relapse cases 10 years or more after the first diagnosis have been reported.
  • A very late relapse of ALL remains chemosensitive, and its prognosis is not unfavorable.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17850867.001).
  • [ISSN] 0145-2126
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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24. Schumann M, Kiewe P, Hartlieb S, Neumann M, Schilling A, Koch HC, Thiel E, Korfel A: Diffuse leukoencephalopathy and brain edema: unusual presentations of CNS relapse of acute myeloid leukemia. J Neuroimaging; 2010 Apr;20(2):198-200
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diffuse leukoencephalopathy and brain edema: unusual presentations of CNS relapse of acute myeloid leukemia.
  • An isolated CNS relapse is rarely seen in acute myeloid leukemia.
  • With the one-year-old history of an initially successfully treated FAB-M0 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in mind, a lumbar puncture was carried out that showed a vast number of myeloid blasts in the morphologic analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid.
  • In conjunction with normal findings in the peripheral blood-count with differential and the bone marrow examination a diagnosis of an isolated CNS relapse of the AML was made.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Edema / diagnosis. Brain Edema / etiology. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / complications. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / diagnosis. Leukoencephalopathies / diagnosis. Leukoencephalopathies / etiology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging


25. Breems DA, Van Putten WL, Huijgens PC, Ossenkoppele GJ, Verhoef GE, Verdonck LF, Vellenga E, De Greef GE, Jacky E, Van der Lelie J, Boogaerts MA, Löwenberg B: Prognostic index for adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia in first relapse. J Clin Oncol; 2005 Mar 20;23(9):1969-78
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prognostic index for adult patients with acute myeloid leukemia in first relapse.
  • PURPOSE: The treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in first relapse is associated with unsatisfactory rates of complete responses that usually are short lived.
  • Therefore, a clinically useful prognostic index can facilitate therapeutic decision making and evaluation of investigational treatment strategies at relapse of AML.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prognostic score is presented based on the multivariate analysis of 667 AML patients in first relapse among 1,540 newly diagnosed non-M3 AML patients (age 15 to 60 years) entered onto three successive Dutch-Belgian Hemato-Oncology Cooperative Group and the Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research Collaborative Group trials.
  • RESULTS: Four clinically relevant parameters are included in this index (ie, length of relapse-free interval after first complete remission, cytogenetics at diagnosis, age at relapse, and whether previous stem-cell transplantation was performed).
  • CONCLUSION: The prognostic index estimates the outcome of AML patients in first relapse using four commonly applied clinical parameters and might identify patients who are candidates for salvage and investigational therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid / mortality. Proportional Hazards Models
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Humans. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Recurrence. Salvage Therapy / methods. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 15632409.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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26. Anderson GA, Braaten K: Prostatic extramedullary leukemia as a first site of relapse of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia. Urol Oncol; 2005 Nov-Dec;23(6):419-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prostatic extramedullary leukemia as a first site of relapse of acute nonlymphocytic leukemia.
  • Extramedullary leukemia (EML) is an uncommon clinical diagnosis in patients with acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (ANLL).
  • Prostatic EML as a first site of ANLL relapse is even more rare.
  • We describe an additional case of prostatic EML as a site of ANLL relapse.
  • Staging was negative for ANLL relapse.
  • He subsequently developed clinical relapse in bone marrow, blood, and small bowel and received salvage chemotherapy with mitoxantrone and etoposide.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 16301120.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-1439
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Rubnitz JE, Hijiya N, Zhou Y, Hancock ML, Rivera GK, Pui CH: Lack of benefit of early detection of relapse after completion of therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2005 Feb;44(2):138-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Lack of benefit of early detection of relapse after completion of therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • BACKGROUND: Although most pediatric oncologists obtain routine blood counts in patients who have completed treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the value of this practice is unproven.
  • We therefore sought to determine if detection of relapse by blood counts before the onset of symptoms provided any clinical benefit.
  • We compared attainment of second remission and survival after relapse among patients who were asymptomatic and diagnosed by routine blood count, those who had symptoms suggestive of relapse and were diagnosed at the time of a scheduled follow-up, and those whose relapse was diagnosed because of the appearance of symptoms.
  • RESULTS: Only 11% of patients who suffered a relapse were asymptomatic at the time of relapse and diagnosed solely by routine blood counts.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of patients with relapsed ALL, we found no evidence that detection of relapse by routine blood counts before the onset of symptoms leads to a better outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / diagnosis

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  • [CommentIn] Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2005 Aug;45(2):229 [15768379.001]
  • (PMID = 15390274.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA-21765
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Medeiros BC, Minden MD, Schuh AC, Schimmer AD, Yee K, Lipton JH, Messner HA, Gupta V, Chun K, Xu W, Das P, Kamel-Reid S, Brandwein JM: Characteristics and outcomes of acute myelogenous leukemia patients with very late relapse (&gt;5 years). Leuk Lymphoma; 2007 Jan;48(1):65-71
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  • [Title] Characteristics and outcomes of acute myelogenous leukemia patients with very late relapse (>5 years).
  • The clinical characteristics and outcome of 15 patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) who experienced relapse at least 5 years after induction of complete remission (very late-relapse AML) are described.
  • There were eight males in this cohort and the median age at diagnosis was 48 years (range 13 - 77 years).
  • The 5-year relapse-free survival and overall survival rates of this cohort were 59% and 51%, respectively.
  • We conclude that very late-relapse AML is a rare event, and that reinduction in these patients is associated with very high CR rates and a potential cure fraction.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / diagnosis


29. Yang JJ, Bhojwani D, Yang W, Cai X, Stocco G, Crews K, Wang J, Morrison D, Devidas M, Hunger SP, Willman CL, Raetz EA, Pui CH, Evans WE, Relling MV, Carroll WL: Genome-wide copy number profiling reveals molecular evolution from diagnosis to relapse in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood; 2008 Nov 15;112(10):4178-83
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  • [Title] Genome-wide copy number profiling reveals molecular evolution from diagnosis to relapse in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • The underlying pathways that lead to relapse in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are unknown.
  • To comprehensively characterize the molecular evolution of relapsed childhood B-precursor ALL, we used human 500K single-nucleotide polymorphism arrays to identify somatic copy number alterations (CNAs) in 20 diagnosis/relapse pairs relative to germ line.
  • Although CNAs persisting from diagnosis to relapse were observed in all 20 cases, 17 patients exhibited differential CNA patterns from diagnosis to relapse.
  • Of the 396 CNAs observed in 20 relapse samples, only 69 (17.4%) were novel (absent in the matched diagnosis samples).
  • Finally, relapse-specific focal deletion of MSH6 and, consequently, reduced gene expression were found in 2 of 20 cases.
  • In an independent cohort of children with ALL, reduced expression of MSH6 was associated with resistance to mercaptopurine and prednisone, thereby providing a plausible mechanism by which this acquired deletion contributes to drug resistance at relapse.

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  • (PMID = 18768390.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-0020
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / U01 GM061393; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA114762; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / NCI CA 51 001; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / U01GM61374; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA21765; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / U01 GM61393; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA021765; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / U01 GM061374; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 78 224; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA093552; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA093552-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / EBF1 protein, human; 0 / G-T mismatch-binding protein; 0 / IKZF1 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Trans-Activators; 148971-36-2 / Ikaros Transcription Factor; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone; E7WED276I5 / 6-Mercaptopurine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2581992
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30. Bailey LC, Lange BJ, Rheingold SR, Bunin NJ: Bone-marrow relapse in paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Lancet Oncol; 2008 Sep;9(9):873-83
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  • [Title] Bone-marrow relapse in paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia.
  • Marrow relapse is the major obstacle to cure for 10-15% of young patients with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL).
  • Recent investigations into the biology of minimal residual disease indicate that many early relapses derive from residual cells present at first diagnosis, but some late relapses might represent new mutations in leukaemic cells not eliminated by conventional therapy.
  • Treatment of marrow relapse involves higher doses and more intensive schedules of the drugs used for initial therapy with or without haemopoietic stem cell transplantation.
  • In most reports, transplantation is better than continuation chemotherapy in early marrow relapse, but its role in later relapse is less clear.
  • [MeSH-major] Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18760243.001).
  • [ISSN] 1474-5488
  • [Journal-full-title] The Lancet. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 85
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31. Bhatti A, Bansal D, Vashishta RK, Lal SB: Isolated gut relapse presenting as chronic diarrhea during maintenance therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2010 Aug;32(6):504-5
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  • [Title] Isolated gut relapse presenting as chronic diarrhea during maintenance therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • SUMMARY: Ten-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)-T cell subtype was on MRC UKALL 2003-based chemotherapy.
  • Isolated gut relapse is exceedingly rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Diarrhea / etiology. Intestinal Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Chronic Disease. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Recurrence

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  • (PMID = 20588195.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3678
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Derwich K, Sedek L, Meyer C, Pieczonka A, Dawidowska M, Gaworczyk A, Wachowiak J, Konatkowska B, Witt M, Marschalek R, Szczepański T: Infant acute bilineal leukemia. Leuk Res; 2009 Jul;33(7):1005-8
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  • [Title] Infant acute bilineal leukemia.
  • Most cases of acute leukemia can be assigned to the myeloid, B or T lineage.
  • There are rare cases of acute leukemia, which cannot be clearly classified, because either blasts express antigens of more than one lineage (acute biphenotypic leukemias) or distinct blast populations of two lineages co-exist (acute bilineal leukemias, aBLL).
  • Despite poor initial response, both to acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) induction treatment and acute myeloid leukemia induction blocks, the child reached complete clinical remission with minimal residual disease negative status and was transplanted.
  • Unfortunately, 16 months from HSCT the patient experienced BM relapse with all blasts characterized by pro-B-ALL immunophenotype.
  • This case report illustrates that aBLL is a very aggressive type of acute leukemia that should be individually treated and monitored, particularly in children less than 1 year of age.
  • [MeSH-major] B-Lymphocytes / pathology. Leukemia, Biphenotypic, Acute / diagnosis. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / diagnosis. Neoplasm, Residual / diagnosis. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19286255.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-5835
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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33. Thanka J, Krishnarathinam K, Rajendiran S: Extramedullary relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in breast: a rare presentation. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2010 Jan-Mar;53(1):155-6
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  • [Title] Extramedullary relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in breast: a rare presentation.
  • Unusual sites of relapses following allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are rarely reported.
  • Our report describes a thirty-two-year old female, who developed extramedullary (EM) breast relapse after allogenic HSCT for pre B cell Philadelphia chromosome negative ALL.
  • She had no evidence of leukemia in her marrow demonstrating 100% full donor chimerism, while she had ALL relapse in her breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / diagnosis. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20090251.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5130
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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34. Ravandi F, Kantarjian H, Faderl S, Garcia-Manero G, O'Brien S, Koller C, Pierce S, Brandt M, Kennedy D, Cortes J, Beran M: Outcome of patients with FLT3-mutated acute myeloid leukemia in first relapse. Leuk Res; 2010 Jun;34(6):752-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Outcome of patients with FLT3-mutated acute myeloid leukemia in first relapse.
  • Mutations of Fms-like tyrosine kinase-3 (FLT3) have been described in about 30% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and are associated with a shorter disease-free and overall survival after initial therapy.
  • We sought to examine whether the presence of these mutations in relapsed disease was also associated with a poor response to salvage chemotherapy by comparing the outcome of 34 patients with diploid cytogenetics and mutated FLT3 (internal tandem duplication mutation, ITD) to 69 patients with normal karyotype and wild-type FLT3 (FLT3-WT) in first relapse.
  • Overall, patients with mutated FLT3 had a shorter survival from the time of relapse compared to those with FLT3-WT (P<0.001).
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / diagnosis. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3 / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 19878996.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-5835
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / FLT3 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS593250; NLM/ PMC4082769
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35. Choi S, Henderson MJ, Kwan E, Beesley AH, Sutton R, Bahar AY, Giles J, Venn NC, Pozza LD, Baker DL, Marshall GM, Kees UR, Haber M, Norris MD: Relapse in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia involving selection of a preexisting drug-resistant subclone. Blood; 2007 Jul 15;110(2):632-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Relapse in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia involving selection of a preexisting drug-resistant subclone.
  • Relapse following remission induction chemotherapy remains a barrier to survival in approximately 20% of children suffering from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
  • To investigate the mechanism of relapse, 27 matched diagnosis and relapse ALL samples were analyzed for clonal populations using polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based detection of multiple antigen receptor gene rearrangements.
  • These clonal markers revealed the emergence of apparently new populations at relapse in 13 patients.
  • More sensitive clone-specific PCR revealed that, in 8 cases, these "relapse clones" were present at diagnosis and a significant relationship existed between presence of the relapse clone at diagnosis and time to first relapse (P < .007).
  • Furthermore, in cases where the relapse clone could be quantified, time to first relapse was dependent on the amount of the relapse clone at diagnosis (r = -0.84; P = .018).
  • This observation, together with demonstrated differential chemosensitivity between subclones at diagnosis, argues against therapy-induced acquired resistance as the mechanism of relapse in the informative patients.
  • Instead these data indicate that relapse in ALL patients may commonly involve selection of a minor intrinsically resistant subclone that is undetectable by routine PCR-based methods.
  • Relapse prediction may be improved with strategies to detect minor potentially resistant subclones early during treatment, hence allowing intensification of therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / immunology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17371950.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulins; 0 / Receptors, Antigen
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36. Kenney B, Zieske A, Rinder H, Smith B: DNA ploidy analysis as an adjunct for the detection of relapse in B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leuk Lymphoma; 2008 Jan;49(1):42-8
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  • [Title] DNA ploidy analysis as an adjunct for the detection of relapse in B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • Detection of relapse in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is essential for proper management.
  • However, immunophenotypic detection of relapse by flow cytometry in B-lineage ALL can be confounded by several factors, including lack of a unique immunophenotype and modulation of aberrant phenotypes after treatment.
  • We hypothesized that flow cytometric DNA ploidy analysis may detect relapse in aneuploid ALL cases that might be missed by flow immunophenotyping.
  • Aneuploid populations were present at diagnosis in 32% of all patients.
  • In ALL cases that were originally aneuploid, follow-up ploidy-analysis detected relapsed disease in all cases which were also detected by flow immunophenotyping, suggesting that ploidy analysis is highly sensitive for detecting ALL relapse.
  • However, in 5 cases in which the diagnosis of relapse could not be reliably made by flow immunophenotyping, ploidy analysis successfully detected aneuploid cells, i.e., relapse, in all five; these included 3 patients with normal and 2 with aberrant original immunophenotypes.
  • These results suggest that it may be beneficial to perform ploidy analysis as an adjunct to flow immunophenotyping in following patients with B-lineage ALL who demonstrate aneuploidy at diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Aneuploidy. Neoplasm, Residual / diagnosis. Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18203010.001).
  • [ISSN] 1029-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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37. Berretta R, Barone A, Rolla M, Bertolini P, Nardelli GB: Isolated ovarian relapse of pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a case report. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol; 2009 Aug;22(4):e65-8
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  • [Title] Isolated ovarian relapse of pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia is a malignant disease of the bone marrow in which early lymphoid precursors proliferate and replace normal marrow hematopoietic cells, resulting in a marked decrease in the production of normal blood cells.
  • CASE REPORT: We report a case of isolated ovarian relapse 7 years after the primary diagnosis in a patient, who was seemingly in clinical remission following unilateral ovariectomy and second-line chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: In contrast to testicular relapse, ovarian relapses in acute lymphoblastic leukemia are rarely reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19493520.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4332
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric and adolescent gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. Firas AS, Demeckova E, Bojtarova E, Czako B, Hrubisko M, Mistrik M: Isolated extra-medullary relapse of acute leukemia following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Bratisl Lek Listy; 2008;109(8):358-61
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  • [Title] Isolated extra-medullary relapse of acute leukemia following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.
  • Isolated extramedullary relapse (IEMR) of acute leukemia (AL) after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a rare occurrence.
  • The results indicate a stronger graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect in the marrow than in the peripheral tissues (Fig.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow Transplantation / adverse effects. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / surgery. Leukemic Infiltration / etiology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brain / pathology. Breast / pathology. Female. Graft vs Leukemia Effect. Humans. Middle Aged. Skin / pathology. Transplantation, Homologous / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 18837244.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-9248
  • [Journal-full-title] Bratislavské lekárske listy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bratisl Lek Listy
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Slovakia
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39. Unal S, Tuncer AM, Cetin M, Yetgin S: The absence of peripheral blood blasts at diagnosis may predict CNS involvement or CNS relapse in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. Turk J Pediatr; 2008 Nov-Dec;50(6):537-41
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  • [Title] The absence of peripheral blood blasts at diagnosis may predict CNS involvement or CNS relapse in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients.
  • A high tumor burden at the time of diagnosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia has an unfavorable outcome.
  • In the present study, we observed no central nervous system involvement at the time of diagnosis in patients with no peripheral blood blasts at the beginning, and furthermore, none of the patients with no peripheral blasts at the diagnosis had central nervous system relapse.
  • [MeSH-major] Blast Crisis / pathology. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / pathology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19227416.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4301
  • [Journal-full-title] The Turkish journal of pediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Turk. J. Pediatr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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40. Dimov ND, Medeiros LJ, Ravandi F, Bueso-Ramos CE: Acute promyelocytic leukemia at time of relapse commonly demonstrates cytogenetic evidence of clonal evolution and variability in blast immunophenotypic features. Am J Clin Pathol; 2010 Mar;133(3):484-90
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  • [Title] Acute promyelocytic leukemia at time of relapse commonly demonstrates cytogenetic evidence of clonal evolution and variability in blast immunophenotypic features.
  • Despite the success of the current therapy for patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), relapse occurs in up to 30% of patients.
  • We evaluated a group of APL cases at relapse and compared the clinicopathologic, immunophenotypic, molecular, and cytogenetic findings with those at initial diagnosis.
  • From a group of 207 patients with APL, in 38 patients morphologic evidence of relapse developed.
  • In 30 patients relapse was isolated to bone marrow, and 8 had extramedullary disease.
  • Cytogenetic changes were common at relapse.
  • We conclude that changes in the immunophenotype and cytogenetic evidence of clonal evolution are common in APL at the time of relapse.
  • [MeSH-major] Cytogenetics. Immunophenotyping. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / pathology. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / immunology

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  • (PMID = 20154288.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-7722
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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41. Graf M, Reif S, Hecht K, Pelka-Fleischer R, Kroell T, Pfister K, Schmetzer H: High expression of costimulatory molecules correlates with low relapse-free survival probability in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Ann Hematol; 2005 May;84(5):287-97
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] High expression of costimulatory molecules correlates with low relapse-free survival probability in acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • Costimulatory molecules such as lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA)-1 (CD11a), LFA-3 (CD58), intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 (CD54), neuronal cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) (CD56), B7-1 (CD80), or B7-2 (CD86) are important regulatory elements in healthy immunological cascades, but their role in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) has only been rarely investigated.
  • We studied their expression on mononuclear bone marrow (BM) cells from 105 patients with AML at initial diagnosis and evaluated their prognostic significance.
  • Relapse-free survival analyses demonstrated that patients with more than 8% CD56(+) cells in the BM relapsed significantly sooner.
  • Only very high proportions (>60%) of CD54(+) cells were associated with a lower probability for relapse-free survival.
  • Whereas cases with more than 15% CD80(+) cells had a significantly lower probability for relapse-free survival, only cases with more than 65% CD86(+) were characterized by a significantly lower probability for relapse-free survival.
  • CD56(+) subtypes of AML seem to be a separate entity with a worse prognosis independent of the karyotype. (3) High expression of some costimulatory molecules correlates with a worse prognosis concerning relapse-free survival times.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Bone Marrow Cells / metabolism. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / blood

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  • (PMID = 15592672.001).
  • [ISSN] 0939-5555
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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42. Reman O, Pigneux A, Huguet F, Vey N, Delannoy A, Fegueux N, de Botton S, Stamatoullas A, Tournilhac O, Buzyn A, Charrin C, Boucheix C, Gabert J, Lhéritier V, Vernant JP, Fière D, Dombret H, Thomas X, GET-LALA group: Central nervous system involvement in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia at diagnosis and/or at first relapse: results from the GET-LALA group. Leuk Res; 2008 Nov;32(11):1741-50
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  • [Title] Central nervous system involvement in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia at diagnosis and/or at first relapse: results from the GET-LALA group.
  • Outcome of adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) with central nervous system (CNS) involvement is not clearly defined.
  • We studied 104 patients presenting with CNS involvement at diagnosis among 1493 patients (7%) included into the LALA trials, and 109 patients presenting CNS disease at the time of first relapse among the 709 relapsing patients (15%).
  • Eighty-seven patients (84%) with CNS leukemia at diagnosis achieved complete remission (CR).
  • There were no significant differences in terms of CR, OS and DFS among patients with CNS involvement at diagnosis and those without CNS disease.
  • After a first relapse, 38 patients with CNS recurrence (35%) achieved a second CR.
  • CNS leukemia in adult ALL is uncommon at diagnosis as well as at the time of first relapse.
  • With intensification therapy, patients with CNS leukemia at diagnosis have a similar outcome than those who did not present with CNS involvement.
  • CNS leukemia at first relapse remains of similar poor prognosis than all other adult ALL in first relapse.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / etiology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / complications. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18508120.001).
  • [ISSN] 0145-2126
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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43. Blatt J, Greenwood R, Weig S, Rao K, Fedoriw GD, Dent G: Isolated central nervous system relapse in an adolescent with acute myelomonocytic leukemia, Charcot Marie Tooth syndrome, and paraneoplastic autoantibody. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2010 Oct;32(7):571-3
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  • [Title] Isolated central nervous system relapse in an adolescent with acute myelomonocytic leukemia, Charcot Marie Tooth syndrome, and paraneoplastic autoantibody.
  • A 17-year-old boy, with acute myelomonocytic leukemia and inversion 16(p13q22) developed polyneuropathy and isolated central nervous system relapse.
  • Scoliosis and high-arched feet suggested a diagnosis of Charcot Marie Tooth (CMT) syndrome and genetic testing confirmed duplication at the PMP22 locus at chromosome 17p11.12.
  • [MeSH-major] Autoantibodies / blood. Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease / immunology. Leukemia, Myelomonocytic, Acute / immunology. Paraneoplastic Syndromes, Nervous System / immunology

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  • (PMID = 20724950.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3678
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Myelin Proteins; 0 / PMP22 protein, human
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44. Wan SG, Zhao H, Sun XJ, He JJ, Su L, Xu J: [Prognosticating relapse risk based on multiparameter flow cytometric assessment of minimal residual disease in patients with acute myeloid leukemia]. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi; 2009 Jun;17(3):557-62
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  • [Title] [Prognosticating relapse risk based on multiparameter flow cytometric assessment of minimal residual disease in patients with acute myeloid leukemia].
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the prognosticating value of multiparameter flow cytometry in detection of minimal residual disease (MRD) and relapse risk of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • Multiparameter flow cytometry (MPFC) analysis was used to detect the leukemia-associated aberrant immunophenotype (LAIP) of the pretreated patients with AML and to assess the levels of MRD after remission induction (Post-Ind MRD) and consolidation therapy (Post-Cons MRD).
  • The percentages of relapse in cases of Post-Ind MRD(+) and Post-Ind MRD(-) were 75.0% (18/24) and 29.4% (5/17) respectively after consolidation chemotherapy.
  • The relapse free survival (RFS) times of the patients with Post-Ind MRD(+) and Post-Ind MRD(-) were 49.06 +/- 6.53 months and 11.92 +/- 1.64 months (p < 0.0001) respectively.
  • The percentages of relapse in cases of Post-Cons MRD(+) and Post-Cons MRD(-) patients were 100% (18/18) and 21.7% (5/23) respectively after consolidation chemotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 19549363.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-2137
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo shi yan xue ye xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] CHI
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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45. Johnston DL, Alonzo TA, Gerbing RB, Lange BJ, Woods WG: Risk factors and therapy for isolated central nervous system relapse of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia. J Clin Oncol; 2005 Dec 20;23(36):9172-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Risk factors and therapy for isolated central nervous system relapse of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia.
  • PURPOSE: CNS relapse of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an infrequent occurrence.
  • This review examines the risk factors and therapy used for patients with an isolated CNS relapse.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Records of 886 patients with de novo AML were reviewed, and patients who entered remission at the end of one course of therapy and developed an isolated CNS relapse as their first event were analyzed (n = 690).
  • RESULTS: Thirty-three patients developed an isolated CNS relapse.
  • Factors at diagnosis significantly associated with an isolated CNS relapse, compared with no CNS relapse, included age 0 to 2 years (70% v 27%, respectively; P < .001), enlarged liver (79% v 39%, respectively; P < .001) or spleen (79% v 39%, respectively; P < .001) at diagnosis, CNS disease at diagnosis (33% v 9%, respectively; P < .001), median WBC count (79.2 v 19.3 x 10(3) microL, respectively; P < .001), French-American-British M5 morphology (45% v 15%, respectively; P < .001), and chromosome 11 abnormalities (44% v 18%, respectively; P = .022).
  • Treatment of the isolated CNS relapse varied from local therapy with intrathecal chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy to systemic therapy with chemotherapy with or without bone marrow transplantation.
  • The 8-year overall survival for patients after an isolated CNS relapse was similar to patients after a bone marrow relapse (26% +/- 16% v 21% +/- 5%, respectively).
  • CONCLUSION: Significant predictors for isolated CNS relapse were identified.
  • The data support CNS-directed therapy to treat isolated CNS relapse.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Leukemia, Myeloid / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Male. Prognosis. Recurrence. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16361619.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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46. Hasan SK, Lo-Coco F: Utilization of molecular phenotypes to detect relapse and optimize the management of acute promyelocytic leukemia. Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk; 2010 Oct;10 Suppl 3:S139-43
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  • [Title] Utilization of molecular phenotypes to detect relapse and optimize the management of acute promyelocytic leukemia.
  • Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is characterized by a unique genetic aberration, the t(15;17) chromosome translocation.
  • Translocation breakpoints are located within the promyelocytic leukemia (PML) locus on chromosome 15 and the retinoic acid receptor alpha (RARA) locus on chromosome 17.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / diagnosis. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Molecular Targeted Therapy. Phenotype

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  • (PMID = 21115433.001).
  • [ISSN] 2152-2669
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical lymphoma, myeloma & leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Oxides; 0 / PRAM1 protein, human; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide
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47. Bellaaj H, Moussa A, Gouiaa N, Maazoun K, Frikha I, Medhaffar M, Hdiji S, Elloumi M, Souissi T: [Isolated extramedullary adnexal relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a case report]. Arch Pediatr; 2009 Jul;16(7):1016-20
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  • [Title] [Isolated extramedullary adnexal relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a case report].
  • The occurrence of an isolated ovarian or pelvic relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in complete remission after chemotherapy has rarely been described.
  • We report the case of a 12-year-old girl, treated for ALL, who developed an isolated left ovarian and fallopian tube localization without medullary or blood relapse 4 years after the end of the initial treatment.
  • The diagnosis was established by a CT-guided biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Fallopian Tubes / pathology. Leukemic Infiltration / diagnosis. Ovary / pathology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / diagnosis. Remission Induction

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  • (PMID = 19359147.001).
  • [ISSN] 1769-664X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives de pédiatrie : organe officiel de la Sociéte française de pédiatrie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Pediatr
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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48. Langebrake C, Brinkmann I, Teigler-Schlegel A, Creutzig U, Griesinger F, Puhlmann U, Reinhardt D: Immunophenotypic differences between diagnosis and relapse in childhood AML: Implications for MRD monitoring. Cytometry B Clin Cytom; 2005 Jan;63(1):1-9

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunophenotypic differences between diagnosis and relapse in childhood AML: Implications for MRD monitoring.
  • BACKGROUND: Determination of antigen expression patterns is, in addition to morphologic analysis, essential to the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • The present study was performed to determine (a) the degree of changes in immunophenotype and their consequences on the monitoring of minimal residual disease (MRD) in childhood AML and (b) whether certain clusters of changes in antigen expression patterns exist between diagnosis and relapse.
  • METHODS: Bone marrow specimens of 48 children enrolled in the German AML-BFM-93/98 (Acute Myeloid Leukemia-Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster) studies were analyzed immunologically, morphologically, and genetically at diagnosis and at first relapse.
  • RESULTS: The immunophenotypes by flow cytometry differed by at least one antigen between samples at presentation and relapse in 42 of 48 children (88%).
  • More children displayed an immature phenotype at relapse (43 of 47, 91.5%, vs. 37 of 48, 77%; P = 0.05) with expression of CD34 and/or CD117.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / immunology. Immunophenotyping / methods. Leukemia, Myeloid / diagnosis. Neoplasm, Residual / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / immunology. Bone Marrow / immunology. Bone Marrow / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Clone Cells. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Infant. Karyotyping. Recurrence

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15624201.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-4949
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytometry. Part B, Clinical cytometry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytometry B Clin Cytom
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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49. Yanada M, Takeuchi J, Sugiura I, Akiyama H, Usui N, Yagasaki F, Nishii K, Ueda Y, Takeuchi M, Miyawaki S, Maruta A, Narimatsu H, Miyazaki Y, Ohtake S, Jinnai I, Matsuo K, Naoe T, Ohno R, Japan Adult Leukemia Study Group: Karyotype at diagnosis is the major prognostic factor predicting relapse-free survival for patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with imatinib-combined chemotherapy. Haematologica; 2008 Feb;93(2):287-90
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  • [Title] Karyotype at diagnosis is the major prognostic factor predicting relapse-free survival for patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with imatinib-combined chemotherapy.
  • To identify factors associated with relapse-free survival (RFS), 80 patients with newly diagnosed Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia, enrolled in a phase II study of imatinib-combined chemotherapy, were analyzed.
  • Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of secondary chromosome aberrations in addition to t(9;22) at diagnosis constitute an independent predictive value for RFS (p=0.027), and increase the risk of treatment failure by 2.8-fold.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Philadelphia Chromosome. Piperazines / administration & dosage. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / diagnosis. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / mortality. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy. Pyrimidines / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 18223280.001).
  • [ISSN] 1592-8721
  • [Journal-full-title] Haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Haematologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate
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50. Onciu M: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Hematol Oncol Clin North Am; 2009 Aug;23(4):655-74
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia and lymphoblastic lymphoma constitute a family of genetically heterogeneous lymphoid neoplasms derived from B- and T-lymphoid progenitors.
  • Diagnosis is based on morphologic, immunophenotypic, and genetic features that allow differentiation from normal progenitors and other hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic neoplasms.
  • Genetic analyses currently underway are likely to provide insight into biology, mechanisms of relapse, pharmacogenetics, and new potential therapeutic targets, which should aid in further improvement of outcome in this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunophenotyping / methods. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / immunology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Flow Cytometry. Gene Rearrangement. Humans. Immunoglobulins / genetics. Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / genetics. Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / immunology. Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology. Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / genetics. Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / immunology. Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology. Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19577163.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-1977
  • [Journal-full-title] Hematology/oncology clinics of North America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hematol. Oncol. Clin. North Am.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulins; 0 / Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell
  • [Number-of-references] 105
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51. Tavernier E, Boiron JM, Huguet F, Bradstock K, Vey N, Kovacsovics T, Delannoy A, Fegueux N, Fenaux P, Stamatoullas A, Tournilhac O, Buzyn A, Reman O, Charrin C, Boucheix C, Gabert J, Lhéritier V, Vernant JP, Dombret H, Thomas X, GET-LALA Group, Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research SAKK, Australasian Leukaemia and Lymphoma Group: Outcome of treatment after first relapse in adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia initially treated by the LALA-94 trial. Leukemia; 2007 Sep;21(9):1907-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Outcome of treatment after first relapse in adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia initially treated by the LALA-94 trial.
  • Fifty-four percent of adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who entered the LALA-94 trial experienced a first relapse.
  • Factors predicting a better outcome after relapse were any transplant performed in second CR (P<0.0001), a first CR duration >1 year (P=0.04) and platelet level >100 x 10(9)/l at relapse (P=0.04).
  • Risk groups defined at diagnosis and treatment received in first CR did not influence the outcome after relapse.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / mortality

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  • (PMID = 17611565.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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52. Schmiegelow K, Heyman M, Gustafsson G, Lausen B, Wesenberg F, Kristinsson J, Vettenranta K, Schroeder H, Forestier E, Rosthoej S, Nordic Society of Paediatric Haematology and Oncology (NOPHO): The degree of myelosuppression during maintenance therapy of adolescents with B-lineage intermediate risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia predicts risk of relapse. Leukemia; 2010 Apr;24(4):715-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The degree of myelosuppression during maintenance therapy of adolescents with B-lineage intermediate risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia predicts risk of relapse.
  • Drug doses, blood levels of drug metabolites and myelotoxicity during 6-mercaptopurine/methotrexate (MTX) maintenance therapy were registered for 59 adolescents (>or=10 years) and 176 non-adolescents (<10 years) with B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and a white blood cell count (WBC) <50 x 10(9)/l at diagnosis.
  • The best-fit multivariate Cox regression model to predict risk of relapse included mWBC and thiopurine methyltransferase activity, which methylates mercaptopurine and reduces the intracellular availability of cytotoxic 6-thioguanine nucleotides (coefficient: 0.11, P=0.02).
  • The correlation of mWBC to the risk of relapse was more pronounced for adolescents (coefficient=0.65, P=0.003) than for non-adolescents (coefficient=0.42, P=0.04).
  • Red blood cell MTX levels were significantly related to the dose of MTX among adolescents who stayed in remission (r(S)=0.38, P=0.02), which was not the case for those who developed a relapse (r(S)=0.15, P=0.60).
  • Thus, compliance to maintenance therapy may influence the risk of relapse for adolescents with ALL.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Marrow / drug effects. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20130603.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5551
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] E7WED276I5 / 6-Mercaptopurine; EC 2.1.1.- / Methyltransferases; EC 2.1.1.67 / thiopurine methyltransferase; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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53. Lapillonne H, Renneville A, Auvrignon A, Flamant C, Blaise A, Perot C, Lai JL, Ballerini P, Mazingue F, Fasola S, Dehée A, Bellman F, Adam M, Labopin M, Douay L, Leverger G, Preudhomme C, Landman-Parker J: High WT1 expression after induction therapy predicts high risk of relapse and death in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia. J Clin Oncol; 2006 Apr 1;24(10):1507-15
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] High WT1 expression after induction therapy predicts high risk of relapse and death in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia.
  • PURPOSE: To determine whether minimal residual disease (MRD) measured by Wilms' tumor gene 1 (WT1) expression is a prognostic marker in pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML), we quantified WT1 transcript by real-time quantitative-polymerase chain reaction in 92 AML at diagnosis and during follow-up.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients (median age, 6 years; cytogenetics, favorable 27%, intermediate 59%, poor 13%) were treated between 1995 and 2002 and enrolled in Leucémie aiguë Myéloblastique Enfant (LAME) 89/91, LAME 99 pilot study and Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia French collaborative protocols.
  • RESULTS: At diagnosis, WT1 overexpression was detected in 78% of patients (72 of 92 patients; median copy ratio, 2231).
  • WT1 ratio > 50 after induction is an independent prognostic risk factor of relapse (P = .002) and death (P = .02).
  • [MeSH-major] Genes, Wilms Tumor. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16575000.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AML1-ETO fusion protein, human; 0 / Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor alpha fusion oncoprotein
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54. Lafayette TC, Coser VM, Brûlé AO, Coser PL, Pereira WV: External auditory canal and middle ear relapse of acute promyelocytic leukemia treated with arsenic trioxide: case report and review of the literature. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2010 Apr;32(3):229-32
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  • [Title] External auditory canal and middle ear relapse of acute promyelocytic leukemia treated with arsenic trioxide: case report and review of the literature.
  • Extramedullary involvement occurs infrequently in acute promyelocytic leukemia and is said to be more common after treatment with all-trans retinoic acid.
  • We describe a 9-year-old girl who had an isolated external auditory canal and middle ear relapse after treatment with all-trans retinoic acid and chemotherapy.
  • A patient with cytogenetically and molecularly confirmed acute promyelocytic leukemia developed isolated extramedullary relapse in the auditory canal and middle ear 4 years and 9 months after initial diagnosis, while in hematologic and molecular remission, successfully treated with arsenic trioxide alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Arsenicals / therapeutic use. Ear Canal / pathology. Ear Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ear, Middle / pathology. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Oxides / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 20186102.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3678
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Oxides; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide
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55. Advani A, Jin T, Bolwell B, Copelan E, Sekeres M, Sobecks R, Sungren S, Yurch M, Kalaycio M: A prognostic scoring system for adult patients less than 60 years of age with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in first relapse. Leuk Lymphoma; 2009 Jul;50(7):1126-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A prognostic scoring system for adult patients less than 60 years of age with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in first relapse.
  • The outcome of patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in first relapse is poor.
  • We retrospectively evaluated patients with ALL in first relapse, 18-60 years of age, to define a prognostic score.
  • For all patients, a scoring system of 0-3 was developed with 1 point for each of the following: age at diagnosis >or=45 years, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) at the time of relapse >or=1.5 times upper limits of normal (ULN), not proceeding to allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT).
  • LDH >or=1.5 times ULN at the time of relapse predicted poor overall survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / diagnosis. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Female. Humans. L-Lactate Dehydrogenase / metabolism. Male. Medical Oncology / methods. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Staging / methods. Prognosis. Recurrence. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19557633.001).
  • [ISSN] 1029-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.1.1.27 / L-Lactate Dehydrogenase
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56. Borowitz MJ, Pullen DJ, Winick N, Martin PL, Bowman WP, Camitta B: Comparison of diagnostic and relapse flow cytometry phenotypes in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: implications for residual disease detection: a report from the children's oncology group. Cytometry B Clin Cytom; 2005 Nov;68(1):18-24
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparison of diagnostic and relapse flow cytometry phenotypes in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: implications for residual disease detection: a report from the children's oncology group.
  • However, little is known about how phenotypic shifts between diagnosis and relapse affect MRD detection in childhood acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL).
  • METHODS: We compared diagnostic and relapse bone marrow specimens in 42 children with precursor B-ALL studied with the two-tube panel CD19-APC/CD45-PerCP/CD10-PE/CD20-FITC and CD19-APC/CD45-PerCP/CD9-PE/CD34-FITC.
  • In the majority of cases MRD populations more closely resembled the diagnostic than the relapse specimen.
  • In 6 of 7 MRD negative cases we did not identify an abnormal population that resembled diagnosis or relapse.
  • In the remaining case, in which CD34 and CD10 were lost between diagnosis and relapse, it is possible that we could have missed an MRD population resembling relapse.
  • However, MRD analysis with rigid gating (looking strictly for abnormal phenotypes at diagnosis) might have missed many positive cases, 8 of 22 (36%) in this series.
  • [MeSH-major] Flow Cytometry / methods. Neoplasm, Residual / diagnosis. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / diagnosis. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / genetics

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16184615.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-4949
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytometry. Part B, Clinical cytometry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytometry B Clin Cytom
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA86011
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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57. Ikuta A, Saito J, Mizokami T, Asano M, Nakamoto T, Nakajima T, Matsunami M, Yasuda K, Adachi Y, Kanzaki H: Primary relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a cervical smear: a case report. Diagn Cytopathol; 2006 Jul;34(7):499-502
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a cervical smear: a case report.
  • Uterine cervix and corpus are rarely the initial site of relapse in leukemia or lymphoma.
  • We report herein a case of uterine cervical relapse with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
  • Biopsy under colposcope was performed, and a diagnosis of relapse of ALL was confirmed.
  • It was decided to proceed with hysterectomy to end that problem and thereafter proceed with therapy directed against the leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Vaginal Smears

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16783771.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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58. Martineau M, Jalali GR, Barber KE, Broadfield ZJ, Cheung KL, Lilleyman J, Moorman AV, Richards S, Robinson HM, Ross F, Harrison CJ: ETV6/RUNX1 fusion at diagnosis and relapse: some prognostic indications. Genes Chromosomes Cancer; 2005 May;43(1):54-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] ETV6/RUNX1 fusion at diagnosis and relapse: some prognostic indications.
  • This study was undertaken in order to compare the interphase and metaphase cytogenetics of 28 patients with ETV6/RUNX1 positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia, at diagnosis and relapse.
  • The median time to relapse was 26 months.
  • At relapse, there were fewer populations; the largest or unique clone was sometimes a re-emergence of a minor, diagnostic one, with a retained copy of ETV6 and the most RUNX1 signals.
  • Abnormal, fusion negative clones were identified in bone marrow samples at extra-medullary relapse.
  • The frequency of their occurrence at diagnosis and reappearance at relapse, sometimes accompanied by minor clonal evolution, was another new observation.
  • In comparing our data with previously reported cases, a picture is beginning to emerge of certain diagnostic features, which may provide circumstantial evidence of an increased risk of relapse.
  • [MeSH-major] Artificial Gene Fusion. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / genetics. Repressor Proteins / genetics. Transcription Factors / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15704129.001).
  • [ISSN] 1045-2257
  • [Journal-full-title] Genes, chromosomes & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genes Chromosomes Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / ETS translocation variant 6 protein; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets; 0 / RUNX1 protein, human; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors
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59. Nasilowska-Adamska B, Majewski M, Seferynska I, Szczepinski A, Tomaszewska A, Prochorec-Sobieszek M, Guz K, Torbicki A, Warzocha K, Marianska B: Predictive value of RT-PCR PML-RARA transcript monitoring for extramedullary relapse of acute promyelocytic leukemia in the pleura, heart and pericardium after allogeneic SCT. Ann Transplant; 2007;12(3):33-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Predictive value of RT-PCR PML-RARA transcript monitoring for extramedullary relapse of acute promyelocytic leukemia in the pleura, heart and pericardium after allogeneic SCT.
  • BACKGROUND: We report a patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) relapse in extremely rare sites--the pleura, heart and pericardium without evidence of bone marrow infiltration and with molecular evidence of disease after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT).
  • CASE DESCRIPTION: Presented patient underwent alloSCT in second complete hematological and cytogenetic remission with presence of promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor A (PML-RARA) detected in reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with sensitivity of 10(-2).
  • Twenty one months after transplant, the leukemic relapse in the pleura, heart and pericardium was diagnosed.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that detection of PML-RARA after alloSCT should be indication insightful diagnosis of medullary or extramedullary (EM) relapse.
  • The imaging techniques of all possible sites of APL EM relapse have to be included.
  • [MeSH-major] Heart Neoplasms / diagnosis. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / genetics. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics. Pleural Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Myeloid / diagnosis. Stem Cell Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 18290568.001).
  • [ISSN] 1425-9524
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor alpha fusion oncoprotein
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60. Yavuz S, Paydas S, Disel U, Sahin B: IDA-FLAG regimen for the therapy of primary refractory and relapse acute leukemia: a single-center experience. Am J Ther; 2006 Sep-Oct;13(5):389-93
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] IDA-FLAG regimen for the therapy of primary refractory and relapse acute leukemia: a single-center experience.
  • We evaluated efficacy and toxicity profiles of fludarabine, Ara-C, idarubicin, and G-CSF (Ida-FLAG) combination chemotherapy in 56 refractory and/or relapsed acute leukemia patients.
  • One third of the acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) and 45% of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cases were primary refractory disease.
  • Autologous transplantation was performed in 1 patient, but relapse disease occurred after 5 weeks.
  • There was no correlation between response rate and leukemia subtype (AML versus ALL), leukocyte count, age, sex, disease status (de novo versus secondary), and RFS (early versus late relapse) (P > 0.05).
  • In conclusion, Ida-FLAG is a good choice in cases with refractory/relapsing acute leukemia for salvage chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Leukemia / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Protocols. Bone Marrow Transplantation. Cytarabine / administration & dosage. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Idarubicin / administration & dosage. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Survival Analysis. Vidarabine / administration & dosage. Vidarabine / analogs & derivatives

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  • (PMID = 16988532.001).
  • [ISSN] 1075-2765
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; FA2DM6879K / Vidarabine; P2K93U8740 / fludarabine; ZRP63D75JW / Idarubicin
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61. Venizelos ID, Klonizakis I, Vlahaki E, Haralambidou S, Tatsiou Z, Ioannidou E: Skin relapse of acute myeloid leukemia associated with trisomy 8. Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Pannonica Adriat; 2007 Jun;16(2):77-80
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  • [Title] Skin relapse of acute myeloid leukemia associated with trisomy 8.
  • Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a morphologically diverse group of hematopoietic malignancies characterized by proliferation of immature cells that arise in the myeloid progenitor cells of the bone marrow.
  • Accordingly, a diagnosis of AML involving the skin was made.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Trisomy

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  • (PMID = 17992463.001).
  • [ISSN] 1318-4458
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta dermatovenerologica Alpina, Pannonica, et Adriatica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Pannonica Adriat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Slovenia
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62. Kourti M, Vavatsi N, Gombakis N, Tzimagiorgis G, Sidi V, Koliouskas D, Athanassiadou F: Increased expression of multidrug resistance gene (MDR1) at relapse in a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2006 Sep;23(6):489-94
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  • [Title] Increased expression of multidrug resistance gene (MDR1) at relapse in a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • Modern treatment protocols lead to complete remission in a high proportion of patients with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
  • However, a large number of them show a relapse of the disease.
  • In order to contribute further information we present a rare case of a 15-month old girl with newly diagnosed CALLA positive pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia with favourable prognostic factors at diagnosis who experienced a relapse of the disease.
  • Using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction method, m-RNA expression of the MDR1 gene upon relapse, was five-fold compared with that at diagnosis.
  • This is the first report on increased mRNA expression at relapse in a paired sample of a child with ALL in our region.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. P-Glycoprotein / genetics. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Infant. Neprilysin. Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / genetics. Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Recurrence

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  • (PMID = 16849280.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-0669
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric hematology and oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Hematol Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / P-Glycoprotein; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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63. Mullighan CG: Genomic analysis of acute leukemia. Int J Lab Hematol; 2009 Aug;31(4):384-97
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Genomic analysis of acute leukemia.
  • Acute leukemia is the commonest childhood cancer and a major cause of morbidity from hematologic malignancies in adults.
  • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is commonest in children, and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is more frequent in adults.
  • Apart from childhood ALL, the prognosis of acute leukemia is suboptimal, with many patients experiencing relapse, which carries a poor prognosis, or toxicities from nonspecific therapies.
  • Recent years have witnessed great interest in the application of high-resolution, genome wide approaches to the study of acute leukemia.
  • These studies have also delineated novel genetic alterations that are associated with prognosis, and have demonstrated substantial evolution in patterns of genetic alterations from diagnosis to relapse, indicating that specific genetic changes determine resistance to therapy in ALL.
  • These studies have demonstrated the power of genome-wide approaches to identify new lesions in acute leukemia, and suggest that ongoing genomic analyses, including deep resequencing and epigenetic analysis, will continue to yield novel, clinically relevant insights into the pathogenesis of this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19486196.001).
  • [ISSN] 1751-553X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of laboratory hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Lab Hematol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 112
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64. Zhu L, Wang HX, Lui J, Yan HM, Xue M: [Acute leukemia relapse of donor origin in two cases after haploidentical bone marrow transplantation]. Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi; 2006 Apr;14(2):400-2
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  • [Title] [Acute leukemia relapse of donor origin in two cases after haploidentical bone marrow transplantation].
  • To investigate the leukemia relapse of AL patients after HLA haploidentical bone marrow transplantation (HLA HBMT), 2 relapsed leukemia patients received HLA HBMT were studied, peripheral blood simples and bone marrow smear were examined, morphologic change of bone marrow cells was observed, while the HLA genotype and chromosome karyotye were analyzed by PCR and routine G-banding methods, respectively.
  • The results indicated that the two cases were diagnosed primarily as acute lymphocytic leukemia (common cell subtype) and acute megakaryocytic leukemia, in which chromosome abnormalities or activation of protooncogene in leukemic cells were observed.
  • The complete hematopuietie reconstitution of donor origin was obtained in these 2 cases after HLA HBMT, but the leukemic cells in these 2 leukemia patients were confirmed to be donor origin after relapse, their blood groups and HLA genotype were found to be originated from donor.
  • These 2 relapsed leukemia patients were diagnosed as acute lymphocytic leukemia (B cell subtype) and acute megakaryocytic leukemia.
  • It is suggested that high-dose of immunosuppressive agents used in transplantation may contribute to leukemia relapse of donor origin in these patients.
  • Abnormalities in hematopoietic microenvironment may be also involved in the leukemia development.
  • Donor-cell leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation can be an ideal model to investigate the related events in human leukemogenesis.

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  • (PMID = 16638225.001).
  • [ISSN] 1009-2137
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo shi yan xue ye xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] CHI
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HLA Antigens
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65. Khan NI, Cisterne A, Devidas M, Shuster J, Hunger SP, Shaw PJ, Bradstock KF, Bendall LJ: Expression of CD44, but not CD44v6, predicts relapse in children with B cell progenitor acute lymphoblastic leukemia lacking adverse or favorable genetics. Leuk Lymphoma; 2008 Apr;49(4):710-8
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  • [Title] Expression of CD44, but not CD44v6, predicts relapse in children with B cell progenitor acute lymphoblastic leukemia lacking adverse or favorable genetics.
  • Although significant progress has been made in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) the prognosis following relapse is still poor.
  • Others have shown by microarray analysis that CD44 expression in diagnostic samples is linked with relapse risk.
  • We found that CD44 protein expression was associated with disease relapse and was independent of age and WCC.
  • In contrast, high CD44v6 expression was not associated with relapse.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD44 / analysis. Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18398738.001).
  • [ISSN] 1029-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA98543
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD44; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / CD44v6 antigen
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66. Vorwerk P, Mohnike K, Wex H, Röhl FW, Zimmermann M, Blum WF, Mittler U: Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 at diagnosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and the prediction of relapse risk. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 May;90(5):3022-7
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  • [Title] Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 at diagnosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and the prediction of relapse risk.
  • Despite remarkable advances in the clinical outcome of most children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, a substantial number of patients ultimately relapse or suffer from side effects of treatment.
  • In the present study, we investigated components of the IGF system for their predictive value to identify patients with an increased risk of relapse.
  • Serum levels of IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-1, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3 were measured in 162 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated by the Berlin Frankfurt Munster Study Group.
  • At diagnosis we found elevated IGFBP-2, low IGFBP-3, low IGF-I, and low normal IGF-II, but normal IGFBP-1 levels.
  • Highly elevated IGFBP-2 and low IGFBP-3 at the time of diagnosis correlated with a higher risk of an event such as lack of remission or a relapse.
  • Serum IGFBP-2 was identified as an independent factor that adds additional information for the prediction of events (relapse or treatment failure) to the conventional prognostic factors such as white blood cell count and platelet count at diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2 / blood. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / blood

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  • (PMID = 15687344.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; 67763-97-7 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor II
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67. Shih LY, Liang DC, Huang CF, Chang YT, Lai CL, Lin TH, Yang CP, Hung IJ, Liu HC, Jaing TH, Wang LY, Yeh TC: Cooperating mutations of receptor tyrosine kinases and Ras genes in childhood core-binding factor acute myeloid leukemia and a comparative analysis on paired diagnosis and relapse samples. Leukemia; 2008 Feb;22(2):303-7
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  • [Title] Cooperating mutations of receptor tyrosine kinases and Ras genes in childhood core-binding factor acute myeloid leukemia and a comparative analysis on paired diagnosis and relapse samples.
  • c-KIT mutations have been described in core-binding factor (CBF) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) at diagnosis.
  • The role of c-KIT mutations in the relapse of CBF-AML is not clear.
  • Also, we examined the paired diagnosis and relapse samples in CBF-AML.
  • c-KIT mutations were detected in 41.5% of CBF-AML at diagnosis (6 in exon 8, 10 in exon 17 and 1 in both exons 8 and 17) , FLT3-TKD 2.7%, N-Ras mutations 7.3% and K-Ras mutations 4.9%.
  • Eight of the 41 CBF-AML patients relapsed; four patients retained the identical c-KIT mutation patterns as those at diagnosis, the remaining four without c-KIT mutations at diagnosis did not acquire c-KIT mutations at relapse.
  • [MeSH-major] Core Binding Factors. Genes, ras / genetics. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / genetics. Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / genetics. Receptor, Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17960171.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5551
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Core Binding Factors; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor
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68. Cannizzo E, Carulli G, Buda G, Zucca A, Azzarà A, Orciuolo E, Petrini M: Meningeal relapse in a case of B acute lymphoblastic leukemia: the role of CD56 expression. Med Sci Monit; 2009 Feb;15(2):CS27-29
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  • [Title] Meningeal relapse in a case of B acute lymphoblastic leukemia: the role of CD56 expression.
  • BACKGROUND: Blasts from B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) may express CD56 in about 10% of cases.
  • The presence of this marker at diagnosis is associated with an increased risk of meningeal relapse.
  • A case is described of B-ALL which was CD56 negative at diagnosis, and expressed this marker when isolated meningeal relapse was diagnosed.
  • The latter was carried out by a wide routine panel of MoAbs which was the same as the one at diagnosis and included CD56.
  • Isolated meningeal relapse was diagnosed since blast cell infiltration was detected in the CSF, but not in the peripheral blood and bone marrow samples.
  • Blast cells showed an immunological phenotype similar to that at diagnosis (cyCD79a+, CD79b+, CD19+, CD22+, CD34+, CD10+, CD20+), but characterized by the acquisition of CD56 on the surfaces of more than 90% of cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This case shows that CD56 can be expressed at relapse of B-ALL and that its presence likely enables leukemic cell binding to the central nervous system (CNS).
  • This phenomenon may be responsible for the isolated CNS relapse diagnosed in this patient.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD56 / metabolism. B-Lymphocytes / pathology. Meninges / pathology. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19179973.001).
  • [ISSN] 1643-3750
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Sci. Monit.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56
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69. Arima K, Hasegawa D, Ogawa C, Kato I, Imamura T, Takusagawa A, Takahashi H, Kitagawa Y, Hori T, Tsurusawa M, Manabe A, Hosoya R: Detection of submicroscopic disease in the bone marrow and unaffected testis of a child with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia who experienced "isolated" testicular relapse. Int J Hematol; 2009 Oct;90(3):370-3
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  • [Title] Detection of submicroscopic disease in the bone marrow and unaffected testis of a child with T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia who experienced "isolated" testicular relapse.
  • Testicular relapse has an impact on the prognosis of boys with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
  • Because isolated testicular relapse often precedes hematological relapse, systemic therapy is required in addition to local therapy.
  • A 12-year-old boy with T-ALL suffered from isolated testicular relapse at 27 months after diagnosis.
  • We detected leukemic cells in the affected testis at relapse, as well as in the BM at initial diagnosis.
  • In addition, we confirmed submicroscopic disease in the unaffected testis and the BM at relapse.
  • We conclude that molecular analysis could reveal the submicroscopic disease in the patient with apparently isolated testicular relapse.
  • This finding may provide a rationale for intensified systemic treatment of patients with isolated testicular relapse.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Testis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19688235.001).
  • [ISSN] 1865-3774
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; EC 3.5.1.1 / Asparaginase; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin; PVDA protocol
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70. Al-Mawali A, Gillis D, Lewis I: The use of receiver operating characteristic analysis for detection of minimal residual disease using five-color multiparameter flow cytometry in acute myeloid leukemia identifies patients with high risk of relapse. Cytometry B Clin Cytom; 2009 Mar;76(2):91-101
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The use of receiver operating characteristic analysis for detection of minimal residual disease using five-color multiparameter flow cytometry in acute myeloid leukemia identifies patients with high risk of relapse.
  • The aim of the study was to determine the optimal threshold that can separate patients into two groups in terms of leukemic residual cells and relapse status after induction and consolidation chemotherapy.
  • This study analyzed 54 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients.
  • The threshold discriminating MRD(-) from MRD(+) cases was set at 0.15% residual leukemic cells, a level that allowed optimal sensitivity and specificity for prediction of relapse, both at postinduction (P = 0.05) and postconsolidation (P = 0.009) time points using ROC analysis.
  • MRD level postinduction not only influenced relapse-free survival (RFS) (P = 0.004) but also overall survival (OS) (P = 0.003).
  • [MeSH-major] Flow Cytometry / methods. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / blood. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / diagnosis

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  • [Copyright] 2008 Clinical Cytometry Society.
  • (PMID = 18727068.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-4957
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytometry. Part B, Clinical cytometry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytometry B Clin Cytom
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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71. Bulsa J, Sedek Ł, Sońta-Jakimczyk D, Mazur B, Sobol G, Szczepański T: [Comparative analysis of blast immunophenotype between the diagnosis and relapse of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia - implications for monitoring of minimal residual disease]. Med Wieku Rozwoj; 2008 Oct-Dec;12(4 Pt 2):1045-50

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Comparative analysis of blast immunophenotype between the diagnosis and relapse of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia - implications for monitoring of minimal residual disease].
  • PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to compare the blast immunophenotype of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) at diagnosis and at relapse and to define the most frequent shifts in marker expression.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Bone marrow samples from 14 patients were analyzed by flow cytometry both at diagnosis and at relapse - in 12 patients with B-cell precursor (BCP)-ALL and in 2 patients with T-ALL.
  • [MeSH-major] Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / diagnosis. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD / metabolism. B-Lymphocytes / immunology. Biomarkers / metabolism. Bone Marrow / pathology. Cell Lineage. Child. False Negative Reactions. Female. Flow Cytometry. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Male. Neoplasm, Residual / diagnosis. Recurrence. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19531824.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Medycyna wieku rozwojowego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Wieku Rozwoj
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Biomarkers
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72. Bhojwani D, Kang H, Moskowitz NP, Min DJ, Lee H, Potter JW, Davidson G, Willman CL, Borowitz MJ, Belitskaya-Levy I, Hunger SP, Raetz EA, Carroll WL: Biologic pathways associated with relapse in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a Children's Oncology Group study. Blood; 2006 Jul 15;108(2):711-7
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  • [Title] Biologic pathways associated with relapse in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a Children's Oncology Group study.
  • Outcome for children with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who relapse is poor.
  • To gain insight into the mechanisms of relapse, we analyzed gene-expression profiles in 35 matched diagnosis/relapse pairs as well as 60 uniformly treated children at relapse using the Affymetrix platform.
  • Matched-pair analyses revealed significant differences in the expression of genes involved in cell-cycle regulation, DNA repair, and apoptosis between diagnostic and early-relapse samples.
  • In contrast, no common pattern of changes was observed among late-relapse pairs.
  • Early-relapse samples were more likely to be similar to their respective diagnostic sample while we noted greater divergence in gene-expression patterns among late-relapse pairs.
  • Comparison of expression profiles of early- versus late-relapse samples indicated that early-relapse clones were characterized by overexpression of biologic pathways associated with cell-cycle regulation.
  • These results suggest that early-relapse results from the emergence of a related clone, characterized by the up-regulation of genes mediating cell proliferation.
  • In contrast, late relapse appears to be mediated by diverse pathways.

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  • (PMID = 16822902.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA88361
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1895482
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73. Aversa F, Terenzi A, Tabilio A, Falzetti F, Carotti A, Ballanti S, Felicini R, Falcinelli F, Velardi A, Ruggeri L, Aloisi T, Saab JP, Santucci A, Perruccio K, Martelli MP, Mecucci C, Reisner Y, Martelli MF: Full haplotype-mismatched hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation: a phase II study in patients with acute leukemia at high risk of relapse. J Clin Oncol; 2005 May 20;23(15):3447-54
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  • [Title] Full haplotype-mismatched hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation: a phase II study in patients with acute leukemia at high risk of relapse.
  • PURPOSE: Establishment of hematopoietic stem-cell (HSC) transplantation from mismatched relatives is feasible for patients with acute leukemia.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty-seven patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML; 19 complete remission [CR] 1, 14 CR 2, nine CR > 2, 25 in relapse) and 37 with acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL; 14 CR 1, eight CR 2, two CR > 2, 13 in relapse) were conditioned with total-body irradiation, thiotepa, fludarabine, and antithymocyte globulin.
  • Acute GvHD developed in eight of 100 patients, and chronic GvHD, in five of 70 assessable patients.
  • Relapse occurred in nine of 66 patients receiving transplantation in remission and in 17 of 38 receiving transplantation in relapse.
  • The mismatched-related transplant emerges as a viable, alternative source of stem cells for acute leukemia patients without matched donors and/or those who urgently need transplantation.
  • [MeSH-major] Haplotypes. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation / methods. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / diagnosis. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Transplantation Conditioning / methods

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  • (PMID = 15753458.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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74. Doubek M, Palasek I, Pospisil Z, Borsky M, Klabusay M, Brychtova Y, Jurcek T, Jeziskova I, Krejci M, Dvorakova D, Mayer J: Detection and treatment of molecular relapse in acute myeloid leukemia with RUNX1 (AML1), CBFB, or MLL gene translocations: frequent quantitative monitoring of molecular markers in different compartments and correlation with WT1 gene expression. Exp Hematol; 2009 Jun;37(6):659-72
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  • [Title] Detection and treatment of molecular relapse in acute myeloid leukemia with RUNX1 (AML1), CBFB, or MLL gene translocations: frequent quantitative monitoring of molecular markers in different compartments and correlation with WT1 gene expression.
  • OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to determine the value of frequent minimal residual disease (MRD) monitoring in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) as a robust marker of impending relapse, and whether treatment benefits patients during the MRD-positive phase of their disease.
  • Moreover, no universal value of the WT1 expression could unequivocally discriminate between remission and relapse.
  • Considering relapsed patients, duration from molecular to hematological relapse was 8 to 79 days (median: 25.5 days).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Frequent quantitative monitoring of fusion transcripts is useful for reliably predicting hematological relapse in AML patients.
  • Treatment for molecular relapse of AML can be successful.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / diagnosis. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm, Residual / diagnosis. Translocation, Genetic. WT1 Proteins / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Case-Control Studies. Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit / analysis. Core Binding Factor beta Subunit / analysis. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein / analysis. Recurrence. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19463768.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2399
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CBFB protein, human; 0 / Core Binding Factor Alpha 2 Subunit; 0 / Core Binding Factor beta Subunit; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RUNX1 protein, human; 0 / WT1 Proteins; 149025-06-9 / Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein
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75. Tallman MS, Altman JK: Curative strategies in acute promyelocytic leukemia. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program; 2008;:391-9
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  • [Title] Curative strategies in acute promyelocytic leukemia.
  • Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) was initially described as a distinct clinical entity in 1957, one year before the first meeting of the American Society of Hematology.
  • Early institution of ATRA before the diagnosis is confirmed by genetics and aggressive blood product support are important to reduce induction mortality, which remains approximately 10% among patients entered on clinical trials, but is certainly higher when all patients are considered.
  • The relapse rate among high-risk patients is approximately 20%, and new strategies include administration of intensified anthracyclines, intermediate- or high-dose ara-C in either induction or consolidation, or ATO as early consolidation.

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  • (PMID = 19074116.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-4391
  • [Journal-full-title] Hematology. American Society of Hematology. Education Program
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Growth Inhibitors; 0 / Oxides; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin
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76. Oshima K, Kanda Y, Yamashita T, Takahashi S, Mori T, Nakaseko C, Fujimaki K, Yokota A, Fujisawa S, Matsushima T, Fujita H, Sakura T, Okamoto S, Maruta A, Sakamaki H, Kanto Study Group for Cell Therapy: Central nervous system relapse of leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant; 2008 Oct;14(10):1100-7
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  • [Title] Central nervous system relapse of leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
  • Little information is available regarding central nervous system (CNS) relapse of adult leukemia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT).
  • Therefore, we reviewed the data of 1226 patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) who received first allogeneic HSCT between 1994 and 2004, using the database of the Kanto Study Group for Cell Therapy (KSGCT), and analyzed the incidence, risk factors, and outcome of patients with CNS relapse.
  • Twenty-nine patients developed CNS relapse at a median of 296 (9-1677) days after HSCT with a cumulative incidence of 2.3%.
  • Independent significant factors associated with CNS relapse included ALL as the underlying diagnosis (relative risk [RR] = 9.55, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.26-72.2, P = .029), nonremission at HSCT (RR = 2.30, 95% CI = 1.03-5.15, P = .042), the history of CNS invasion before HSCT (RR = 5.62, 95% CI = 2.62-12.0, P = 9.2 x 10(-6)), and the prophylactic intrathecal chemotherapy after HSCT (RR = 2.57, 95% CI = 1.21-5.46, P = .014).
  • The 3-year overall survival (OS) after CNS relapse was 18%.
  • In 7 of 29 patients with CNS relapse, leukemia was observed only in CNS.
  • Three of 7 patients were alive without systemic relapse, resulting in 3-year survival after CNS relapse of 46%.
  • Although the outcome of patients with CNS relapse was generally poor, long-term disease-free survival could be achieved in some patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / etiology. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Leukemia / pathology. Leukemia / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Incidence. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute. Leukemic Infiltration. Male. Middle Aged. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma. Recurrence. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Survival Rate. Transplantation, Homologous. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18804039.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-6536
  • [Journal-full-title] Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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77. Wang ES, Sait SN, Gold D, Mashtare T, Starostik P, Ford LA, Wetzler M, Nowak NJ, Deeb G: Genomic, immunophenotypic, and NPM1/FLT3 mutational studies on 17 patients with normal karyotype acute myeloid leukemia (AML) followed by aberrant karyotype AML at relapse. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2010 Oct 15;202(2):101-7
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  • [Title] Genomic, immunophenotypic, and NPM1/FLT3 mutational studies on 17 patients with normal karyotype acute myeloid leukemia (AML) followed by aberrant karyotype AML at relapse.
  • Normal karyotype (NK) is the most common cytogenetic group in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) diagnosis; however, up to 50% of these patients at relapse will have aberrant karyotype (AK) AML.
  • Despite clear cytogenetic differences, immunophenotype and NPM1/FLT3 gene mutation status did not change between presentation and relapse in 83% (10 of 12) and 94% (15 of 16) cases, respectively.
  • High-resolution array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) performed via paired aCGH on NK AML and AK AML samples from the same patient confirmed cytogenetic aberrations only in the relapse sample.
  • These results favor evolution of NK AML leukemia cells with acquisition of novel genetic changes as the most common etiology of AK AML relapse as opposed to secondary leukemogenesis.
  • Additional studies are needed to confirm whether AK AML cells represent selection of rare preexisting clones below aCGH detection and to further characterize the molecular lesions found at time of AK AML relapse.
  • [MeSH-major] Genomics. Immunophenotyping. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / enzymology. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3 / genetics

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20875872.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4456
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA016156
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 117896-08-9 / nucleophosmin; EC 2.7.10.1 / fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3
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78. Lane S, Saal R, Mollee P, Jones M, Grigg A, Taylor K, Seymour J, Kennedy G, Williams B, Grimmett K, Griffiths V, Gill D, Hourigan M, Marlton P: A &gt;or=1 log rise in RQ-PCR transcript levels defines molecular relapse in core binding factor acute myeloid leukemia and predicts subsequent morphologic relapse. Leuk Lymphoma; 2008 Mar;49(3):517-23
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  • [Title] A >or=1 log rise in RQ-PCR transcript levels defines molecular relapse in core binding factor acute myeloid leukemia and predicts subsequent morphologic relapse.
  • Core binding factor acute myeloid leukemia (CBF AML), with t(8;21)(q22;q22), inv(16)(p13q22) or t(16;16)(p13;q22) and the associated fusion gene transcripts AML1/ETO or CBFbeta/MYH11, has a favourable clinical prognosis although significant numbers of patients still suffer relapse.
  • Twelve relapses occurred at a median of 11 months (range 4 - 17) from diagnosis.
  • RQ-PCR levels at diagnosis, post-induction chemotherapy and post-consolidation were not predictive of outcome.
  • However, a >or=1 log(10) rise at any stage in transcript level relative to the level from a remission bone marrow sample correlated with inferior leukemia free survival (LFS) and imminent morphologic relapse (hazard ratio 8.6).
  • A >or=1 log(10) rise in transcript levels strongly predicts subsequent morphologic relapse in CBF AML and therefore defines molecular relapse.
  • Our data support a simple RQ-PCR model for prediction of impending relapse which has the potential for widespread clinical applicability.
  • Prospective identification of high risk patients will enable clinical trials to assess the efficacy of treatment initiated at molecular relapse.
  • [MeSH-major] Core Binding Factors. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / pathology. Neoplasm, Residual / diagnosis. Predictive Value of Tests. RNA, Messenger / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18297529.001).
  • [ISSN] 1029-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Core Binding Factors; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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79. Jurcic JG, Soignet SL, Maslak AP: Diagnosis and treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia. Curr Oncol Rep; 2007 Sep;9(5):337-44
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  • [Title] Diagnosis and treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia.
  • Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL), characterized by a translocation between the promyelocytic leukemia gene (PML) on chromosome 15 and the retinoic acid receptor-alpha (RARalpha) gene on chromosome 17, has become a model for targeted treatment of cancer.
  • Advances in our understanding of the fundamental biology of this disease have led to the development of tools for diagnosis, monitoring of minimal residual disease, and detection of early relapse.
  • The lessons learned from APL have broad applications to other forms of leukemia and to cancer in general, whereby molecularly targeted therapy is directed to specifically defined subgroups.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / diagnosis. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17706161.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-3790
  • [Journal-full-title] Current oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Oncol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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80. von Stackelberg A, Hartmann R, Bührer C, Fengler R, Janka-Schaub G, Reiter A, Mann G, Schmiegelow K, Ratei R, Klingebiel T, Ritter J, Henze G, ALL-REZ BFM Study Group: High-dose compared with intermediate-dose methotrexate in children with a first relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood; 2008 Mar 1;111(5):2573-80
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] High-dose compared with intermediate-dose methotrexate in children with a first relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • High-dose methotrexate (MTX) has been extensively used for treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).
  • To determine the optimal dose of MTX in childhood relapsed ALL, the ALL Relapse Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (ALL-REZ BFM) Study Group performed this prospective randomized study.
  • A total of 269 children with a first early/late isolated (n = 156) or combined (n = 68) bone marrow or any isolated extramedullary relapse (n = 45) of precursor B-cell (PBC) ALL (excluding very early marrow relapse within 18 months after initial diagnosis) were registered at the ALL-REZ BFM90 trial and randomized to receive methotrexate infusions at either 1 g/m(2) over 36 hours (intermediate dose, ID) or 5 g/m(2) over 24 hours (high dose, HD) during 6 (or 4) intensive polychemotherapy courses.
  • In conclusion, methotrexate infusions at 5 g/m(2) per 24 hours, compared with 1 g/m(2) per 36 hours, are not associated with increased disease control in relapsed childhood PBC acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / drug therapy. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / prevention & control

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  • [CommentIn] Blood. 2008 Aug 1;112(3):910 [18650464.001]
  • (PMID = 18089849.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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81. Al-Mujaini AS, Al-Dhuhli HH, Dennison DJ: Acute unilateral third nerve palsy as an early manifestation of central nervous system relapse in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia. Saudi Med J; 2009 Jul;30(7):961-3
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  • [Title] Acute unilateral third nerve palsy as an early manifestation of central nervous system relapse in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia.
  • The reported incidence of central nervous system (CNS) involvement by acute myeloid leukemia (AML) ranges widely from less than 10-30%.
  • Acute unilateral third nerve palsy is an unusual first manifestation of such an event.
  • We describe a rare ophthalmologic manifestation of CNS relapse in a 25-year-old patient with AML who had undergone allogeneic stem cell transplant, and demonstrate the value of MRI in the early diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / complications. Oculomotor Nerve Diseases / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19618016.001).
  • [ISSN] 0379-5284
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
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82. Hudecek M, Bartsch K, Jäkel N, Heyn S, Pfannes R, Al-Ali HK, Cross M, Pönisch W, Gerecke U, Edelmann J, Ittel T, Niederwieser D: Spontaneous remission of acute myeloid leukemia relapse after hematopoietic cell transplantation in a high-risk patient with 11q23/MLL abnormality. Acta Haematol; 2008;119(2):111-4
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  • [Title] Spontaneous remission of acute myeloid leukemia relapse after hematopoietic cell transplantation in a high-risk patient with 11q23/MLL abnormality.
  • A 35-year-old female patient was diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia with multiple genetic aberrations [48 XX, del(3)(q21), +6, t(11;15)(q23;q15), +21] including an 11q23/MLL abnormality.
  • A bone marrow aspirate revealed 55% leukemic blasts carrying the unfavorable genetic aberrations seen at initial diagnosis (11q23/MLL).
  • In the absence of any disease-specific treatment, the leukemic blasts cleared from the bone marrow within 6 days after diagnosis of relapse and peripheral blood counts returned to normal.
  • This is the first report of spontaneous remission in a patient with initially a multiaberrant leukemic cell clone and a proven 11q23/MLL abnormality at relapse after HCT.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / pathology. Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein / genetics

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  • [Copyright] 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 18367831.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9662
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MLL protein, human; 149025-06-9 / Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein; EC 2.1.1.43 / Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase
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83. Feltbower RG, Kinsey SE, Richards M, Shenton G, Michelagnoli MP, McKinney PA: Survival following relapse in childhood haematological malignancies diagnosed in 1974-2003 in Yorkshire, UK. Br J Cancer; 2007 Apr 10;96(7):1147-52

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Survival following relapse in childhood haematological malignancies diagnosed in 1974-2003 in Yorkshire, UK.
  • We examined population-based information on relapsed childhood haematological cancers, investigating factors that might influence both overall survival and survival following relapse among the 1177 children (0-14 years) diagnosed with a haematological malignancy in Yorkshire from 1974 to 2003, of whom 342 (29%) relapsed at least once.
  • Leukaemia patients from more deprived areas were significantly less likely to relapse (odds ratio=0.54, 95% confidence interval 0.32-0.93 for most deprived quintile vs least deprived quintile; P(trend)=0.06), especially those with acute myeloid leukaemia (P=0.04).
  • Neither ethnic group nor distance to the main treatment centre was associated with risk of relapse.
  • Five-year survival rates from the time of first relapse increased from 20% in 1974-1983 to 45% in 1984-2003.
  • Of children who experienced a relapse, 46% survived at least 5 years, whereas just under half of patients survived 5 years beyond disease recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Hematologic Neoplasms / mortality. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17342086.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2360123
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84. Kim MJ, Yoon HS, Cho SY, Lee HJ, Suh JT, Lee J, Yoon HJ, Lee WI, Park TS: ider(17)(q10)t(15;17) associated with relapse and poor prognosis in a pediatric patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2010 Sep;201(2):116-21
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  • [Title] ider(17)(q10)t(15;17) associated with relapse and poor prognosis in a pediatric patient with acute promyelocytic leukemia.
  • Although acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) has been regarded as a serious medical emergency associated with disseminated intravascular coagulopathy or subsequent mortality, it is now considered a curable leukemia that is particularly sensitive to treatment with all-trans retinoic acid combined with chemotherapy.
  • This patient had APL relapse from the same clone 15 months after morphological remission.
  • Furthermore, despite subsequent chemotherapy, the patient died 16 months after the initial APL diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 15. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / genetics. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics. Translocation, Genetic

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20682396.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4456
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / Receptors, Retinoic Acid; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / retinoic acid receptor alpha; 143220-95-5 / PML protein, human
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85. Sperr WR, Mitterbauer M, Mitterbauer G, Kundi M, Jäger U, Lechner K, Valent P: Quantitation of minimal residual disease in acute myeloid leukemia by tryptase monitoring identifies a group of patients with a high risk of relapse. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Sep 15;11(18):6536-43
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  • [Title] Quantitation of minimal residual disease in acute myeloid leukemia by tryptase monitoring identifies a group of patients with a high risk of relapse.
  • PURPOSE: Recent data suggest that tryptase is produced by blast cells in a group of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML).
  • In these patients, serum tryptase levels are elevated at diagnosis and decrease to normal (<15 ng/mL) or near normal values in those achieving complete hematologic remission (CR) after chemotherapy.
  • In 61 patients with de novo AML exhibiting elevated serum tryptase (>15 ng/mL) at diagnosis, tryptase levels were measured serially during and after chemotherapy by a fluoroenzyme immunoassay.
  • In all patients with continuous hematologic CR, tryptase levels remained constantly normal, whereas a recurrent elevation of tryptase in CR was invariably followed by a hematologic relapse.
  • CONCLUSION: A persistently elevated tryptase level in AML in CR is indicative of minimal residual AML and associated with a high risk of relapse.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Myeloid / pathology. Neoplasm, Residual / pathology. Serine Endopeptidases / blood
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics. Prognosis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis. Time Factors. Tryptases

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  • (PMID = 16166430.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CBFbeta-MYH11 fusion protein; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / promyelocytic leukemia-retinoic acid receptor alpha fusion oncoprotein; EC 3.4.21.- / Serine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.21.59 / Tryptases
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86. Grimwade D, Jovanovic JV, Hills RK, Nugent EA, Patel Y, Flora R, Diverio D, Jones K, Aslett H, Batson E, Rennie K, Angell R, Clark RE, Solomon E, Lo-Coco F, Wheatley K, Burnett AK: Prospective minimal residual disease monitoring to predict relapse of acute promyelocytic leukemia and to direct pre-emptive arsenic trioxide therapy. J Clin Oncol; 2009 Aug 1;27(22):3650-8
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  • [Title] Prospective minimal residual disease monitoring to predict relapse of acute promyelocytic leukemia and to direct pre-emptive arsenic trioxide therapy.
  • PURPOSE: Molecular diagnostics and early assessment of treatment response that use methodologies capable of detecting submicroscopic disease can distinguish subgroups of patients with leukemia at differing relapse risk.
  • Such information is being incorporated into risk-stratified protocols; however, there are few data concerning prospective use of sequential minimal residual disease (MRD) monitoring to identify more precisely those patients destined to experience relapse, which would allow more tailored therapies.
  • METHODS: Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RQ-PCR) assays to detect leukemia-specific transcripts (ie, PML-RARA, RARA-PML) were used to prospectively analyze 6,727 serial blood and marrow samples from 406 patients with newly diagnosed acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) who were receiving all-trans-retinoic acid and anthracycline-based chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: MRD monitoring according to the recommended schedule successfully identified the majority of patients subject to relapse and provided the most powerful predictor of relapse-free survival (RFS) in multivariable analysis (hazard ratio, 17.87; 95% CI, 6.88 to 46.41; P < .0001); MRD monitoring was far superior to presenting WBC (hazard ratio, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.00 to 1.03; P = .02), which is currently widely used to guide therapy.
  • In patients who were predicted to experience relapse on the basis of MRD monitoring, early treatment intervention with arsenic trioxide prevented progression to overt relapse in the majority, and the RFS rate at 1 year from molecular relapse was 73%.
  • By using this strategy, 3-year cumulative incidence of clinical relapse was only 5% in the Medical Research Council AML15 trial.
  • CONCLUSION: Rigorous sequential RQ-PCR monitoring provides the strongest predictor of RFS in APL and, when coupled with pre-emptive therapy, provides a valid strategy to reduce rates of clinical relapse.
  • This provides a model for development of a more individualized approach to management of other molecularly defined subtypes of acute leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Arsenicals / administration & dosage. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / drug therapy. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / genetics. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Neoplasm, Residual / diagnosis. Neoplasm, Residual / drug therapy. Oxides / administration & dosage

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2010 Feb 1;28(4):e62; author reply e63-4 [19841316.001]
  • (PMID = 19506161.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0300133; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G9800001; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G9901427
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / Oxides; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide
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87. Shih LY, Liang DC, Huang CF, Wu JH, Lin TL, Wang PN, Dunn P, Kuo MC, Tang TC: AML patients with CEBPalpha mutations mostly retain identical mutant patterns but frequently change in allelic distribution at relapse: a comparative analysis on paired diagnosis and relapse samples. Leukemia; 2006 Apr;20(4):604-9
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  • [Title] AML patients with CEBPalpha mutations mostly retain identical mutant patterns but frequently change in allelic distribution at relapse: a comparative analysis on paired diagnosis and relapse samples.
  • The roles of CEBPalpha mutations and its cooperating mutations in the relapse of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are not clear.
  • CEBPalpha mutations were analyzed on 149 patients with de novo AML at both diagnosis and relapse.
  • Twenty-two patients (14.8%) had the mutations at diagnosis, two patients had N-terminal nonsense mutations alone, one had homozygous inframe duplication at the bZIP domain, and 19 patients had both N-terminal and bZIP mutations.
  • Twenty patients relapsed with identical mutant patterns, two lost CEBPalpha mutations and none acquired the mutations at relapse.
  • Cloning analysis showed that the N-terminal and C-terminal mutations occurred on separate cloned alleles and also on the same alleles in most of the diagnosis and relapse samples.
  • Our study showed that 91% of de novo AML harboring CEBPalpha mutations at diagnosis retained the identical mutant patterns but frequently changed in the allelic distribution at relapse.
  • [MeSH-major] CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-alpha / genetics. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / diagnosis. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Mutation

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  • (PMID = 16453003.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-alpha; EC 2.7.10.1 / FLT3 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / fms-Like Tyrosine Kinase 3
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88. Gutman JA, Leisenring W, Appelbaum FR, Woolfrey AE, Delaney C: Low relapse without excessive transplant-related mortality following myeloablative cord blood transplantation for acute leukemia in complete remission: a matched cohort analysis. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant; 2009 Sep;15(9):1122-9
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  • [Title] Low relapse without excessive transplant-related mortality following myeloablative cord blood transplantation for acute leukemia in complete remission: a matched cohort analysis.
  • Numerous studies confirm the presence of a graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect following CBT, and preliminary data suggests that double-unit CBT may be associated with a decreased risk of relapse.
  • We have observed a low relapse rate following CBT among patients with acute leukemias in morphologic complete remission (CR) at the time of myeloablative (MA) transplant.
  • To further assess this observation, we conducted a matched cohort analysis comparing relapse rates and outcomes for patients receiving CBTs versus patients receiving matched unrelated donor (MURD) and mismatched unrelated donor (MMURD) transplants at our center.
  • Thirty-one consecutive CBT patients (aged 0.6-42 years, median 22 years), transplanted between April 2006 and June 2008, were compared to matched subjects selected on the basis of disease type and remission number, cytogenetic risk status, minimal residual disease status (MRD), time from diagnosis to first relapse (for patients beyond CR1), use of imatinib for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients, age, and date of transplant.
  • With a median follow-up among surviving CBT patients of 21.1 months (range: 6.6-32.6 months), there has been 1 relapse among cord patients versus 8 relapses among MURD patients (P=.018) and 7 relapses among MMURD patients (P=.019).
  • Although we have observed a high incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) following CBT, the incidence of National Institutes of Health (NIH) consensus criteria chronic GVHD (cGVHD) has been low.

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  • (PMID = 19660726.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-6536
  • [Journal-full-title] Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA009515-24; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009515; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA 009515-24; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009515-24
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS119965; NLM/ PMC2723722
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89. Nguyen K, Devidas M, Cheng SC, La M, Raetz EA, Carroll WL, Winick NJ, Hunger SP, Gaynon PS, Loh ML, Children's Oncology Group: Factors influencing survival after relapse from acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a Children's Oncology Group study. Leukemia; 2008 Dec;22(12):2142-50
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  • [Title] Factors influencing survival after relapse from acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a Children's Oncology Group study.
  • Despite great progress in curing childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), survival after relapse remains poor.
  • We analyzed survival after relapse among 9585 pediatric patients enrolled on Children's Oncology Group clinical trials between 1988 and 2002.
  • A total of 1961 patients (20.5%) experienced relapse at any site.
  • Patients were subcategorized by the site of relapse and timing of relapse from initial diagnosis.
  • Time to relapse remains the strongest predictor of survival.
  • Patients experiencing early relapse less than 18 months from initial diagnosis had a particularly poor outcome with a 5-year survival estimate of 21.0+/-1.8%.
  • Adjusting for both time and relapse site, multivariate analysis showed that age (10+ years) and the presence of central nervous system disease at diagnosis, male gender, and T-cell disease were significant predictors of inferior post-relapse survival.

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  • (PMID = 18818707.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5551
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098543-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098543-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA098543-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098543-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K22 CA113557; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA98543-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA098543; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA098543-04; None / None / / U10 CA098543-03
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS191421; NLM/ PMC2872117
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90. Beesley AH, Cummings AJ, Freitas JR, Hoffmann K, Firth MJ, Ford J, de Klerk NH, Kees UR: The gene expression signature of relapse in paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: implications for mechanisms of therapy failure. Br J Haematol; 2005 Nov;131(4):447-56
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  • [Title] The gene expression signature of relapse in paediatric acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: implications for mechanisms of therapy failure.
  • Despite significant improvements in the treatment of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), the prognosis for relapsing patients remains poor.
  • RNA was extracted from 11 pairs of cryopreserved pre-B ALL bone marrow specimens taken from the same patients at diagnosis and relapse, and analysed using HG-U133A microarrays.
  • Relapse specimens overexpressed genes that are involved with cell growth and proliferation, in keeping with their aggressive phenotype.
  • When tested in 72 independent specimens of pre-B ALL and T-ALL, the identified genes could successfully differentiate between diagnosis and relapse in either lineage, indicating the existence of relapse mechanisms common to both.
  • Increased expression of the top-ranked gene (BSG) at diagnosis was significantly associated with adverse outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Burkitt Lymphoma / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Antigens, CD147 / genetics. Antigens, CD147 / metabolism. Cell Division / genetics. Child. Child, Preschool. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Infant. Leukemia-Lymphoma, Adult T-Cell / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Prognosis. Recurrence. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Survival Analysis. Treatment Failure. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Br J Haematol. 2006 Oct;135(2):274-5 [16965384.001]
  • (PMID = 16281934.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BSG protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 136894-56-9 / Antigens, CD147
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91. Kan JH, Hernanz-Schulman M, Frangoul HA, Connolly SA: MRI diagnosis of bone marrow relapse in children with ALL. Pediatr Radiol; 2008 Jan;38(1):76-81
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  • [Title] MRI diagnosis of bone marrow relapse in children with ALL.
  • BACKGROUND: Diffuse marrow replacement in acute leukemia is well known, but there are few reports describing the MRI features of pediatric leukemic relapse.
  • OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to describe the MRI appearance of pediatric leukemic relapse.
  • From this group, 14 children seen at initial diagnosis of leukemia and 2 children who underwent MRI after therapy for relapse were excluded.
  • The remaining 37 children, 8 with relapse and 29 in remission, were studied.
  • Images of patients with relapse and in remission were reviewed for type and configuration of marrow infiltration; coexisting marrow alterations including osteonecrosis or stress reaction were also reviewed.
  • RESULTS: All eight children with relapse demonstrated nodular lesions with well-defined margins.
  • CONCLUSION: Well-defined nodules in all patients with leukemic relapse suggest that this appearance is characteristic and distinct from the published findings of diffuse marrow replacement in acute leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Marrow Diseases / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Recurrence. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17994232.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0449
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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92. Oriol A, Vives S, Hernández-Rivas JM, Tormo M, Heras I, Rivas C, Bethencourt C, Moscardó F, Bueno J, Grande C, del Potro E, Guardia R, Brunet S, Bergua J, Bernal T, Moreno MJ, Calvo C, Bastida P, Feliu E, Ribera JM, Programa Español de Tratamiento en Hematologia Group: Outcome after relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in adult patients included in four consecutive risk-adapted trials by the PETHEMA Study Group. Haematologica; 2010 Apr;95(4):589-96
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  • [Title] Outcome after relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in adult patients included in four consecutive risk-adapted trials by the PETHEMA Study Group.
  • BACKGROUND: About one half of adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia are not cured of the disease and ultimately die.
  • The objective of this study was to explore the factors influencing the outcome of adult patients with relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: We analyzed the characteristics, the outcome and the prognostic factors for survival after first relapse in a series of 263 adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (excluding those with mature B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia) prospectively enrolled in four consecutive risk-adapted PETHEMA trials.
  • RESULTS: The median overall survival after relapse was 4.5 months (95% CI, 4-5 months) with a 5-year overall survival of 10% (95% CI, 8%-12%); 45% of patients receiving intensive second-line treatment achieved a second complete remission and 22% (95% CI, 14%-30%) of them remained disease free at 5 years.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The prognosis of adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who relapse is poor.
  • Those aged less than 30 years with a first complete remission lasting longer than 2 years have reasonable possibilities of becoming long-term survivors while patients over this age or those who relapse early cannot be successfully rescued using the therapies currently available.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / therapy. Stem Cell Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 20145276.001).
  • [ISSN] 1592-8721
  • [Journal-full-title] Haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Haematologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2857188
  • [Investigator] Ribera JM; Oriol A; Vives S; Feliu E; Hernández-Rivas JM; San Miguel JF; Tormo M; Terol MJ; Heras MI; Bernal T; Martínez-Revuelta E; Fuster J; Esteve J; Calvo C; Carboné A; Brunet S; Sierra J; Bergua JL; Marín J; Egurbide I; Sánchez J; García-Boyero R; Pérez de Oteyza J; Sarrà J; Bueno J; Ortega JJ; Bastida MP; Olivé T; Pérez-Hurtado JM; Parody R; González-Valentín ME; Rivas C; Fernández-Abellán P; Sanz MA; Moscardó F; Montesinos P; del Potro E; Díaz-Mediavilla J; Guinea JM; Guardia R; Martí JM; Vall-llobera F; Poderós C; Queizán JA; Martínez J; Bethencourt C; Maldonado J; Martín-Reina V; Gil JL; Moreno MJ; Ortega-Rivas F; Rodríguez JA; Moro MJ; Molinés A; Lodos V; Macià J; Novo A; Besalduch J; Pedro C; Abella E; Deben G; Casanova F; Gámez F; Alcalá A; Arias J; León P; Ares A; Llorente A; Atutxa K; Hernández-Nieto L; Díaz-Morfa G; Vivancos P; Rodríguez-Villa A; Bello JL; Carbonell F; Orts M; Fernández-Calvo J; Borrego D; Grande C
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93. Gu W, Hu S, Chen Z, Qiu G, Cen J, He B, He J, Wu W: High expression of WT1 gene in acute myeloid leukemias with more predominant WT1+17AA isoforms at relapse. Leuk Res; 2010 Jan;34(1):46-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] High expression of WT1 gene in acute myeloid leukemias with more predominant WT1+17AA isoforms at relapse.
  • Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction method was established for detecting the expression levels of WT1 gene and WT1+17AA isoforms in 226 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) bone marrow (BM) cells.
  • The results showed that WT1 gene was 2-3 logarithms expressed more in AML BM cells at initial diagnosis or relapse than in normal BM cells (p<0.001), with predominant WT1+17AA isoforms expression (the ratio of WT1+17AA/WT1 more than 0.50).
  • Interestingly the ratio of WT1+17AA/WT1 was statistically higher in relapsed AMLs than in initially diagnosed (p=0.01), speculating that WT1+17AA isoforms might participate in AML relapse.
  • [MeSH-major] Genes, Wilms Tumor. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics

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  • [Copyright] 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19414192.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-5835
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers
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94. Lo-Coco F, Ammatuna E, Montesinos P, Sanz MA: Acute promyelocytic leukemia: recent advances in diagnosis and management. Semin Oncol; 2008 Aug;35(4):401-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Acute promyelocytic leukemia: recent advances in diagnosis and management.
  • Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a distinct subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) characterized by a specific genetic alteration, affecting the retinoic acid receptor-alpha (RARalpha), and leading to a blockage in the differentiation of the granulocytic cells.
  • The body of available biological information on APL establishes this leukemia as a unique entity that has to be promptly recognized and clearly distinguished from all other acute leukemias, especially in light of its striking response to treatment with anthracyclines and differentiating agents such as all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) or arsenic trioxide (ATO).
  • Current state-of-the-art treatments, which include simultaneous administration of ATRA and anthracycline-based chemotherapy for induction and consolidation, as well as ATRA-based maintenance, have dramatically transformed APL into the most curable acute leukemia in adults, with approximately 80% of long-term survivors.
  • Nonetheless, a sizeable proportion of patients will relapse after the ATRA-based upfront therapy.
  • Given the high anti-leukemic efficacy observed with ATO in patients who relapse, this agent is currently regarded as the best treatment option in this setting.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / diagnosis. Leukemia, Promyelocytic, Acute / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18692690.001).
  • [ISSN] 0093-7754
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Oxides; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide
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95. Kang H, Chen IM, Wilson CS, Bedrick EJ, Harvey RC, Atlas SR, Devidas M, Mullighan CG, Wang X, Murphy M, Ar K, Wharton W, Borowitz MJ, Bowman WP, Bhojwani D, Carroll WL, Camitta BM, Reaman GH, Smith MA, Downing JR, Hunger SP, Willman CL: Gene expression classifiers for relapse-free survival and minimal residual disease improve risk classification and outcome prediction in pediatric B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Blood; 2010 Feb 18;115(7):1394-405
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Gene expression classifiers for relapse-free survival and minimal residual disease improve risk classification and outcome prediction in pediatric B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • To determine whether gene expression profiling could improve outcome prediction in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) at high risk for relapse, we profiled pretreatment leukemic cells in 207 uniformly treated children with high-risk B-precursor ALL.
  • A 38-gene expression classifier predictive of relapse-free survival (RFS) could distinguish 2 groups with differing relapse risks: low (4-year RFS, 81%, n = 109) versus high (4-year RFS, 50%, n = 98; P < .001).
  • A 21-gene expression classifier predictive of end-induction MRD effectively substituted for flow MRD, yielding a combined classifier that could distinguish these 3 risk groups at diagnosis (P < .001).
  • [MeSH-major] Genetic Testing / methods. Neoplasm, Residual / genetics. Neoplasm, Residual / mortality. Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / genetics. Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / mortality


96. Asgarian Omran H, Shabani M, Vossough P, Sharifian R, Tabrizi M, Khoshnoodi J, Jeddi-Tehrani M, Rabbani H, Shokri F: Cross-sectional monitoring of Wilms' tumor gene 1 (WT1) expression in Iranian patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia at diagnosis, relapse and remission. Leuk Lymphoma; 2008 Feb;49(2):281-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cross-sectional monitoring of Wilms' tumor gene 1 (WT1) expression in Iranian patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia at diagnosis, relapse and remission.
  • High WT1 mRNA expression has been detected in the majority of acute leukemias and has been identified as a convenient marker for disease monitoring.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate WT1 expression in Iranian ALL patients at diagnosis, relapse and remission.
  • WT1 mRNA was detected in leukemic cells of ALL patients obtained at diagnosis (n = 62), relapse (n = 19) and remission (n = 35) using a semi-quantitative RT-PCR method.
  • [MeSH-major] Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / diagnosis. RNA, Messenger / blood. WT1 Proteins / genetics

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  • [ErratumIn] Leuk Lymphoma. 2008 Mar;49(3):598. Omran, Hossein [corrected to Asgarian Omran, Hossein]
  • (PMID = 18231915.001).
  • [ISSN] 1029-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / WT1 Proteins
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97. Nosari A, Ravini M, Cairoli R, Cozzi P, Marbello L, Marenco P, Grillo G, Morra E: Surgical resection of persistent pulmonary fungus nodules and secondary prophylaxis are effective in preventing fungal relapse in patients receiving chemotherapy or bone marrow transplantation for leukemia. Bone Marrow Transplant; 2007 May;39(10):631-5
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Bone Marrow Transplantation.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Surgical resection of persistent pulmonary fungus nodules and secondary prophylaxis are effective in preventing fungal relapse in patients receiving chemotherapy or bone marrow transplantation for leukemia.
  • Antifungal therapy may be unable to eradicate invasive mycosis in leukemia patients.
  • The presence of persisting pulmonary nodules owing to mycosis seems to increase the risk of fungal relapse after chemotherapy and transplant procedures.
  • Between 1997 and 2004, 10 acute leukemia patients underwent pulmonary surgery for invasive mycosis.
  • The median time from diagnosis of mycosis to surgery was 135 days (range 21-147).
  • Six patients underwent bone marrow transplantation (three allogeneic, three autologous) with antifungal prophylaxis without relapse during the transplant procedure.
  • In selected patients scheduled for bone marrow transplantation, surgical resection of localized pulmonary fungus nodules combined with antifungal prophylaxis seem to be an effective treatment for preventing mycotic relapse.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects. Bone Marrow Transplantation / adverse effects. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / therapy. Lung Diseases, Fungal / etiology. Lung Diseases, Fungal / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17384656.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-3369
  • [Journal-full-title] Bone marrow transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bone Marrow Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antifungal Agents
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98. Tsurusawa M, Yumura-Yagi K, Ohara A, Hara J, Katano N, Tsuchida M, Japanese Study Groups: Survival outcome after the first central nervous system relapse in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a retrospective analysis of 79 patients in a joint program involving the experience of three Japanese study groups. Int J Hematol; 2007 Jan;85(1):36-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Survival outcome after the first central nervous system relapse in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a retrospective analysis of 79 patients in a joint program involving the experience of three Japanese study groups.
  • In a retrospective review of the survival outcome of children with isolated central nervous system (CNS) relapse of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), we identified 79 patients with CNS relapse among the eligible patients enrolled in ALL trials of 3 Japanese pediatric oncology study groups (Japanese Children's Cancer and Leukemia Study Group [JCCLSG], Tokyo Children's Cancer Study Group [TCCSG], and Japan Association of Childhood Leukemia Study [JACLS]) between 1989 and 1999.
  • The median age at the time of CNS relapse was 5.0 years (range, 0.7-15.1 years).
  • The duration of the first remission ranged from 1.4 to 54 months (median, 12.4 months), and the observation period after CNS relapse ranged from 1 to 131 months (median, 27 months).
  • The probability of remaining in second remission was significantly correlated with the leukocyte count (P= .005) and age (P= .02) at the initial diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / mortality. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / secondary. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / mortality

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  • (PMID = 17261500.001).
  • [ISSN] 0925-5710
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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99. Malhotra P, Menon MC, Varma N, Mishra B, Saikia UN, Suri V, Varma S: Cytomegalovirus pneumonia in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia. J Assoc Physicians India; 2008 Jul;56:541-2
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  • [Title] Cytomegalovirus pneumonia in adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
  • Though acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is an immunosuppressed state, CMV disease has been reported infrequently.
  • However, three weeks later patient had a relapse of ALL and died shortly after high dose chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Cytomegalovirus Infections / diagnosis. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18846908.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-5772
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Assoc Physicians India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; P9G3CKZ4P5 / Ganciclovir
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100. Raetz EA, Borowitz MJ, Devidas M, Linda SB, Hunger SP, Winick NJ, Camitta BM, Gaynon PS, Carroll WL: Reinduction platform for children with first marrow relapse of acute lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Children's Oncology Group Study[corrected]. J Clin Oncol; 2008 Aug 20;26(24):3971-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Reinduction platform for children with first marrow relapse of acute lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Children's Oncology Group Study[corrected].
  • PURPOSE: Treatment of childhood relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) remains a significant challenge.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: One hundred twenty-four patients with ALL and first marrow relapse received three, 35-day blocks of reinduction chemotherapy: 69 with early relapse (ER; < 36 months from initial diagnosis) and 55 with late relapse (LR).

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  • [ErratumIn] J Clin Oncol. 2008 Oct 1;26(28): 4697.
  • (PMID = 18711187.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21CA110344; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U10 CA98543
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; ZRP63D75JW / Idarubicin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2654313
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