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1. Niimi Y, Kawana S: Type 2 segmental manifestation of disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis in a 7-year-old girl. Eur J Dermatol; 2009 Jan-Feb;19(1):25-8
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  • [Title] Type 2 segmental manifestation of disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis in a 7-year-old girl.
  • We report here a rare case of porokeratosis in which two different clinical types of porokeratosis (linear porokeratosis and disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis) coexisted.
  • A 7-year-old girl developed a centrifugal lesion on her left abdomen at the age of 2, disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis on her face at the age of 3 after ultraviolet exposure, and linear porokeratosis on her left body at the age of 5.
  • We consider that this case may represent a type 2 segmental manifestation of disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis.

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  • (PMID = 19059828.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-1122
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of dermatology : EJD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dermatologic Agents; 103909-75-7 / maxacalcitol; FXC9231JVH / Calcitriol
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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2. Shoimer I, Rosen N, Muhn C: Current management of actinic keratoses. Skin Therapy Lett; 2010 May;15(5):5-7
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  • [Title] Current management of actinic keratoses.
  • An actinic keratosis (AK) is a pre-malignant cutaneous lesion that frequently manifests in sun-exposed areas of the skin as a small, rough, scaly erythematous papule.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / prevention & control. Keratosis, Actinic / therapy. Skin Neoplasms / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 20505896.001).
  • [ISSN] 1201-5989
  • [Journal-full-title] Skin therapy letter
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skin Therapy Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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3. Ulrich C, Forschner T, Ulrich M, Stockfleth E, Sterry W, Termeer C: Management of actinic cheilitis using diclofenac 3% gel: a report of six cases. Br J Dermatol; 2007 May;156 Suppl 3:43-6
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  • [Title] Management of actinic cheilitis using diclofenac 3% gel: a report of six cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic cheilitis is a frequent manifestation of actinic dysplasia and requires early therapy to prevent its progression into invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • Several therapies are used, ranging from unspecific lesion-adapted destructive techniques (i.e. laser) to ambitious surgical field-management (vermillionectomy).
  • Diclofenac 3% gel is used in the treatment of actinic keratosis (AK), but it has not been evaluated for the treatment of actinic cheilitis.
  • OBJECTIVES: This non-blinded, uncontrolled case series study evaluated the effects of diclofenac 3% gel in the treatment of actinic cheilitis.
  • PATIENTS/METHODS: Six patients with histologically verified actinic cheilitis were treated with diclofenac 3% gel, twice daily for 6 weeks.
  • RESULTS: Four out of six patients showed clinical clearing of actinic cheilitis 2-4 weeks after the end of treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Topical therapy with diclofenac 3% gel may be an efficient, cosmetically more appealing alternative treatment for actinic cheilitis than currently used destructive therapies.

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  • (PMID = 17488406.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Gels; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac
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4. Berlin JM, Rigel DS: Diclofenac sodium 3% gel in the treatment of actinic keratoses postcryosurgery. J Drugs Dermatol; 2008 Jul;7(7):669-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diclofenac sodium 3% gel in the treatment of actinic keratoses postcryosurgery.
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic keratoses are increasingly common skin lesions that are evaluated and treated by dermatologists on a daily basis.
  • It is estimated that more than 90% of actinic keratoses in the US are treated by destructive therapies, such as cryosurgery.
  • A total of 714 subjects who had a clinical diagnosis of actinic keratosis with between 5 and 15 lesions contained in a target area such as the forehead, scalp, and hands were enrolled in the study.
  • Lesion counts were assessed at baseline, and 45, 75, 105, and 135 days after cryosurgery.
  • At the conclusion of the study, 46% of the subjects in the cryosurgery followed by the use of diclofenac sodium 3% gel arm achieved 100% cumulative (target plus new lesions) lesion clearance compared to 21% in the cryosurgery alone arm (P < .0001).
  • One hundred percent target lesion clearance was achieved in 64% of the subjects in the active arm compared to 32% in the cryosurgery alone arm (P < .0001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: With the increased prevalence of actinic keratoses, it is important to consider and evaluate emerging therapeutic options.
  • The sequential treatment with cryosurgery followed by diclofenac sodium 3% gel for 90 days is well tolerated and can provide a therapeutic modality that may provide patients with actinic keratoses a more successful outcome than monotherapy with cryosurgery by effectively treating clinical and subclinical lesions.

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  • (PMID = 18664159.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-9616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Drugs Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase IV; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Gels; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac
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5. Alotaibi L, Provost N, Gagnon S, Franco EL, Coutlée F: Diversity of cutaneous human papillomavirus types in individuals with and without skin lesion. J Clin Virol; 2006 Jun;36(2):133-40
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  • [Title] Diversity of cutaneous human papillomavirus types in individuals with and without skin lesion.
  • RESULTS: Seventy-five (92.6%) of 81 subjects provided samples that could be analysed with PCR (34 healthy controls <50 years old, 13 healthy controls > or =50 years old, 12 with actinic keratosis (AK), 8 with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 8 renal transplant recipients).

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  • (PMID = 16678481.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-6532
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical virology : the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / DNA, Viral
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6. Quaedvlieg PJ, Tirsi E, Thissen MR, Krekels GA: Actinic keratosis: how to differentiate the good from the bad ones? Eur J Dermatol; 2006 Jul-Aug;16(4):335-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Actinic keratosis: how to differentiate the good from the bad ones?
  • Our objective was to obtain practical clinical parameters to indicate those actinic keratoses (AK) that are at risk of becoming invasive.
  • Only 1 study (meta-analysis) examined the percentage of malignant transformation and found a rate between 0.025% and 20% per year/per lesion.
  • The amount of quality research on the most common premalignant lesion in humans is disappointing.

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  • (PMID = 16935787.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-1122
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of dermatology : EJD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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7. Dixon A: Rare skin cancers in general practice. Aust Fam Physician; 2007 Mar;36(3):141-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Mr LA has long been troubled with actinic damage to his skin, especially his face.
  • On this occasion Mr LA had two actinic lesions on his left cheek that failed to respond to cryotherapy.
  • Histology of the superior lesion revealed sebaceous carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 17339977.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8495
  • [Journal-full-title] Australian family physician
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aust Fam Physician
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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8. Huber MA: White oral lesions, actinic cheilitis, and leukoplakia: confusions in terminology and definition: facts and controversies. Clin Dermatol; 2010 May-Jun;28(3):262-8
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  • [Title] White oral lesions, actinic cheilitis, and leukoplakia: confusions in terminology and definition: facts and controversies.
  • Although most encountered white oral lesions are innocuous, some potentially serious conditions may mimic an innocuous white lesion.
  • As examples, oral lichen planus may cause significant patient discomfort and is associated with some degree of increased malignant risk, whereas actinic cheilitis and leukoplakia have a confirmed association with an increased malignant risk.


9. Wennberg AM, Stenquist B, Stockfleth E, Keohane S, Lear JT, Jemec G, Mork C, Christensen E, Kapp A, Solvsten H, Talme T, Berne B, Forschner T: Photodynamic therapy with methyl aminolevulinate for prevention of new skin lesions in transplant recipients: a randomized study. Transplantation; 2008 Aug 15;86(3):423-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: This open randomized, intrapatient, comparative, multicenter study included 81 transplant recipients with 889 lesions (90% actinic keratoses (AK)].
  • The control, 50 cm2 area (n=413 lesions) received lesion-specific treatment (83% cryotherapy) at baseline and 3, 9, and 15 months.
  • Additionally, all visible lesions were given lesion-specific treatment 21 and 27 months in both treatment and control areas.

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  • (PMID = 18698246.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-1337
  • [Journal-full-title] Transplantation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transplantation
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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10. Warren CB, Lohser S, Wene LC, Pogue BW, Bailin PL, Maytin EV: Noninvasive fluorescence monitoring of protoporphyrin IX production and clinical outcomes in actinic keratoses following short-contact application of 5-aminolevulinate. J Biomed Opt; 2010 Sep-Oct;15(5):051607
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  • [Title] Noninvasive fluorescence monitoring of protoporphyrin IX production and clinical outcomes in actinic keratoses following short-contact application of 5-aminolevulinate.
  • Topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is widely used in photodynamic therapy (PDT) of actinic keratoses (AK), a type of premalignant skin lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / administration & dosage. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Keratosis, Actinic / metabolism. Photochemotherapy / methods. Protoporphyrins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 21054081.001).
  • [ISSN] 1560-2281
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biomedical optics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Biomed Opt
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA084203
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protoporphyrins; 553-12-8 / protoporphyrin IX; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2955723
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11. Uhlenhake EE, Sangueza OP, Lee AD, Jorizzo JL: Spreading pigmented actinic keratosis: a review. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2010 Sep;63(3):499-506
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Spreading pigmented actinic keratosis: a review.
  • INTRODUCTION: Spreading pigmented actinic keratosis (SPAK) is a common, but uncommonly reported or appreciated, variant of classic actinic keratosis (AK).
  • METHODS: A literature search was performed in both PubMed and MEDLINE databases using the search terms "spreading pigmented actinic keratosis," "pigmented solar keratosis," "pigmented actinic," and "pigmented solar."
  • RESULTS: SPAK is a rarely reported lesion that can be difficult to distinguish from other benign and malignant pigmented lesions, including seborrheic keratosis, melanoma in situ (lentigo maligna type), and lentigo maligna melanoma.
  • Located mainly on sun-exposed areas and with a size greater than 1.5 cm, the lesion typically spreads laterally.
  • Pathologically, the lesion resembles classic AK with increased basal melanization.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Hutchinson's Melanotic Freckle / pathology. Keratosis, Actinic / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology


12. Dubauskas Z, Kunishige J, Prieto VG, Jonasch E, Hwu P, Tannir NM: Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and inflammation of actinic keratoses associated with sorafenib. Clin Genitourin Cancer; 2009 Jan;7(1):20-3
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  • [Title] Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and inflammation of actinic keratoses associated with sorafenib.
  • Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and inflammation of actinic keratosis (AK) were reported in 2 patients treated with sorafenib (Lacouture et al), but the scope of this observation has not been evaluated.
  • One patient receiving sorafenib at a 25% dose reduction developed a second invasive SCC lesion on his forearm 6 months after the initial resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Benzenesulfonates / adverse effects. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / chemically induced. Drug Eruptions / etiology. Keratosis, Actinic / chemically induced. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / adverse effects. Pyridines / adverse effects. Skin Neoplasms / chemically induced

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  • [CommentIn] Clin Genitourin Cancer. 2009 Jan;7(1):9-10 [19213661.001]
  • (PMID = 19213663.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-7673
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical genitourinary cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Genitourin Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzenesulfonates; 0 / Phenylurea Compounds; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyridines; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; 9ZOQ3TZI87 / sorafenib
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS773866; NLM/ PMC4825856
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13. de Freitas Mda C, Ramalho LM, Xavier FC, Moreira AL, Reis SR: p53 and MDM2 protein expression in actinic cheilitis. J Appl Oral Sci; 2008 Nov-Dec;16(6):414-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] p53 and MDM2 protein expression in actinic cheilitis.
  • Actinic cheilitis is a potentially malignant lip lesion caused by excessive and prolonged exposure to ultraviolet radiation, which can lead to histomorphological alterations indicative of abnormal cell differentiation.
  • There are few published studies regarding the p53 and MDM2 proteins in actinic cheilitis.
  • Fifty-eight cases diagnosed with actinic cheilitis were histologically evaluated using Banóczy and Csiba (1976) parameters, and were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis using the streptavidin-biotin method in order to assess p53 and MDM2 protein expression.
  • The expression of p53 and MDM2 proteins in actinic cheilitis can be an important indicator in lip carcinogenesis, regardless of the degree of epithelial dysplasia.

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  • (PMID = 19082401.001).
  • [ISSN] 1678-7765
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of applied oral science : revista FOB
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Appl Oral Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Chromatin; 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 6.3.2.19 / MDM2 protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4327713
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14. Sidoroff A, Thaler P: Taking treatment decisions in non-melanoma skin cancer--the place for topical photodynamic therapy (PDT). Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther; 2010 Mar;7(1):24-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Epithelial non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) like actinic keratosis (AK), Bowen's disease (BD) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) represent the most common malignancies in the fair skinned population.
  • Epidemiological data reveal high incidences, especially for actinic keratoses, which are basically non-invasive squamous cell carcinomas, but fortunately bear a low risk of mortality for a single lesion.

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  • [Copyright] 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • [CommentIn] Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther. 2010 Mar;7(1):15 [20230988.001]
  • (PMID = 20230990.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-1597
  • [Journal-full-title] Photodiagnosis and photodynamic therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac
  • [Number-of-references] 98
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15. Dianzani C, Pierangeli A, Chiricozzi A, Avola A, Degener AM: Cutaneous human papillomaviruses as recurrence factor in actinic keratoses. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol; 2008 Jan-Mar;21(1):145-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cutaneous human papillomaviruses as recurrence factor in actinic keratoses.
  • Actinic keratoses (AK) are common, premalignant lesions cause mainly by UV DNA damage.
  • The aim of this work is to identify the presence of HPV DNA in biopsies from Actinic Keratoses (AK) and from normal skin samples collected from dermatological healthy subjects in Italy, in order to evaluate the severity and the clinical evolution of the HPV positive lesions.
  • These data permit to hypothesize that the presence of HPV DNA could be an aggravating factor for AK lesion severity and recurrence.

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  • (PMID = 18336740.001).
  • [ISSN] 0394-6320
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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16. Ulrich M, Forschner T, Röwert-Huber J, González S, Stockfleth E, Sterry W, Astner S: Differentiation between actinic keratoses and disseminated superficial actinic porokeratoses with reflectance confocal microscopy. Br J Dermatol; 2007 May;156 Suppl 3:47-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Differentiation between actinic keratoses and disseminated superficial actinic porokeratoses with reflectance confocal microscopy.
  • BACKGROUND: Clinical differentiation between actinic keratosis (AK) and disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis (DSAP) may pose a significant challenge, and histological evaluation is often also required for diagnosis.
  • OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the relevant RCM criteria for the identification of disseminated superficial actinic porokeratoses (DSAPs) and to define distinguishing criteria for DSAPs compared with actinic keratosis (AKs).
  • All lesions were evaluated by clinical examination, and RCM and one clinically identified lesion was biopsied for histological confirmation.
  • RESULTS: Cellular and nuclear atypia, inflammation, spongiosis, parakeratosis and changes in epidermal architecture were present in both lesion types (i.e.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Distinguishing features of DSAPs, such as cornoid lamella, sharp demarcation of the lesion and focal keratinocyte atypia are easily identifiable using RCM, and correlate well with histopathology.

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  • (PMID = 17488407.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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17. Khondker L, Wahab MA, Khan SI: Profile of lichen planus in Bangladesh. Mymensingh Med J; 2010 Apr;19(2):250-3
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  • Regarding site of onset of lesion, lesions were highest 100(83.33%) in upper limbs, next lower limbs, trunk, oral mucosa etc.
  • The distribution of clinical pattern of lichen planus showing classic pattern (68.33%) was the most common type, followed by hypertrophic, actinic, ashy dermatoses, lichen plano-pilaris, erosive or ulcerative etc.
  • This clinico-epidemiological study of lichen planus attending in the different hospital in Dhaka, Bangladesh has shown that lichen planus is usually associated with 30 to 50 years of age group, with higher male prevalence than female, 15 days to 6 months are mainly duration of disease, koebnerization and Wickhams striae are common clinical signs, upper limbs is mainly the site of onset of lesion, and classic pattern is the most common clinical type in lichen planus.

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  • (PMID = 20395921.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-4742
  • [Journal-full-title] Mymensingh medical journal : MMJ
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mymensingh Med J
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Bangladesh
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18. Ortonne JP, Gupta G, Ortonne N, Duteil L, Queille C, Mallefet P: Effectiveness of cross polarized light and fluorescence diagnosis for detection of sub-clinical and clinical actinic keratosis during imiquimod treatment. Exp Dermatol; 2010 Jul 1;19(7):641-7
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  • [Title] Effectiveness of cross polarized light and fluorescence diagnosis for detection of sub-clinical and clinical actinic keratosis during imiquimod treatment.
  • BACKGROUND: During treatment of actinic keratosis (AK) lesions with imiquimod sub-clinical lesions often become visible.
  • Patients were assessed for baseline AK lesion counts (clinical and sub-clinical) at the screening visit and final counts at week 20.
  • The FD lesion counting method did not show a significant increase in the number of detected lesions compared with clinical analysis in the imiquimod and placebo groups but when comparisons were performed using pooled data (treatments and visits combined) the results were significant.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Keratosis, Actinic / diagnosis. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20201959.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Levulinic Acids; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 3Q95S830W6 / methyl levulinate; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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19. Campione E, Diluvio L, Paternò EJ, Chimenti S: Topical treatment of actinic keratoses with piroxicam 1% gel: a preliminary open-label study utilizing a new clinical score. Am J Clin Dermatol; 2010;11(1):45-50
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  • [Title] Topical treatment of actinic keratoses with piroxicam 1% gel: a preliminary open-label study utilizing a new clinical score.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of piroxicam 1% gel in the treatment of actinic keratoses.
  • METHODS: Piroxicam 1% gel was applied twice daily for 12 weeks to 31 actinic keratoses.
  • Changes were evaluated using a new scoring system (AKESA), based on the clinical presence of erythema, scale, and atrophy on a target lesion.
  • In our experience, the use of piroxicam 1% gel for 90 days induced complete regression in 48% of evaluated actinic keratoses, corresponding to keratotic and verrucous clinical variants.
  • [MeSH-major] Anticarcinogenic Agents / therapeutic use. Dermatologic Agents / therapeutic use. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Piroxicam / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / prevention & control. Sunlight / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 20000874.001).
  • [ISSN] 1175-0561
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Clin Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticarcinogenic Agents; 0 / Dermatologic Agents; 0 / Gels; 13T4O6VMAM / Piroxicam; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 1; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
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20. Shah AY, Doherty SD, Rosen T: Actinic cheilitis: a treatment review. Int J Dermatol; 2010 Nov;49(11):1225-34
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  • [Title] Actinic cheilitis: a treatment review.
  • All other factors being equal, the presence of actinic cheilitis, a pre-invasive malignant lesion of the lips, doubles the risk of squamous cell carcinoma developing in this anatomic area.
  • This paper critically evaluates the available medical literature to highlight the evidence-based strength of each recommended therapy for actinic cheilitis.

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 The International Society of Dermatology.
  • (PMID = 20964646.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-4632
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Caustics; 5V2JDO056X / Trichloroacetic Acid; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; Actinic cheilitis
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21. Annemans L, Caekelbergh K, Roelandts R, Boonen H, Leys C, Nikkels AF, van Den Haute V, van Quickenborne L, Verhaeghe E, Leroy B: Real-life practice study of the clinical outcome and cost-effectiveness of photodynamic therapy using methyl aminolevulinate (MAL-PDT) in the management of actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma. Eur J Dermatol; 2008 Sep-Oct;18(5):539-46
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  • [Title] Real-life practice study of the clinical outcome and cost-effectiveness of photodynamic therapy using methyl aminolevulinate (MAL-PDT) in the management of actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma.
  • Clinical trials have shown that photodynamic therapy using methyl aminolevulinate (MAL-PDT) is an effective treatment for actinic keratosis (AK), and nodular and superficial basal cell carcinoma (nBCC and sBCC) unsuitable for other available therapies.
  • Total cost per lesion was euro 58 for AK (identical to model prediction), euro 316 for nBCC and euro 178 for sBCC (both within 20% of model prediction).
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / economics. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Keratosis, Actinic / economics. Photochemotherapy / economics. Photosensitizing Agents / economics. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / economics

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  • (PMID = 18693157.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-1122
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of dermatology : EJD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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22. Dang C, Gottschling M, Manning K, O'Currain E, Schneider S, Sterry W, Stockfleth E, Nindl I: Identification of dysregulated genes in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Oncol Rep; 2006 Sep;16(3):513-9
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  • In order to identify dysregulated genes, we examined the relative mRNA expression present in cutaneous SCC and its precursor lesion actinic keratosis (AK) by comparison to normal skin.


23. Gerster JF, Lindstrom KJ, Miller RL, Tomai MA, Birmachu W, Bomersine SN, Gibson SJ, Imbertson LM, Jacobson JR, Knafla RT, Maye PV, Nikolaides N, Oneyemi FY, Parkhurst GJ, Pecore SE, Reiter MJ, Scribner LS, Testerman TL, Thompson NJ, Wagner TL, Weeks CE, Andre JD, Lagain D, Bastard Y, Lupu M: Synthesis and structure-activity-relationships of 1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolines that induce interferon production. J Med Chem; 2005 May 19;48(10):3481-91
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  • While these compounds showed no direct antiviral activity when tested in a number of cell culture systems, some demonstrated potent inhibition of virus lesion development in an intravaginal guinea pig herpes simplex virus-2 assay.
  • The in vitro results reported herein and the in vivo results reported previously led to the discovery of imiquimod, 26, which was developed as a topical agent and has been approved for the treatment of genital warts, actinic keratosis, and superficial basal cell carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 15887957.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-2623
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medicinal chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Imidazoles; 0 / Interferon Inducers; 0 / Quinolines; 9008-11-1 / Interferons; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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24. Lentini M, Schepis C, Cuppari DA, Batolo D: Tenascin expression in actinic keratosis. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Nov;33(11):716-20
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  • [Title] Tenascin expression in actinic keratosis.
  • Actinic keratoses (AKs) are intraepidermal neoplastic lesions of the sun-exposed skin.
  • RESULTS: Tenascin positivity was observed in all cases at the dermal level close to the epithelial lesion.

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  • (PMID = 17083689.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Tenascin
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25. Martínez A, Spencer ML, Brethauer U, Grez P, Marchesani FJ, Rojas IG: Reduction of syndecan-1 expression during lip carcinogenesis. J Oral Pathol Med; 2009 Aug;38(7):580-3
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  • BACKGROUND: Actinic cheilitis (AC) is an oral pre-cancerous lesion that sometimes develops into lip squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Cheilitis / metabolism. Keratosis, Actinic / metabolism. Lip Neoplasms / metabolism. Syndecan-1 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19473447.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0714
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oral pathology & medicine : official publication of the International Association of Oral Pathologists and the American Academy of Oral Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Oral Pathol. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Syndecan-1
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26. Mantese SA, Diogo PM, Rocha A, Berbert AL, Ferreira AK, Ferreira TC: Cutaneous horn: a retrospective histopathological study of 222 cases. An Bras Dermatol; 2010 Mar-Apr;85(2):157-63
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  • BACKGROUND: Cutaneous horn is a keratotic, conical and circumscribed lesion that can hide both benign or malignant lesions.
  • Within the group of pre-malignant lesions, actinic keratosis was found in 83,84% of the cases; within the group of malignant lesions, squamous cell carcinoma was found in 93,75% of the cases.

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  • (PMID = 20520930.001).
  • [ISSN] 1806-4841
  • [Journal-full-title] Anais brasileiros de dermatologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Bras Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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27. Nikkels AF, Piérard GE: Cryoscopy: a novel enhancing method of in vivo skin imaging. Skin Res Technol; 2007 Nov;13(4):377-84
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  • Cryoscopy patterns of normal skin, callosities and of histologically proven seborrheic keratoses, verrucous hamartomas, molluscum contagiosum, keratoacanthomas, viral warts, condylomas, actinic keratoses, dermatofibromas, skin tags, basal cell carcinomas, angiomas, and melanocytic naevi were assessed.
  • Increased contrast of the skin surface texture was observed in almost every studied lesion.

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  • (PMID = 17908188.001).
  • [ISSN] 0909-752X
  • [Journal-full-title] Skin research and technology : official journal of International Society for Bioengineering and the Skin (ISBS) [and] International Society for Digital Imaging of Skin (ISDIS) [and] International Society for Skin Imaging (ISSI)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skin Res Technol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] N762921K75 / Nitrogen
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28. Puizina-Ivić N, Sapunar D, Marasović D, Mirić L: An overview of Bcl-2 expression in histopathological variants of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, actinic keratosis and seborrheic keratosis. Coll Antropol; 2008 Oct;32 Suppl 2:61-5
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  • [Title] An overview of Bcl-2 expression in histopathological variants of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, actinic keratosis and seborrheic keratosis.
  • In this study the authors have analyzed imunohistochemically the expression of Bcl-2 protein in the histopathological variants of the most common malignant tumors of the skin--basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell tumor (SCC), as well as in the precancerous lesion actinic keratosis (AK) and in benign tumor seborrheic keratosis (SK).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Keratosis, Actinic / metabolism. Keratosis, Seborrheic / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism


29. Warino L, Tusa M, Camacho F, Teuschler H, Fleischer AB Jr, Feldman SR: Frequency and cost of actinic keratosis treatment. Dermatol Surg; 2006 Aug;32(8):1045-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Frequency and cost of actinic keratosis treatment.
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic keratosis (AK) is a common lesion with its highest incidence in the aged population.

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  • (PMID = 16918567.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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30. Ribatti D, Nico B, Perra MT, Maxia C, Piras F, Murtas D, Crivellato E, Sirigu P: Correlation between NGF/TrkA and microvascular density in human pterygium. Int J Exp Pathol; 2009 Dec;90(6):615-20
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  • Pterygium is a surface ocular lesion that is associated with chronic UV exposure.
  • The primary effect is a solar actinic elastosis within the stroma.

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  • (PMID = 19758420.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2613
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of experimental pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Exp Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9061-61-4 / Nerve Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, trkA
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2803252
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31. Krupashankar DS, IADVL Dermatosurgery Task Force: Standard guidelines of care: CO2 laser for removal of benign skin lesions and resurfacing. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol; 2008 Jan;74 Suppl:S61-7
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  • INDICATIONS FOR CO 2 LASER: Therapeutic indications: Actinic and seborrheic keratosis, warts, moles, skin tags, epidermal and dermal nevi, vitiligo blister and punch grafting, rhinophyma, sebaceous hyperplasia, xanthelasma, syringomas, actinic cheilitis angiofibroma, scar treatment, keloid, skin cancer, neurofibroma and diffuse actinic keratoses.
  • Choice of the machine and the parameters depends on the site, type of lesion, result needed, and the physician's experience.

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  • (PMID = 18688106.001).
  • [ISSN] 0973-3922
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of dermatology, venereology and leprology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Practice Guideline
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Investigator] Mysore V; Sanant S; Khunger N; Patwardhan N; Prasad D; Buddhadev R; Chatterjee M; Gupta S; Shetty MK; Krupashankar DS; Rao KH; Vedamurthy M; Oberai C; Lahiri K; Sachidanand S; Joshipura S
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32. Alosh M: Modeling longitudinal count data with dropouts. Pharm Stat; 2010 Jan-Mar;9(1):35-45
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  • This paper explores the utility of different approaches for modeling longitudinal count data with dropouts arising from a clinical study for the treatment of actinic keratosis lesions on the face and balding scalp.
  • Finally, we consider a transition model where, unlike the previous approaches that model the log-link function of the mean response, we model the subject's actual lesion counts.
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Trials as Topic / methods. Humans. Keratosis, Actinic / mortality. Keratosis, Actinic / therapy. Longitudinal Studies. Statistics as Topic / methods

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  • [Copyright] Published in 2009 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 19191272.001).
  • [ISSN] 1539-1612
  • [Journal-full-title] Pharmaceutical statistics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pharm Stat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
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33. Wiegell SR, Skiveren J, Philipsen PA, Wulf HC: Pain during photodynamic therapy is associated with protoporphyrin IX fluorescence and fluence rate. Br J Dermatol; 2008 Apr;158(4):727-33
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  • OBJECTIVES: To compare pain during PDT using two different fluence rates, and also to evaluate the association between pain and protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence, lesion type, lesion preparation and lesion localization.
  • METHODS: Twenty-six patients with actinic keratoses (AKs) in different localizations and 34 patients with facial acne vulgaris were treated with methyl aminolaevulinate-PDT.

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  • (PMID = 18284396.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protoporphyrins; 553-12-8 / protoporphyrin IX
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34. Shaffelburg M: Treatment of actinic keratoses with sequential use of photodynamic therapy; and imiquimod 5% cream. J Drugs Dermatol; 2009 Jan;8(1):35-9
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  • [Title] Treatment of actinic keratoses with sequential use of photodynamic therapy; and imiquimod 5% cream.
  • BACKGROUND: Field-directed therapies for actinic keratosis include photodynamic therapy and imiquimod.
  • METHODS: The entire face of adults with > or =10 facial actinic keratoses were treated with photodynamic therapy with aminolevulinic acid 20% at baseline and at month 1.
  • Lesion counts were performed at baseline and months 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 12; and local skin reactions assessments at months 2, 3, 4, and 6.
  • At month 12, median lesion reductions was 89.9% versus 74.5% (P=.0023), respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Photodynamic therapy followed by imiquimod was well tolerated and improved reduction of actinic keratoses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19180894.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-9616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Drugs Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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35. Figueiredo EG, Paiva WS, Teixeira MJ: Extremely late development of pituitary carcinoma after surgery and radiotherapy. J Neurooncol; 2009 Apr;92(2):219-22
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  • After three years he presented worsening of visual deficits and MRI evidenced recurrence of the lesion.
  • Further treatment was not recommended by radiotherapists due previous actinic treatments.

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  • (PMID = 19034384.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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36. Kodama M, Watanabe D, Akita Y, Tamada Y, Matsumoto Y: Photodynamic therapy for the treatment of actinic cheilitis. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed; 2007 Oct;23(5):209-10
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  • [Title] Photodynamic therapy for the treatment of actinic cheilitis.
  • Although actinic cheilitis is a common disease, it should be treated carefully because it can undergo malignant transformation.
  • We report a case of actinic cheilitis treated with photodynamic therapy (PDT) using 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), with satisfactory outcome in both clinical and pathological aspects.
  • Actinic cheilitis is a pathologic condition affecting mainly the lower lip caused by long-term exposure of the lips to the UV radiation in sunlight.
  • Analogous to actinic keratosis of the skin, actinic cheilitis is considered as a precancerous lesion and it may develop into squamous cell carcinoma.
  • We report a case of actinic cheilitis treated with PDT using ALA, with satisfactory outcome in both clinical and pathological aspects.

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  • (PMID = 17803601.001).
  • [ISSN] 0905-4383
  • [Journal-full-title] Photodermatology, photoimmunology & photomedicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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37. Gomes AP, Johann JE, Lovato GG, Ferreira AM: Comparative analysis of the mast cell density in normal oral mucosa, actinic cheilitis and lip squamous cell carcinoma. Braz Dent J; 2008;19(3):186-9
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  • [Title] Comparative analysis of the mast cell density in normal oral mucosa, actinic cheilitis and lip squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Actinic cheilitis (AC) is a lesion caused by excessive exposure to sunlight that can transform into lip squamous cell carcinoma.
  • The aim of this study was to compare the number of mast cells in 4 groups: NOM = normal oral mucosa (n=6); MDAC = mild dysplasia in actinic cheilitis (n=13); SDAC = severe dysplasia in actinic cheilitis (n=13); and LSCC = lip squamous cell carcinoma (n=15).


38. Menter A, Vamvakias G, Jorizzo J: One-week treatment with once-daily fluorouracil cream 0.5% in participants with actinic keratoses. Cutis; 2008 Jun;81(6):509-16
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  • [Title] One-week treatment with once-daily fluorouracil cream 0.5% in participants with actinic keratoses.
  • Actinic keratoses (AKs) are common in fair-skinned individuals with a history of chronic and excessive sun exposure and may progress to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • Extending treatment for up to 4 weeks will further improve AK lesion clearance rates.

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  • (PMID = 18666394.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-4162
  • [Journal-full-title] Cutis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cutis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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39. Ricci E, Afaragan M: The effect of stochastic electrical noise on hard-to-heal wounds. J Wound Care; 2010 Mar;19(3):96-103
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  • Ulcer aetiologies were: EPUAP grade IV pressure ulcers (n=6) and grade III pressure ulcer (n=1), vasculitic ulcer (n=1), post-actinic lesion (n=1), ischaemic (n=1) and post-surgical lesion (n=1).

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  • (PMID = 20559186.001).
  • [ISSN] 0969-0700
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of wound care
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Wound Care
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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40. Zhao B, He YY: Recent advances in the prevention and treatment of skin cancer using photodynamic therapy. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2010 Nov;10(11):1797-809
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  • After treatment with ALA or methyl 5-aminolevulinate, protoporphyrin IX preferentially accumulates in the lesion area of various skin diseases, which allows not only PDT treatment but also fluorescence diagnosis with ALA-induced porphyrins.
  • Susceptible lesions include various forms of non-melanoma skin cancer such as actinic keratosis, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 21080805.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R01 ES016936-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA014599; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R01 ES016936; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIA ES050117-21; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES016936-01A2
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS263919; NLM/ PMC3030451
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41. Hanke CW, Beer KR, Stockfleth E, Wu J, Rosen T, Levy S: Imiquimod 2.5% and 3.75% for the treatment of actinic keratoses: results of two placebo-controlled studies of daily application to the face and balding scalp for two 3-week cycles. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2010 Apr;62(4):573-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Imiquimod 2.5% and 3.75% for the treatment of actinic keratoses: results of two placebo-controlled studies of daily application to the face and balding scalp for two 3-week cycles.
  • BACKGROUND: Imiquimod 5% cream is approved as a 16-week regimen for the treatment of actinic keratoses involving a 25-cm(2) area of skin.
  • Median baseline lesion counts for the treatment groups were 9 to 10.
  • Median reductions from baseline in lesion count were 23.6%, 66.7%, and 80.0% for the placebo, imiquimod 2.5%, and imiquimod 3.75% groups, respectively (P < .001 each imiquimod vs placebo).
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage. Aminoquinolines / administration & dosage. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20133012.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Dosage Forms; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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42. Mizutani K, Watanabe D, Akita Y, Akimoto M, Tamada Y, Matsumoto Y: Photodynamic therapy using direct-current pulsed iontophoresis for 5-aminolevulinic acid application. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed; 2009 Oct;25(5):280-2
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  • In this study, we attempted to reduce the absorption period in PDT by ionizing ALA using direct-current pulsed iontophoresis to treat actinic keratosis (AK).
  • Skin biopsies from the treated lesion showed the disappearance of tumour cells.

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  • (PMID = 19747250.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0781
  • [Journal-full-title] Photodermatology, photoimmunology & photomedicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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43. Stockfleth E, Ferrandiz C, Grob JJ, Leigh I, Pehamberger H, Kerl H, European Skin Academy: Development of a treatment algorithm for actinic keratoses: a European Consensus. Eur J Dermatol; 2008 Nov-Dec;18(6):651-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Development of a treatment algorithm for actinic keratoses: a European Consensus.
  • Actinic keratoses (AKs) are lesions caused by chronic UV radiations that have the potential to progress to invasive SCCs.
  • The result of these discussions is an algorithm designed to assist physicians with their treatment decisions, giving recommendations for both field directed and lesion directed treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis, Actinic / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18955209.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-1122
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of dermatology : EJD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Practice Guideline; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] France
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44. Oyama N, Kaneko F: Trichilemmal carcinoma arising in seborrheic keratosis: a case report and published work review. J Dermatol; 2008 Dec;35(12):782-5
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  • The secondary skin malignancies arising in seborrheic keratosis (SK) are uncommon, and the causal association between the pre-existing lesion and subsequent malignant transformation remains uncertain.
  • Four of five cases (80%) developed the tumors in non-sun-exposed SK, and indeed had no apparent actinic damage in the histology.


45. Fernández-Guarino M, Harto A, Sánchez-Ronco M, Pérez-García B, Marquet A, Jaén P: [Retrospective, descriptive, observational study of treatment of multiple actinic keratoses with topical methyl aminolevulinate and red light: results in clinical practice and correlation with fluorescence imaging]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2008 Dec;99(10):779-87
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Retrospective, descriptive, observational study of treatment of multiple actinic keratoses with topical methyl aminolevulinate and red light: results in clinical practice and correlation with fluorescence imaging].
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic keratosis (AK) is one of the most common skin diseases seen in clinical practice.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this retrospective, descriptive, observational study of 57 patients treated in our hospital with photodynamic therapy for multiple AKs, we recorded age, sex, and lesion site (face, scalp, and dorsum of the hands).
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19091216.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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46. Leonard N, Wilson N, Calonje JE: Squamomelanocytic tumor: an unusual and distinctive entity of uncertain biological potential. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Jul;31(5):495-8
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  • Clinically, the lesion was felt to be a melanocytic or vascular tumor but histologically was characterized by epithelioid cells with focal squamous differentiation.
  • The lesion has some similarities to a melanocytic matricoma but no evidence of matrical differentiation.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Male. Melanocytes / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19542930.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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47. Orenstein A, Goldan O, Weissman O, Winkler E, Haik J: A new modality in the treatment of actinic cheilitis using the Er:YAG laser. J Cosmet Laser Ther; 2007 Mar;9(1):23-5
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  • [Title] A new modality in the treatment of actinic cheilitis using the Er:YAG laser.
  • BACKGROUND: Cheilitis is a precancerous skin lesion most often affecting the lower lip.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and outcome of a new modality in the treatment of actinic cheilitis with the Er:YAG laser.
  • METHODS: Between 2002 and 2005, 12 patients with actinic cheilitis were treated at our institute with the Er:YAG laser.

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  • (PMID = 17506137.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-4172
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cosmetic and laser therapy : official publication of the European Society for Laser Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cosmet Laser Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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48. Akay BN, Kocyigit P, Heper AO, Erdem C: Dermatoscopy of flat pigmented facial lesions: diagnostic challenge between pigmented actinic keratosis and lentigo maligna. Br J Dermatol; 2010 Dec;163(6):1212-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Dermatoscopy of flat pigmented facial lesions: diagnostic challenge between pigmented actinic keratosis and lentigo maligna.
  • BACKGROUND: The similarity between clinical pictures of pigmented actinic keratosis (PAK) and lentigo maligna (LM) is well known.
  • As dermatoscopic diagnosis of a pigmented skin lesion cannot be based on the presence of a single criterion, we may conclude that histopathology still remains the gold standard for correct diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Facial Dermatoses / pathology. Hutchinson's Melanotic Freckle / pathology. Keratosis, Actinic / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 The Authors. BJD © 2010 British Association of Dermatologists.
  • (PMID = 21083845.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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49. Atasoy M, Anadolu-Braise R, Pirim I, Dogan H, Ikbal M: HLA Antigen Profile Differences in Patients with SCC (Squamous Cell Carcinoma) In-Situ /Actinic Keratosis and Invasive SCC: Is There a Genetic Succeptibility for Invasive SCC Development? Eurasian J Med; 2009 Dec;41(3):162-4
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  • [Title] HLA Antigen Profile Differences in Patients with SCC (Squamous Cell Carcinoma) In-Situ /Actinic Keratosis and Invasive SCC: Is There a Genetic Succeptibility for Invasive SCC Development?
  • OBJECTIVE: Actinic keratoses (AK) are proliferation of neoplastic keratinocytes confined to the epidermis induced by damaging solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR).
  • When the neoplastic keratinocytes extend in to papillary-reticular dermis, then the lesion termed as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • From dermatopathological point of view AK is clearly SCC in-situ, however although AK is a common lesion in Caucasians, not all AKs develop in to invasive SCC, at least not with the same biological pace.

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  • (PMID = 25610095.001).
  • [ISSN] 1308-8734
  • [Journal-full-title] The Eurasian journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eurasian J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4261280
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Actinic keratoses / HLA / Squamous cell carcinoma
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50. Braathen LR, Paredes BE, Saksela O, Fritsch C, Gardlo K, Morken T, Frølich KW, Warloe T, Solér AM, Ros AM: Short incubation with methyl aminolevulinate for photodynamic therapy of actinic keratoses. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2009 May;23(5):550-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Short incubation with methyl aminolevulinate for photodynamic therapy of actinic keratoses.
  • BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) is an effective first-line treatment for actinic keratoses.
  • OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the effect of incubation time (1 vs. 3 h), MAL concentration (160 mg/g vs. 80 mg/g) and lesion preparation in the setting of MAL-PDT for treatment of actinic keratosis (AK).
  • MAIN OUTCOME: Complete lesion response rates 3 and 12 months after last treatment.
  • RESULTS: For lesions on the face/scalp, lesion complete response rates were 78% for thin AK and 74% for moderately thick AK lesions after 1 h vs. 96% and 87% after 3 h incubation with MAL 160 mg/g.
  • Lesion recurrence rates at 12 months after two treatments were similar [19% (3 of 16) with 1 h vs. 17% (3 of 18) with 3 h 160 mg/kg MAL-PDT] and lower than for 80 mg/g MAL-PDT (44-45%).
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19415804.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-3083
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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51. Martínez A, Brethauer U, Borlando J, Spencer ML, Rojas IG: Epithelial expression of p53, mdm-2 and p21 in normal lip and actinic cheilitis. Oral Oncol; 2008 Sep;44(9):878-83
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  • [Title] Epithelial expression of p53, mdm-2 and p21 in normal lip and actinic cheilitis.
  • To assess if the p53-regulated proteins murine-double-minute (mdm)-2 and p21 are altered during early lip carcinogenesis, biopsies from normal lip (n=16) and the premalignant lip lesion, actinic cheilitis (AC) (n=26) were processed for the immunohistochemical detection of p53, p21 and mdm-2 in serial co-localized sections.

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  • (PMID = 18234540.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0593
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 6.3.2.19 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2
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52. Jones M Pd Fiaca Faca: Dermatological effects from years in the sun: compounding opportunities. Int J Pharm Compd; 2006 Sep-Oct;10(5):336-42
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  • The most common sun-induced pre-cancerous lesion is solar keratosis, or actinic keratosis.
  • Unless detected and treated, actinic keratosis can progress to skin cancer.
  • The best treatment option depends on the type and location of lesion, the stage of the lesion, and the needs of the individual patient.

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  • (PMID = 23974311.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-4221
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of pharmaceutical compounding
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Pharm Compd
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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53. Sezer E, Böer A, Falk T: Identification of human papilloma virus type 6 in psoriasiform keratosis. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Jul;32(5):492-4
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  • Psoriasiform keratosis is a recently reported unique clinicopathological entity characterized by the appearance of a solitary lesion mimicking seborrheic keratosis, actinic keratosis, or squamous cell carcinoma and histopathologic features closely resembling psoriasis.
  • We report a 74-year-old woman presenting with a solitary, scaly lesion on the dorsum of the left arm of several months duration and histopathologic findings of psoriasiform acanthosis of the epidermis with thinning of the suprapapillary plates and intraepidermal spongiform neutrophilic pustules, consistent with a diagnosis of psoriasiform keratosis.

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  • (PMID = 20442638.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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54. Calzavara-Pinton PG, Venturini M, Sala R, Capezzera R, Parrinello G, Specchia C, Zane C: Methylaminolaevulinate-based photodynamic therapy of Bowen's disease and squamous cell carcinoma. Br J Dermatol; 2008 Jul;159(1):137-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with methylaminolaevulinate (MAL) is an approved noninvasive treatment option for actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease (BD), two precursors of invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • Clinical thickness, atypia and lesion depth were significant predictors of the response at 3 months when using a univariate analysis (P < 0.001).


55. Berman B, Amini S, Valins W, Block S: Pharmacotherapy of actinic keratosis. Expert Opin Pharmacother; 2009 Dec;10(18):3015-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pharmacotherapy of actinic keratosis.
  • Actinic keratosis (AK) represents the initial intraepidermal manifestation of abnormal keratinocyte proliferation with the potential of progression to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • When in limited numbers, clinically visible AKs are treated individually with ablative and/or surgical procedures (lesion-directed treatment), while multiple and sublinical AKs are treated with field-directed therapies that use ablative, nonablating and other topically applied treatment modalities.
  • Lesion-directed treatment modalities include cryotherapy, surgery and electrodessication with or without curettage.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19925043.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-7666
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Pharmacother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 179
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56. Rajaram N, Reichenberg JS, Migden MR, Nguyen TH, Tunnell JW: Pilot clinical study for quantitative spectral diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer. Lasers Surg Med; 2010 Dec;42(10):716-27
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  • White light reflectance and laser-induced fluorescence spectra (wavelength range = 350-700 nm) were collected from each suspected lesion and adjacent clinically normal skin using a custom-built, optical fiber-based clinical instrument.
  • RESULTS: Scattering from cancerous lesions was significantly lower than normal skin for every lesion group, whereas absorption parameters were significantly higher.
  • Similarly, the instrument classified actinic keratoses and squamous cell carcinomas with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 50%.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • (PMID = 21246575.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9101
  • [Journal-full-title] Lasers in surgery and medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lasers Surg Med
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA132032-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA132032; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA132032-03
  • [Publication-type] Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS244012; NLM/ PMC3059518
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57. Dang C, Gottschling M, Roewert J, Forschner T, Stockfleth E, Nindl I: Tenascin-C patterns and splice variants in actinic keratosis and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Br J Dermatol; 2006 Oct;155(4):763-70
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  • [Title] Tenascin-C patterns and splice variants in actinic keratosis and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.
  • The mRNA expression and protein level of Tn-C including its various isoforms have not been investigated comprehensively so far in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and the precursor lesion actinic keratosis (AK).

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  • (PMID = 16965426.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Tenascin
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58. Zide MF: Actinic keratosis: from the skin to the lip. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 2008 Jun;66(6):1162-76
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Actinic keratosis: from the skin to the lip.
  • PURPOSE: Actinic keratoses are commonly the result of intense sun damage to the skin and lips of susceptible patients.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The first section discusses the options chosen for patients who were referred to the Facial Lesion Clinic in a county hospital for precancerous or cancerous facial lesions; the second section reviews ramifications for precancerous sun-damaged lips with clinical leukoplakia.

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  • (PMID = 18486781.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5053
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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59. Hauschild A, Stockfleth E, Popp G, Borrosch F, Brüning H, Dominicus R, Mensing H, Reinhold U, Reich K, Moor AC, Stocker M, Ortland C, Brunnert M, Szeimies RM: Optimization of photodynamic therapy with a novel self-adhesive 5-aminolaevulinic acid patch: results of two randomized controlled phase III studies. Br J Dermatol; 2009 May;160(5):1066-74
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is increasingly used for treatment of actinic keratoses (AKs) but is a cumbersome procedure.
  • Efficacy rates on a lesion basis were 82% (AK 03) and 89% (AK 04) for PDT, 77% for cryosurgery and 19% (AK 03) and 29% (AK 04) for placebo-PDT.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / administration & dosage. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy / methods. Photosensitizing Agents / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 19222455.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dosage Forms; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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60. Ming M, Han W, Maddox J, Soltani K, Shea CR, Freeman DM, He YY: UVB-induced ERK/AKT-dependent PTEN suppression promotes survival of epidermal keratinocytes. Oncogene; 2010 Jan 28;29(4):492-502
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  • As compared with normal skin, PTEN levels are reduced in human actinic keratosis, a precancerous skin lesion caused by solar UV.

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  • (PMID = 19881543.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5594
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA014599-34; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024999; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R01 ES016936-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA014599; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA014599-33; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA014599-330014; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR024999-03; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR024999-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA014599-34; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024999-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA014599-340014; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R01 ES016936; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA014599-330014; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024999-02; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024999-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA014599-32; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA014599-33; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA014599-340014; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES016936-01A2; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1RR024999; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA014599-32
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.48 / Pten protein, mouse; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS147984; NLM/ PMC2813408
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61. Tierney EP, Eide MJ, Jacobsen G, Ozog D: Photodynamic therapy for actinic keratoses: survey of patient perceptions of treatment satisfaction and outcomes. J Cosmet Laser Ther; 2008 Jun;10(2):81-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Photodynamic therapy for actinic keratoses: survey of patient perceptions of treatment satisfaction and outcomes.
  • BACKGROUND: While there are many available treatments for actinic keratoses (AKs), patient-preferred treatment options remain undefined.
  • CONCLUSION: While the effectiveness of lesion clearance with PDT for AKs has been well proven in the literature, this is the first study to evaluate patient perception of the effectiveness, side-effect profile and benefits of PDT relative to several standard treatment approaches for AKs.

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  • (PMID = 18569260.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-4180
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cosmetic and laser therapy : official publication of the European Society for Laser Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cosmet Laser Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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62. Ulrich C, Bichel J, Euvrard S, Guidi B, Proby CM, van de Kerkhof PC, Amerio P, Rønnevig J, Slade HB, Stockfleth E: Topical immunomodulation under systemic immunosuppression: results of a multicentre, randomized, placebo-controlled safety and efficacy study of imiquimod 5% cream for the treatment of actinic keratoses in kidney, heart, and liver transplant patients. Br J Dermatol; 2007 Dec;157 Suppl 2:25-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Topical immunomodulation under systemic immunosuppression: results of a multicentre, randomized, placebo-controlled safety and efficacy study of imiquimod 5% cream for the treatment of actinic keratoses in kidney, heart, and liver transplant patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: In this study the safety and efficacy of imiquimod 5% cream for the treatments of actinic keratoses in kidney, heart and liver transplant recipients is evaluated.
  • BACKGROUND: Growing populations of organ transplant recipients face increased risk of developing actinic keratosis (AK) and skin cancer secondary to continuous systemic immunosuppressive therapy.
  • Dosing continued for 16 weeks regardless of lesion clearance.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Imiquimod appears to be a safe alternative for the treatment of multiple actinic keratoses in patients with solid organ transplants.


63. Pariser D, Loss R, Jarratt M, Abramovits W, Spencer J, Geronemus R, Bailin P, Bruce S: Topical methyl-aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy using red light-emitting diode light for treatment of multiple actinic keratoses: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2008 Oct;59(4):569-76
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Topical methyl-aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy using red light-emitting diode light for treatment of multiple actinic keratoses: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
  • BACKGROUND: The use of light-emitting diode light offers practical advantages in photodynamic therapy (PDT) with topical methyl-aminolevulinate (MAL) for management of actinic keratoses (AK).
  • Complete lesion and patient (all lesions showing complete response) response rates were evaluated 3 months after last treatment.
  • RESULTS: MAL PDT was superior (P<.0001) to vehicle PDT with respect to lesion complete response (86.2% vs 52.2%, odds ratio 6.9 [95% confidence interval 4.7-10.3]) and patient complete response (59.2% vs 14.9%, odds ratio 13.2 [95% confidence interval 4.1-43.1]).

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  • (PMID = 18707799.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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64. Walsh SN, Hurt MA, Santa Cruz DJ: Psoriasiform keratosis. Am J Dermatopathol; 2007 Apr;29(2):137-40
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  • The most common diagnoses, clinically, were seborrheic keratosis, followed by basal cell carcinoma, Bowen's disease, actinic (solar) keratosis, and squamous cell carcinoma, among others.
  • It is unclear whether a psoriasiform keratosis is a rudimentary manifestation of psoriasis or a lesion sui generis.

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  • (PMID = 17414434.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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65. Szeimies RM, Radny P, Sebastian M, Borrosch F, Dirschka T, Krähn-Senftleben G, Reich K, Pabst G, Voss D, Foguet M, Gahlmann R, Lübbert H, Reinhold U: Photodynamic therapy with BF-200 ALA for the treatment of actinic keratosis: results of a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III study. Br J Dermatol; 2010 Aug;163(2):386-94
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Photodynamic therapy with BF-200 ALA for the treatment of actinic keratosis: results of a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III study.
  • BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) provides a therapeutic option for the treatment of actinic keratosis (AK).
  • RESULTS: PDT with BF-200 ALA was superior to placebo PDT with respect to patient complete clearance rate (per-protocol group: 64% vs. 11%; P < 0.0001) and lesion complete clearance rate (per-protocol group: 81% vs. 22%) after the last PDT treatment.
  • Statistically significant differences in the patient and lesion complete clearance rates and adverse effect profiles were observed for the two light sources, Aktilite CL128 and PhotoDyn 750, at both time points of assessment.
  • The patient and lesion complete clearance rates after illumination with the Aktilite CL128 were 96% and 99%, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / therapeutic use. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy / methods. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use

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  • [CommentIn] Br J Dermatol. 2010 Aug;163(2):236-7 [20666768.001]
  • (PMID = 20518784.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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66. Werschler WP: Considerations for use of Fluorouracil cream 0.5% for the treatment of actinic keratosis in elderly patients. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol; 2008 Jul;1(2):22-7
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  • [Title] Considerations for use of Fluorouracil cream 0.5% for the treatment of actinic keratosis in elderly patients.
  • Actinic keratosis (AK), the initial lesion in a disease continuum that may progress to squamous cell carcinoma, often begins with ultraviolet B light-induced photo damage and increases in prevalence with age.

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  • (PMID = 21103319.001).
  • [ISSN] 1941-2789
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical and aesthetic dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Aesthet Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2989823
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67. Munday JS, Hanlon EM, Howe L, Squires RA, French AF: Feline cutaneous viral papilloma associated with human papillomavirus type 9. Vet Pathol; 2007 Nov;44(6):924-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The skin surrounding the mass was nonpigmented, and actinic keratosis had been diagnosed in this area 3 years previously.
  • Polymerase chain reaction amplified papillomaviral deoxyribonucleic acid from formalin-fixed samples of the lesion.

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  • (PMID = 18039907.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Smith SR, Morhenn VB, Piacquadio DJ: Bilateral comparison of the efficacy and tolerability of 3% diclofenac sodium gel and 5% 5-fluorouracil cream in the treatment of actinic keratoses of the face and scalp. J Drugs Dermatol; 2006 Feb;5(2):156-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bilateral comparison of the efficacy and tolerability of 3% diclofenac sodium gel and 5% 5-fluorouracil cream in the treatment of actinic keratoses of the face and scalp.
  • Actinic keratoses (AKs) are a common precancerous condition and are said to account for 14% of visits to dermatologists in the US each year.
  • The diclofenac gel and 5-fluorouracil cream each demonstrated substantial efficacy in the number of lesions cleared and the proportion of patients with significant lesion clearing.

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  • (PMID = 16485883.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-9616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Drugs Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Gels; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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69. Morton C, Campbell S, Gupta G, Keohane S, Lear J, Zaki I, Walton S, Kerrouche N, Thomas G, Soto P, AKtion Investigators: Intraindividual, right-left comparison of topical methyl aminolaevulinate-photodynamic therapy and cryotherapy in subjects with actinic keratoses: a multicentre, randomized controlled study. Br J Dermatol; 2006 Nov;155(5):1029-36
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intraindividual, right-left comparison of topical methyl aminolaevulinate-photodynamic therapy and cryotherapy in subjects with actinic keratoses: a multicentre, randomized controlled study.
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic keratosis (AK), the most common premalignant skin condition, can represent a management challenge.
  • OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to compare the lesion response and subject preference for topical methyl aminolaevulinate (MAL)-photodynamic therapy (PDT) vs. cryotherapy for the treatment of AK.
  • The primary assessments were the subject's overall preference and lesion response at week 24.
  • Secondary assessments included lesion response at week 12, cosmetic outcome, subject and investigator cosmetic outcome preference at week 24, and investigator overall preference at week 24.
  • At week 12, treatment with MAL-PDT resulted in a significantly larger rate of cured lesions relative to cryotherapy (percentage lesion reduction from baseline: 86.9% vs. 76.2%; P < 0.001).

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  • (PMID = 17034536.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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70. Aractingi S, Kanitakis J, Euvrard S, Le Danff C, Peguillet I, Khosrotehrani K, Lantz O, Carosella ED: Skin carcinoma arising from donor cells in a kidney transplant recipient. Cancer Res; 2005 Mar 1;65(5):1755-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Male cells were detected in 5/15 squamous cell carcinomas and Bowen disease (range 4-180 copies), 3/5 basal cell carcinomas (91-645), 6/11 actinic keratosis (7-102), 2/4 keratoacanthoma (22-41), and 2/5 benign cutaneous lesions (14-55).
  • In this lesion, immuno-FISH showed the presence of XY cytokeratin-positive cells indicating that the tumor nests contained male keratinocytes.


71. Ahlgrimm-Siess V, Hofmann-Wellenhof R, Cao T, Oliviero M, Scope A, Rabinovitz HS: Reflectance confocal microscopy in the daily practice. Semin Cutan Med Surg; 2009 Sep;28(3):180-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Three flat pigmented skin lesions with dermoscopic signs of regression showed distinct RCM features that allowed their correct classification as pigmented basal cell carcinoma, pigmented actinic keratosis, and melanoma on sun-damaged skin.
  • A flat nonpigmented skin lesion on the face, which did not show distinct clinical or dermoscopic features, was correctly diagnosed as basal cell carcinoma based on RCM findings.
  • In addition, the response of a pigmented actinic keratosis and a melanoma in situ on sun-damaged skin to noninvasive topical treatment was monitored using RCM.

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  • (PMID = 19782942.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-0768
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in cutaneous medicine and surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Cutan Med Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Alvarenga MP, Thuler LC, Neto SP, Vasconcelos CC, Camargo SG, Alvarenga MP, Papais-Alvarenga RM: The clinical course of idiopathic acute transverse myelitis in patients from Rio de Janeiro. J Neurol; 2010 Jun;257(6):992-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Of the 70 cases of acute myelopathies, the idiopathic form was identified in 41 following exclusion of the cases associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (n = 1), Sjogren's syndrome (n = 1), herpes zoster (n = 1), cytomegalovirus in an HIV-positive patient (n = 1), Schistosoma mansoni (n = 1), actinic myelitis (n = 1), infectious myelitis of unknown etiology (n = 2) and those that, following the first attack of myelitis, converted to NMO (n = 19) or to clinically defined MS (n = 2).
  • Serial spine MRI confirmed spinal cord inflammation in 92.0% of cases and extensive spinal cord lesion was identified in 61.0%.

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  • (PMID = 20127351.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1459
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AQP4 protein, human; 0 / Aquaporin 4; 0 / Autoantibodies
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73. Zaravinos A, Kanellou P, Spandidos DA: Viral DNA detection and RAS mutations in actinic keratosis and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Br J Dermatol; 2010 Feb 1;162(2):325-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Viral DNA detection and RAS mutations in actinic keratosis and nonmelanoma skin cancers.
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic keratosis (AK) is a well-established precancerous skin lesion that has the potential to progress to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. DNA, Viral / isolation & purification. Genes, ras / genetics. Keratosis, Actinic / virology. Skin Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 19849697.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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74. Bruscino N, Rossi R, Dindelli M, Ghersetich I, Lotti T: Therapeutic Hotline: Facial skin rejuvenation in a patient treated with photodynamic therapy for actinic keratosis. Dermatol Ther; 2010 Jan-Feb;23(1):86-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Therapeutic Hotline: Facial skin rejuvenation in a patient treated with photodynamic therapy for actinic keratosis.
  • The aim of the most used treatments of actinic keratoses (AKs) is to avoid the conversion into invasive squamous cell carcinoma through the destruction of the lesion; a lot of therapeutic modalities (imiquimod, 5-fluorouracil, electrosurgery with curettage, cryosurgery) are effective and safe in this field, but not many can do it with excellent cosmetic results like treatment with photodynamic therapy (PDT).
  • This kind of therapy has removed not only the lesion but also the photoaging manifestations like the wrinkles and the ugly lines, leaving a smooth skin, as we have proved with 3D-profilometry technique.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / therapeutic use. Keratosis, Actinic / radiotherapy. Photochemotherapy / methods. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Rejuvenation

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  • (PMID = 20136912.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-8019
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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75. Fayter D, Corbett M, Heirs M, Fox D, Eastwood A: A systematic review of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of pre-cancerous skin conditions, Barrett's oesophagus and cancers of the biliary tract, brain, head and neck, lung, oesophagus and skin. Health Technol Assess; 2010 Jul;14(37):1-288
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  • For actinic keratosis (AK), the only clear evidence of effectiveness was that PDT appeared to be superior to placebo.
  • For basal cell carcinoma (BCC), PDT may result in similar lesion response rates to surgery or cryotherapy but with better cosmetic outcomes.

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  • (PMID = 20663420.001).
  • [ISSN] 2046-4924
  • [Journal-full-title] Health technology assessment (Winchester, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Health Technol Assess
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
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76. Dissemond J, Grabbe S: [Actinic keratosis]. MMW Fortschr Med; 2006 Jun 15;148(24):38-9, 41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Actinic keratosis].
  • Actinic keratosis is a precancerous lesion that is commonly seen in the elderly patient and requires treatment.
  • The diagnosis is usually based on the clinical appearance of the lesion.

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  • (PMID = 16850807.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-3276
  • [Journal-full-title] MMW Fortschritte der Medizin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] MMW Fortschr Med
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon Inducers; 0 / Ointments; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 0
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77. Han A, Penrose C, Goldsmith A, Marmur ES: Case-based considerations in the treatment of actinic keratoses: utilizing combination or sequential therapy with 5-fluorouracil cream and destructive treatments. J Drugs Dermatol; 2010 Jul;9(7):864-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Case-based considerations in the treatment of actinic keratoses: utilizing combination or sequential therapy with 5-fluorouracil cream and destructive treatments.
  • Actinic keratoses are premalignant lesions that increase in frequency with each decade of life and have the potential to progress to squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Therapeutic options for these conditions are abundant and range from topical field-directed therapies to destructive, lesion-directed procedures.
  • The following case-based review represents typical situations where multiple treatments were combined to manage actinic keratosis, squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma in patients over an extended treatment period.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Keratosis, Actinic / therapy. Skin Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 20677546.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-9616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Drugs Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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78. Ulrich M, Maltusch A, Röwert-Huber J, González S, Sterry W, Stockfleth E, Astner S: Actinic keratoses: non-invasive diagnosis for field cancerisation. Br J Dermatol; 2007 May;156 Suppl 3:13-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Actinic keratoses: non-invasive diagnosis for field cancerisation.
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic keratoses (AKs) are among the most common cutaneous malignancies and have previously been classified as in situ squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) with reported progression rates of up to 20% over 10 years.
  • PATIENTS/METHODS: Forty four Caucasians (SPT I-III) with a minimum of one actinic keratosis (AK) lesion were included in this study.

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  • (PMID = 17488401.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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79. Berman B, Villa AM, Ramirez CC: Mechanisms of action of new treatment modalities for actinic keratosis. J Drugs Dermatol; 2006 Feb;5(2):167-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mechanisms of action of new treatment modalities for actinic keratosis.
  • Actinic keratosis (AK) constitutes the initial lesion in a disease continuum that can progress to invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • In this article, we describe the mechanisms of action, tolerability, and efficacy of the most frequently used chemopreventative, chemotherapeutic, destructive, and novel immunologic methods for the control and treatment of actinic keratoses.

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  • (PMID = 16485885.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-9616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Drugs Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Antimetabolites; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Teratogens; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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80. Brodsky J: Management of benign skin lesions commonly affecting the face: actinic keratosis, seborrheic keratosis, and rosacea. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2009 Aug;17(4):315-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of benign skin lesions commonly affecting the face: actinic keratosis, seborrheic keratosis, and rosacea.
  • Advances in the understanding and management of three of the more common benign skin lesions affecting the face will be addressed in this review, with a particular emphasis on the most current therapeutic options for each lesion.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Actinic keratosis can now be treated with photodynamic therapy or with many topical agents, as alternatives to traditional surgical techniques.
  • Seborrheic keratosis, as well as actinic keratosis and rosacea, are now often treated with laser therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Facial Dermatoses / therapy. Keratosis, Actinic / therapy. Keratosis, Seborrheic / therapy. Rosacea / therapy


81. Pock L, Drlík L, Hercogová J: Dermatoscopy of pigmented actinic keratosis--a striking similarity to lentigo maligna. Int J Dermatol; 2007 Apr;46(4):414-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Dermatoscopy of pigmented actinic keratosis--a striking similarity to lentigo maligna.
  • BACKGROUND: Pigmented actinic keratosis (PAK) resembles lentigo maligna (LM) clinically and histopathologically in some cases.
  • OBJECTIVES: To describe the dermatoscopical characteristics of this uncommon variant of actinic keratosis and evaluate whether these characteristics show common features with LM.
  • OBSERVATIONS: We had the opportunity to examine a 78-year-old woman who presented with a PAK lesion on her face dermatoscopically and histopathologically.

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  • (PMID = 17442088.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-9059
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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82. Szeimies RM, Stockfleth E, Popp G, Borrosch F, Brüning H, Dominicus R, Mensing H, Reinhold U, Reich K, Moor AC, Stocker M, Ortland C, Brunnert M, Hauschild A: Long-term follow-up of photodynamic therapy with a self-adhesive 5-aminolaevulinic acid patch: 12 months data. Br J Dermatol; 2010 Feb 1;162(2):410-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy with a self-adhesive 5-aminolaevulinic acid (5-ALA) patch shows high efficacy rates in the treatment of mild to moderate actinic keratosis (AK) in short term trials.
  • Patients had to show at least one successfully treated AK lesion after initial therapy.
  • On a lesion basis, efficacy rates were 63% and 79% for PDT, 63% for cryosurgery and 9% and 25% for placebo-PDT.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / administration & dosage. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy / methods. Photosensitizing Agents / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 19804593.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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83. Maury G, Girard C, Michot C, Guillot B, Dereure O: [Multiple Bowen disease of the lower limbs in elderly women: a rare clinical subset involving therapeutic difficulties]. Ann Dermatol Venereol; 2009 Jun-Jul;136(6-7):508-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Cutaneous Bowen's disease (CBD) is a form of intraepithelial squamous cell carcinoma that usually presents as a solitary lesion.
  • OBSERVATIONS: Four women aged over 70 years presented with multiple CBD limited to the lower limbs associated with squamous cell and superficial basal cell carcinomas along with actinic keratosis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / complications. Female. Humans. Keratosis, Actinic / complications. Photochemotherapy. Sunlight / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 19560611.001).
  • [ISSN] 0151-9638
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de dermatologie et de vénéréologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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84. Forsea AM, Carstea EM, Ghervase L, Giurcaneanu C, Pavelescu G: Clinical application of optical coherence tomography for the imaging of non-melanocytic cutaneous tumors: a pilot multi-modal study. J Med Life; 2010 Oct-Dec;3(4):381-9
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  • In the same time, combining OCT and dermatoscopical evaluation of a lesion improved the performance of diagnosis when compared to clinical diagnosis alone and with either OCT or dermoscopy imaging used alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Keratosis, Actinic / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Tomography, Optical Coherence / methods

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  • (PMID = 21254735.001).
  • [ISSN] 1844-122X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medicine and life
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Life
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Romania
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3019059
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85. Ooi T, Barnetson RS, Zhuang L, McKane S, Lee JH, Slade HB, Halliday GM: Imiquimod-induced regression of actinic keratosis is associated with infiltration by T lymphocytes and dendritic cells: a randomized controlled trial. Br J Dermatol; 2006 Jan;154(1):72-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Imiquimod-induced regression of actinic keratosis is associated with infiltration by T lymphocytes and dendritic cells: a randomized controlled trial.
  • BACKGROUND: Imiquimod 5% cream is a topically applied immune response modifier that has been shown to give effective treatment of actinic keratosis (AK).
  • Each patient had punch biopsies of two distinct AK lesions: a lesion was biopsied before treatment to obtain baseline biomarker levels, and a different lesion was biopsied after 2 weeks of treatment.

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  • (PMID = 16403097.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Interferon Inducers; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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86. Van der Geer S, Krekels GA: Treatment of actinic keratoses on the dorsum of the hands: ALA-PDT versus diclofenac 3% gel followed by ALA-PDT. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, pilot study. J Dermatolog Treat; 2009;20(5):259-65
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of actinic keratoses on the dorsum of the hands: ALA-PDT versus diclofenac 3% gel followed by ALA-PDT. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, pilot study.
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic keratoses (AK) are sun-induced epithelial skin lesions, which are at risk to progress to squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Total lesion number scores, total thickness scores and global improvement scores were used to assess efficacy.
  • Total lesion thickness scores decreased significantly in both groups.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / therapeutic use. Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use. Diclofenac / therapeutic use. Keratosis, Actinic / therapy. Photochemotherapy. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19370466.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-1753
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatological treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dermatolog Treat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Gels; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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87. Dang C, Koehler A, Forschner T, Sehr P, Michael K, Pawlita M, Stockfleth E, Nindl I: E6/E7 expression of human papillomavirus types in cutaneous squamous cell dysplasia and carcinoma in immunosuppressed organ transplant recipients. Br J Dermatol; 2006 Jul;155(1):129-36
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  • METHODS: Thirty-one snap-frozen biopsies from six immunosuppressed organ transplant recipients representing seven squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), one basal cell carcinoma, four actinic keratoses (AKs), seven normal skin and 12 verrucae vulgaris (Vv) were analysed for 24 cutaneous HPV types by an L1 DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based method.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Transcriptional activity of the E6/E7 oncogenes in AK and SCC suggests an active role of HPV in the lesion.

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  • (PMID = 16792764.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Viral; 0 / Capsid Proteins; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / E6 protein, Human papillomavirus type 8; 0 / E6 protein, human papillomavirus type 5; 0 / HPV L1 protein, Human papillomavirus; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Viral; 0 / Papillomavirus E7 Proteins; 0 / RNA, Viral
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88. Patel V, Rogers SN: Actinic granuloma affecting the upper lip: a rare and challenging clinical entity. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 2010 Apr;48(3):234-5
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  • [Title] Actinic granuloma affecting the upper lip: a rare and challenging clinical entity.
  • Actinic granuloma is a rare dermatological condition that can be difficult to diagnose, and the opinion of specialist dermatologists and histopathologists might be needed to confirm diagnosis.
  • Our patient's lesion was not diagnosed until 3 years after initial presentation.

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  • [Copyright] 2009 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19804925.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1940
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of oral & maxillofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Glucocorticoids; 43502P7F0P / methylprednisolone acetate; X4W7ZR7023 / Methylprednisolone
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89. Stockfleth E: Topical management of actinic keratosis and field cancerisation. G Ital Dermatol Venereol; 2009 Aug;144(4):459-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Topical management of actinic keratosis and field cancerisation.
  • Actinic keratosis (AK) is a squamous cell carcinoma of the epidermis in situ.
  • Recurrence of a lesion (which by definition affects the same site) is often the result of incomplete removal of clinically apparent AK lesions after treatment or the presence of subclinical lesions that were not identified and removed.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis, Actinic / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19755950.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-0488
  • [Journal-full-title] Giornale italiano di dermatologia e venereologia : organo ufficiale, Società italiana di dermatologia e sifilografia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Ital Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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90. Einspahr JG, Xu MJ, Warneke J, Saboda K, Ranger-Moore J, Bozzo P, Duckett L, Goldman R, Lin P, Buckmeier J, Alberts DS: Reproducibility and expression of skin biomarkers in sun-damaged skin and actinic keratoses. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2006 Oct;15(10):1841-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Reproducibility and expression of skin biomarkers in sun-damaged skin and actinic keratoses.
  • METHODS: Biopsies were collected from three groups: 78 subjects with sun damage on forearms, 33 with actinic keratosis (AK) on forearms, and 32 with previous squamous cell carcinoma.
  • When lesion histology was considered, there was a stepwise significant increase in p53 in biopsies without characteristics of AK compared with early AK (P = 0.02) and AK (P = 0.0006) and a similar pattern for PCNA with the only significant difference between early AK and AK.
  • There was a stepwise increase in putrescine and spermidine in normal, sun-damaged forearm, forearm from subjects with AK, and the AK lesion itself (P < 0.0001).

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  • (PMID = 17021352.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA23074; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA27502
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biogenic Polyamines; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Sunscreening Agents; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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91. Goldberg DJ: Case-based experience in the use of 5-fluorouracil cream 0.5% as monotherapy and in conjunction with glycolic acid peels for the treatment of actinic keratosis. J Cosmet Laser Ther; 2010 Feb;12(1):42-6
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  • [Title] Case-based experience in the use of 5-fluorouracil cream 0.5% as monotherapy and in conjunction with glycolic acid peels for the treatment of actinic keratosis.
  • Actinic keratosis, commonly indicative of photodamage, requires treatment secondary to the risk of progression to squamous cell carcinoma.
  • A number of effective treatments for actinic keratosis are available, including topical and lesion-directed therapies.
  • While lesion-directed therapies such as cryotherapy are appropriate for isolated lesions, topical 5-fluorouracil is an effective modality for the treatment of multiple facial actinic keratoses.
  • The cases presented here demonstrate the use of topical 5-fluorouracil cream 0.5% as monotherapy and in conjunction with glycolic acid peels to treat facial actinic keratoses in two patients with extensive histories of prior actinic keratosis and skin cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Chemexfoliation / methods. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Glycolates / therapeutic use. Keratolytic Agents / therapeutic use. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20085453.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-4180
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cosmetic and laser therapy : official publication of the European Society for Laser Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cosmet Laser Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glycolates; 0 / Keratolytic Agents; 79-14-1 / glycolic acid; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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92. Ulrich C, Hackethal M, Ulrich M, Howorka A, Forschner T, Sterry W, Stockfleth E: Treatment of multiple actinic keratoses with topical diclofenac 3% gel in organ transplant recipients: a series of six cases. Br J Dermatol; 2007 May;156 Suppl 3:40-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of multiple actinic keratoses with topical diclofenac 3% gel in organ transplant recipients: a series of six cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) represents a significant cause of morbidity in organ transplant patients; the relative risk of squamous cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis (AK) is 100 and 250 times higher, respectively, compared with immunocompetent patients.
  • PATIENTS/METHODS: An open-label study was conducted in six patients (three kidney, one liver and two heart transplant patients) with histories of multiple NMSCs and extensive actinic keratoses (AKs).
  • Two further patients showed a marked (> or = 75% lesion reduction) improvement in their overall AK lesion count in the treatment area.
  • One patient showed a 30% lesion reduction in the area treated.

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  • (PMID = 17488405.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Gels; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac
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93. Pirard D, Vereecken P, Mélot C, Heenen M: Three percent diclofenac in 2.5% hyaluronan gel in the treatment of actinic keratoses: a meta-analysis of the recent studies. Arch Dermatol Res; 2005 Nov;297(5):185-9
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  • [Title] Three percent diclofenac in 2.5% hyaluronan gel in the treatment of actinic keratoses: a meta-analysis of the recent studies.
  • Three percent diclofenac in 2.5% hyaluronan gel (DHA) is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the treatment of actinic keratoses (AK).
  • We conducted a meta-analysis of the few prospective studies that evaluated the effect of DHA on the target lesion number score TLNS0 (indicating complete resolution of all target lesions in the treatment area) and/or the cumulative target lesion number score CLNS0 (indicating resolution of the target and new lesions in the treatment area) with assessment 30 days after the end of treatment.

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  • (PMID = 16235081.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-3696
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatological research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Dermatol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Gels; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac; 27YG812J1I / Arachidonic Acid; 9004-61-9 / Hyaluronic Acid
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94. Roewert-Huber J, Stockfleth E, Kerl H: Pathology and pathobiology of actinic (solar) keratosis - an update. Br J Dermatol; 2007 Dec;157 Suppl 2:18-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pathology and pathobiology of actinic (solar) keratosis - an update.
  • Actinic keratosis is a UV light-induced lesion and develops mostly in fair-skinned patients being susceptible to solar damage.
  • The term actinic keratosis (AK) describes clinically ill-defined reddish to reddish-brown scaly lesions on erythematous base in areas damaged severely by sunlight.
  • Actinic keratoses (AKs) have been recognized as precursor of cancer or of precancerous lesions in the past but today they are considered as an early in situ squamous cell carcinoma (1,2) and are categorized in several classifications with subdivisions into three grades depending on the amount of atypical keratinocytes in the epidermis.(3-6) The incidence of development of AK in caucasians increases with age, proximity to the equator and outdoor occupation.
  • AKs are discovered in up to 40-50% of the Australian population older than 40 years.(7) AKs are the most common malignant lesion of the skin.(8-12).

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  • (PMID = 18067626.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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95. Güleç AT, Haberal M: Lip and oral mucosal lesions in 100 renal transplant recipients. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2010 Jan;62(1):96-101
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  • Fordyce spots on the lips was the most common lesion in the patient group (73%), followed by diffuse gingival enlargement (39%), fissured tongue (35%), and oral candidiasis (26%).
  • No actinic cheilitis, lip cancer, or oral malignancy was observed.

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  • (PMID = 19926164.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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96. Zaravinos A, Kanellou P, Baritaki S, Bonavida B, Spandidos DA: BRAF and RKIP are significantly decreased in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Cell Cycle; 2009 May 1;8(9):1402-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic keratosis (AK) is a well-established pre-cancerous skin lesion that has the potential to progress to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).


97. Verma SB, Wollina U: Ultraviolet light-induced leukoderma of the scalp associated with androgenetic alopecia: senescent actinic depigmentation of the scalp. J Cutan Med Surg; 2009 Sep-Oct;13(5):262-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ultraviolet light-induced leukoderma of the scalp associated with androgenetic alopecia: senescent actinic depigmentation of the scalp.
  • There has been no depigmented lesion elsewhere on the body.
  • The term senescent actinic depigmentation of the scalp is suggested.


98. de Leeuw J, van der Beek N, Neugebauer WD, Bjerring P, Neumann HA: Fluorescence detection and diagnosis of non-melanoma skin cancer at an early stage. Lasers Surg Med; 2009 Feb;41(2):96-103
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: The occurrence of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), including actinic keratosis (AK) is increasing all over the world.
  • After histological examination the positive fluorescence appeared to be correlated to benign lesions in 28 patients (sebaceous gland hyperplasia in 22 patients) and to (pre-) malignant lesions in 33 patients (actinic keratosis in 29, BCC in 3 and SCC in 1 patient).
  • False negative fluorescence was found in only one lesion.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19226578.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9101
  • [Journal-full-title] Lasers in surgery and medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lasers Surg Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Liposomes; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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99. Rossi R, Calzavara-Pinton PG, Giannetti A, Peserico A, Santucci M, Vena GA, Lotti T: Italian guidelines and therapeutic algorithm for actinic keratoses. G Ital Dermatol Venereol; 2009 Dec;144(6):713-23
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Italian guidelines and therapeutic algorithm for actinic keratoses.
  • The prevalence of actinic keratosis (AK) continues to rise among white people throughout the world and it is necessary to increase the level of attention paid to it from a diagnostic and a preventive point of view.
  • However, when multiple AKs develop on severely photodamaged skin, the treatment of the lesion together with that of the field of cancerization is part of an optimal strategy that aims not only to solve alterations clinically evident but also those in the surrounding skin field cancerization, that most likely hosts genetic alterations and is the site of initial gradual replacement of normal cells with tumoral cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis, Actinic / therapy. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Precancerous Conditions / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19907409.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-0488
  • [Journal-full-title] Giornale italiano di dermatologia e venereologia : organo ufficiale, Società italiana di dermatologia e sifilografia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Ital Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dermatologic Agents; 0 / Sunscreening Agents
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100. Ulrich C, Jürgensen JS, Degen A, Hackethal M, Ulrich M, Patel MJ, Eberle J, Terhorst D, Sterry W, Stockfleth E: Prevention of non-melanoma skin cancer in organ transplant patients by regular use of a sunscreen: a 24 months, prospective, case-control study. Br J Dermatol; 2009 Nov;161 Suppl 3:78-84
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Especially UV-induced non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC) like invasive squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and actinic keratoses (AK), and basal cell carcinoma (BCC), outnumber every other form of cancer in organ transplant recipients.
  • In spite of equal numbers of AK at baseline, a marked difference in favor of the intent-to-treat sunscreen group was recorded after 24 months (89 vs. 273; P<0.01, mean difference 3.07 [1.76-4.36]) and the lesion count was significantly lower as compared to the initial visit (89 vs. 191; P<0.01, mean difference 1.7 [0.68-2.72]).
  • [MeSH-major] Immunocompromised Host. Keratosis, Actinic / prevention & control. Organ Transplantation / adverse effects. Skin Neoplasms / prevention & control. Sunscreening Agents / administration & dosage. Ultraviolet Rays / adverse effects






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