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1. Arumugam PI, Scholes J, Perelman N, Xia P, Yee JK, Malik P: Improved Human β-globin Expression from Self-inactivating Lentiviral Vectors Carrying the Chicken Hypersensitive Site-4 (cHS4) Insulator Element. Mol Ther; 2007 Oct;15(10):1863-1871
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  • : Effective gene therapy for β-thalassemia major (β-TM) requires consistent, high expression of human β-globin (hβ-globin) in red blood cells (RBCs).
  • Several groups have now shown that lentiviral (LV) vectors stably transmit the hβ/hγ-globin genes and large elements of the locus control region, resulting in correction of the murine thalassemia intermedia (TI) phenotype and survival of mice with the TM phenotype.
  • We observed a consistent twofold-higher hβ expression from insulated vectors in single-copy mouse erythroleukemia cell clones, an increase that resulted from reduced position effect variegation (PEV) and increased probability of expression from individual integrants.
  • These studies have important implications for vector design for clinical trials for gene therapy for hemoglobinopathies.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2007 The American Society of Gene Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 28182916.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-0024
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular therapy : the journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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2. Fuchsova B, Fernández ME, Alfonso J, Frasch AC: Cysteine residues in the large extracellular loop (EC2) are essential for the function of the stress-regulated glycoprotein M6a. J Biol Chem; 2009 Nov 13;284(46):32075-88
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  • [Title] Cysteine residues in the large extracellular loop (EC2) are essential for the function of the stress-regulated glycoprotein M6a.
  • Gpm6a was identified as a stress-responsive gene in the hippocampal formation.
  • This gene is down-regulated in the hippocampus of both socially and physically stressed animals, and this effect can be reversed by antidepressant treatment.
  • Previously we showed that the stress-regulated protein M6a is a key modulator for neurite outgrowth and filopodium/spine formation.
  • In the present work, mutational analysis was used to characterize the action of M6a at the molecular level.
  • The presence of cysteines 162 and 202 is essential for the efficient cell surface expression of the M6a protein.
  • In contrast, cysteines 174 and 192, which form a disulfide bridge as shown by biochemical analysis, are not required for the efficient surface expression of M6a.
  • Their mutation to alanine does not interfere with the localization of M6a to filopodial protrusions in primary hippocampal neurons.
  • In non-permeabilized cells, these mutant proteins are not recognized by a function-blocking monoclonal antibody directed to M6a.
  • Taken together, this study demonstrates that cysteines in the EC2 domain are critical for the role of M6a in filopodium outgrowth and synaptogenesis.

  • Gene Ontology. gene/protein/disease-specific - Gene Ontology annotations from this paper .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CYSTEINE .
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  • (PMID = 19737934.001).
  • [ISSN] 1083-351X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of biological chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biol. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gpm6a protein, rat; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; K848JZ4886 / Cysteine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2797278
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3. Chung IY, Choi KB, Heo YJ, Cho YH: Effect of PEL exopolysaccharide on the wspF mutant phenotypes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14. J Microbiol Biotechnol; 2008 Jul;18(7):1227-34
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  • [Title] Effect of PEL exopolysaccharide on the wspF mutant phenotypes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14.
  • Here, we characterized the role of cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) and EPS (PEL) overproduction in the wspF mutant phenotypes of P. aeruginosa PA14 (wrinkly appearance, hyperadherence, impaired motilities, and reduced virulence in acute infections).
  • We confirmed that the elevated c-di-GMP level plays a key role in all the wspF mutant phenotypes listed above, as assessed by ectopic expression of a c-di-GMP-degrading phophodiesterase (PvrR) in the wspF mutant.
  • In contrast, PEL EPS, which is overproduced in the wspF mutant, was necessary for wrinkly appearance and hyperadherence, but not for the impaired flagellar motilities and the attenuated virulence of the wspF mutant.

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  • (PMID = 18667850.001).
  • [ISSN] 1017-7825
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of microbiology and biotechnology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bacterial Proteins; 0 / Polysaccharides, Bacterial; 61093-23-0 / bis(3',5')-cyclic diguanylic acid; EC 3.1.- / Esterases; H2D2X058MU / Cyclic GMP
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4. Sakuragi Y, Kolter R: Quorum-sensing regulation of the biofilm matrix genes (pel) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Bacteriol; 2007 Jul;189(14):5383-6
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  • [Title] Quorum-sensing regulation of the biofilm matrix genes (pel) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
  • Although QS regulation of swarming and DNA release has been shown to play important roles in biofilm development, regulation of genes directly involved in biosynthesis of biofilm matrix has not been described.
  • Here, transcription of the pel operon, essential for the production of a glucose-rich matrix exopolysaccharide, is shown to be greatly reduced in lasI and rhlI mutants.
  • Chemical complementation of the lasI mutant with 3-oxo-dodecanoyl homoserine lactone restores pel transcription to the wild-type level and biofilm formation ability.
  • These findings thus connect QS signaling and transcription of genes responsible for biofilm matrix biosynthesis.

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  • (PMID = 17496081.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9193
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of bacteriology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Bacteriol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / R01 GM058213; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM58213
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bacterial Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1951888
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5. van Gijn J, Gijselhart J: [Professor Pel and 'glandular fever']. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2009;153:A1215
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  • [Title] [Professor Pel and 'glandular fever'].
  • [Transliterated title] Professor Pel en 'klierkoorts'.
  • Pieter Klaesz Pel (1852-1919) was professor of internal medicine at the University of Amsterdam, for more than 35 years.
  • It is contested whether the patients in question had Hodgkin's disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Hodgkin Disease / history

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  • (PMID = 20051175.001).
  • [ISSN] 1876-8784
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Biography; English Abstract; Historical Article; Journal Article; Portraits
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Personal-name-as-subject] Pel PK
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6. Cooper B, Fuchs E, Flügge G: Expression of the axonal membrane glycoprotein M6a is regulated by chronic stress. PLoS One; 2009;4(1):e3659
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  • [Title] Expression of the axonal membrane glycoprotein M6a is regulated by chronic stress.
  • The present study shows that chronic stress also regulates expression of M6a, a glycoprotein which is localised in axonal membranes.
  • We have previously demonstrated that M6a is a component of glutamatergic axons.
  • The present data reveal that it is the splice variant M6a-Ib, not M6a-Ia, which is strongly expressed in the brain.
  • Chronic stress in male rats (3 weeks daily restraint) has regional effects: quantitative in situ hybridization demonstrated that M6a-Ib mRNA in dentate gyrus granule neurons and in CA3 pyramidal neurons is downregulated, whereas M6a-Ib mRNA in the medial prefrontal cortex is upregulated by chronic stress.
  • Enhanced M6a-Ib expression in the medial prefrontal cortex (in areas prelimbic and infralimbic cortex) might be interpreted as a compensatory mechanism in response to changes in axonal projections from the hippocampus.
  • [MeSH-major] Axons / metabolism. Brain / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation. Membrane Glycoproteins / genetics. Nerve Tissue Proteins / genetics. Stress, Physiological / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Down-Regulation. Gene Expression. In Situ Hybridization. Kidney / metabolism. Male. Neurons / metabolism. Protein Isoforms. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Restraint, Physical

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  • (PMID = 19180239.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gpm6a protein, rat; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / RNA, Messenger
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2629568
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7. Zhao J, Iida A, Ouchi Y, Satoh S, Watanabe S: M6a is expressed in the murine neural retina and regulates neurite extension. Mol Vis; 2008;14:1623-30
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  • [Title] M6a is expressed in the murine neural retina and regulates neurite extension.
  • PURPOSE: Glycoprotein m6a (M6a) is a cell-surface glycoprotein that belongs to the myelin proteolipid protein family.
  • M6a is expressed mainly in the nervous system, and its expression and function in mammalian retina have not been described.
  • Using proteomics analysis of mouse retinal membrane fractions, we identified M6a as a retinal membrane protein that is strongly expressed at embryonic stages.
  • Our aim was to reveal the function of M6a in development of mouse retina in this work.
  • METHODS: Detailed expression pattern of M6a was examined by immunostaining using frozen sections of mouse retina obtained at various developmental stages.
  • For functional analysis of M6a in mouse retinal development, we performed retorovirus-mediated overexpression of M6a in mouse retinal explant culture.
  • RESULTS: M6a transcripts were strongly expressed in embryonic retina.
  • After completion of retinal differentiation, the level of expression decreased as mouse development progressed.
  • Immunohistochemistry showed that in the immature mouse retina, M6a was strongly expressed in the axons of retinal ganglion cells.
  • After birth, M6a expression was confined to the inner plexiform layer, and finally, to the inner and outer plexiform layers of adult mouse retina.
  • M6a expression was completely paralleled by that of the synaptic marker, synaptophysin.
  • Mouse retinal progenitor cells that overexpressed M6a following retrovirus-mediated gene transfer were subjected to in vitro explant or monolayer cultures.
  • The neurite outgrowth of M6a-overexpressing retinal cells was strikingly enhanced, although M6a did not affect differentiation and proliferation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that M6a plays a role in retinal development by regulating neurites, and it may also function to modulate synaptic activities in the adult retina.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biomarkers / metabolism. Cell Differentiation. Cell Lineage. Cell Proliferation. Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental. Mice. Mice, Inbred ICR. Mitosis. Protein Transport. Stem Cells / cytology. Stem Cells / metabolism. Synapses / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18776950.001).
  • [ISSN] 1090-0535
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular vision
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Vis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Gpm6a protein, mouse; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2529470
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8. Liang YJ, Wu DF, Stumm R, Höllt V, Koch T: Membrane glycoprotein M6A promotes mu-opioid receptor endocytosis and facilitates receptor sorting into the recycling pathway. Cell Res; 2008 Jul;18(7):768-79
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  • [Title] Membrane glycoprotein M6A promotes mu-opioid receptor endocytosis and facilitates receptor sorting into the recycling pathway.
  • The interaction of mu-opioid receptor (MOPr) with the neuronal membrane glycoprotein M6a is known to facilitate MOPr endocytosis in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells.
  • To further study the role of M6a in the post-endocytotic sorting of MOPr, we investigated the agonist-induced co-internalization of MOPr and M6a and protein targeting after internalization in HEK293 cells that co-expressed HA-tagged MOPr and Myc-tagged M6a.
  • We found that M6a, MOPr, and Rab 11, a marker for recycling endosomes, co-localized in endocytotic vesicles, indicating that MOPr and M6a are primarily targeted to recycling endosomes after endocytosis.
  • Furthermore, co-expression of M6a augmented the post-endocytotic sorting of delta-opioid receptors into the recycling pathway, indicating that M6a might have a more general role in opioid receptor post-endocytotic sorting.
  • The enhanced post-endocytotic sorting of MOPr into the recycling pathway was accompanied by a decrease in agonist-induced receptor down-regulation of M6a in co-expressing cells.
  • We tested the physiological relevance of these findings in primary cultures of cortical neurons and found that co-expression of M6a markedly increased the translocation of MOPrs from the plasma membrane to intracellular vesicles at steady state and significantly enhanced both constitutive and agonist-induced receptor endocytosis.
  • In conclusion, our results strongly indicate that M6a modulates MOPr endocytosis and post-endocytotic sorting and has an important role in receptor regulation.

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  • (PMID = 18574501.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-7838
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / OPRM1 protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Opioid, mu; EC 2.1.1.- / Methyltransferases; EC 2.1.1.62 / METTL3 protein, human; EC 3.6.1.- / rab GTP-Binding Proteins; EC 3.6.1.- / rab11 protein
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9. Sharma P, Dhingra KK, Roy S, Singh T: An acute myeloid leukemia M6b blast crisis with giant proerythroblasts in chronic myeloid leukemia. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2009 Mar;31(3):220-1
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  • [Title] An acute myeloid leukemia M6b blast crisis with giant proerythroblasts in chronic myeloid leukemia.
  • The case of a 12 yr old female with bcr-abl positive chronic myeloid leukemia who subsequently developed a fatal AML-M6b (pure erythroleukemia) blast crisis is presented.
  • The case is unique for its rarity of occurrence and for the striking resemblance that the circulating proerythroblasts showed to the giant cells characteristically seen in Parvovirus B19-induced acute pure red cell aplasia.
  • This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first description of such cells in a blast crisis of chronic myeloid leukemia.
  • [MeSH-major] Blast Crisis / pathology. Erythroblasts / pathology. Leukemia, Erythroblastic, Acute / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19262253.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3678
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric hematology/oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; X6Q56QN5QC / Hydroxyurea
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10. Matsumoto T, Matsubara M, Oana K, Kasuga E, Suzuki T, Hidaka E, Shigemura T, Yamauchi K, Honda T, Ota H, Kawakami Y: First case of bacteremia due to chromosome-encoded CfxA3-beta-lactamase-producing Capnocytophaga sputigena in a pediatric patient with acute erythroblastic leukemia. Eur J Med Res; 2008 Mar 31;13(3):133-5
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  • [Title] First case of bacteremia due to chromosome-encoded CfxA3-beta-lactamase-producing Capnocytophaga sputigena in a pediatric patient with acute erythroblastic leukemia.
  • Bacteremia due to Capnocytophaga sputigena occurred in a 4-year and 9-month-old Japanese girl patient with acute erythroblastic leukemia in Shinshu University Hospital, Japan.
  • The causative Capnocytophaga sputigena isolate was found to be a beta-lactamase-producer demonstrating to possess cfxA3 gene.
  • The gene responsible for the production of CfxA3-beta-lactamase was proved to be chromosome-encoded, by means of southern hybridization analysis.
  • [MeSH-major] Bacteremia / microbiology. Capnocytophaga / isolation & purification. Chromosomes, Bacterial. Leukemia, Erythroblastic, Acute / complications. beta-Lactamases / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 18499560.001).
  • [ISSN] 0949-2321
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of medical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Med. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Bacterial Agents; EC 3.5.2.6 / beta-Lactamases
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11. Cooper B, Werner HB, Flügge G: Glycoprotein M6a is present in glutamatergic axons in adult rat forebrain and cerebellum. Brain Res; 2008 Mar 4;1197:1-12
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  • [Title] Glycoprotein M6a is present in glutamatergic axons in adult rat forebrain and cerebellum.
  • Glycoprotein M6a is a neuronally expressed member of the proteolipid protein (PLP) family of tetraspans.
  • In vitro studies suggested a potential role in neurite outgrowth and spine formation and previous investigations have identified M6a as a stress-regulated gene.
  • To investigate whether the distribution of M6a correlates with neuronal structures susceptible to alterations in response to stress, we localized M6a expression in neurons of hippocampal formation, prefrontal cortex and cerebellum using in situ hybridization and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy.
  • In situ hybridization confirmed that M6a is expressed in dentate gyrus and cerebellar granule neurons and in hippocampal and cortical pyramidal neurons.
  • Confocal microscopy localized M6a immunoreactivity to distinct sites within axonal membranes, but not in dendrites or neuronal somata.
  • Moreover, M6a colocalized with synaptic markers of glutamatergic, but not GABAergic nerve terminals.
  • M6a expression in the adult brain is particularly strong in unmyelinated axonal fibers, i.e. cerebellar parallel and hippocampal mossy fibers.
  • In contrast, myelinated axons exhibit only minimal M6a immunoreactivity localized exclusively to terminal regions.
  • The present neuroanatomical data demonstrate that M6a is an axonal component of glutamatergic neurons and that it is localized to distinct sites of the axonal plasma membrane of pyramidal and granule cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Gene Expression. Glutamine. In Situ Hybridization. Male. Microscopy, Confocal. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Rats. Rats, Sprague-Dawley. Vesicular Glutamate Transport Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18241840.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-8993
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Vesicular Glutamate Transport Proteins; 0RH81L854J / Glutamine
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12. Honda Y, Manabe A, Tsuchida M, Zaike Y, Masunaga A, Inoue M, Kobayashi R, Ohtsuka Y, Kikuchi A, Nakahata T, MDS Committee, the Japanese Society of Pediatric Hematology: Clinicopathological characteristics of erythroblast-rich RAEB and AML M6a in children. Int J Hematol; 2008 Dec;88(5):524-9
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  • [Title] Clinicopathological characteristics of erythroblast-rich RAEB and AML M6a in children.
  • The distinction between RAEB, RAEB-T and AML M6a is difficult when erythroblasts in the bone marrow (BM) exceed 50%.
  • We analyzed 19 children (2 RAEB, 13 RAEB-T and 4 AML M6a) enrolled in a prospective pathological central review in Japan and divided them into two groups according to the myeloblasts percentage among non-erythroid cells in BM: group A (n = 8), 5-19% myeloblasts; group B (n = 11), 20% or more myeloblasts.
  • Six with group A and seven with group B treated with AML type chemotherapy achieved complete remission.
  • Five with group A and seven with group B undergoing SCT are alive at a median of 3 years after diagnosis.
  • Erythroblast-rich RAEB and AML M6a in children have similar characteristics and may belong to a single disease entity.
  • [MeSH-major] Anemia, Refractory, with Excess of Blasts / pathology. Erythroblasts / pathology. Granulocyte Precursor Cells / pathology. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Japan. Leukocyte Count. Male. Prospective Studies. Remission Induction. Stem Cell Transplantation. Time Factors. Transplantation, Homologous

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  • (PMID = 18951200.001).
  • [ISSN] 1865-3774
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Huang G, Dong R, Allen R, Davis EL, Baum TJ, Hussey RS: Developmental expression and molecular analysis of two Meloidogyne incognita pectate lyase genes. Int J Parasitol; 2005 May;35(6):685-92
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  • [Title] Developmental expression and molecular analysis of two Meloidogyne incognita pectate lyase genes.
  • Two cDNAs (designated Mi-pel-1 and Mi-pel-2) encoding pectate lyases were isolated from the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, oesophageal gland-cell subtractive cDNA libraries, and the corresponding genomic DNAs were subsequently cloned.
  • Southern blot analyses revealed that homologues to these pectate lyase genes were broadly distributed in Meloidogyne species, and present as members of a small multigene family.
  • Mi-pel-1 and Mi-pel-2 encoded, respectively, predicted proteins of 271 and 280 amino acids, each of which was preceded by a signal peptide for secretion.
  • Interestingly, these pectate lyases showed diversity at the amino acid level, with only 31% identity and 49% similarity.
  • These pectate lyases were classified into the same family of pectate lyases with those of other phytoparasitic nematodes that contain four conserved regions characteristic of the class III pectate lyases of microbes.
  • In situ mRNA hybridisation analyses showed the transcripts of Mi-pel-1 and Mi-pel-2 accumulated exclusively within the subventral oesophageal gland cells of M. incognita.
  • These results indicated that these pectate lyases, like cellulases, could be secreted into plant tissues to facilitate the penetration and intercellular migration of M. incognita during the early stages of plant parasitism.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental / genetics. Polysaccharide-Lyases / genetics. Tylenchoidea / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Base Sequence. Blotting, Southern / methods. Cloning, Molecular / methods. DNA, Circular / genetics. DNA, Helminth / genetics. Genes, Helminth / genetics. In Situ Hybridization / methods. Molecular Sequence Data. Phylogeny. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods

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  • (PMID = 15862581.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7519
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal for parasitology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Parasitol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ AF527788/ AY327873/ AY515702/ AY515703
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Circular; 0 / DNA, Helminth; EC 4.2.2.- / Polysaccharide-Lyases; EC 4.2.2.2 / pectate lyase
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14. Knoblauch RE, Thompson CB: Targeting tumor metabolism: biguanides as anti-neoplastic agents. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e14592
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  • : e14592 Background: During the process of malignant transformation, the tumor cell adopts a new form of metabolism, characterized by aerobic glycolysis and altered TCA cycle flux, that enable it to meet the energetic and biosynthetic demands of proliferation.
  • METHODS: We have characterized the proliferative and metabolic effects of phenformin, a member of the biguanide family of compounds used in the treatment of diabetes, on the bcr-abl expressing K562 erythroleukemia cell line, and compared the resulting phenotype to those of imatinib and rapamycin, two targeted agents used in the treatment of malignant disease.
  • Phenformin treatment eliminated the mitochondrial contribution to anabolic metabolism, through inhibition of Complex I of the Electron Transport Chain, as demonstrated by reduced oxygen consumption and intracellular ATP levels.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm the importance of metabolism to the proliferation of malignant cells, thereby validating anabolic metabolism's potential for therapeutic intervention.

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  • (PMID = 27963742.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Speake G, Klinowska T, Hickinson M, Marshall G, Smith P, Vincent J, Anderton J, Gray N, Smith I, Ogilvie D: Characterization of AZD8931, a potent reversible small molecule inhibitor against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2 (HER2) and 3 (HER3) with a unique and balanced pharmacological profile. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):11072
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  • [Title] Characterization of AZD8931, a potent reversible small molecule inhibitor against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), erythroblastic leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2 (HER2) and 3 (HER3) with a unique and balanced pharmacological profile.
  • Characterization of a novel tyrosine kinase inhibitor with a potent and balanced profile against EGFR, HER2 (erbB2), and HER3 (erbB3) has been carried out.
  • These assays have provided unique insights into the pharmacology of these drugs that result from the varying levels of HER and their associated ligands.

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  • (PMID = 27963188.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Brocco MA, Fernández ME, Frasch AC: Filopodial protrusions induced by glycoprotein M6a exhibit high motility and aids synapse formation. Eur J Neurosci; 2010 Jan;31(2):195-202
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  • [Title] Filopodial protrusions induced by glycoprotein M6a exhibit high motility and aids synapse formation.
  • M6a is a neuronal membrane glycoprotein whose expression diminishes during chronic stress.
  • M6a overexpression in rat primary hippocampal neurons induces the formation of filopodial protrusions that could be spine precursors.
  • As the filopodium and spine motility has been associated with synaptogenesis, we analysed the motility of M6a-induced protrusions by time-lapse imaging.
  • Our data demonstrate that the motile protrusions formed by the neurons overexpressing M6a were more abundant and moved faster than those formed in control cells.
  • When different putative M6a phosphorylation sites were mutated, the neurons transfected with a mutant lacking intracellular phosphorylation sites bore filopodia, but these protrusions did not move as fast as those formed by cells overexpressing wild-type M6a.
  • This suggests a role for M6a phosphorylation state in filopodium motility.
  • Furthermore, we show that M6a-induced protrusions could be stabilized upon contact with presynaptic region.
  • The behavior of filopodia from M6a-overexpressing cells and control cells was alike.
  • Thus, M6a-induced protrusions may be spine precursors that move to reach presynaptic membrane.
  • We suggest that M6a is a key molecule for spine formation during development.

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  • (PMID = 20074218.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-9568
  • [Journal-full-title] The European journal of neuroscience
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Neurosci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Howard Hughes Medical Institute / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gpm6a protein, rat; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins
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17. Fjorback AW, Müller HK, Wiborg O: Membrane glycoprotein M6B interacts with the human serotonin transporter. J Mol Neurosci; 2009 Mar;37(3):191-200
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  • [Title] Membrane glycoprotein M6B interacts with the human serotonin transporter.
  • In the present study, using the yeast two-hybrid system, we identified the membrane glycoprotein M6B as a binding partner of SERT.
  • M6B belongs to a proteolipid protein family, which is expressed in neurons and in oligodendrocytes in the brain.
  • The co-expression of SERT with M6B results in a significant decrease in SERT-mediated serotonin uptake caused by a down-regulation of SERT surface expression.
  • Furthermore, we find, using confocal microscopy, that M6B co-localizes with SERT when transiently expressed in HEK-MSR-293 cells and when endogenously expressed in RN46A cells.
  • Taken together, our data suggest that M6B regulates the serotonin uptake by affecting cellular trafficking of the serotonin transporter.

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  • (PMID = 18581270.001).
  • [ISSN] 0895-8696
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of molecular neuroscience : MN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Mol. Neurosci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / GPM6A protein, human; 0 / GPM6B protein, human; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Serotonin Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins; 333DO1RDJY / Serotonin
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18. Wu DF, Koch T, Liang YJ, Stumm R, Schulz S, Schröder H, Höllt V: Membrane glycoprotein M6a interacts with the micro-opioid receptor and facilitates receptor endocytosis and recycling. J Biol Chem; 2007 Jul 27;282(30):22239-47
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  • [Title] Membrane glycoprotein M6a interacts with the micro-opioid receptor and facilitates receptor endocytosis and recycling.
  • Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, the neuronal membrane glycoprotein M6a, a member of the proteolipid protein family, was identified to be associated with the mu-opioid receptor (MOPr).
  • Bioluminescence resonance energy transfer and co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed that M6a interacts agonist-independently with MOPr in human embryonic kidney 293 cells co-expressing MOPr and M6a.
  • Co-expression of MOPr with M6a, but not with M6b or DM20, exists in many brain regions, further supporting a specific interaction between MOPr and M6a.
  • After opioid treatment M6a co-internalizes and then co-recycles with MOPr to cell surface in transfected human embryonic kidney 293 cells.
  • Moreover, the interaction of M6a and MOPr augments constitutive and agonist-dependent internalization as well as the recycling rate of mu-opioid receptors.
  • On the other hand, overexpression of a M6a-negative mutant prevents mu-opioid receptor endocytosis, demonstrating an essential role of M6a in receptor internalization.
  • In addition, we demonstrated the interaction of M6a with a number of other G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) such as the delta-opioid receptor, cannabinoid receptor CB1, and somatostatin receptor sst2A, suggesting that M6a might play a general role in the regulation of certain GPCRs.
  • Taken together, these data provide evidence that M6a may act as a scaffolding molecule in the regulation of GPCR endocytosis and intracellular trafficking.

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  • (PMID = 17548356.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9258
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of biological chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biol. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gpm6a protein, rat; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Opioid, mu; 0 / Recombinant Proteins
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19. Alfonso J, Fernández ME, Cooper B, Flugge G, Frasch AC: The stress-regulated protein M6a is a key modulator for neurite outgrowth and filopodium/spine formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2005 Nov 22;102(47):17196-201
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  • [Title] The stress-regulated protein M6a is a key modulator for neurite outgrowth and filopodium/spine formation.
  • We have recently identified the glycoprotein M6a as a stress-responsive gene in the hippocampal formation.
  • This gene is down-regulated in the hippocampus of both socially and physically stressed animals, and this effect can be reversed by antidepressant treatment.
  • In the present work, we analyzed the biological function of the M6a protein.
  • Immunohistochemistry showed that the M6a protein is abundant in all hippocampal subregions, and subcellular analysis in primary hippocampal neurons revealed its presence in membrane protrusions (filopodia/spines).
  • Transfection experiments revealed that M6a overexpression induces neurite formation and increases filopodia density in hippocampal neurons.
  • M6a knockdown with small interference RNA methodology showed that M6a low-expressing neurons display decreased filopodia number and a lower density of synaptophysin clusters.
  • Taken together, our findings indicate that M6a plays an important role in neurite/filopodium outgrowth and synapse formation.
  • Therefore, reduced M6a expression might be responsible for the morphological alterations found in the hippocampus of chronically stressed animals.
  • Potential mechanisms that might explain the biological effects of M6a are discussed.

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  • (PMID = 16286650.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-8424
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gpm6a protein, rat; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1287971
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20. Richetta A, Amoruso GF, Ascoli V, Natale ME, Carboni V, Carlomagno V, Pezza M, Cimillo M, Maiani E, Mattozzi C, Calvieri S: PEL, Kaposi's sarcoma HHV8+ and idiopathic T-lymphocitopenia CD4+. Clin Ter; 2007 Mar-Apr;158(2):151-5
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  • [Title] PEL, Kaposi's sarcoma HHV8+ and idiopathic T-lymphocitopenia CD4+.
  • We described a case report of a 36-year-old woman with a 10-year-history of idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocitopenia and Kaposi's sarcoma HHV8+ who developed recurrent pleural effusion.
  • Laboratory and instrumental tests with morphologic, immunophenotypic and molecular analysis of pleural sediment suggest us the diagnosis of primary effusion lymphoma (PEL).

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  • (PMID = 17566517.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-9074
  • [Journal-full-title] La Clinica terapeutica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Ter
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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21. Sin SH, Roy D, Wang L, Staudt MR, Fakhari FD, Patel DD, Henry D, Harrington WJ Jr, Damania BA, Dittmer DP: Rapamycin is efficacious against primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) cell lines in vivo by inhibiting autocrine signaling. Blood; 2007 Mar 1;109(5):2165-73
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  • [Title] Rapamycin is efficacious against primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) cell lines in vivo by inhibiting autocrine signaling.
  • Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) appears as an AIDS-defining lymphoma and like Kaposi sarcoma has been linked to Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV).
  • We find that (1) rapamycin is efficacious against PEL in culture and in a murine xenograft model;.
  • (2) mTOR, its activator Akt, and its target p70S6 kinase are phosphorylated in PEL;.
  • This validates sirolimus as a new treatment option for PEL.

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  • (PMID = 17082322.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL083469; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109232; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA163217; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE018304-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA096500; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE018304-01; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE018304; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI057157; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE018304-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA098110; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109232; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA112935; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE018304-03; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE018304-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098110; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL083469; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE018304-03; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / U54 AI057157; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA096500
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines; 0 / RNA, Messenger; W36ZG6FT64 / Sirolimus
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1801055
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22. Vasseur P, Vallet-Gely I, Soscia C, Genin S, Filloux A: The pel genes of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAK strain are involved at early and late stages of biofilm formation. Microbiology; 2005 Mar;151(Pt 3):985-97
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  • [Title] The pel genes of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAK strain are involved at early and late stages of biofilm formation.
  • Biofilm-deficient P. aeruginosa PAK strains affected in a seven-gene cluster called pel were characterized.
  • The pel genes encode proteins with similarity to components involved in polysaccharide biogenesis, of which PelF is a putative glycosyltransferase.
  • The pel genes were previously identified in the P. aeruginosa PA14 strain as required for the production of a glucose-rich matrix material involved in the formation of a thick pellicle and resistant biofilm.
  • However, in PA14, the pel mutants have no clear phenotype in the initiation phase of attachment.
  • It was shown that pel mutations in the PAK strain had little influence on biofilm initiation but, as in PA14, appeared to generate the least robust and mature biofilms.
  • Strikingly, by constructing pel mutants in a non-piliated P. aeruginosa PAK strain, an unexpected effect of the pel mutation in the early phase of biofilm formation was discovered, since it was observed that these mutants were severely defective in the attachment process on solid surfaces.
  • The pel gene cluster is conserved in other Gram-negative bacteria, and mutation in a Ralstonia solanacearum pelG homologue, ragG, led to an adherence defect.
  • [MeSH-minor] Bacterial Adhesion. Culture Media. DNA Transposable Elements. Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial. Glycosyltransferases / genetics. Glycosyltransferases / metabolism. Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions. Multigene Family. Mutation. Polysaccharides, Bacterial / genetics. Polysaccharides, Bacterial / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15758243.001).
  • [ISSN] 1350-0872
  • [Journal-full-title] Microbiology (Reading, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Microbiology (Reading, Engl.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bacterial Proteins; 0 / Culture Media; 0 / DNA Transposable Elements; 0 / Polysaccharides, Bacterial; EC 2.4.- / Glycosyltransferases
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23. Feng L, Musto CJ, Kemling JW, Lim SH, Suslick KS: A colorimetric sensor array for identification of toxic gases below permissible exposure limits. Chem Commun (Camb); 2010 Mar 28;46(12):2037-9
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  • [Title] A colorimetric sensor array for identification of toxic gases below permissible exposure limits.
  • A colorimetric sensor array has been developed for the rapid and sensitive detection of 20 toxic industrial chemicals (TICs) at their PELs (permissible exposure limits).

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  • (PMID = 20221484.001).
  • [ISSN] 1364-548X
  • [Journal-full-title] Chemical communications (Cambridge, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / U01 ES016011; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / U01 ES016011-04; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / U01ES016011
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS229286; NLM/ PMC2976522
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24. Arguello M, Paz S, Hernandez E, Corriveau-Bourque C, Fawaz LM, Hiscott J, Lin R: Leukotriene A4 hydrolase expression in PEL cells is regulated at the transcriptional level and leads to increased leukotriene B4 production. J Immunol; 2006 Jun 1;176(11):7051-61
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  • [Title] Leukotriene A4 hydrolase expression in PEL cells is regulated at the transcriptional level and leads to increased leukotriene B4 production.
  • Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a herpesvirus-8-associated lymphoproliferative disease characterized by migration of tumor cells to serous body cavities.
  • PEL cells originate from postgerminal center B cells and share a remarkable alteration in B cell transcription factor expression and/or activation with classical Hodgkin's disease cells.
  • Comparative analysis of gene expression by cDNA microarray of BCBL-1 cells (PEL), L-428 (classical Hodgkin's disease), and BJAB cells revealed a subset of genes that were differentially expressed in BCBL-1 cells.
  • Among these, four genes involved in cell migration and chemotaxis were strongly up-regulated in PEL cells: leukotriene A4 (LTA4) hydrolase (LTA4H), IL-16, thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), and selectin-P ligand (PSGL-1).
  • Up-regulation of LTA4H was investigated at the transcriptional level.
  • Formation of a specific DNA-protein complex in this region was confirmed by EMSA.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Enzyme Activation / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Hodgkin Disease / genetics. Humans. Inflammation / genetics. Inflammation / immunology. Interleukin-16 / physiology. Membrane Glycoproteins / biosynthesis. Membrane Glycoproteins / genetics. Membrane Glycoproteins / physiology. Promoter Regions, Genetic. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. Thrombospondin 1 / biosynthesis. Thrombospondin 1 / genetics. Thrombospondin 1 / physiology. Transcription, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 16709867.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1767
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interleukin-16; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / P-selectin ligand protein; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Thrombospondin 1; 1HGW4DR56D / Leukotriene B4; EC 3.3.2.- / Epoxide Hydrolases; EC 3.3.2.- / leukotriene A4 hydrolase
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25. Ueda K, Ito E, Karayama M, Ohsaki E, Nakano K, Watanabe S: KSHV-infected PEL cell lines exhibit a distinct gene expression profile. Biochem Biophys Res Commun; 2010 Apr 9;394(3):482-7
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  • [Title] KSHV-infected PEL cell lines exhibit a distinct gene expression profile.
  • We analyzed the gene expression profiles of lymphocyte-originated tumor cell lines - primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) cell lines, T-cell leukemia (TCL) cell lines, Burkitt lymphoma (BL) cell lines - and two sets of normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) - in order to determine characteristic gene expression profiles for each of the former three groups.
  • And we found that these cell lines showed respective typical gene expression profiles and classified into clear four groups, PEL, TCL, BL, and normal PBMCs.
  • Two B lymphocyte-originated tumor cell lines, PEL and BL cell lines, clearly exhibited distinct gene expression profiles, respectively.
  • Even though there was only one line that was co-infected with both Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), KSHV seemed to govern the gene expression profile of the co-infected line.
  • These data suggested not only that established typical tumor cell lines show a distinct gene expression profile but also that this profile may be governed by certain viruses.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Gene Expression Regulation, Viral. Herpesvirus 8, Human. Lymphoma, Primary Effusion / genetics. Lymphoma, Primary Effusion / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Angiopoietin-1 / genetics. Cell Line, Tumor. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20175997.001).
  • [ISSN] 1090-2104
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical and biophysical research communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiopoietin-1
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26. Alarcon F, Bourgain C, Gauthier-Villars M, Planté-Bordeneuve V, Stoppa-Lyonnet D, Bonaïti-Pellié C: PEL: an unbiased method for estimating age-dependent genetic disease risk from pedigree data unselected for family history. Genet Epidemiol; 2009 Jul;33(5):379-85
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  • [Title] PEL: an unbiased method for estimating age-dependent genetic disease risk from pedigree data unselected for family history.
  • Providing valid risk estimates of a genetic disease with variable age of onset is a major challenge for prevention strategies.
  • This article focuses on ascertainment through at least one affected and presents an estimation method based on maximum likelihood, called the Proband's phenotype exclusion likelihood or PEL for estimating age-dependent penetrance using disease status and genotypic information of family members in pedigrees unselected for family history.
  • We studied the properties of the PEL and compared with another method, the prospective likelihood, in terms of bias and efficiency in risk estimate.
  • For that purpose, family samples were simulated under various disease risk models and under various ascertainment patterns.
  • We showed that, whatever the genetic model and the ascertainment scheme, the PEL provided unbiased estimates, whereas the prospective likelihood exhibited some bias in a number of situations.
  • As an illustration, we estimated the disease risk for transthyretin amyloid neuropathy from a French sample and a Portuguese sample and for BRCA1/2 associated breast cancer from a sample ascertained on early-onset breast cancer cases.
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Amyloid Neuropathies / genetics. Bias (Epidemiology). Breast Neoplasms / genetics. France. Genes, BRCA1. Genes, BRCA2. Humans. Likelihood Functions. Models, Genetic. Models, Statistical. Pedigree. Phenotype. Portugal. Prealbumin / genetics. Risk

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  • (PMID = 19089844.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-2272
  • [Journal-full-title] Genetic epidemiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genet. Epidemiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Prealbumin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ HALMS358140; NLM/ PMC3108000
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27. Ueda A, Wood TK: Connecting quorum sensing, c-di-GMP, pel polysaccharide, and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa through tyrosine phosphatase TpbA (PA3885). PLoS Pathog; 2009 Jun;5(6):e1000483
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  • [Title] Connecting quorum sensing, c-di-GMP, pel polysaccharide, and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa through tyrosine phosphatase TpbA (PA3885).
  • This screen identified the PA3885 mutant, which had 147-fold more biofilm than the wild-type strain.
  • Whole transcriptome analysis showed that loss of PA3885 activated expression of the pel locus, an operon that encodes for the synthesis of extracellular matrix polysaccharide.
  • Genetic screening identified that loss of PelABDEG and the PA1120 protein (which contains a GGDEF-motif) suppressed the phenotypes of the PA3885 mutant, suggesting that the function of the PA3885 protein is to regulate 3,5-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) concentrations as a phosphatase since c-di-GMP enhances biofilm formation by activating PelD, and c-di-GMP inhibits swarming.
  • Loss of PA3885 protein increased cellular c-di-GMP concentrations; hence, PA3885 protein is a negative regulator of c-di-GMP production.
  • Las-mediated quorum sensing positively regulates expression of the PA3885 gene.
  • These results show that the PA3885 protein responds to AHL signals and likely dephosphorylates PA1120, which leads to reduced c-di-GMP production.
  • This inhibits matrix exopolysaccharide formation, which leads to reduced biofilm formation; hence, we provide a mechanism for quorum sensing control of biofilm formation through the pel locus and suggest PA3885 should be named TpbA for tyrosine phosphatase related to biofilm formation and PA1120 should be TpbB.

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  • (PMID = 19543378.001).
  • [ISSN] 1553-7374
  • [Journal-full-title] PLoS pathogens
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS Pathog.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIBIB NIH HHS / EB / R01 EB003872
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adhesins, Bacterial; 0 / Bacterial Proteins; 0 / Glycolipids; 0 / Polysaccharides, Bacterial; 0 / rhamnolipid; 42HK56048U / Tyrosine; 61093-23-0 / bis(3',5')-cyclic diguanylic acid; EC 3.1.3.48 / Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases; H2D2X058MU / Cyclic GMP
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2691606
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28. Radlińska M, Piekarowicz A, Galimand M, Bujnicki JM: Cloning and preliminary characterization of a GATC-specific beta2-class DNA:m6A methyltransferase encoded by transposon Tn1549 from Enterococcus spp. Pol J Microbiol; 2005;54(3):249-52
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  • [Title] Cloning and preliminary characterization of a GATC-specific beta2-class DNA:m6A methyltransferase encoded by transposon Tn1549 from Enterococcus spp.
  • A recent study revealed a subfamily of N6-adenine (m6A) methyltransferases that comprises a few functionally studied eukaryotic members acting on mRNA and prokaryotic members acting on DNA as well as numerous uncharacterized open reading frames.
  • Here, we report cloning and functional characterization of a prokaryotic member of this family encoded by transposon Tn1549 from Enterococcus spp.

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  • (PMID = 16450842.001).
  • [ISSN] 1733-1331
  • [Journal-full-title] Polish journal of microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pol. J. Microbiol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Transposable Elements; 0 / DNA, Bacterial; EC 2.1.1.72 / Site-Specific DNA-Methyltransferase (Adenine-Specific)
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29. Liao CH, Fett W, Tzean SS, Hoffman G: Detection and sequence analysis of an altered pectate lyase gene in Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea and related bacteria. Can J Microbiol; 2006 Nov;52(11):1051-9
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  • [Title] Detection and sequence analysis of an altered pectate lyase gene in Pseudomonas syringae pv. glycinea and related bacteria.
  • Pectate lyase (PL) is a potent cell wall-degrading enzyme known to play a role in the microbial infection of plants.
  • However, the PL gene (pel) was detected by Southern hybridization in four out of four P. syringae pv. glycinea strains examined.
  • A P. syringae pv. glycinea pel gene was cloned, sequenced, and predicted to encode a protein sharing 70%-90% identity in amino acid sequence with PLs produced by pectolytic pseudomonads and xanthomonads.
  • A series of amino acid and nucleotide sequence analyses reveal that (i) the predicted P. syringae pv. glycinea PL contains two regions in the amino acid sequence that may affect the formation of a beta-helix structure important for the enzyme activity, and (ii) the P. syringae pv. glycinea pel gene contains a single-base insertion, a double-base insertion, and an 18-bp deletion, which can lead to the synthesis of an inactive PL protein.
  • The altered pel sequence was also detected by polymerase chain reaction and nucleotide sequencing in the genomes of other pathovars of P. syringae, including phaseolicola and tagetis.

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  • (PMID = 17215896.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-4166
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian journal of microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can. J. Microbiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 4.2.2.- / Polysaccharide-Lyases; EC 4.2.2.2 / pectate lyase
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30. Lautier T, Blot N, Muskhelishvili G, Nasser W: Integration of two essential virulence modulating signals at the Erwinia chrysanthemi pel gene promoters: a role for Fis in the growth-phase regulation. Mol Microbiol; 2007 Dec;66(6):1491-505
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  • [Title] Integration of two essential virulence modulating signals at the Erwinia chrysanthemi pel gene promoters: a role for Fis in the growth-phase regulation.
  • Production of the essential virulence factors, called pectate lyases (Pels), in the phytopathogenic bacterium Erwinia chrysanthemi is controlled by a complex regulation system and responds to various stimuli, such as the presence of pectin or plant extracts, growth phase, temperature and iron concentration.
  • Eight regulators modulating the expression of the pel genes (encoding Pels) have been characterized.
  • Although many studies have been carried out, the mechanisms of control of Pel production by growth phase have not yet been elucidated.
  • Here we report that a fis mutant of E. chrysanthemi showed a strong increase in transcription of the pel genes during exponential growth whereas induction of expression in the parental strain occurred at the end of exponential growth.
  • This reveals that Fis acts to prevent an efficient transcription of pel genes at the beginning of exponential growth and also provides evidence of the involvement of Fis in the growth-phase regulation of the pel genes.
  • By using in vitro DNA-protein interactions and transcription experiments, we find that Fis directly represses the pel gene expression at the transcription initiation step.
  • In addition, we show that Fis acts in concert with KdgR, the main repressor responding to the presence of pectin compounds, to shut down the pel gene transcription.

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  • (PMID = 18028312.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-382X
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Microbiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bacterial Proteins; 0 / KdgR protein, Erwinia chrysanthemi; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 9007-49-2 / DNA; EC 4.2.2.- / PelE protein, Erwinia chrysanthemi; EC 4.2.2.- / Polysaccharide-Lyases; EC 4.2.2.2 / pectate lyase
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31. Wong SS, Thomas A, Barbaris B, Lantz RC, Witten ML: Pulmonary evaluation of permissible exposure limit of syntroleum S-8 synthetic jet fuel in mice. Toxicol Sci; 2009 Jun;109(2):312-20
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  • [Title] Pulmonary evaluation of permissible exposure limit of syntroleum S-8 synthetic jet fuel in mice.
  • No significant changes in respiratory permeability were exhibited, indicating that there was no loss of epithelial barrier integrity following S-8 exposure.
  • However, morphological examination and morphometric analysis of distal lung tissue, by using transmission electron microscopy, revealed cellular damage in alveolar type II epithelial cells, with significant increases in volume density of lamellar bodies/vacuoles at 352 and 616 S-8 mg/m(3).
  • Moreover, terminal bronchiolar Clara injury, as evidenced by apical membrane blebs, was observed at relatively low concentrations, suggesting if this synthetic jet fuel is utilized, the current permissible exposure limit of 350 mg/m(3) for hydrocarbon fuels should cautiously be applied.

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  • (PMID = 19357071.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-0929
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P30 ES006694; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES06694
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hydrocarbons; 0 / S-8 fuel
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2683924
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32. Metaxa-Mariatou V, Papaioannou D, Loli A, Papadopoulou I, Gazouli M, Mavroudis P, Nasioulas G: Subtype C1 persistent infection of HHV-8 in a PEL patient. Leuk Lymphoma; 2005 Oct;46(10):1507-12
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  • [Title] Subtype C1 persistent infection of HHV-8 in a PEL patient.
  • PEL, a rare type of lymphoma constituting less than 5% of NHLs, has been recently identified as a distinct clinical and pathological entity among the B-cell lymphomas, with characteristic morphologic, immunophenotypic, molecular and viral features.
  • Using a combination of clinical, morphological, immunohistochemical features and molecular biology techniques in this study we document a PEL case with persistent HHV-8 of genotype C1 infection.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Amino Acid Sequence. Base Sequence. Follow-Up Studies. Genotype. Greece / ethnology. Hodgkin Disease. Humans. Male. Molecular Sequence Data. Phylogeny. Sequence Alignment. Viral Proteins / chemistry. Viral Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16194897.001).
  • [ISSN] 1042-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / K1 protein, Human herpesvirus 8; 0 / Viral Proteins
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33. Santiago-Doménech N, Jiménez-Bemúdez S, Matas AJ, Rose JK, Muñoz-Blanco J, Mercado JA, Quesada MA: Antisense inhibition of a pectate lyase gene supports a role for pectin depolymerization in strawberry fruit softening. J Exp Bot; 2008;59(10):2769-79
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  • [Title] Antisense inhibition of a pectate lyase gene supports a role for pectin depolymerization in strawberry fruit softening.
  • It has been reported previously that inhibiting the expression of pectate lyase genes by antisense technology in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa Duch.) fruit resulted in prolonged fruit firmness.
  • In this present study, three independent transgenic lines were identified exhibiting a greater than 90% reduction in pectate lyase transcript abundance.
  • These results indicate that pectate lyase plays an important degradative role in the primary wall and middle lamella in ripening strawberry fruit, and should be included in synergistic models of cell wall disassembly.

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  • (PMID = 18522930.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2431
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of experimental botany
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Exp. Bot.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Pectins; 0 / Plant Proteins; 9000-69-5 / pectin; EC 4.2.2.- / Polysaccharide-Lyases; EC 4.2.2.2 / pectate lyase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2486476
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Cell wall / Fragaria / fruit ripening / pectate lyase / pectinases / strawberry
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34. Palusa SG, Golovkin M, Shin SB, Richardson DN, Reddy AS: Organ-specific, developmental, hormonal and stress regulation of expression of putative pectate lyase genes in Arabidopsis. New Phytol; 2007;174(3):537-50
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  • [Title] Organ-specific, developmental, hormonal and stress regulation of expression of putative pectate lyase genes in Arabidopsis.
  • Pectate lyases catalyse the eliminative cleavage of de-esterified homogalacturonan in pectin, a major component of the primary cell walls in higher plants.
  • In the completed genome of Arabidopsis, there are 26 genes (AtPLLs) that encode pectate lyase-like proteins.
  • Interestingly, all PLL genes are expressed in flowers.
  • Analysis of expression of all PLL genes in seedlings treated with hormones, abiotic stresses and elicitors of defense responses revealed significant changes in the expression of some PLLs without affecting the other PLLs.
  • The stability of transcripts of PLLs varied considerably among different genes.
  • [MeSH-major] Arabidopsis / genetics. Arabidopsis Proteins / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Plant. Polysaccharide-Lyases / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17447910.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-646X
  • [Journal-full-title] The New phytologist
  • [ISO-abbreviation] New Phytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Arabidopsis Proteins; 0 / Deoxyadenosines; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 73-03-0 / cordycepin; EC 4.2.2.- / Polysaccharide-Lyases; EC 4.2.2.2 / pectate lyase
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35. Srinivas U, Kumar R, Pati H, Saxena R, Tyagi S: Sub classification and clinico-hematological correlation of 40 cases of acute erythroleukemia - can proerythroblast/myeloblast and proerythroblast/total erythroid cell ratios help subclassify? Hematology; 2007 Oct;12(5):381-5
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  • [Title] Sub classification and clinico-hematological correlation of 40 cases of acute erythroleukemia - can proerythroblast/myeloblast and proerythroblast/total erythroid cell ratios help subclassify?
  • The clinico-hematological profile of 40 cases of acute erythroleukemia (AEL) was evaluated.
  • These were subclassified into three types, namely AML M6a, M6b and M6c based on the myeloblast and proerythroblast percentages.
  • As AEL is biologically an "erythroid predominant" disease, two ratios (PE/MB, PE/TEC) with proerythroblasts as numerator have been formulated.
  • An attempt has been made to assess the difference in these ratios in subclassified AEL.
  • There were 29 M6a, 2M6b,and 9 M6 c patients, which were subclassified using the criteria proposed by Mazzella et al.
  • The incidence of AEL in our study was 3.7%, predominantly affecting males with a predilection to younger age in contrast to Western studies.
  • Both PE/MB and PE/TEC ratios were higher in M6b and M6c in comparison to M6a.
  • The subclassification of AEL becomes essential especially in the era of lineage-targeted therapies, which can lead to the development and use of erythroid specific treatments in the near future.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Erythroblastic, Acute / classification
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Cell Count. Erythroblasts. Erythroid Cells. Female. Granulocyte Precursor Cells. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Sex Factors

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  • (PMID = 17852448.001).
  • [ISSN] 1607-8454
  • [Journal-full-title] Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hematology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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36. Cohen R, Steinmaus C, Quinlan P, Ku R, Cooper M, Roberts T: Development of permissible exposure limits: the California experience. Int J Occup Environ Health; 2006 Jul-Sep;12(3):242-7
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  • [Title] Development of permissible exposure limits: the California experience.
  • The California OSHA Airborne Contaminant Advisory Committee reviewed several hundred substances and recommended occupational exposure limits with the intent of worker and employer protection.
  • [MeSH-major] Advisory Committees / organization & administration. Hazardous Substances / standards. Occupational Exposure / standards. Occupational Health / legislation & jurisprudence
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. California. Communication. Humans. Maximum Allowable Concentration. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (U.S.) / standards. No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level. Program Development. United States

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  • (PMID = 16967831.001).
  • [ISSN] 1077-3525
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of occupational and environmental health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Occup Environ Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hazardous Substances
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37. Wong SS, Vargas J, Thomas A, Fastje C, McLaughlin M, Camponovo R, Lantz RC, Heys J, Witten ML: In vivo comparison of epithelial responses for S-8 versus JP-8 jet fuels below permissible exposure limit. Toxicology; 2008 Dec 5;254(1-2):106-11
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  • [Title] In vivo comparison of epithelial responses for S-8 versus JP-8 jet fuels below permissible exposure limit.
  • This study was designed to characterize and compare the pulmonary effects in distal lung from a low-level exposure to jet propellant-8 fuel (JP-8) and a new synthetic-8 fuel (S-8).
  • A pulmonary function test performed 24h after the final exposure indicated that there was a significant increase in expiratory lung resistance in the S-8 mice, whereas JP-8 mice had significant increases in both inspiratory and expiratory lung resistance compared to control values.

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  • (PMID = 18930109.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-483X
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES006694-14; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P30 ES006694; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES06694; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P30 ES006694-14
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hydrocarbons; 0 / JP8 aviation fuel; 0 / S-8 fuel
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS208577; NLM/ PMC2927360
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38. Zhuge B, Du GC, Shen W, Zhuge J, Chen J: Efficient secretory expression of an alkaline pectate lyase gene from Bacillus subtilis in E. coli and the purification and characterization of the protein. Biotechnol Lett; 2007 Mar;29(3):405-10
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  • [Title] Efficient secretory expression of an alkaline pectate lyase gene from Bacillus subtilis in E. coli and the purification and characterization of the protein.
  • The gene encoding pectate lyase (PL) from Bacillus subtilis WSHB04-02 was amplified by PCR, fused with a periplasmic secretion signal peptide sequence, pelB, from pET22b(+), cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli cells using a temperature control vector, pHsh.
  • [MeSH-minor] Enzyme Activation. Enzyme Stability. Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial / physiology. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic / physiology. Genetic Enhancement / methods. Recombinant Proteins / biosynthesis. Recombinant Proteins / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 17237974.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-6776
  • [Journal-full-title] Biotechnology letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biotechnol. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Recombinant Proteins; EC 4.2.2.- / Polysaccharide-Lyases; EC 4.2.2.2 / pectate lyase
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39. Haddad L, El Hajj H, Abou-Merhi R, Kfoury Y, Mahieux R, El-Sabban M, Bazarbachi A: KSHV-transformed primary effusion lymphoma cells induce a VEGF-dependent angiogenesis and establish functional gap junctions with endothelial cells. Leukemia; 2008 Apr;22(4):826-34
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  • Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causative agent of primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and of Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • PEL is an aggressive proliferation of B cells with poor prognosis.
  • We evaluated both in vitro and in vivo the potential role of angiogenic factors secreted by PEL cells, that is, their interaction with endothelial cells and their implication in the invasive behavior of tumoral cells.
  • In vitro, PEL-induced angiogenesis is dependent on vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGF receptors.
  • However, although PEL cells produce VEGF and basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF) transcripts, they only secrete VEGF in vitro.
  • In vivo, very high levels of both VEGF and b-FGF were found in the ascitic fluid of NOD/SCID mice injected with PEL cells.
  • We then show evidence of cell adhesion and gap junction-mediated heterocellular communication between PEL cells and endothelial cells.
  • Finally, we show that PEL cells extravasate through the endothelial barrier and that the specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor of VEGF receptors, PTK-787/ZK-222584, the anti-VEGF antibody, bevacizumab or the gap junction inhibitor 18-alpha-glycyrrhetinic acid, partially attenuate PEL cell extravasation.
  • Angiogenesis, cell adhesion and communication likely contribute to the development of PEL and represent potential therapeutic targets.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Transformation, Viral. Coculture Techniques. Disease Models, Animal. Endothelial Cells / pathology. Gap Junctions / pathology. Humans. Mice. Neoplasms, Experimental. Paracrine Communication. Transplantation, Heterologous. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 18094712.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5551
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / vascular endothelial growth factor A, mouse; 103107-01-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 2
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40. Abraham SK, Schupp N, Schmid U, Stopper H: Antigenotoxic effects of the phytoestrogen pelargonidin chloride and the polyphenol chlorogenic acid. Mol Nutr Food Res; 2007 Jul;51(7):880-7
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  • Pelargonidin (PEL), a common anthocyanidin with estrogenic activity, was tested in HL-60 cells for its genotoxicity and possible antigenotoxic effects against 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (NQO), a potent mutagen and carcinogen which induces oxidative stress.
  • To take into account potential interactions between phytochemicals within normal human nutrition, we evaluated a combination of PEL with the nonestrogenic phytochemical chlorogenic acid (CLA), one of the most abundant polyphenols in the human diet.
  • PEL (< or = 2 microM) and CLA (< or = 800 microM) were nongenotoxic in the micronucleus test.
  • We observed significant antigenotoxic effects against NQO with both compounds, but no additive interaction of PEL and CLA.
  • Flow cytometric analysis of oxidative stress revealed significant protection against NQO-induced oxidative stress by PEL, CLA, and their combination.
  • Furthermore, PEL and CLA prevented the NQO-induced reduction in GSH level.
  • In conclusion, the phytoestrogen PEL revealed antioxidative and antigenotoxic properties in HL-60 cells, but no significant additive interaction with the abundant nutritional polyphenol CLA under the tested conditions.

  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. 4-NITROQUINOLINE-N-OXIDE .
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  • (PMID = 17579891.001).
  • [ISSN] 1613-4125
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular nutrition & food research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol Nutr Food Res
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anthocyanins; 0 / Antimutagenic Agents; 0 / Mutagens; 0 / Phytoestrogens; 318ADP12RI / Chlorogenic Acid; 56-57-5 / 4-Nitroquinoline-1-oxide; 7690-51-9 / pelargonidin
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41. Mylona E, Baraboutis IG, Georgiou O, Rondogianni D, Lekakis LJ, Papastamopoulos V, Apostolidis I, Skoutelis AT: Solid variant of primary effusion lymphoma in successfully treated HIV infection: a case report. Int J STD AIDS; 2008 Aug;19(8):570-2
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  • Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a unique form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, mainly met in severely immunocompromised, HIV-positive patients.
  • PEL is aetiologically related to human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8) and it usually presents as a lymphomatous body cavity effusion in the absence of a solid tumour mass.
  • Recently, cases of HIV-positive patients with HHV-8-positive solid tissue lymphomas, not associated with an effusion, have been reported (solid variant of PEL).
  • The prognosis of PEL is reported to be poor.
  • We report a case of an HIV-positive patient with a typical solid variant of PEL without effusion.
  • Interestingly, his disease developed while being on stable antiretroviral therapy (ART) with high CD4 counts.


42. Bongini L: Topological properties of the energy landscape of small peptides. Biophys Chem; 2005 Apr 1;115(2-3):145-52
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  • The topology of the potential energy landscape (PEL) underlying the dynamics of a two dimensional off-lattice model for a heteropolymer is analyzed for different sequences of amino-acids.
  • A statistical characterization of the metastable minima and first-order saddles of the PEL highlights structural differences in the landscape of good and bad folding sequences and provides insight on the chain dynamics during folding.

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  • (PMID = 15752597.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-4622
  • [Journal-full-title] Biophysical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biophys. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Peptides
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43. Kitagawa J, Hara T, Tsurumi H, Oyama M, Moriwaki H: Pure erythroid leukemia with hemophagocytosis. Intern Med; 2009;48(18):1695-8
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  • [Title] Pure erythroid leukemia with hemophagocytosis.
  • Biochemistry showed increased ferritin levels.
  • Pure erythroid leukemia with hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) was diagnosed.
  • Complete remission was attained, and HPS also improved.
  • However, leukemia relapsed during chemotherapy and the patient died.
  • This is the first report of pure erythroid leukemia complicated with HPS.
  • [MeSH-major] Leukemia, Erythroblastic, Acute / complications. Lymphohistiocytosis, Hemophagocytic / etiology

  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CYTARABINE .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. METHYLPREDNISOLONE .
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  • (PMID = 19755777.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7235
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; X4W7ZR7023 / Methylprednisolone; ZRP63D75JW / Idarubicin
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44. Ratel D, Ravanat JL, Berger F, Wion D: N6-methyladenine: the other methylated base of DNA. Bioessays; 2006 Mar;28(3):309-15
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  • Contrary to mammalian DNA, which is thought to contain only 5-methylcytosine (m5C), bacterial DNA contains two additional methylated bases, namely N6-methyladenine (m6A), and N4-methylcytosine (m4C).
  • However, if the main function of m5C and m4C in bacteria is protection against restriction enzymes, the roles of m6A are multiple and include, for example, the regulation of virulence and the control of many bacterial DNA functions such as the replication, repair, expression and transposition of DNA.
  • Interestingly, even if adenine methylation is usually considered a bacterial DNA feature, the presence of m6A has been found in protist and plant DNAs.
  • Furthermore, indirect evidence suggests the presence of m6A in mammal DNA, raising the possibility that this base has remained undetected due to the low sensitivity of the analytical methods used.
  • This highlights the importance of considering m6A as the sixth element of DNA.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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  • (PMID = 16479578.001).
  • [ISSN] 0265-9247
  • [Journal-full-title] BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bioessays
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9007-49-2 / DNA; JAC85A2161 / Adenine; W7IBY2BGAX / 6-methyladenine
  • [Number-of-references] 91
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ HALMS390682; NLM/ PMC2754416
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45. Gloux K, Touze T, Pagot Y, Jouan B, Blanco C: Mutations of ousA alter the virulence of Erwinia chrysanthemi. Mol Plant Microbe Interact; 2005 Feb;18(2):150-7
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  • The disruption of the ousA gene encoding the major osmoprotectant uptake system highly enhanced bacterial virulence on potato tubers.
  • In the absence of oxygen, pectate lyase (Pel) production was significantly higher in the tissue macerated with the ousA- strain than with the wild type.
  • In minimal medium, ousA disruption enhanced Pel production and pelE expression only under micro-aerobiosis conditions.
  • The effect on Pel was reversed by reintroduction of the ousA gene.
  • The osmoprotectectants glycine betaine, proline betaine, and pipecolic acid are known to be taken up via OusA and to have an inhibitory effect on Pel production.
  • However, their effects on Pel activity were not (glycine betaine) or only weakly (proline and pipecolic acid) affected by ousA disruption.
  • Furthermore, no correlation was observed between their effects on Pel activities and their osmoprotection efficacies.
  • The evidence indicates that ousA and osmoprotectant effects on Pel are not linked to osmoregulation and that complex regulations exist between Pel production, ousA, and osmoprotection via compounds liberated during the plant infection.
  • [MeSH-minor] Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial / physiology. Osmosis. Oxygen. Plant Tubers / microbiology. Polysaccharide-Lyases / biosynthesis. Polysaccharide-Lyases / metabolism. Solanum tuberosum / microbiology. Virulence / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15720084.001).
  • [ISSN] 0894-0282
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular plant-microbe interactions : MPMI
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Plant Microbe Interact.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bacterial Proteins; 0 / Membrane Transport Proteins; 0 / OusA protein, Erwinia chrysanthemi; EC 4.2.2.- / PelE protein, Erwinia chrysanthemi; EC 4.2.2.- / Polysaccharide-Lyases; EC 4.2.2.2 / pectate lyase; S88TT14065 / Oxygen
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46. Towata T, Komizu Y, Suzu S, Ueoka R, Okada S: Highly selective fusion and accumulation of hybrid liposomes into primary effusion lymphoma cells along with induction of apoptosis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun; 2010 Mar 12;393(3):445-8
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  • Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is an aggressive neoplasm caused by human herpes virus-8 infection, and is generally resistant to chemotherapy.
  • Hybrid liposomes, composed of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and polyoxyethylene (21) dodecyl ether (C12(EO)21) (HL-21), were rapidly accumulated in the membrane of PEL cells.
  • HL-21 also increased membrane fluidity of PEL cells, and induced caspase-3 activation along with cell death.
  • These results suggest that HL-21 should be an effective and attractive regent for PEL treatment.

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20138834.001).
  • [ISSN] 1090-2104
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical and biophysical research communications
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Liposomes; 0AWH8BFG9A / polidocanol; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; U86ZGC74V5 / Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine
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47. Cirone M, Di Renzo L, Trivedi P, Lucania G, Borgia G, Frati L, Faggioni A: Dendritic cell differentiation blocked by primary effusion lymphoma-released factors is partially restored by inhibition of P38 MAPK. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol; 2010 Oct-Dec;23(4):1079-86
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  • To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the dendritic cell (DC) defects in cancer, we analyzed which signaling pathway is implicated in the abnormal monocyte differentiation into DC determined by the presence of Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) released factors.
  • Our results indicate that the DC, obtained in this condition, together with phenotypic abnormalities and reduced allostimulatory function, showed hyperphosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) molecules, in comparison to the DC differentiated in the absence of PEL-released factors.
  • The inhibition of p38 MAPK but not of STAT3 phosphorylation, with specific inhibitors, was able to revert the effect of the PEL-released factors on the DC phenotype.
  • This study suggests that p38 MAPK signaling pathway is an important contributor to the abnormal differentiation of DC in PEL.

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  • (PMID = 21244757.001).
  • [ISSN] 0394-6320
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / STAT3 Transcription Factor; 0 / STAT3 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.2 / JAK2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.2 / Janus Kinase 2; EC 2.7.11.24 / p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
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48. Niino D, Tsukasaki K, Torii K, Imanishi D, Tsuchiya T, Onimaru Y, Tsushima H, Yoshida S, Yamada Y, Kamihira S, Tomonaga M: Human herpes virus 8-negative primary effusion lymphoma with BCL6 rearrangement in a patient with idiopathic CD4 positive T-lymphocytopenia. Haematologica; 2008 Jan;93(1):e21-3
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  • Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) was initially designated as a body-cavity-based lymphoma and recognized as a distinct clinical entity without a contiguous tumor mass.
  • PEL was first reported in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the distinctive feature of PEL originally reported as a B-cell neoplasm characterized by infection of the tumor cells by human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8).
  • However, there have recently been several reports of PEL in patients without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or HHV-8 infection.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD4 / biosynthesis. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Gene Rearrangement. Herpesvirus 8, Human / genetics. Lymphoma, Primary Effusion / genetics. Lymphopenia / therapy. T-Lymphocytes / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Dyspnea / diagnosis. HIV Infections / diagnosis. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Male. Pericardial Effusion


49. Muñoz-Fontela C, Marcos-Villar L, Hernandez F, Gallego P, Rodriguez E, Arroyo J, Gao SJ, Avila J, Rivas C: Induction of paclitaxel resistance by the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus latent protein LANA2. J Virol; 2008 Feb;82(3):1518-25
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  • Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the causal agent of both KS and primary effusion lymphoma (PEL).
  • Although treatment with paclitaxel has significant antitumor activity in KS, drug resistance represents a major obstacle for improving the overall response and survival of PEL patients.
  • This paper focuses on the mechanism of paclitaxel resistance observed in PEL cells.
  • This is the first demonstration of paclitaxel resistance induced by a viral protein and suggests a link between the expression of LANA2 and the resistance of PEL cells to paclitaxel.

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  • (PMID = 18032494.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-5514
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Viral Proteins; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2224414
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50. Snozek CL, Saenger AK, Greipp PR, Bryant SC, Kyle RA, Rajkumar SV, Katzmann JA: Comparison of bromcresol green and agarose protein electrophoresis for quantitation of serum albumin in multiple myeloma. Clin Chem; 2007 Jun;53(6):1099-103
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  • Two common albumin assays, bromcresol green (BCG) and agarose gel protein electrophoresis (PEL), frequently yield discordant results, creating confusion regarding which assay is superior for use in myeloma.
  • METHODS: We measured albumin by BCG on a Roche Modular system, by PEL with a Helena SPIFE SPE Vis agarose gel, and by immunonephelometry performed on a Dade Behring BNII nephelometer.
  • BCG and PEL were used to measure albumin in 5777 patient samples, and all 3 methods were used in an additional 252 samples.
  • RESULTS: For sera with zero/low monoclonal immunoglobulin protein (M)-spike (0 to <15 g/L), results for both BCG and PEL correlated well to nephelometry, although median PEL results were 8 g/L lower than corresponding BCG measurements.
  • Correlation between PEL and nephelometry or BCG diminished with increasing M-spike, with PEL eventually overestimating albumin compared with both other assays.
  • For 35% of myeloma patients, discrepancy between BCG and PEL had a potentially clinically significant effect on staging, but no difference in group survival was found.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Both BCG and PEL correlate well to nephelometry in sera with zero/low M-spikes.
  • In the presence of larger M-spikes, PEL correlates poorly to nephelometry or BCG, whereas BCG compares well with nephelometry regardless of M-spike.
  • [MeSH-major] Bromcresol Green. Multiple Myeloma / diagnosis. Serum Albumin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 17463172.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-9147
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA62242
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Indicators and Reagents; 0 / Paraproteins; 0 / Serum Albumin; 8YGN0Y942M / Bromcresol Green
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51. Cai SL, Lin JH, Wang CM, Lin L: [Improvement of the the thermostability of Penicillium expansum lipase by mutagenesis the random mutant ep8 at K55R]. Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao; 2007 Jul;23(4):677-80
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  • In order to improve the thermostability of the Penicillium expansum Lipase (PEL), the lipase encoding genes was mutated by site-directed mutagenesis.
  • A recombinant vector pAO815-ep8-K55R which contain double mutant genes was constructed by overlap extension PCR using the cDNA of a random-mutant lipase ep8 (a single site mutant) as the template and two special primers were used to generate another mutation site K55R.
  • The recombinant vector was transformed into Pichia pastoris GS115 by electroporation and the recombinant mutant GS-pAO815-ep8- K55R can secret double-mutant lipase PEL-ep8-K55R-GS into the medium when it was induced by Methanol.
  • The yield of the double-mutant lipase is 508 u/mL, which is 81% that of the wild type lipase PEL-GS (627 u/mL) and 55% that of random-mutant PEL-ep8-GS (924 u/mL).
  • The specific activity of double-mutant lipase is 2309.1 u/mg, which is similar to random-mutant lipase PEL-ep8-GS and the wild type lipase PEL-GS.
  • The optimum temperature of the double-mutant lipase is same with the wild type lipase PEL-GS and random-mutant lipase PEL-ep8-GS.
  • While the Tm of the double-mutant lipase is 41.0 degrees C, 2.3 degrees C higher than the wild type lipase PEL-GS and 0.8% higher than the random-mutant lipase PEL-ep8-GS, indicating that the double-mutant lipase PEL-ep8-K55R-GS has higher thermostability.

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  • (PMID = 17822043.001).
  • [ISSN] 1000-3061
  • [Journal-full-title] Sheng wu gong cheng xue bao = Chinese journal of biotechnology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mutant Proteins; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; EC 3.1.1.3 / Lipase
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52. Petre CE, Sin SH, Dittmer DP: Functional p53 signaling in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus lymphomas: implications for therapy. J Virol; 2007 Feb;81(4):1912-22
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  • The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV8) is associated with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) as well as primary effusion lymphomas (PEL).
  • However, DNA-damaging drugs such as doxorubicin are clinically efficacious against PEL and KS, suggesting that p53 signaling remains intact despite the presence of KSHV.
  • To investigate the functionality of p53 in PEL, we examined the response of a large number of PEL cell lines to doxorubicin.
  • Two out of seven (29%) PEL cell lines harbored a mutant p53 allele (BCBL-1 and BCP-1) which led to doxorubicin resistance.
  • In contrast, all other PEL containing wild-type p53 showed DNA damage-induced cell cycle arrest, p53 phosphorylation, and p53 target gene activation.
  • Supporting this finding, chemical inhibition of p53 signaling in PEL led to doxorubicin resistance, and chemical activation of p53 by the Hdm2 antagonist Nutlin-3 led to unimpaired induction of p53 target genes as well as growth inhibition and apoptosis.

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  • (PMID = 17121789.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-538X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109232-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109232-03S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109232; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA163217; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109232-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109232-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009156; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA009156; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA700580; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109232-01; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE018304; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109232-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109232-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109232-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109232; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109232-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109232-03S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109232-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109232-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Imidazoles; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / nutlin 3; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; EC 6.3.2.19 / MDM2 protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1797584
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53. Abou-Merhi R, Khoriaty R, Arnoult D, El Hajj H, Dbouk H, Munier S, El-Sabban ME, Hermine O, Gessain A, de Thé H, Mahieux R, Bazarbachi A: PS-341 or a combination of arsenic trioxide and interferon-alpha inhibit growth and induce caspase-dependent apoptosis in KSHV/HHV-8-infected primary effusion lymphoma cells. Leukemia; 2007 Aug;21(8):1792-801
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  • Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is an aggressive proliferation of B cells.
  • Conventional chemotherapy has limited benefits in PEL patients, and the prognosis is very poor.
  • We previously reported that treatment of human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma cells either with arsenic trioxide (As) combined to interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) or with the bortezomib (PS-341) proteasome inhibitor induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, partly due to the reversal of the constitutive nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation.
  • PEL cells also display an activated NF-kappaB pathway that is necessary for their survival.
  • This prompted us to investigate the effects of PS-341, or of the As/IFN-alpha combination on PEL cells.
  • PS-341 and As/IFN-alpha treatment abrogated NF-kappaB translocation to the nucleus and decreased the levels of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-X(L).
  • Altogether, these results provide a rational basis for a future therapeutic use of PS-341 or combined As and IFN-alpha in PEL patients.

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  • (PMID = 17568816.001).
  • [ISSN] 0887-6924
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Arsenicals; 0 / Boronic Acids; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Oxides; 0 / Protease Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrazines; 0 / bcl-X Protein; 69G8BD63PP / Bortezomib; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases; S7V92P67HO / arsenic trioxide
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54. Fernández ME, Alfonso J, Brocco MA, Frasch AC: Conserved cellular function and stress-mediated regulation among members of the proteolipid protein family. J Neurosci Res; 2010 May 1;88(6):1298-308
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  • We have previously identified M6a as a stress responsive gene and shown that M6a is involved in filopodium/spine outgrowth and, likely, synapse formation.
  • M6a belongs to the proteolipid protein (PLP) family, all of their members having four transmembrane domains that allow their localization at the plasma membrane.
  • In the present work, we analyzed other members of this family, the closely related M6b as well as PLP and its splice variant DM20.
  • We found that chronic restraint stress in mice reduces M6b and DM20, but not PLP, mRNA levels in the hippocampus.
  • In addition, M6b and DM20, but again not PLP, induce filopodium formation in primary cultures of hippocampal neurons.
  • Several M6b protein isoforms were studied, all of them having similar effects except for the one lacking the transmembrane domains.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. COS Cells. Cell Line, Tumor. Cells, Cultured. Cercopithecus aethiops. Chronic Disease. Disease Models, Animal. Male. Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Myelin Proteolipid Protein / metabolism. Nerve Tissue Proteins / metabolism. Protein Isoforms / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Restraint, Physical

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19937804.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-4547
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroscience research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosci. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Howard Hughes Medical Institute / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gpm6a protein, mouse; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Myelin Proteolipid Protein; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Plp1 protein, mouse; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / Proteolipids; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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55. Wong EL, Damania B: Linking KSHV to human cancer. Curr Oncol Rep; 2005 Sep;7(5):349-56
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  • KSHV is the etiologic agent associated with the development of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD).
  • Here, we review the association of KSHV with human cancer, viral genes that may potentially be involved in the neoplastic process, and current therapies used to treat KS, PEL, and MCD.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Biopsy. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Cytokines / metabolism. Genes, Viral. Genome, Viral. Giant Lymph Node Hyperplasia / therapy. Giant Lymph Node Hyperplasia / virology. Humans. Lymphoma / therapy. Lymphoma / virology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology

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  • (PMID = 16091195.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-3790
  • [Journal-full-title] Current oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Oncol Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / 5T32AI007001; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA096500
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines
  • [Number-of-references] 80
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56. Mazzella FM, Smith D, Horn P, Cotelingam JD, Rector JT, Shrit MA, Pesce A, Schumacher HR: Prognostic significance of pronormoblasts in erythrocyte predominant myelodysplastic patients. Am J Hematol; 2006 Jul;81(7):484-91
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  • Recent studies of acute erythroleukemias have reaffirmed DiGuglielmo's syndrome (M6a, myeloblast-predominant) and disease (M6b, pronormoblast-predominant).
  • A 20-year retrospective study was performed to identify cases demonstrating >or=50% erythrocytic component and <30% calculated blasts (FAB exclusion criteria) without underlying cause (96 cases).
  • [MeSH-major] Erythroblasts. Leukemia, Erythroblastic, Acute / pathology. Models, Statistical. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Disease-Free Survival. Erythrocyte Count. Erythrocytes / pathology. Granulocyte Precursor Cells / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Platelet Count. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies


57. Zenda T, Tominaga K, Choto S, Okada T, Kaneko S, Minato H: [Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma initially manifested by massive ascites and a small gastric lesion, clinically mimicking primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) in the abdominal cavity: a case report and review of the literature on Japanese PEL patients]. Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi; 2007 Dec;104(12):1772-80
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  • [Title] [Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma initially manifested by massive ascites and a small gastric lesion, clinically mimicking primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) in the abdominal cavity: a case report and review of the literature on Japanese PEL patients].
  • The patient was treated with chemotherapy including rituximab (R-CHOP-ESHAP) and injection of methotrexate and dexamethasone into the medullary cavity as well as radiation to the whole brain, and achieved complete remission 4 months later.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / diagnosis. Lymphoma, Primary Effusion / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Ascites / complications. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology


58. Gasperini P, Tosato G: Targeting the mammalian target of Rapamycin to inhibit VEGF and cytokines for the treatment of primary effusion lymphoma. Leukemia; 2009 Oct;23(10):1867-74
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  • Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a fatal malignancy, which typically presents as a lymphomatous effusion that later disseminates.
  • Rapamycin (Rapa), which targets mTOR (mammalian target of Rapa), is currently evaluated as a treatment for PEL, but the recent development of PEL in Rapa-treated post-transplant recipients questions the drug's use in PEL.
  • Here, we used a murine model of PEL effusion that mimics the human disease to investigate the anti-PEL activity of Rapa.
  • Initially, Rapa reduced PEL load compared with control mice, but most mice rapidly showed PEL progression.
  • Levels of VEGF, which promotes vascular permeability contributing to effusion formation, were significantly reduced in ascites of Rapa-treated mice compared with controls.
  • Expression of IL-10, the principal autocrine growth factor for PEL, was initially reduced in PEL from Rapa-treated mice but rapidly increased despite treatment.
  • We found that the hypoxic environment of ascites and Rapa cooperate in stimulating IL-10 expression in PEL, which likely contributes to the emergence of drug resistance.
  • These results identify Rapa an effective drug to reduce PEL effusions but illustrate the rapid development of drug resistance, which likely limits the efficacy of Rapa in PEL.

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  • (PMID = 19554030.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5551
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leukemia
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / NIH0012215497; United States / PHS HHS / / NIH0012215497; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Interleukin-6; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors; 130068-27-8 / Interleukin-10; EC 2.7.- / Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.1.1 / MTOR protein, human; EC 2.7.1.1 / TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases; EC 2.7.1.1 / mTOR protein, mouse; W36ZG6FT64 / Sirolimus
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS113595; NLM/ PMC2940422
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59. Bidwell LA, Bowker RM: Evaluation of changes in architecture of the stratum internum of the hoof wall from fetal, newborn, and yearling horses. Am J Vet Res; 2006 Dec;67(12):1947-55
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  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate morphologic changes of the stratum internum of hooves from near-term fetal, newborn, and yearling horses.
  • PROCEDURES: Primary epidermal laminae (PEL) of the stratum internum were examined for evidence of architectural changes.
  • RESULTS: In near-term fetuses, the PEL had a homogeneous appearance and symmetric distribution around the hoof wall with no significant differences in PEL density between the toe and quarters.
  • However after birth, branched laminae at the toe formed within the first few weeks, which significantly increased PEL density at the toe, compared with the quarters.
  • In yearlings, morphology of the PEL differed from that in younger foals and the PEL density was significantly greater at the toe than the quarters.
  • The PEL density at the toe and medial and lateral quarters was significantly different from each other, as these PEL densities appeared to have been associated with conformation.
  • No significant differences in PEL densities between forefeet and hind feet were detected in any group.
  • CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Findings indicate that the stratum internum of the inner hoof wall undergoes several morphologic changes shortly after birth.
  • The PEL become branched with a greater PEL density at the toe than the quarters.
  • In an asymmetric foot, more PEL were associated with the sloping side than the steep side of the foot.
  • Findings suggested that PEL growth may also occur by bifurcation as well as by mitosis from the coronet and that wall stress may be associated with increased PEL density.

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  • (PMID = 17144792.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9645
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of veterinary research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Vet. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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60. Carbone A, Cesarman E, Gloghini A, Drexler HG: Understanding pathogenetic aspects and clinical presentation of primary effusion lymphoma through its derived cell lines. AIDS; 2010 Feb 20;24(4):479-90
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  • Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a very rare subgroup of B-cell lymphomas presenting as pleural, peritoneal and pericardial neoplastic effusions in the absence of a solid tumor mass or recognizable nodal involvement.
  • There is strong evidence that Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a causal agent of PEL.
  • PEL tumor cells are latently infected by KSHV with consistent expression of several viral proteins and microRNAs that can affect cellular proliferation, differentiation and survival.
  • The most relevant data on pathogenesis and biology of KSHV have been provided by studies on PEL-derived cell lines.
  • Fourteen continuous cell lines have been established from the malignant effusions of patients with AIDS-associated and non-AIDS-associated PEL.
  • The PEL cell lines display unique features and are clearly distinct from other lymphoma cell lines.
  • PEL cell lines represent an indispensable tool for the understanding of KSHV biology and its impact on the clinical manifestation of PEL.
  • Studies on PEL cell lines have shown that a number of viral genes, expressed during latency or lytic life cycle, have effects on cell binding, proliferation, angiogenesis and inflammation.
  • Also, PEL cell lines are important model systems for the study of the disorder of PEL including the lack of invasive or destructive growth patterns and the peculiar propensity of PEL to involve body cavity surfaces.

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  • (PMID = 20051807.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5571
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA068939; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA103646; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA068939; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA103646
  • [Publication-type] Editorial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS492494; NLM/ PMC3740588
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61. Kishimoto K, Kitamura T, Hirayama Y, Tate G, Mitsuya T: Cytologic and immunocytochemical features of EBV negative primary effusion lymphoma: report on seven Japanese cases. Diagn Cytopathol; 2009 Apr;37(4):293-8
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  • Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is very rare type of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) usually confined to the body cavities such as the pleural space, pericardium, and peritoneum.
  • PEL is a human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8)-associated lymphoma and commonly observed in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients.
  • However, HIV-infected patients are extremely fewer in Japan in comparison with those in Western countries; PEL is usually not associated with HIV infection in Japan.
  • This report presents seven Japanese cases of PEL.
  • In situ hybridization revealed that the PEL cells were negative for EBV in all cases.
  • An immunocytological analysis showed that only one case was positive for HHV-8, and PEL cells were positive for CD20 in all cases.
  • However, the cytomorphological features of PEL cells showed large cell size, abundant basophilic cytoplasm, coarse chromatin, and occasional binucleated or multinucleated cells, similar to a large cell immunoblastic and anaplastic large cell lymphoma, indicating that the cytomorphological characteristics of PE cells in Giemsa and Papanicolaou stain were consistent with those reported abroad.
  • The prognosis for PEL in these cases was poor, but the survival time was variable ranging from 1 month to 54 months, and was different from that of Western cases.
  • No p16/CDKN2A expression was observed, and one case showed PEL cells with a BLIMP1 mutation.

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  • (PMID = 19217041.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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62. Lan K, Murakami M, Bajaj B, Kaul R, He Z, Gan R, Feldman M, Robertson ES: Inhibition of KSHV-infected primary effusion lymphomas in NOD/SCID mice by gamma-secretase inhibitor. Cancer Biol Ther; 2009 Nov;8(22):2136-43
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  • Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a common cancer in AIDS patients closely associated with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV).
  • Previously, we showed that KSHV latency associated nuclear antigen (LANA) stabilizes intracellular activated Notch1 (ICN) involved in maintenance of the malignant phenotype of KSHV infected PEL cells in vitro.
  • The gamma-secretase inhibitor (GSI) which specifically blocks the production of ICN slows down the proliferation of the KSHV infected PEL cell lines BCBL1, BC3 as well as JSC1 in vitro.
  • In this study, we extended these studies to explore the possibility that manipulation of the Notch signaling by GSI would prevent the growth of the PEL tumors in vivo.
  • We observed that the onset of tumorigenesis of KSHV infected PELs was significantly delayed in GSI treated SCID mice harboring the PEL cell lines.
  • We also found that GSI treatment resulted in necrosis as well as apoptosis in tumors generated by the xenotransplanted KSHV positive PEL cell lines.
  • In contrast, GSI had no effect on mice harboring BJAB cells, a KSHV negative Burkitt's lymphoma cell line where ICN levels were negligible.

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  • [CommentIn] Cancer Biol Ther. 2009 Nov;8(22):2144-6 [20068386.001]
  • (PMID = 19783901.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-8576
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biology & therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / PHS HHS / / A1067037; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA091792; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA108461; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE017338
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Viral; 0 / Dipeptides; 0 / N-(N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)alanyl)phenylglycine tert-butyl ester; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Notch1 protein, mouse; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Receptor, Notch1; 0 / latency-associated nuclear antigen; EC 3.4.- / Amyloid Precursor Protein Secretases
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63. Wu W, Rochford R, Toomey L, Harrington W Jr, Feuer G: Inhibition of HHV-8/KSHV infected primary effusion lymphomas in NOD/SCID mice by azidothymidine and interferon-alpha. Leuk Res; 2005 May;29(5):545-55
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus type-8 (KSHV/HHV-8) is associated with primary effusion lymphomas (PEL), a rare form of B-cell lymphoma.
  • PEL cell lines infected with HHV-8, but negative for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), were analyzed for their tumorigenic potential in a small animal model system.
  • Inoculation of PEL cell lines into non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) mice results in efficient engraftment and tumorigenesis in vivo.
  • PEL-engrafted NOD/SCID (PEL/SCID) mice displayed malignant ascites development with notable abdominal distension, consistent with the clinical manifestations of PEL in humans.
  • Azidothymidine (AZT, zidovudine) and interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) induce apoptosis in HHV-8+/EBV- PEL cells in culture, by induction of a tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) mediated suicide program and has been proposed as a therapy for herpesvirus-associated lymphomas.
  • Daily injection of AZT and IFN-alpha significantly increased mean survival time (MST) of PEL/SCID mice suggesting that induction of apoptosis in PEL cells in vivo may be exploited as an effective relatively non-toxic therapy targeting HHV-8 infected PEL.
  • These data demonstrate that the PEL/SCID mouse is an important preclinical model to characterize efficacy and anti-tumor mechanisms of new therapeutic targets in vivo and will be useful in the design and testing of agents in viral lymphoproliferative diseases.

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  • (PMID = 15755507.001).
  • [ISSN] 0145-2126
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors; 0 / TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand; 0 / TNFSF10 protein, human; 0 / Tnfsf10 protein, mouse; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 4B9XT59T7S / Zidovudine
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64. Boulanger E, Meignin V, Afonso PV, Duprez R, Oksenhendler E, Agbalika F, Gessain A: Extracavitary tumor after primary effusion lymphoma: relapse or second distinct lymphoma? Haematologica; 2007 Sep;92(9):1275-6
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  • HHV-8-associated solid lymphomas which develop in extracavitary sites during the course of primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) could represent the relapse of original PEL tumors in different anatomical sites, or newly occurring distinct HHV-8-associated lymphomas, such as multicentric Castleman disease-related microlymphomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Herpesviridae Infections / complications. Herpesvirus 8, Human / isolation & purification. Lymphoma / complications. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / complications. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / complications. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / complications

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  • (PMID = 17768127.001).
  • [ISSN] 1592-8721
  • [Journal-full-title] Haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Haematologica
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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65. Suzuki K, Ino K, Sugawara Y, Mizutani M, Sekine T, Katayama N: [Prolonged survival in a patient with human herpesvirus-8-negative primary effusion lymphoma after combination chemotherapy with rituximab]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2008 Apr;35(4):691-4
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  • Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a unique clinicopathological entity usually associated with human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) infection.
  • We presented a rare case of HIV-negative PEL in an elderly HHV-8-negative patient who developed cardiac tamponade due to pericardial effusion.
  • This disease generally has a poor prognosis; however, this patient achieved complete remission and remains without signs of disease 30 months after the last treatment.
  • Because most HIV-negative and HHV-8- negative PEL cases show pan-B-cell markers, there is considerable usage of rituximab, though its optimal usage for PEL is unclear.
  • To the best of our knowledge, there have been five reported cases where rituximab treatment has been used against HIV-negative and HHV-8-negative PEL.
  • HIV-negative and HHV-8-negative PEL appears to be a reasonably new clinicopathological entity.

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  • (PMID = 18408447.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 4F4X42SYQ6 / Rituximab
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66. Stewart CJ, Brennan BA, Crook ML, Russell P: Value of elastin staining in the assessment of peritoneal implants associated with ovarian serous borderline tumours. Histopathology; 2007 Sep;51(3):313-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Value of elastin staining in the assessment of peritoneal implants associated with ovarian serous borderline tumours.
  • AIMS: To determine whether elastin stains aid in classifying peritoneal implants associated with ovarian serous borderline tumours (SBT).
  • Elastin stains were performed using histochemical and immunohistochemical methods to demonstrate the peritoneal elastic lamina (PEL), and evaluated with regard to assessment of the subtype of implant.
  • The elastin stains demonstrated the PEL in most anatomical sites other than the omentum and the bladder and were considered helpful in 44/80 (55%) cases.
  • The staining was non-contributory in most of the remaining biopsies, because the PEL was not identified.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Demonstration of the PEL using elastin stains can be useful in the subclassification of implants associated with ovarian SBT and is of most value in confirming the superficial distribution of non-invasive lesions.
  • However, evaluation is limited by the absence of a defined elastic layer in a proportion of biopsy specimens, possibly reflecting their superficial location, as well as absence of a distinct PEL in sites such as the omentum.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Peritoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Peritoneal Neoplasms / metabolism. Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 17727474.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9007-58-3 / Elastin
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67. Roden AC, Lockington KS, Tostrud LJ, Katzmann JA: Urine protein electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis using unconcentrated or minimally concentrated urine samples. Am J Clin Pathol; 2008 Jul;130(1):141-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Our objective was to evaluate a gel system that uses unconcentrated urine specimens for protein electrophoresis (PEL) and immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE) in patients with monoclonal gammopathies.
  • For the study, 222 urine specimens were analyzed by our current PEL method (Helena Laboratories, Beaumont, TX) and by a system that recommends use of unconcentrated urine (Sebia, Norcross, GA).
  • There was a 97% concordance for detection of PEL abnormalities.
  • Cases with insufficient urine volumes for concentration (PEL, 7; IFE, 20) were analyzed in the Sebia gel system, and in 11 cases (PEL, 2; IFE, 9) an M protein was identified.High-resolution gel electrophoresis of urine using the Sebia system offers similar performance for detection, characterization, and quantification of M proteins when compared with our current gel system.

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  • (PMID = 18550484.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / protein M (glycoprotein)
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68. Kim J, Keyes T: Influence of Go-like interactions on global shapes of energy landscapes in beta-barrel forming model proteins: inherent structure analysis and statistical temperature molecular dynamics simulation. J Phys Chem B; 2008 Jan 24;112(3):954-66
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  • In the present paper, the properties of Go-like models are investigated in terms of the potential energy landscape (PEL).
  • The non-native attractions of the beta-barrel forming BLN model 46-mer are scaled with a parameter 0 < or = lambda < or = 1, to make a continuous tuning of the PEL from multi-funneled and energetically frustrated at lambda = 1 to a perfect funnel including only topological frustration at lambda = 0.
  • 2006, 97, 050601), and extensive inherent structure (IS) analysis, clearly demonstrates the evolution of the topography of the PEL.
  • The alteration of the PEL also induces a dramatic change in the folding mechanism, from a second-order-like collapse transition into a cooperative, first-order-like folding transition, occurring through a transient, intermediate state ensemble characterized by partially structured IS.
  • The appearance of multiple van der Waals loops in the statistical temperature of the Go-like model is associated with the development of the intermediate states.

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  • (PMID = 18088107.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-6106
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of physical chemistry. B
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Phys Chem B
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proteins
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69. Calabrò L, Fonsatti E, Altomonte M, Pezzani L, Colizzi F, Nanni P, Gattei V, Sigalotti L, Maio M: Methylation-regulated expression of cancer testis antigens in primary effusion lymphoma: immunotherapeutic implications. J Cell Physiol; 2005 Feb;202(2):474-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a large B-cell neoplasm with an unfavorable prognosis and limited therapeutic options.
  • In this study, cancer testis antigens (CTA) were investigated as potential immunotherapeutic targets in patients with PEL.
  • Baseline expression of a panel of 11 CTA was highly heterogeneous among five PEL cell lines.
  • The de novo expression of CTA was still detectable at mRNA and protein level at least 2 months after the end of 5-AZA-CdR treatment.
  • These findings, and the concomitant up-regulation of HLA-class I antigens and ICAM-1 by 5-AZA-CdR, support its clinical use to set-up innovative chemo-immunotherapeutic approaches in PEL.

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  • [Copyright] 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc
  • (PMID = 15389591.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9541
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cellular physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cell. Physiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 776B62CQ27 / decitabine; M801H13NRU / Azacitidine
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70. Heuer A: Exploring the potential energy landscape of glass-forming systems: from inherent structures via metabasins to macroscopic transport. J Phys Condens Matter; 2008 Sep 17;20(37):373101
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  • In this review a systematic analysis of the potential energy landscape (PEL) of glass-forming systems is presented.
  • The relevant energy scales of the PEL can be characterized.
  • The relation to the geometric properties of the PEL is stressed.
  • The emergence of length scales within the PEL approach as well as the nature of finite-size effects is discussed.
  • Furthermore, the PEL view is compared to other approaches describing the glass transition.

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  • (PMID = 21694408.001).
  • [ISSN] 0953-8984
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of physics. Condensed matter : an Institute of Physics journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Phys Condens Matter
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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71. Hussain AR, Ahmed M, Ahmed SO, Al-Thari S, Khan AS, Razack S, Platanias LC, Al-Kuraya KS, Uddin S: Proteasome inhibitor MG-132 mediated expression of p27Kip1 via S-phase kinase protein 2 degradation induces cell cycle coupled apoptosis in primary effusion lymphoma cells. Leuk Lymphoma; 2009 Jul;50(7):1204-13
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  • Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is an incurable, aggressive B-cell malignancy that develops rapid resistance to conventional chemotherapy.
  • MG-132, a proteasome inhibitor, suppresses cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in several PEL cell lines.
  • Treatment of PEL cells with MG-132 results in downregulation of S-phase kinase protein 2 (SKP2) and accumulation of p27Kip1.
  • Furthermore, MG-132 treatment of PEL cells causes Bax conformational changes, leading to loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c to the cytosole.
  • Such cytochrome c release results in sequential activation of caspases and apoptosis, while pretreatment of PEL cells with universal inhibitor of caspases, z-VAD-fmk prevents cell death induced by MG-132.
  • Finally, our data demonstrated in PEL cells that MG-132 downregulates the expression of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins XIAP, cIAP1 and survivin.
  • Altogether, these findings suggest that MG-132 is a potent inducer of apoptosis of PEL cells via downregulation of SKP2 leading to accumulation of p27Kip1, resulting in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and strongly suggest that targeting the proteasomal pathway may provide a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of PEL.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Apoptosis. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Leupeptins / pharmacology. Lymphoma, Primary Effusion / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Primary Effusion / pathology. S-Phase Kinase-Associated Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19557642.001).
  • [ISSN] 1029-2403
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia & lymphoma
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Lymphoma
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amino Acid Chloromethyl Ketones; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Leupeptins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / S-Phase Kinase-Associated Proteins; 0 / X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein; 0 / XIAP protein, human; 0 / benzyloxycarbonylvalyl-alanyl-aspartyl fluoromethyl ketone; 133407-82-6 / benzyloxycarbonylleucyl-leucyl-leucine aldehyde; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27; 9007-43-6 / Cytochromes c
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72. Bubman D, Guasparri I, Cesarman E: Deregulation of c-Myc in primary effusion lymphoma by Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus latency-associated nuclear antigen. Oncogene; 2007 Jul 26;26(34):4979-86
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  • Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare subtype of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, which is associated with infection by Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV)/human herpesvirus-8.
  • However, no structural abnormalities were found in the c-myc oncogene in PEL.
  • Given that c-Myc is often involved in lymphomagenesis, we hypothesized that it is deregulated in PEL.
  • We report that PEL cells have abnormally stable c-Myc protein.
  • Our data show that the impaired c-Myc degradation in PEL cells is associated with a significant underphosphorylation of c-Myc T58.
  • Conversely, when LANA is eliminated from PEL cells using RNA interference, GSK-3beta-mediated c-Myc T58 phosphorylation is restored.
  • The presence of c-Myc and LANA in GSK-3beta-containing complexes in PEL cells further confirms the significance of these interactions in naturally KSHV-infected cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] B-Lymphocytes / metabolism. B-Lymphocytes / virology. Cell Line. Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 / metabolism. Humans. RNA Interference. Threonine / metabolism


73. Tanaka PY, Atala MM, Pereira J, Caterino-de-Araujo A: Primary effusion lymphoma with cardiac involvement in HIV positive patient-complete response and long survival with chemotherapy and HAART. J Clin Virol; 2009 Jan;44(1):84-5
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  • Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare type of lymphoma related to herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8), and considered an AIDS-defining condition.
  • The authors describe a case of PEL with cardiac involvement occurring in an HIV-positive patient treated with HAART and chemotherapy, who achieved complete remission and long survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. HIV Infections / complications. HIV Infections / drug therapy. HIV Long-Term Survivors. Heart Neoplasms / secondary. Lymphoma, Primary Effusion / complications. Lymphoma, Primary Effusion / diagnosis


74. Roghani M, Niknam A, Jalali-Nadoushan MR, Kiasalari Z, Khalili M, Baluchnejadmojarad T: Oral pelargonidin exerts dose-dependent neuroprotection in 6-hydroxydopamine rat model of hemi-parkinsonism. Brain Res Bull; 2010 Jul 30;82(5-6):279-83
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  • Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neuropathological and debilitating disorder involving the degeneration of mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons.
  • Neuroprotective effect of pelargonidin (Pel) has already been reported, therefore, this study examined whether Pel administration would attenuate behavioural and structural abnormalities and markers of oxidative stress in an experimental model of PD in rat.
  • For this purpose, unilateral intrastriatal 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, 12.5mug/5mul of saline-ascorbate)-lesioned rats were pre-treated p.o. with Pel (10 and/or 20mg/kg).
  • Pel administration dose-dependently attenuated the rotational behavior in lesioned rats and protected the neurons of SNC against 6-OHDA toxicity.
  • In addition, pre-treatment with Pel (20mg/kg) significantly decreased the 6-OHDA-induced thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation, indicative of a neuroprotection against lipid peroxidation.
  • Furthermore, the increase of nitrite levels induced by 6-OHDA, indicate the nitric oxide formation and free radicals production and the decrease of antioxidant defense enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) was non-significantly prevented by Pel (20mg/kg).
  • In summary, Pel administration has a dose-dependent neuroprotective effect against 6-OHDA toxicity, partly through attenuating oxidative stress.
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Animals. Antiparkinson Agents / pharmacology. Apomorphine / pharmacology. Cell Count / methods. Disease Models, Animal. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Interactions. Lipid Peroxidation / drug effects. Male. Mesencephalon / drug effects. Mesencephalon / metabolism. Neurons / drug effects. Neurons / metabolism. Nitric Oxide / metabolism. Rats. Rats, Wistar. Statistics, Nonparametric. Superoxide Dismutase / metabolism. Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances / metabolism

  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. NITRIC OXIDE .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. APOMORPHINE .
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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20558255.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2747
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain research bulletin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Res. Bull.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anthocyanins; 0 / Antiparkinson Agents; 0 / Neuroprotective Agents; 0 / Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances; 31C4KY9ESH / Nitric Oxide; 7690-51-9 / pelargonidin; 8HW4YBZ748 / Oxidopamine; EC 1.15.1.1 / Superoxide Dismutase; N21FAR7B4S / Apomorphine
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75. Sirianni MC, Libi F, Campagna M, Rossi D, Capello D, Sciaranghella G, Carbone A, Simonelli C, Monini P, Gaidano G, Ensoli B: Downregulation of the major histocompatibility complex class I molecules by human herpesvirus type 8 and impaired natural killer cell activity in primary effusion lymphoma development. Br J Haematol; 2005 Jul;130(1):92-5
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  • [Title] Downregulation of the major histocompatibility complex class I molecules by human herpesvirus type 8 and impaired natural killer cell activity in primary effusion lymphoma development.
  • Primary effusion lymphomas (PELs) are invariably infected by human herpesvirus type 8 (HHV8) and often co-infected by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV).
  • We found that expression of major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I) surface molecules was significantly decreased in PEL cells when compared with HHV8 negative lymphomas, irrespective of EBV infection.
  • MHC-I downregulation rendered PEL cells sensitive to recognition and killing by natural killer (NK) cells.
  • Intriguingly, analysis of MHC-I non-restricted cytotoxicity in two PEL patients indicated a reduced NK cell activity when compared with healthy individuals.
  • These data suggest that PEL outgrowth may require an impaired NK cell function.
  • [MeSH-major] B-Lymphocytes / immunology. Herpesviridae Infections / immunology. Herpesvirus 8, Human. Histocompatibility Antigens Class I / analysis. Killer Cells, Natural / immunology. Lymphoma, B-Cell / immunology. Lymphoma, B-Cell / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers / analysis. Case-Control Studies. Cytotoxicity Tests, Immunologic. DNA, Viral / analysis. Down-Regulation. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / diagnosis. Epstein-Barr Virus Infections / immunology. Herpesvirus 4, Human / genetics. Humans. Serologic Tests

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  • [ErratumIn] Br J Haematol. 2005 Oct;131(2):282
  • (PMID = 16044583.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Histocompatibility Antigens Class I
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76. Carbone A, Gloghini A, Vaccher E, Cerri M, Gaidano G, Dalla-Favera R, Tirelli U: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus type 8-positive solid lymphomas: a tissue-based variant of primary effusion lymphoma. J Mol Diagn; 2005 Feb;7(1):17-27
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  • [Title] Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus type 8-positive solid lymphomas: a tissue-based variant of primary effusion lymphoma.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), also termed human herpesvirus type 8, is consistently identified in Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and multicentric Castleman's disease.
  • All KSHV-positive solid lymphomas exhibited PEL-like cell morphology.
  • To investigate the relationship of these disorders to PEL and to other AIDS-associated diffuse large cell lymphomas, KSHV-positive solid lymphomas were tested for the expression of a set of genes that were previously shown by gene profiling analysis to define PEL tumor cells.
  • The results showed that expression of this set of genes in KSHV-positive lymphomas is similar to that of PEL but distinct from KSHV-negative AIDS-associated diffuse large cell lymphomas.
  • Because pathobiological features of KSHV-positive solid lymphomas closely mimic those of PEL, our results suggest that KSHV-positive solid lymphomas should be considered as a tissue-based variant of classical PEL, irrespective of HIV status.

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  • (PMID = 15681470.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1578
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of molecular diagnostics : JMD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Mol Diagn
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA037295; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R37 CA037295; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-37295
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1876263
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77. Wies E, Mori Y, Hahn A, Kremmer E, Stürzl M, Fleckenstein B, Neipel F: The viral interferon-regulatory factor-3 is required for the survival of KSHV-infected primary effusion lymphoma cells. Blood; 2008 Jan 1;111(1):320-7
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  • Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8), also known as Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), is etiologically linked to primary effusion lymphoma (PEL).
  • However, with few exceptions, these putative oncogenes were analyzed in heterologous systems only using overexpression of single genes.
  • We used RNA interference (RNAi) to knock down the expression of several KSHV genes in cultured PEL cells carrying the KSHV genome.
  • The viral interferon-regulatory factor-3 (vIRF-3) was found to be required for proliferation and survival of cultured PEL cells.
  • Surprisingly, although the related Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is usually sufficient to immortalize human B lymphocytes, silencing of vIRF-3 reduced the viability of both EBV(-) and EBV(+) PEL cells.
  • This suggests that KSHV is the driving force in the pathogenesis of PEL.
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis. Burkitt Lymphoma. Caspase 3 / metabolism. Caspase 7 / metabolism. Cell Division. Cell Line, Tumor. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Gene Expression Regulation, Viral. Humans. Multiple Myeloma. RNA, Small Interfering. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 17890449.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interferon Regulatory Factors; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / Viral Proteins; 0 / viral interferon regulatory factors; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 7
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78. Nair P, Pan H, Stallings RL, Gao SJ: Recurrent genomic imbalances in primary effusion lymphomas. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2006 Dec;171(2):119-21
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  • Primary effusion lymphomas (PEL) form a subset of AIDS-related lymphomas and usually have a poor prognosis.
  • Although Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV) is often associated with PEL, very little is known about the exact mechanisms or causative effects of these associations.
  • We investigated the chromosomal imbalances in six KSHV-positive PEL cell lines using comparative genomic hybridization analysis.
  • The recurrent nature of the gains found in these chromosomal regions suggests that these imbalances play roles in the pathogenesis of PEL.

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  • (PMID = 17116491.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-4608
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA096512; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA096512-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA096512-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA124332; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA096512-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA096512-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA124332-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA096512-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA096512-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA132637
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS165930; NLM/ PMC2799290
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79. Mack AA, Sugden B: EBV is necessary for proliferation of dually infected primary effusion lymphoma cells. Cancer Res; 2008 Sep 1;68(17):6963-8
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  • Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) are found together in approximately 80% of primary effusion lymphomas (PEL), but their contribution to these cancers is unclear.
  • We found that dominant-negative derivatives of EBNA1 inhibited EBV-positive PEL cells from forming colonies.
  • Those rare PEL cells that proliferated after expression of the dominant-negative derivatives usually expressed these derivatives at low or undetectable levels and continued to maintain their EBV genomes.
  • Those proliferating cells expressing higher levels of the derivatives expressed mutant derivatives that could not bind DNA.
  • These findings indicate that EBV is required to sustain proliferation, as measured by colony formation of dually infected PEL cells.
  • Surprisingly, they did inhibit the colony-forming ability of EBV-negative, KSHV-positive PEL cells.
  • These findings indicate that the site-specific DNA-binding activity of EBNA1 or its derivatives when expressed efficiently in EBV-negative, KSHV-positive PEL cells inhibits their colony formation possibly through their binding to the KSHV genome.

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  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009135-26; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA022443-26; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443-280004; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443-260004; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009135-25; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA09135; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443-26; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA009135-27; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443-270004; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA022443-270004; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009135-24; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA022443-300004; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443-29; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443-210004; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA022443-27; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443-23S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443-267738; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA022443-260004; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443-220004; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443-22; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443-200004; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443-300004; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443-24; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA022443-23S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA009135-29; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA009135-25; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443-290004; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA009135-26; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443-24S10004; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443-25; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA022443-23; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA022443-290004; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA022443-24S10004; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443-30; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009135-28; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443-240004; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA022443-240004; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA022443-25; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009135-31A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443-250004; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA022443-23S10004; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA022443-250004; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA022443-230004; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA022443-220004; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443-27; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA009135-24; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443-230004; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443-28; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA022443-24; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009135-29; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA022443-210004; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA022443-22; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA022443-29; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA022443-267738; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443-23S10004; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA022443-280004; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA009135-30; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA009135-28; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009135-27; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA022443-24S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA022443-28; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443-24S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA022443-200004; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009135; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009135-30; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA009135-31A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA022443-23; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA22443
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / EBV-encoded nuclear antigen 1; 0 / Epstein-Barr Virus Nuclear Antigens
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS58012; NLM/ PMC2587434
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80. Takahashi-Makise N, Suzu S, Hiyoshi M, Ohsugi T, Katano H, Umezawa K, Okada S: Biscoclaurine alkaloid cepharanthine inhibits the growth of primary effusion lymphoma in vitro and in vivo and induces apoptosis via suppression of the NF-kappaB pathway. Int J Cancer; 2009 Sep 15;125(6):1464-72
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  • Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a unique and recently identified non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that was originally identified in patients with AIDS.
  • PEL is caused by the Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV/HHV-8) and shows a peculiar presentation involving liquid growth in the serous body cavity and a poor prognosis.
  • As the nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB pathway is activated in PEL and plays a central role in oncogenesis, we examined the effect of a biscoclaurine alkaloid, cepharanthine (CEP) on PEL derived cell lines (BCBL-1, TY-1 and RM-P1), in vitro and in vivo.
  • An methylthiotetrazole assay revealed that the cell proliferation of PEL cell lines was significantly suppressed by the addition of CEP (1-10 microg/ml).
  • CEP also inhibited NF-kappaB activation and induced apoptotic cell death in PEL cell lines.
  • We established a PEL animal model by intraperitoneal injection of BCBL-1, which led to the development of ascites and diffuse infiltration of organs, without obvious solid lymphoma formation, which resembles the diffuse nature of human PEL.
  • These results indicate that NF-kappaB could be an ideal molecular target for treating PEL and that CEP is quite useful as a unique therapeutic agent for PEL.

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  • [Copyright] 2009 UICC
  • (PMID = 19521981.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Benzylisoquinolines; 0 / Caspase Inhibitors; 0 / NF-kappa B; 7592YJ0J6T / cepharanthine; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases
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81. Dabaghmanesh N, Matsubara A, Miyake A, Nakano K, Ishida T, Katano H, Horie R, Umezawa K, Watanabe T: Transient inhibition of NF-kappaB by DHMEQ induces cell death of primary effusion lymphoma without HHV-8 reactivation. Cancer Sci; 2009 Apr;100(4):737-46
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a refractory malignancy caused by human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) in immunocompromised individuals.
  • The tumor cells of PEL are characterized by constitutive NF-kappaB activation.
  • Thus, in search for a new therapeutic modality of PEL, we examined the effect of DHMEQ on PEL cells.
  • We confirmed constitutive activation of NF-kappaB with subcomponents of p50 and p65 in PEL cell lines.
  • Array analysis revealed that DHMEQ down-regulated expression levels of NF-kappaB target genes, such as interleukin-6 (IL6), Myc, chemokine (C-C motif) receptor 5 (CCR5) and NF-kappaB1, whereas it up-regulated expression levels of some genes involved in apoptosis, and cell cycle arrest.
  • DHMEQ did not reactivate HHV-8 lytic genes, indicating that NF-kappaB inhibition by DHMEQ did not induce virus replication.
  • DHEMQ rescued CB-17 SCID mice xenografted with PEL cells, reducing the gross appearance of effusion.
  • In addition, DHMEQ could rescue the PEL-xenograft mice.
  • Therefore, we suggest DHMEQ as a promising candidate for molecular target therapy of the PEL.

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  • (PMID = 19469019.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7006
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Cyclohexanones; 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 8; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 9
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82. Towata T, Komizu Y, Suzu S, Matsumoto Y, Ueoka R, Okada S: Hybrid liposomes inhibit the growth of primary effusion lymphoma in vitro and in vivo. Leuk Res; 2010 Jul;34(7):906-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is an aggressive neoplasm caused by Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus 8 (KSHV/HHV-8) infection.
  • Hybrid liposomes (HL), composed of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) and polyoxyethylene dodecyl ether, inhibited PEL cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in vitro.
  • Intraperitoneal inoculation of the BCBL-1 PEL cell line into NOD/Scid/Jak3 deficient mice induced massive ascites, which were inhibited by HL21 without significant systemic toxicity in the mice.
  • These results suggest that HL21 is an effective and attractive reagent for PEL treatment.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20074798.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-5835
  • [Journal-full-title] Leukemia research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Leuk. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Liposomes; 0 / polyoxyethylene-10-dodecyl ether; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; EC 2.7.10.2 / Jak3 protein, mouse; EC 2.7.10.2 / Janus Kinase 3; U86ZGC74V5 / Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine
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83. Heuer A, Saksaengwijit A: Properties of ideal Gaussian glass-forming systems. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys; 2008 Jun;77(6 Pt 1):061507
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  • We introduce the ideal Gaussian glass-forming system as a model to describe the thermodynamics and dynamics of supercooled liquids on a local scale in terms of the properties of the potential energy landscape (PEL).
  • In this way it becomes possible to identify a relevant PEL parameter determining the kinetic fragility.

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  • (PMID = 18643272.001).
  • [ISSN] 1539-3755
  • [Journal-full-title] Physical review. E, Statistical, nonlinear, and soft matter physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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84. Carbone A, Gloghini A: HHV-8-associated lymphoma: state-of-the-art review. Acta Haematol; 2007;117(3):129-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • During the first decade after the discovery of primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), sporadic and serial reports suggested that Kaposi-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus/human-herpesvirus-8 (KSHV/HHV-8)-associated lymphomas in their liquid and solid presentation are clinically distinct, representing part of the spectrum of PEL.
  • In HIV-seropositive patients with serous effusions, these solid lymphomas were reported before the development of an effusion lymphoma and following resolution of PEL.

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  • [Copyright] 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel
  • (PMID = 17135725.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9662
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta haematologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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85. Inoue S, Miyamoto T, Yoshino T, Yamadori I, Hagari Y, Yamamoto O: Primary effusion lymphoma with skin involvement. J Clin Pathol; 2006 Nov;59(11):1221-2
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  • Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) was once defined as a body cavity-based lymphoma without identifiable contiguous tumour mass, but is now recognised as an independent clinicopathological entity.
  • The case of a 67-year-old Japanese woman with PEL is reported, in which the clinical findings showed a pericardial effusion and multiple erythema on the hypogastrium and inguinal region.
  • No tumour mass was observed during the course of her disease.

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  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
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86. Youngster I, Vaisben E, Cohen H, Nassar F: An unusual cause of pleural effusion. Age Ageing; 2006 Jan;35(1):94-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a unique clinicopathological entity associated with human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) infection, occurring almost exclusively in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals.
  • We report a rare case of HHV-8-negative PEL in an HIV-negative elderly patient who presented with pleural effusion.
  • As opposed to the general poor outcome of this disease, our patient achieved complete remission and is still without signs of disease 11 months after the last treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / complications. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cyclophosphamide / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Follow-Up Studies. HIV. Humans. Male. Prednisone / therapeutic use. Vincristine / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16364944.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-0729
  • [Journal-full-title] Age and ageing
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Age Ageing
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; CHOP protocol
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87. O'Hara AJ, Wang L, Dezube BJ, Harrington WJ Jr, Damania B, Dittmer DP: Tumor suppressor microRNAs are underrepresented in primary effusion lymphoma and Kaposi sarcoma. Blood; 2009 Jun 4;113(23):5938-41
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  • We show that the absence of miRNAs likewise can be used to determine tumor origin (miR-155) and proliferation state because tumor suppressor miRNAs (miR-222/221, let-7 family) were significantly down-regulated in primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) and in Kaposi sarcoma (KS), an endothelial cell tumor.
  • PEL and KS are associated with KS-associated herpesvirus infection.
  • Because many tumor suppressor proteins are wild-type in KS and PEL, down-regulation of multiple tumor suppressor miRNAs provides a novel, alternative mechanism of transformation.

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  • (PMID = 19252139.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-0020
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL083469; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109232-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109232; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE018304; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE018304-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA096500; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE018304-01; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE018304; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109232-05; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE018304-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109232; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA121935; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA121947; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE018304-03; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE018304-02; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / T32 AI00741; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL083469; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA121935; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA121947; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE018304-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA096500
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MicroRNAs
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2700328
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88. Davis DA, Singer KE, Reynolds IP, Haque M, Yarchoan R: Hypoxia enhances the phosphorylation and cytotoxicity of ganciclovir and zidovudine in Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infected cells. Cancer Res; 2007 Jul 15;67(14):7003-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a rare B-cell lymphoma caused by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV).
  • PEL is poorly responsive to standard cytotoxic chemotherapy and portends a poor survival.
  • It is known that KSHV encodes two lytic genes, ORF36 (phosphotransferase) and KSHV ORF21 (thymidine kinase), which can phosphorylate ganciclovir and azidothymidine, respectively.
  • Here, we have explored whether these genes can be used as therapeutic targets for PEL.
  • PEL arises in pleural spaces and other effusions that provide a hypoxic environment.
  • Based on Northern blot analysis, exposure of PEL cells to hypoxia up-regulated the expression of both ORF36 and ORF21.
  • Using a newly developed nonradioactive reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method to separate and quantify the phosphorylated forms of ganciclovir and azidothymidine, we found that PEL cells exposed to hypoxia produced increased amounts of the toxic triphosphates of these drugs.
  • Moreover, we found that hypoxia increased the cell toxicity of ganciclovir and azidothymidine in PEL cells but had no significant effect on the herpesvirus-negative cell line CA46.
  • These findings may have clinical applicability in the development of effective therapies for PEL or other KSHV-related malignancies.

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  • (PMID = 17638913.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 4B9XT59T7S / Zidovudine; P9G3CKZ4P5 / Ganciclovir
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89. Tinari A, Superti F, Ammendolia MG, Chiozzini C, Hohenadl C, Leone P, Nappi F, Nicoletti M, Borsetti A, Marchetti M, Ensoli B, Monini P: Primary effusion lymphoma cells undergoing human herpesvirus type 8 productive infection produce C-type retroviral particles. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol; 2008 Oct-Dec;21(4):999-1006
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary effusion lymphoma cells undergoing human herpesvirus type 8 productive infection produce C-type retroviral particles.
  • Primary effusion lymphomas (PELs) are invariably infected by the human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8)that is present in most PEL cells as latent virus but replicates in a subset of permissive cells to produce infectious progeny.
  • Here we show that productively infected PEL cells release C-type retrovirus-like particles encoding an Mn++-dependent RT activity, which is typical of endogenous retroviruses.
  • Strikingly, C-type particles are produced only in cells showing advanced HHV8 morphogenesis.
  • Phorbol esters, which induce productive HHV8 replication and morphogenesis in PEL cells, increase RLP production.
  • Phosphonoacetic acid, a blocker of HHV8 late gene expression, inhibits the production of C-type particles, whereas neutralizing anti-alphaIFN antibodies, which are known to increase HHV8 assembly, increases C-type particle production.
  • These data suggest that factors expressed in advanced stages of HHV8 reactivation support endogenous C-type particle morphogenesis in PEL cells.

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  • (PMID = 19144286.001).
  • [ISSN] 0394-6320
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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90. Matta H, Chaudhary PM: The proteasome inhibitor bortezomib (PS-341) inhibits growth and induces apoptosis in primary effusion lymphoma cells. Cancer Biol Ther; 2005 Jan;4(1):77-82
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  • Here we show that Bortezomib (PS-341), a proteasome-inhibitor, inhibits cellular proliferation and induces apoptosis in cell lines derived from Primary Effusion Lymphoma (PEL), a subtype of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma associated with infection by human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8).
  • Bortezomib demonstrated more cytotoxicity against PEL cells than against cell lines derived from multiple myeloma, a disease for which is in current clinical use.
  • Finally, treatment of PEL cells with Bortezomib exerted a synergistic or additive cytotoxic effect in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs or TRAIL.
  • Taken together, these findings suggest that Bortezomib represents a promising agent for the treatment of PEL.

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  • [CommentIn] Cancer Biol Ther. 2005 Apr;4(4):491-2 [15908793.001]
  • (PMID = 15662128.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-4047
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biology & therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA85177
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Boronic Acids; 0 / Pyrazines; 69G8BD63PP / Bortezomib
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91. Sukhumsiirchart W, Kawanishi S, Deesukon W, Chansiri K, Kawasaki H, Sakamoto T: Purification, characterization, and overexpression of thermophilic pectate lyase of Bacillus sp. RN1 isolated from a hot spring in Thailand. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem; 2009 Feb;73(2):268-73
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  • [Title] Purification, characterization, and overexpression of thermophilic pectate lyase of Bacillus sp. RN1 isolated from a hot spring in Thailand.
  • A thermophilic pectate lyase, Pel SWU, was isolated from a culture filtrate of Bacillus sp.
  • The molecular mass of Pel SWU was estimated to be 33 kDa.
  • The pel gene encoding Pel SWU was 1,023 bp, which corresponds to 341 amino acids.
  • The properties of the recombinant enzyme was similar to those of Bacillus Pel SWU.
  • Unsaturated di- and trigalacturonic acids were formed mainly as the final products of degradation by Pel SWU, as revealed by high-performance anion-exchange chromatography (HPAEC) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) analyses.
  • This thermophilic pectate lyase should be useful in the degradation of pectin networks at high temperature.
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Base Sequence. Gene Expression. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Molecular Sequence Data. Phylogeny. Recombinant Proteins / chemistry. Recombinant Proteins / genetics. Recombinant Proteins / isolation & purification. Recombinant Proteins / metabolism. Temperature. Thailand

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  • (PMID = 19202269.001).
  • [ISSN] 1347-6947
  • [Journal-full-title] Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Recombinant Proteins; EC 4.2.2.- / Polysaccharide-Lyases; EC 4.2.2.2 / pectate lyase
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92. Lietz A, Janz M, Sigvardsson M, Jundt F, Dörken B, Mathas S: Loss of bHLH transcription factor E2A activity in primary effusion lymphoma confers resistance to apoptosis. Br J Haematol; 2007 May;137(4):342-8
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  • Similar to classical Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) tumour cells, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) originates from mature B cells but displays a non-B cell phenotype, the mechanisms and consequences of which are not yet understood.
  • This study showed that PEL lacked DNA binding activity of the B cell-determining transcription factors E2A, EBF and Pax5.
  • PEL overexpressed the E2A antagonists ABF-1 and Id2, which have been described to block the B-cell differentiation program in classical HL.
  • However, in contrast to HL cells, B lineage-inappropriate genes were not similarly upregulated in PEL, and reconstitution of B cell-specific E2A homodimer activity in PEL induced apoptosis.
  • These data demonstrate that lineage infidelity in PEL is not as pronounced as in HL, and that the loss of the B cell-specific transcription factor E2A in PEL is implicated in apoptosis protection.
  • [MeSH-major] Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors / genetics. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Lymphoma / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis. B-Cell-Specific Activator Protein / genetics. B-Cell-Specific Activator Protein / metabolism. B-Lymphocytes / metabolism. B-Lymphocytes / pathology. Blotting, Northern. Cell Differentiation. Cell Line. Cells, Cultured. DNA / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay. Gene Deletion. Humans. T-Lymphocytes / metabolism. T-Lymphocytes / pathology. Trans-Activators / genetics. Trans-Activators / metabolism. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 17456056.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1048
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of haematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Haematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / B-Cell-Specific Activator Protein; 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / EBF1 protein, human; 0 / PAX5 protein, human; 0 / TCF3 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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93. Ahmad A, Groshong JS, Matta H, Schamus S, Punj V, Robinson LJ, Gill PS, Chaudhary PM: Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-encoded viral FLICE inhibitory protein (vFLIP) K13 cooperates with Myc to promote lymphoma in mice. Cancer Biol Ther; 2010 Nov 15;10(10):1033-40
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  • Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is an aggressive form of lymphoma that is associated with infection by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV).
  • One of the KSHV genes expressed in PEL cells is K13, a potent activator of the NF-κB pathway.
  • A possible candidate that could cooperate with K13 in the development of PEL is c-Myc, whose expression is frequently dysregulated in PEL cells.
  • To study the cooperative interaction between K13 and c-Myc in the pathogenesis of PEL, we crossed the K13 transgenic mice to iMyc(Eμ) transgenic mice that overexpress Myc.
  • Lymphomas in the K13/iMyc(Eμ) mice also lacked the expression of B- and T-cell markers, thus resembling the immunophenotype of PEL.

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  • (PMID = 20818173.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-8576
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biology & therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biol. Ther.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA085177; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R21 HL085189; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA85177; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL085189
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / NF-kappa B; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-myc; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Viral Proteins; 0 / viral FLIP protein, Human herpesvirus 8
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3047095
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94. Zhang Z, Yang J, Xu L, Liu Y, Yan Y: [Cloning, codon optimization and expression of mature lipase gene Penicillium expansum]. Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao; 2010 Feb;50(2):228-35
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  • [Title] [Cloning, codon optimization and expression of mature lipase gene Penicillium expansum].
  • OBJECTIVE: To clone Penicillum expansum CICC 40356 lipase (PEL) gene cDNA and to over-express active lipase in Pichia pastoris GS115.
  • METHODS: Primers were designed according to the nucleotide sequence of reported lipase gene from Penicillum.
  • Ten rare codons of PEL and nine of the alpha-signal peptide were optimized by PCR.
  • The native and codon-optimized PEL genes were respectively cloned into pPIC9K, pPIC9KM, and pPIC3.5K vectors.
  • RESULTS: Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed that the PEL cDNA contained an 858 bp open reading frame.
  • The hydrolysis activity of PEL was enhanced with codon-optimization.
  • CONCLUSION: The activity of PEL was improved 2.3-2.5 folds compared to that of the wild type, suggesting that the codon optimization is an efficient measure to produce the active PEL in P. pastoris system.
  • [MeSH-major] Cloning, Molecular. Codon. Fungal Proteins / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Lipase / genetics. Penicillium / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 20387466.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6209
  • [Journal-full-title] Wei sheng wu xue bao = Acta microbiologica Sinica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Codon; 0 / Fungal Proteins; EC 3.1.1.3 / Lipase
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95. Apaydin N, Uz A, Evirgen O, Loukas M, Tubbs RS, Elhan A: The phrenico-esophageal ligament: an anatomical study. Surg Radiol Anat; 2008 Feb;30(1):29-36
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  • The phrenico-esophageal ligament (PEL), which is claimed by some to be an important anti-reflux barrier, has been accepted as an important structure by some surgeons dealing with the surgical treatment of hiatal hernias.
  • The aim of this study was to define this anatomic structure and to point out the clinical importance of the PEL.
  • The PEL was observed to be derived from the transversalis and endothoracic fascia attaching the esophagus to the diaphragmatic crura at the region of the esophageal hiatus.
  • The endothoracic fascia turned superiorly at the level of esophageal hiatus and attached on to the esophagus by uniting with the upper leaflet of the transversalis fascia in 11 of the specimens.
  • In three of the specimens, it attached on the esophagus at a higher level than the transversalis fascia.
  • The histologic sections of our study revealed that the PEL is formed by collagen and elastic fibers composed of fibroblasts and blood vessels.
  • Since the PEL is a strong structure that firmly attached to the esophageal wall and surrounded the upper part of the distal esophagus like a skirt, it is reasonable that it may play an important role in the gastroesophageal sphincteric mechanism.
  • Histological evidence for decrease in collagen fibers with age and the loose arrangement of the elastic fibers due to this decrement might decrease the resistance and the elasticity of the PEL.

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  • (PMID = 18058057.001).
  • [ISSN] 0930-1038
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical and radiologic anatomy : SRA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Radiol Anat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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96. Hussain AR, Al-Jomah NA, Siraj AK, Manogaran P, Al-Hussein K, Abubaker J, Platanias LC, Al-Kuraya KS, Uddin S: Sanguinarine-dependent induction of apoptosis in primary effusion lymphoma cells. Cancer Res; 2007 Apr 15;67(8):3888-97
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  • Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is an incurable, aggressive B-cell malignancy that develops rapid resistance to conventional chemotherapy.
  • In efforts to identify novel approaches to block proliferation of PEL cells, we found that sanguinarine, a natural compound isolated from the root plant Sanguinaria canadendid, inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner in several PEL cell lines.
  • Our data show that sanguinarine treatment of PEL cells results in up-regulation of death receptor 5 (DR5) expression via generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and causes activation of caspase-8 and truncation of Bid (tBid).
  • In addition, we show that pretreatment of PEL cells with carbobenzoxy-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone, a universal inhibitor of caspases, abrogates caspase and PARP activation and prevents cell death induced by sanguinarine.
  • Moreover, treatment of PEL cells with sanguinarine down-regulates expression of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAP).
  • Taken together, our findings suggest that sanguinarine is a potent inducer of apoptosis of PEL cells via up-regulation of DR5 and raise the possibility that this agent may be of value in the development of novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of PEL.
  • [MeSH-minor] BH3 Interacting Domain Death Agonist Protein / metabolism. Caspases / metabolism. Cell Growth Processes / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Collagen Type XI / metabolism. Cytochromes c / metabolism. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Enzyme Activation / drug effects. Exudates and Transudates / cytology. Humans. Isoenzymes / metabolism. Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial / drug effects. Mitochondria / drug effects. Mitochondria / metabolism. Mitochondria / physiology. Molecular Conformation. Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism. Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand / biosynthesis. Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand / genetics. Signal Transduction / drug effects. Up-Regulation / drug effects. bcl-2-Associated X Protein / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17440103.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Alkaloids; 0 / BAX protein, human; 0 / BH3 Interacting Domain Death Agonist Protein; 0 / BID protein, human; 0 / Benzophenanthridines; 0 / COL11A2 protein, human; 0 / Collagen Type XI; 0 / Isoenzymes; 0 / Isoquinolines; 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; 0 / Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand; 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein; 9007-43-6 / Cytochromes c; AV9VK043SS / sanguinarine; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases
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97. Cho HJ, Yu F, Sun R, Lee D, Song MJ: Lytic induction of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus in primary effusion lymphoma cells with natural products identified by a cell-based fluorescence moderate-throughput screening. Arch Virol; 2008;153(8):1517-25
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  • Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) has been linked to Kaposi's sarcoma primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and multicentric Castleman's disease.
  • In this study, we used a cell-based fluorescence bioassay system in which a KSHV-infected PEL cell line was stably transfected with a potent viral-promoter-driven reporter gene to identify effective non-toxic reagents capable of inducing latent KSHV.
  • Among 400 plant extracts screened, three extracts increased reporter gene expression in a dose-dependent manner.
  • Furthermore, the three extracts activated the RTA promoter and induced expression of lytic genes in the endogenous viral genomes of KSHV-infected tumor cells.
  • Together, our results demonstrate the effectiveness of a moderate-throughput screening system to identify natural products capable of inducing KSHV reactivation, thereby facilitating the development of novel therapeutic agents for KSHV-associated malignancies.
  • [MeSH-minor] Fluorescence. Gene Expression Regulation, Viral / drug effects. Lymphoma / pathology. Plant Extracts / pharmacology. RNA, Viral / genetics. RNA, Viral / metabolism. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 18607675.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-8608
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biological Products; 0 / Plant Extracts; 0 / RNA, Viral
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98. Chen W, Hilton IB, Staudt MR, Burd CE, Dittmer DP: Distinct p53, p53:LANA, and LANA complexes in Kaposi's Sarcoma--associated Herpesvirus Lymphomas. J Virol; 2010 Apr;84(8):3898-908
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  • The role of p53 in primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is complicated.
  • Despite this interaction, we had found that p53 was functional in PEL, i.e., able to induce apoptosis in response to DNA damage (C. E.
  • To further elucidate the relationship between LANA, p53, and hdm2, we purified LANA complexes from PEL by column chromatography.
  • The half-life of p53 was not extended, which is in contrast to the half-life of simian virus 40 T antigen-transformed cells. p53:p53, LANA:p53, and LANA:LANA complexes coexisted in PEL, and each protein was able to bind to its cognate DNA element.
  • These data suggest that under normal conditions, p53 is inactive in PEL, thus allowing for exponential growth, but that this inactivation is driven by the relative stoichiometries of LANA, hdm2, and p53.