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1. Dornelas MT, Rodrigues MF, Machado DC, Gollner AM, Ferreira AP: [Expression of cell proliferation and apoptosis biomarkers in skin spinocellular carcinoma and actinic keratosis]. An Bras Dermatol; 2009 Sep-Oct;84(5):469-75
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Expression of cell proliferation and apoptosis biomarkers in skin spinocellular carcinoma and actinic keratosis].
  • In many cases, before the onset of the carcinoma, there might be a precursor lesion--actinic keratosis, which can develop into squamous cell carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the expression of markers of cell proliferation (PCNA, Ki-67) and apoptosis (p53,Bcl-2) in patients with squamous cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis.
  • METHOD: We studied samples from 30 patients, ten patients of squamous cell carcinoma, ten with actinic keratosis and ten lesion-free samples from blepharoplasty.
  • Bcl-2 was expressed at low intensity in six cases of actinic keratosis in the skin from blepharoplasty and negative in cases of squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Thus, expression of p53 and Bcl-2 in patients with actinic keratosis indicates cell immortalization.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cell Proliferation. Keratosis, Actinic / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20098848.001).
  • [ISSN] 1806-4841
  • [Journal-full-title] Anais brasileiros de dermatologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Bras Dermatol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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2. Shoimer I, Rosen N, Muhn C: Current management of actinic keratoses. Skin Therapy Lett; 2010 May;15(5):5-7
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  • [Title] Current management of actinic keratoses.
  • An actinic keratosis (AK) is a pre-malignant cutaneous lesion that frequently manifests in sun-exposed areas of the skin as a small, rough, scaly erythematous papule.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / prevention & control. Keratosis, Actinic / therapy. Skin Neoplasms / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 20505896.001).
  • [ISSN] 1201-5989
  • [Journal-full-title] Skin therapy letter
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skin Therapy Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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3. Sandberg C, Stenquist B, Rosdahl I, Ros AM, Synnerstad I, Karlsson M, Gudmundson F, Ericson MB, Larkö O, Wennberg AM: Important factors for pain during photodynamic therapy for actinic keratosis. Acta Derm Venereol; 2006;86(5):404-8
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  • [Title] Important factors for pain during photodynamic therapy for actinic keratosis.
  • Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an efficient treatment for actinic keratosis.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate pain during PDT for actinic keratosis.
  • The redness of the actinic lesions was found to be related to PDT-induced pain (p=0.01), the reduction of actinic area (p=0.007), and the cure rate (p=0.01).
  • The redder the actinic area, the better the treatment outcome and the more pain experienced.
  • Patients with the largest reduction in the actinic area experienced more pain (p=0.053).
  • The most important factors for presence of pain seem to be the size and the redness of the lesion.

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  • (PMID = 16955183.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5555
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta dermato-venereologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Derm. Venereol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] S07O44R1ZM / Capsaicin
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4. de Freitas Mda C, Ramalho LM, Xavier FC, Moreira AL, Reis SR: p53 and MDM2 protein expression in actinic cheilitis. J Appl Oral Sci; 2008 Nov-Dec;16(6):414-9
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  • [Title] p53 and MDM2 protein expression in actinic cheilitis.
  • Actinic cheilitis is a potentially malignant lip lesion caused by excessive and prolonged exposure to ultraviolet radiation, which can lead to histomorphological alterations indicative of abnormal cell differentiation.
  • There are few published studies regarding the p53 and MDM2 proteins in actinic cheilitis.
  • Fifty-eight cases diagnosed with actinic cheilitis were histologically evaluated using Banóczy and Csiba (1976) parameters, and were subjected to immunohistochemical analysis using the streptavidin-biotin method in order to assess p53 and MDM2 protein expression.
  • The expression of p53 and MDM2 proteins in actinic cheilitis can be an important indicator in lip carcinogenesis, regardless of the degree of epithelial dysplasia.

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  • (PMID = 19082401.001).
  • [ISSN] 1678-7765
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of applied oral science : revista FOB
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Appl Oral Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Chromatin; 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 6.3.2.19 / MDM2 protein, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4327713
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5. Jacobs RJ, Phillips G: Basal cell carcinoma mistaken for actinic keratosis. Clin Exp Optom; 2006 May;89(3):171-5
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  • [Title] Basal cell carcinoma mistaken for actinic keratosis.
  • Increasing age and UV exposure are well-known associations with precancerous and cancerous skin lesions, including actinic (solar) keratosis, and squamous and basal cell carcinomata.
  • This report describes a patient with a facial skin lesion close to an eye that was initially believed to be actinic (solar) keratosis but was subsequently diagnosed as a basal cell carcinoma (BCC).
  • Referral to his general medical practitioner (GP) resulted in surgical excision of the lesion.
  • This procedure was performed inexpensively by the local GP as the lesion was not large and was in an accessible position.
  • The lesion and the course of recovery over four weeks were documented photographically.
  • The lesion was surgically excised and the diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma was confirmed by pathological examination.

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  • (PMID = 16637973.001).
  • [ISSN] 0816-4622
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & experimental optometry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Exp Optom
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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6. Quaedvlieg PJ, Tirsi E, Thissen MR, Krekels GA: Actinic keratosis: how to differentiate the good from the bad ones? Eur J Dermatol; 2006 Jul-Aug;16(4):335-9
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  • [Title] Actinic keratosis: how to differentiate the good from the bad ones?
  • Our objective was to obtain practical clinical parameters to indicate those actinic keratoses (AK) that are at risk of becoming invasive.
  • Only 1 study (meta-analysis) examined the percentage of malignant transformation and found a rate between 0.025% and 20% per year/per lesion.
  • The amount of quality research on the most common premalignant lesion in humans is disappointing.

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  • (PMID = 16935787.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-1122
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of dermatology : EJD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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7. Ricci E, Afaragan M: The effect of stochastic electrical noise on hard-to-heal wounds. J Wound Care; 2010 Mar;19(3):96-103
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Ulcer aetiologies were: EPUAP grade IV pressure ulcers (n=6) and grade III pressure ulcer (n=1), vasculitic ulcer (n=1), post-actinic lesion (n=1), ischaemic (n=1) and post-surgical lesion (n=1).

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  • (PMID = 20559186.001).
  • [ISSN] 0969-0700
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of wound care
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Wound Care
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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8. Martínez A, Brethauer U, Borlando J, Spencer ML, Rojas IG: Epithelial expression of p53, mdm-2 and p21 in normal lip and actinic cheilitis. Oral Oncol; 2008 Sep;44(9):878-83
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  • [Title] Epithelial expression of p53, mdm-2 and p21 in normal lip and actinic cheilitis.
  • To assess if the p53-regulated proteins murine-double-minute (mdm)-2 and p21 are altered during early lip carcinogenesis, biopsies from normal lip (n=16) and the premalignant lip lesion, actinic cheilitis (AC) (n=26) were processed for the immunohistochemical detection of p53, p21 and mdm-2 in serial co-localized sections.

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  • (PMID = 18234540.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0593
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 6.3.2.19 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2
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9. Dang C, Gottschling M, Roewert J, Forschner T, Stockfleth E, Nindl I: Tenascin-C patterns and splice variants in actinic keratosis and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Br J Dermatol; 2006 Oct;155(4):763-70
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Tenascin-C patterns and splice variants in actinic keratosis and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.
  • The mRNA expression and protein level of Tn-C including its various isoforms have not been investigated comprehensively so far in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and the precursor lesion actinic keratosis (AK).

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  • (PMID = 16965426.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Tenascin
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10. Dissemond J, Grabbe S: [Actinic keratosis]. MMW Fortschr Med; 2006 Jun 15;148(24):38-9, 41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Actinic keratosis].
  • Actinic keratosis is a precancerous lesion that is commonly seen in the elderly patient and requires treatment.
  • The diagnosis is usually based on the clinical appearance of the lesion.

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  • (PMID = 16850807.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-3276
  • [Journal-full-title] MMW Fortschritte der Medizin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] MMW Fortschr Med
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon Inducers; 0 / Ointments; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 0
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11. Puizina-Ivić N, Sapunar D, Marasović D, Mirić L: An overview of Bcl-2 expression in histopathological variants of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, actinic keratosis and seborrheic keratosis. Coll Antropol; 2008 Oct;32 Suppl 2:61-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An overview of Bcl-2 expression in histopathological variants of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, actinic keratosis and seborrheic keratosis.
  • In this study the authors have analyzed imunohistochemically the expression of Bcl-2 protein in the histopathological variants of the most common malignant tumors of the skin--basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell tumor (SCC), as well as in the precancerous lesion actinic keratosis (AK) and in benign tumor seborrheic keratosis (SK).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Keratosis, Actinic / metabolism. Keratosis, Seborrheic / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism


12. Ulrich M, Forschner T, Röwert-Huber J, González S, Stockfleth E, Sterry W, Astner S: Differentiation between actinic keratoses and disseminated superficial actinic porokeratoses with reflectance confocal microscopy. Br J Dermatol; 2007 May;156 Suppl 3:47-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Differentiation between actinic keratoses and disseminated superficial actinic porokeratoses with reflectance confocal microscopy.
  • BACKGROUND: Clinical differentiation between actinic keratosis (AK) and disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis (DSAP) may pose a significant challenge, and histological evaluation is often also required for diagnosis.
  • OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the relevant RCM criteria for the identification of disseminated superficial actinic porokeratoses (DSAPs) and to define distinguishing criteria for DSAPs compared with actinic keratosis (AKs).
  • All lesions were evaluated by clinical examination, and RCM and one clinically identified lesion was biopsied for histological confirmation.
  • RESULTS: Cellular and nuclear atypia, inflammation, spongiosis, parakeratosis and changes in epidermal architecture were present in both lesion types (i.e.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Distinguishing features of DSAPs, such as cornoid lamella, sharp demarcation of the lesion and focal keratinocyte atypia are easily identifiable using RCM, and correlate well with histopathology.

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  • (PMID = 17488407.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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13. Berman B, Amini S, Valins W, Block S: Pharmacotherapy of actinic keratosis. Expert Opin Pharmacother; 2009 Dec;10(18):3015-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pharmacotherapy of actinic keratosis.
  • Actinic keratosis (AK) represents the initial intraepidermal manifestation of abnormal keratinocyte proliferation with the potential of progression to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • When in limited numbers, clinically visible AKs are treated individually with ablative and/or surgical procedures (lesion-directed treatment), while multiple and sublinical AKs are treated with field-directed therapies that use ablative, nonablating and other topically applied treatment modalities.
  • Lesion-directed treatment modalities include cryotherapy, surgery and electrodessication with or without curettage.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19925043.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-7666
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Pharmacother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 179
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14. Neidecker MV, Davis-Ajami ML, Balkrishnan R, Feldman SR: Pharmacoeconomic considerations in treating actinic keratosis. Pharmacoeconomics; 2009;27(6):451-64
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pharmacoeconomic considerations in treating actinic keratosis.
  • Actinic keratosis is among the most commonly treated skin conditions in the outpatient setting.
  • With high prevalence, increasing incidence and the risk of transformation to a cancerous lesion, prevention and timely treatment present opportunities to rein in costs.
  • The purpose of this article is to review published economic studies relating to the treatment of actinic keratosis, to summarize results discussing the cost drivers of current treatment modalities and to identify parameters most likely to influence the cost effectiveness of treatment.
  • We systematically conducted a published literature search for pharmacoeconomic research of actinic keratosis using title, abstract or full-text searches with the following search terms ([actinic OR solar] AND [keratosis OR keratoses]) AND (economic OR cost OR pharmacoeconomics OR decision).
  • We included published articles referencing actinic keratosis in a standalone study or in a broader study referencing non-melanoma skin cancer and articles evaluating cost-of-illness, cost-of-treatment, cost minimization, cost effectiveness, cost utility, cost-benefit analysis and cost consequence.
  • Our review of the literature found nine studies devoted to pharmacoeconomic considerations of actinic keratosis treatments, with one article investigating both cost-of-illness and cost-of-treatment, two measuring cost-of-illness, two evaluating cost-of-treatment, one focusing on cost minimization, and three focusing on cost effectiveness.
  • The literature compared a broad range of actinic keratosis treatments including topical medications, cryotherapy, photodynamic therapy, excision and a combination of treatment modalities.
  • The direct cost of actinic keratosis management in the US was estimated at $US1.2 billion per year, with indirect costs totalling $US295 million (year 2004 values).
  • Pharmacoeconomic research defining standards, outcomes and areas of efficiencies in the treatment of actinic keratosis is in its infancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Cost of Illness. Economics, Pharmaceutical / statistics & numerical data. Keratosis, Actinic / economics

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  • (PMID = 19640009.001).
  • [ISSN] 1170-7690
  • [Journal-full-title] PharmacoEconomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pharmacoeconomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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15. Jirakulaporn T, Mathew J, Lindgren BR, Dudek AZ: Efficacy of capecitabine in secondary prevention of skin cancer in solid organ-transplanted recipients (OTR). J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):1519
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Topical 5% 5-FU has been used to successfully treat squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in situ and actinic keratosis (AK).
  • Age and the number of transplants were not significantly related to the change in incidence rates for all skin lesion types.

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  • (PMID = 27964327.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Lentini M, Schepis C, Cuppari DA, Batolo D: Tenascin expression in actinic keratosis. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Nov;33(11):716-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Tenascin expression in actinic keratosis.
  • Actinic keratoses (AKs) are intraepidermal neoplastic lesions of the sun-exposed skin.
  • RESULTS: Tenascin positivity was observed in all cases at the dermal level close to the epithelial lesion.

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  • (PMID = 17083689.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Tenascin
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17. Roewert-Huber J, Stockfleth E, Kerl H: Pathology and pathobiology of actinic (solar) keratosis - an update. Br J Dermatol; 2007 Dec;157 Suppl 2:18-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pathology and pathobiology of actinic (solar) keratosis - an update.
  • Actinic keratosis is a UV light-induced lesion and develops mostly in fair-skinned patients being susceptible to solar damage.
  • The term actinic keratosis (AK) describes clinically ill-defined reddish to reddish-brown scaly lesions on erythematous base in areas damaged severely by sunlight.
  • Actinic keratoses (AKs) have been recognized as precursor of cancer or of precancerous lesions in the past but today they are considered as an early in situ squamous cell carcinoma (1,2) and are categorized in several classifications with subdivisions into three grades depending on the amount of atypical keratinocytes in the epidermis.(3-6) The incidence of development of AK in caucasians increases with age, proximity to the equator and outdoor occupation.
  • AKs are discovered in up to 40-50% of the Australian population older than 40 years.(7) AKs are the most common malignant lesion of the skin.(8-12).

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  • (PMID = 18067626.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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18. Dianzani C, Pierangeli A, Chiricozzi A, Avola A, Degener AM: Cutaneous human papillomaviruses as recurrence factor in actinic keratoses. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol; 2008 Jan-Mar;21(1):145-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cutaneous human papillomaviruses as recurrence factor in actinic keratoses.
  • Actinic keratoses (AK) are common, premalignant lesions cause mainly by UV DNA damage.
  • The aim of this work is to identify the presence of HPV DNA in biopsies from Actinic Keratoses (AK) and from normal skin samples collected from dermatological healthy subjects in Italy, in order to evaluate the severity and the clinical evolution of the HPV positive lesions.
  • These data permit to hypothesize that the presence of HPV DNA could be an aggravating factor for AK lesion severity and recurrence.

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  • (PMID = 18336740.001).
  • [ISSN] 0394-6320
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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19. Braathen LR, Paredes BE, Saksela O, Fritsch C, Gardlo K, Morken T, Frølich KW, Warloe T, Solér AM, Ros AM: Short incubation with methyl aminolevulinate for photodynamic therapy of actinic keratoses. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2009 May;23(5):550-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Short incubation with methyl aminolevulinate for photodynamic therapy of actinic keratoses.
  • BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) is an effective first-line treatment for actinic keratoses.
  • OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the effect of incubation time (1 vs. 3 h), MAL concentration (160 mg/g vs. 80 mg/g) and lesion preparation in the setting of MAL-PDT for treatment of actinic keratosis (AK).
  • MAIN OUTCOME: Complete lesion response rates 3 and 12 months after last treatment.
  • RESULTS: For lesions on the face/scalp, lesion complete response rates were 78% for thin AK and 74% for moderately thick AK lesions after 1 h vs. 96% and 87% after 3 h incubation with MAL 160 mg/g.
  • Lesion recurrence rates at 12 months after two treatments were similar [19% (3 of 16) with 1 h vs. 17% (3 of 18) with 3 h 160 mg/kg MAL-PDT] and lower than for 80 mg/g MAL-PDT (44-45%).
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19415804.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-3083
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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20. Ulrich M, Maltusch A, Röwert-Huber J, González S, Sterry W, Stockfleth E, Astner S: Actinic keratoses: non-invasive diagnosis for field cancerisation. Br J Dermatol; 2007 May;156 Suppl 3:13-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Actinic keratoses: non-invasive diagnosis for field cancerisation.
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic keratoses (AKs) are among the most common cutaneous malignancies and have previously been classified as in situ squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) with reported progression rates of up to 20% over 10 years.
  • PATIENTS/METHODS: Forty four Caucasians (SPT I-III) with a minimum of one actinic keratosis (AK) lesion were included in this study.

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  • (PMID = 17488401.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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21. Stockfleth E: Topical management of actinic keratosis and field cancerisation. G Ital Dermatol Venereol; 2009 Aug;144(4):459-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Topical management of actinic keratosis and field cancerisation.
  • Actinic keratosis (AK) is a squamous cell carcinoma of the epidermis in situ.
  • Recurrence of a lesion (which by definition affects the same site) is often the result of incomplete removal of clinically apparent AK lesions after treatment or the presence of subclinical lesions that were not identified and removed.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis, Actinic / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19755950.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-0488
  • [Journal-full-title] Giornale italiano di dermatologia e venereologia : organo ufficiale, Società italiana di dermatologia e sifilografia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Ital Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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22. Rossi R, Calzavara-Pinton PG, Giannetti A, Peserico A, Santucci M, Vena GA, Lotti T: Italian guidelines and therapeutic algorithm for actinic keratoses. G Ital Dermatol Venereol; 2009 Dec;144(6):713-23
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Italian guidelines and therapeutic algorithm for actinic keratoses.
  • The prevalence of actinic keratosis (AK) continues to rise among white people throughout the world and it is necessary to increase the level of attention paid to it from a diagnostic and a preventive point of view.
  • However, when multiple AKs develop on severely photodamaged skin, the treatment of the lesion together with that of the field of cancerization is part of an optimal strategy that aims not only to solve alterations clinically evident but also those in the surrounding skin field cancerization, that most likely hosts genetic alterations and is the site of initial gradual replacement of normal cells with tumoral cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis, Actinic / therapy. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Precancerous Conditions / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19907409.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-0488
  • [Journal-full-title] Giornale italiano di dermatologia e venereologia : organo ufficiale, Società italiana di dermatologia e sifilografia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Ital Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dermatologic Agents; 0 / Sunscreening Agents
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23. Kodama M, Watanabe D, Akita Y, Tamada Y, Matsumoto Y: Photodynamic therapy for the treatment of actinic cheilitis. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed; 2007 Oct;23(5):209-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Photodynamic therapy for the treatment of actinic cheilitis.
  • Although actinic cheilitis is a common disease, it should be treated carefully because it can undergo malignant transformation.
  • We report a case of actinic cheilitis treated with photodynamic therapy (PDT) using 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), with satisfactory outcome in both clinical and pathological aspects.
  • Actinic cheilitis is a pathologic condition affecting mainly the lower lip caused by long-term exposure of the lips to the UV radiation in sunlight.
  • Analogous to actinic keratosis of the skin, actinic cheilitis is considered as a precancerous lesion and it may develop into squamous cell carcinoma.
  • We report a case of actinic cheilitis treated with PDT using ALA, with satisfactory outcome in both clinical and pathological aspects.

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  • (PMID = 17803601.001).
  • [ISSN] 0905-4383
  • [Journal-full-title] Photodermatology, photoimmunology & photomedicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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24. Berman B, Villa AM, Ramirez CC: Mechanisms of action of new treatment modalities for actinic keratosis. J Drugs Dermatol; 2006 Feb;5(2):167-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mechanisms of action of new treatment modalities for actinic keratosis.
  • Actinic keratosis (AK) constitutes the initial lesion in a disease continuum that can progress to invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • In this article, we describe the mechanisms of action, tolerability, and efficacy of the most frequently used chemopreventative, chemotherapeutic, destructive, and novel immunologic methods for the control and treatment of actinic keratoses.

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  • (PMID = 16485885.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-9616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Drugs Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Antimetabolites; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Teratogens; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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25. Nakano A, Tamada Y, Watanabe D, Ishida N, Yamashita N, Kuhara T, Yanagishita T, Kawamura C, Akita Y, Matsumoto Y: A pilot study to assess the efficacy of photodynamic therapy for Japanese patients with actinic keratosis in relation to lesion size and histological severity. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed; 2009 Feb;25(1):37-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A pilot study to assess the efficacy of photodynamic therapy for Japanese patients with actinic keratosis in relation to lesion size and histological severity.
  • BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-based photodynamic therapy (PDT) is effective for actinic keratosis (AK); few studies have examined Oriental patients.
  • The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of PDT for the treatment of Japanese AK patients classified by lesion size and histological severity.
  • METHODS: Thirty patients with solitary AK lesions were divided into two groups according to diameter: a small lesion group (SL), diameter < or =10 mm and a larger lesion group (LL), diameter >10 mm, and histological severity: Group I (mild and moderate) and Group II (severe).
  • The therapeutic outcome might depend on the lesion size and the histopathological severity.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Keratosis, Actinic / pathology. Photochemotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19152514.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0781
  • [Journal-full-title] Photodermatology, photoimmunology & photomedicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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26. Pock L, Drlík L, Hercogová J: Dermatoscopy of pigmented actinic keratosis--a striking similarity to lentigo maligna. Int J Dermatol; 2007 Apr;46(4):414-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Dermatoscopy of pigmented actinic keratosis--a striking similarity to lentigo maligna.
  • BACKGROUND: Pigmented actinic keratosis (PAK) resembles lentigo maligna (LM) clinically and histopathologically in some cases.
  • OBJECTIVES: To describe the dermatoscopical characteristics of this uncommon variant of actinic keratosis and evaluate whether these characteristics show common features with LM.
  • OBSERVATIONS: We had the opportunity to examine a 78-year-old woman who presented with a PAK lesion on her face dermatoscopically and histopathologically.

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  • (PMID = 17442088.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-9059
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Uhlenhake EE, Sangueza OP, Lee AD, Jorizzo JL: Spreading pigmented actinic keratosis: a review. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2010 Sep;63(3):499-506
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Spreading pigmented actinic keratosis: a review.
  • INTRODUCTION: Spreading pigmented actinic keratosis (SPAK) is a common, but uncommonly reported or appreciated, variant of classic actinic keratosis (AK).
  • METHODS: A literature search was performed in both PubMed and MEDLINE databases using the search terms "spreading pigmented actinic keratosis," "pigmented solar keratosis," "pigmented actinic," and "pigmented solar."
  • RESULTS: SPAK is a rarely reported lesion that can be difficult to distinguish from other benign and malignant pigmented lesions, including seborrheic keratosis, melanoma in situ (lentigo maligna type), and lentigo maligna melanoma.
  • Located mainly on sun-exposed areas and with a size greater than 1.5 cm, the lesion typically spreads laterally.
  • Pathologically, the lesion resembles classic AK with increased basal melanization.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Hutchinson's Melanotic Freckle / pathology. Keratosis, Actinic / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology


28. Ferrándiz C: Update on actinic keratosis in clinical trial experience with imiquimod. Br J Dermatol; 2007 Dec;157 Suppl 2:32-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Update on actinic keratosis in clinical trial experience with imiquimod.
  • Actinic keratoses (AK) is a sun induced cutaneous lesion, currently considered as a squamous cell carcinoma in situ that has the potential to progress to invasive SCC.

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  • (PMID = 18067629.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
  • [Number-of-references] 9
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29. Verma SB, Wollina U: Ultraviolet light-induced leukoderma of the scalp associated with androgenetic alopecia: senescent actinic depigmentation of the scalp. J Cutan Med Surg; 2009 Sep-Oct;13(5):262-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ultraviolet light-induced leukoderma of the scalp associated with androgenetic alopecia: senescent actinic depigmentation of the scalp.
  • There has been no depigmented lesion elsewhere on the body.
  • The term senescent actinic depigmentation of the scalp is suggested.


30. Huber MA: White oral lesions, actinic cheilitis, and leukoplakia: confusions in terminology and definition: facts and controversies. Clin Dermatol; 2010 May-Jun;28(3):262-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] White oral lesions, actinic cheilitis, and leukoplakia: confusions in terminology and definition: facts and controversies.
  • Although most encountered white oral lesions are innocuous, some potentially serious conditions may mimic an innocuous white lesion.
  • As examples, oral lichen planus may cause significant patient discomfort and is associated with some degree of increased malignant risk, whereas actinic cheilitis and leukoplakia have a confirmed association with an increased malignant risk.


36. Einspahr JG, Xu MJ, Warneke J, Saboda K, Ranger-Moore J, Bozzo P, Duckett L, Goldman R, Lin P, Buckmeier J, Alberts DS: Reproducibility and expression of skin biomarkers in sun-damaged skin and actinic keratoses. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2006 Oct;15(10):1841-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Reproducibility and expression of skin biomarkers in sun-damaged skin and actinic keratoses.
  • METHODS: Biopsies were collected from three groups: 78 subjects with sun damage on forearms, 33 with actinic keratosis (AK) on forearms, and 32 with previous squamous cell carcinoma.
  • When lesion histology was considered, there was a stepwise significant increase in p53 in biopsies without characteristics of AK compared with early AK (P = 0.02) and AK (P = 0.0006) and a similar pattern for PCNA with the only significant difference between early AK and AK.
  • There was a stepwise increase in putrescine and spermidine in normal, sun-damaged forearm, forearm from subjects with AK, and the AK lesion itself (P < 0.0001).

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  • (PMID = 17021352.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA23074; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA27502
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biogenic Polyamines; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Sunscreening Agents; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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37. Dubauskas Z, Kunishige J, Prieto VG, Jonasch E, Hwu P, Tannir NM: Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and inflammation of actinic keratoses associated with sorafenib. Clin Genitourin Cancer; 2009 Jan;7(1):20-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and inflammation of actinic keratoses associated with sorafenib.
  • Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and inflammation of actinic keratosis (AK) were reported in 2 patients treated with sorafenib (Lacouture et al), but the scope of this observation has not been evaluated.
  • One patient receiving sorafenib at a 25% dose reduction developed a second invasive SCC lesion on his forearm 6 months after the initial resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Benzenesulfonates / adverse effects. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / chemically induced. Drug Eruptions / etiology. Keratosis, Actinic / chemically induced. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / adverse effects. Pyridines / adverse effects. Skin Neoplasms / chemically induced

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  • [CommentIn] Clin Genitourin Cancer. 2009 Jan;7(1):9-10 [19213661.001]
  • (PMID = 19213663.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-7673
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical genitourinary cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Genitourin Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzenesulfonates; 0 / Phenylurea Compounds; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyridines; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; 9ZOQ3TZI87 / sorafenib
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS773866; NLM/ PMC4825856
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38. Piñera-Marques K, Lorenço SV, Silva LF, Sotto MN, Carneiro PC: Actinic lesions in fishermen's lower lip: clinical, cytopathological and histopathologic analysis. Clinics (Sao Paulo); 2010 Apr;65(4):363-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Actinic lesions in fishermen's lower lip: clinical, cytopathological and histopathologic analysis.
  • INTRODUCTION: Actinic cheilitis (AC) is considered to be a pre-malignant lesion or an incipient and superficial form of lip squamous cell carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 20454492.001).
  • [ISSN] 1980-5322
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clinics (Sao Paulo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2862672
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Actinic cheilitis / Exfoliative cytology / Lip carcinoma / Pre-malignant lesion
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39. Zaravinos A, Kanellou P, Spandidos DA: Viral DNA detection and RAS mutations in actinic keratosis and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Br J Dermatol; 2010 Feb 1;162(2):325-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Viral DNA detection and RAS mutations in actinic keratosis and nonmelanoma skin cancers.
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic keratosis (AK) is a well-established precancerous skin lesion that has the potential to progress to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. DNA, Viral / isolation & purification. Genes, ras / genetics. Keratosis, Actinic / virology. Skin Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 19849697.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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40. Kaufmann R, Spelman L, Weightman W, Reifenberger J, Szeimies RM, Verhaeghe E, Kerrouche N, Sorba V, Villemagne H, Rhodes LE: Multicentre intraindividual randomized trial of topical methyl aminolaevulinate-photodynamic therapy vs. cryotherapy for multiple actinic keratoses on the extremities. Br J Dermatol; 2008 May;158(5):994-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Multicentre intraindividual randomized trial of topical methyl aminolaevulinate-photodynamic therapy vs. cryotherapy for multiple actinic keratoses on the extremities.
  • BACKGROUND: Methyl aminolaevulinate-photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT) is an effective treatment in facial/scalp actinic keratosis (AK).
  • The primary efficacy variable was the lesion response at week 24.
  • Both treatments provided a high mean percentage reduction in lesion count at week 24 with significantly higher efficacy for cryotherapy: 78% for MAL-PDT and 88% for cryotherapy (P=0.002, per protocol population).


41. Werschler WP: Considerations for use of Fluorouracil cream 0.5% for the treatment of actinic keratosis in elderly patients. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol; 2008 Jul;1(2):22-7
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  • [Title] Considerations for use of Fluorouracil cream 0.5% for the treatment of actinic keratosis in elderly patients.
  • Actinic keratosis (AK), the initial lesion in a disease continuum that may progress to squamous cell carcinoma, often begins with ultraviolet B light-induced photo damage and increases in prevalence with age.

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  • (PMID = 21103319.001).
  • [ISSN] 1941-2789
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical and aesthetic dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Aesthet Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2989823
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42. Shah AY, Doherty SD, Rosen T: Actinic cheilitis: a treatment review. Int J Dermatol; 2010 Nov;49(11):1225-34
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  • [Title] Actinic cheilitis: a treatment review.
  • All other factors being equal, the presence of actinic cheilitis, a pre-invasive malignant lesion of the lips, doubles the risk of squamous cell carcinoma developing in this anatomic area.
  • This paper critically evaluates the available medical literature to highlight the evidence-based strength of each recommended therapy for actinic cheilitis.

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 The International Society of Dermatology.
  • (PMID = 20964646.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-4632
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Caustics; 5V2JDO056X / Trichloroacetic Acid; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; Actinic cheilitis
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43. Lee AD, Jorizzo JL: Optimizing management of actinic keratosis and photodamaged skin: utilizing a stepwise approach. Cutis; 2009 Sep;84(3):169-75
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  • [Title] Optimizing management of actinic keratosis and photodamaged skin: utilizing a stepwise approach.
  • The incidence of photodamaged skin and skin lesions of all degrees of severity, from actinic keratosis (AK) to skin cancers, has dramatically increased.
  • Actinic keratoses are pathologic, reflecting damage of essential skin cell functions and potentially progressing to invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • We propose a comprehensive 5-step approach for managing AK lesions and photodamaged skin that includes periodic clinical skin examinations; treating AK lesions with a combination of field- and lesion-directed therapy; and patient education regarding sun-protective measures and regular skin self-examinations.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / prevention & control. Keratosis, Actinic / therapy. Skin Aging / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / prevention & control


44. Brodsky J: Management of benign skin lesions commonly affecting the face: actinic keratosis, seborrheic keratosis, and rosacea. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2009 Aug;17(4):315-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of benign skin lesions commonly affecting the face: actinic keratosis, seborrheic keratosis, and rosacea.
  • Advances in the understanding and management of three of the more common benign skin lesions affecting the face will be addressed in this review, with a particular emphasis on the most current therapeutic options for each lesion.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Actinic keratosis can now be treated with photodynamic therapy or with many topical agents, as alternatives to traditional surgical techniques.
  • Seborrheic keratosis, as well as actinic keratosis and rosacea, are now often treated with laser therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Facial Dermatoses / therapy. Keratosis, Actinic / therapy. Keratosis, Seborrheic / therapy. Rosacea / therapy


45. Menter A, Vamvakias G, Jorizzo J: One-week treatment with once-daily fluorouracil cream 0.5% in participants with actinic keratoses. Cutis; 2008 Jun;81(6):509-16
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] One-week treatment with once-daily fluorouracil cream 0.5% in participants with actinic keratoses.
  • Actinic keratoses (AKs) are common in fair-skinned individuals with a history of chronic and excessive sun exposure and may progress to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • Extending treatment for up to 4 weeks will further improve AK lesion clearance rates.

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  • (PMID = 18666394.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-4162
  • [Journal-full-title] Cutis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cutis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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46. Kvlividze O, Gogiashvili L, Burkadze G: The characteristics of human papillomavirus expression and cell proliferation in actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease of the skin. Georgian Med News; 2006 Jul;(136):108-12
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  • [Title] The characteristics of human papillomavirus expression and cell proliferation in actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease of the skin.
  • The aim of our study was to elucidate the characteristics of HPV expression and cell proliferation in actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease of the skin.
  • We examined immunocompetent patients with premalignant lesions of the skin such as actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease.
  • Clinical study included gross features of lesion, growth rate, colour, size.
  • Actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease failed to show the specific clinical features, therefore, they can not be diagnosed based on clinical signs only and morphological examination seems to be mandatory.
  • The immunohistochemical study has showed that in both actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease HPV was positive in 60%, and 40% were HPV-negative suggesting the similar incidence of HPV infection in these premalignant lesions.
  • Our results suggest that HPV(+)/p53(+) types of actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease are characterized by higher proliferation activity in comparison to HPV(-)/p53(+) types, and expression of Bcl-2 is associated with HPV-negativity, therefore, these premalignant lesions of the skin require immunohistochemical examination with evaluation of expressions of human papillomavirus, proliferation marker PCNA and anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2.
  • The differential diagnosis of actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease should be based on the following immunohistochemical criteria: incidences of positivity for p53, Bcl-2 and PCNA are similar, but expression intensity and anatomical localization are different: their expressions are higher in Bowen's disease, positive cells are found primarily in upper epidermis in actinic keratosis, while whole epithelium is involved in Bowen's disease.


47. Vasiljevic N, Hazard K, Dillner J, Forslund O: Four novel human betapapillomaviruses of species 2 preferentially found in actinic keratosis. J Gen Virol; 2008 Oct;89(Pt 10):2467-74
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  • [Title] Four novel human betapapillomaviruses of species 2 preferentially found in actinic keratosis.
  • This study determined the complete genomes of four betapapillomaviruses of species 2 from skin lesions designated HPV-107, -110 and -111 and FA75[KI88-03], an isolate of an unpublished HPV type, and analysed their prevalence and viral loads in biopsies from SCC, actinic keratosis (AK), basal cell carcinoma, seborrhoeic keratosis and the healthy skin of 263 immunocompetent patients by HPV type-specific real-time PCR assays.
  • Seventeen patients (6.5 %) harboured at least one of the four HPV types in their lesion, whereas seven patients (2.7 %) harboured one or more of the HPV types in healthy skin.

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  • (PMID = 18796715.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1317
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of general virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gen. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ EF422221/ EU410347/ EU410348/ EU410349
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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48. Ulrich C, Forschner T, Ulrich M, Stockfleth E, Sterry W, Termeer C: Management of actinic cheilitis using diclofenac 3% gel: a report of six cases. Br J Dermatol; 2007 May;156 Suppl 3:43-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of actinic cheilitis using diclofenac 3% gel: a report of six cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic cheilitis is a frequent manifestation of actinic dysplasia and requires early therapy to prevent its progression into invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • Several therapies are used, ranging from unspecific lesion-adapted destructive techniques (i.e. laser) to ambitious surgical field-management (vermillionectomy).
  • Diclofenac 3% gel is used in the treatment of actinic keratosis (AK), but it has not been evaluated for the treatment of actinic cheilitis.
  • OBJECTIVES: This non-blinded, uncontrolled case series study evaluated the effects of diclofenac 3% gel in the treatment of actinic cheilitis.
  • PATIENTS/METHODS: Six patients with histologically verified actinic cheilitis were treated with diclofenac 3% gel, twice daily for 6 weeks.
  • RESULTS: Four out of six patients showed clinical clearing of actinic cheilitis 2-4 weeks after the end of treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Topical therapy with diclofenac 3% gel may be an efficient, cosmetically more appealing alternative treatment for actinic cheilitis than currently used destructive therapies.

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  • (PMID = 17488406.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Gels; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac
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49. da Silva TA, Coelho G, Lorenzetti Bocca A, Figueiredo Cavalcante Neto F: Expression of apoptotic, cell proliferation regulatory, and structural proteins in actinic keratosis and their association with dermal elastosis. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Apr;34(4):315-23
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of apoptotic, cell proliferation regulatory, and structural proteins in actinic keratosis and their association with dermal elastosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic keratosis (AK) is a premalignant lesion caused by ultraviolet (UV) radiation and characterized by epithelial and connective tissue alterations.

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  • (PMID = 17381802.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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50. Tierney EP, Eide MJ, Jacobsen G, Ozog D: Photodynamic therapy for actinic keratoses: survey of patient perceptions of treatment satisfaction and outcomes. J Cosmet Laser Ther; 2008 Jun;10(2):81-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Photodynamic therapy for actinic keratoses: survey of patient perceptions of treatment satisfaction and outcomes.
  • BACKGROUND: While there are many available treatments for actinic keratoses (AKs), patient-preferred treatment options remain undefined.
  • CONCLUSION: While the effectiveness of lesion clearance with PDT for AKs has been well proven in the literature, this is the first study to evaluate patient perception of the effectiveness, side-effect profile and benefits of PDT relative to several standard treatment approaches for AKs.

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  • (PMID = 18569260.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-4180
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cosmetic and laser therapy : official publication of the European Society for Laser Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cosmet Laser Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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51. Shaffelburg M: Treatment of actinic keratoses with sequential use of photodynamic therapy; and imiquimod 5% cream. J Drugs Dermatol; 2009 Jan;8(1):35-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of actinic keratoses with sequential use of photodynamic therapy; and imiquimod 5% cream.
  • BACKGROUND: Field-directed therapies for actinic keratosis include photodynamic therapy and imiquimod.
  • METHODS: The entire face of adults with > or =10 facial actinic keratoses were treated with photodynamic therapy with aminolevulinic acid 20% at baseline and at month 1.
  • Lesion counts were performed at baseline and months 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 12; and local skin reactions assessments at months 2, 3, 4, and 6.
  • At month 12, median lesion reductions was 89.9% versus 74.5% (P=.0023), respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Photodynamic therapy followed by imiquimod was well tolerated and improved reduction of actinic keratoses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19180894.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-9616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Drugs Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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52. Lima Gda S, Silva GF, Gomes AP, de Araújo LM, Salum FG: Diclofenac in hyaluronic acid gel: an alternative treatment for actinic cheilitis. J Appl Oral Sci; 2010 Sep-Oct;18(5):533-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diclofenac in hyaluronic acid gel: an alternative treatment for actinic cheilitis.
  • OBJECTIVE: Actinic cheilitis (AC) is a precancerous lesion of the lip vermillion caused by prolonged exposure to ultraviolet light.

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  • (PMID = 21085813.001).
  • [ISSN] 1678-7765
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of applied oral science : revista FOB
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Appl Oral Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Gels; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac; 9004-61-9 / Hyaluronic Acid; Actinic cheilitis
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4246388
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53. Röwert-Huber J, Patel MJ, Forschner T, Ulrich C, Eberle J, Kerl H, Sterry W, Stockfleth E: Actinic keratosis is an early in situ squamous cell carcinoma: a proposal for reclassification. Br J Dermatol; 2007 May;156 Suppl 3:8-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Actinic keratosis is an early in situ squamous cell carcinoma: a proposal for reclassification.
  • The term actinic keratosis (AK) describes a sun-induced, clinical erythematous lesion covered with scale, but does not provide an understanding of the biology or histopathology of the lesion.


54. Berlin JM, Rigel DS: Diclofenac sodium 3% gel in the treatment of actinic keratoses postcryosurgery. J Drugs Dermatol; 2008 Jul;7(7):669-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diclofenac sodium 3% gel in the treatment of actinic keratoses postcryosurgery.
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic keratoses are increasingly common skin lesions that are evaluated and treated by dermatologists on a daily basis.
  • It is estimated that more than 90% of actinic keratoses in the US are treated by destructive therapies, such as cryosurgery.
  • A total of 714 subjects who had a clinical diagnosis of actinic keratosis with between 5 and 15 lesions contained in a target area such as the forehead, scalp, and hands were enrolled in the study.
  • Lesion counts were assessed at baseline, and 45, 75, 105, and 135 days after cryosurgery.
  • At the conclusion of the study, 46% of the subjects in the cryosurgery followed by the use of diclofenac sodium 3% gel arm achieved 100% cumulative (target plus new lesions) lesion clearance compared to 21% in the cryosurgery alone arm (P < .0001).
  • One hundred percent target lesion clearance was achieved in 64% of the subjects in the active arm compared to 32% in the cryosurgery alone arm (P < .0001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: With the increased prevalence of actinic keratoses, it is important to consider and evaluate emerging therapeutic options.
  • The sequential treatment with cryosurgery followed by diclofenac sodium 3% gel for 90 days is well tolerated and can provide a therapeutic modality that may provide patients with actinic keratoses a more successful outcome than monotherapy with cryosurgery by effectively treating clinical and subclinical lesions.

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  • (PMID = 18664159.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-9616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Drugs Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase IV; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Gels; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac
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55. Han A, Penrose C, Goldsmith A, Marmur ES: Case-based considerations in the treatment of actinic keratoses: utilizing combination or sequential therapy with 5-fluorouracil cream and destructive treatments. J Drugs Dermatol; 2010 Jul;9(7):864-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Case-based considerations in the treatment of actinic keratoses: utilizing combination or sequential therapy with 5-fluorouracil cream and destructive treatments.
  • Actinic keratoses are premalignant lesions that increase in frequency with each decade of life and have the potential to progress to squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Therapeutic options for these conditions are abundant and range from topical field-directed therapies to destructive, lesion-directed procedures.
  • The following case-based review represents typical situations where multiple treatments were combined to manage actinic keratosis, squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma in patients over an extended treatment period.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Keratosis, Actinic / therapy. Skin Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 20677546.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-9616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Drugs Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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56. Stockfleth E, Ferrandiz C, Grob JJ, Leigh I, Pehamberger H, Kerl H, European Skin Academy: Development of a treatment algorithm for actinic keratoses: a European Consensus. Eur J Dermatol; 2008 Nov-Dec;18(6):651-9
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  • [Title] Development of a treatment algorithm for actinic keratoses: a European Consensus.
  • Actinic keratoses (AKs) are lesions caused by chronic UV radiations that have the potential to progress to invasive SCCs.
  • The result of these discussions is an algorithm designed to assist physicians with their treatment decisions, giving recommendations for both field directed and lesion directed treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis, Actinic / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18955209.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-1122
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of dermatology : EJD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Practice Guideline; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] France
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57. Del Rosso JQ, Sofen H, Leshin B, Meng T, Kulp J, Levy S: Safety and Efficacy of Multiple 16-week Courses of Topical Imiquimod for the Treatment of Large Areas of Skin Involved with Actinic Keratoses. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol; 2009 Apr;2(4):20-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Safety and Efficacy of Multiple 16-week Courses of Topical Imiquimod for the Treatment of Large Areas of Skin Involved with Actinic Keratoses.
  • OBJECTIVE: Safety of multiple 16-week courses of imiquimod applied to large areas (>25 cm(2)) of skin with actinic keratoses.
  • DESIGN: Subjects applied 1 to 6 packets two times per week for 16 weeks; if actinic keratoses were persistent at two months post-treatment, up to two additional courses could be administered within the 18-month study period.
  • PARTICIPANTS: Adults with >/=4 actinic keratoses on the head, torso, and/or extremities.
  • MEASUREMENTS: Treatment discontinuations, adverse events, lesion counts.
  • For 525 subjects with analyzable lesion data, the mean baseline lesion count was 45.5+/-2.4.
  • Overall reduction in target lesion count was 80.2 percent (p<0.0001, 95% CI 77.2-83.3%), with overall complete clearance rate of 36.4 percent and partial clearance rate (>/=75% reduction) of 68.6 percent.
  • CONCLUSION: Multiple 16-week courses of imiquimod to treat actinic keratoses were well tolerated and significantly decreased lesions in subjects with extensive actinic keratoses.

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  • (PMID = 20729935.001).
  • [ISSN] 1941-2789
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical and aesthetic dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Aesthet Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2923947
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58. Patel V, Rogers SN: Actinic granuloma affecting the upper lip: a rare and challenging clinical entity. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 2010 Apr;48(3):234-5
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  • [Title] Actinic granuloma affecting the upper lip: a rare and challenging clinical entity.
  • Actinic granuloma is a rare dermatological condition that can be difficult to diagnose, and the opinion of specialist dermatologists and histopathologists might be needed to confirm diagnosis.
  • Our patient's lesion was not diagnosed until 3 years after initial presentation.

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  • [Copyright] 2009 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19804925.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1940
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of oral & maxillofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Glucocorticoids; 43502P7F0P / methylprednisolone acetate; X4W7ZR7023 / Methylprednisolone
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59. Lee PK, Harwell WB, Loven KH, Phillips TJ, Whiting DA, Andres KL, Lee JH: Long-term clinical outcomes following treatment of actinic keratosis with imiquimod 5% cream. Dermatol Surg; 2005 Jun;31(6):659-64
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  • [Title] Long-term clinical outcomes following treatment of actinic keratosis with imiquimod 5% cream.
  • BACKGROUND: The results from four phase III, randomized, vehicle-controlled studies showed that imiquimod 5% cream (imiquimod) was safe and effective in the treatment of actinic keratosis (AK).
  • RESULTS: After a median follow-up period of 16 months, 24.7% (19 of 77) of the patients administered imiquimod three times per week and 42.6% (23 of 54) of the patients administered imiquimod two times per week had a recurrence of AK (the appearance of at least one AK lesion) in the original treatment area.
  • The median number of AK lesions present was one lesion for both patients receiving imiquimod three times and those receiving imiquimod two times per week compared with a median of six lesions at baseline in the combined three times per week and two times per week phase III studies.

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  • (PMID = 15996416.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase IV; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Aminoquinolines; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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60. Angell-Petersen E, Sørensen R, Warloe T, Soler AM, Moan J, Peng Q, Giercksky KE: Porphyrin formation in actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma after topical application of methyl 5-aminolevulinate. J Invest Dermatol; 2006 Feb;126(2):265-71
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  • [Title] Porphyrin formation in actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma after topical application of methyl 5-aminolevulinate.
  • Photodynamic therapy using topical methyl 5-aminolevulinate (MAL) is a new treatment modality for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and actinic keratosis (AK).
  • For both lesion types, the fluorescence increased during the first 13 of 28 hours of continuous MAL application.

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  • (PMID = 16374471.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-202X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of investigative dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Invest. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ointments; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / Porphyrins; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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61. Szeimies RM, Bichel J, Ortonne JP, Stockfleth E, Lee J, Meng TC: A phase II dose-ranging study of topical resiquimod to treat actinic keratosis. Br J Dermatol; 2008 Jul;159(1):205-10
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  • [Title] A phase II dose-ranging study of topical resiquimod to treat actinic keratosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Resiquimod, a toll-like receptor 7 and 8 agonist, may be effective as a topical treatment of actinic keratosis (AK).
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of resiquimod gel concentration on lesion clearance.
  • Complete and partial lesion clearance was assessed 8 weeks after treatment for each course.

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  • (PMID = 18476957.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gels; 0 / Imidazoles; 0 / TLR7 protein, human; 0 / Toll-Like Receptor 7; V3DMU7PVXF / resiquimod
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62. Ortonne JP, Gupta G, Ortonne N, Duteil L, Queille C, Mallefet P: Effectiveness of cross polarized light and fluorescence diagnosis for detection of sub-clinical and clinical actinic keratosis during imiquimod treatment. Exp Dermatol; 2010 Jul 1;19(7):641-7
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  • [Title] Effectiveness of cross polarized light and fluorescence diagnosis for detection of sub-clinical and clinical actinic keratosis during imiquimod treatment.
  • BACKGROUND: During treatment of actinic keratosis (AK) lesions with imiquimod sub-clinical lesions often become visible.
  • Patients were assessed for baseline AK lesion counts (clinical and sub-clinical) at the screening visit and final counts at week 20.
  • The FD lesion counting method did not show a significant increase in the number of detected lesions compared with clinical analysis in the imiquimod and placebo groups but when comparisons were performed using pooled data (treatments and visits combined) the results were significant.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Keratosis, Actinic / diagnosis. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20201959.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Levulinic Acids; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 3Q95S830W6 / methyl levulinate; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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63. Torres A, Storey L, Anders M, Miller RL, Bulbulian BJ, Jin J, Raghavan S, Lee J, Slade HB, Birmachu W: Immune-mediated changes in actinic keratosis following topical treatment with imiquimod 5% cream. J Transl Med; 2007;5:7
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  • [Title] Immune-mediated changes in actinic keratosis following topical treatment with imiquimod 5% cream.
  • BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to identify the molecular processes responsible for the anti-lesional activity of imiquimod in subjects with actinic keratosis using global gene expression profiling.
  • METHODS: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study was conducted to evaluate gene expression changes in actinic keratosis treated with imiquimod 5% cream.
  • Male subjects (N = 17) with > or = 5 actinic keratosis on the scalp applied placebo cream or imiquimod 3 times a week on nonconsecutive days for 4 weeks.
  • To elucidate the molecular processes involved in actinic keratosis lesion regression by imiquimod, gene expression analysis using oligonucleotide arrays and real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction were performed on shave biopsies of lesions taken before and after treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / administration & dosage. Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Keratosis, Actinic / immunology

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  • (PMID = 17257431.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-5876
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of translational medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Transl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Chemokines; 0 / Dosage Forms; 0 / Interferon Type I; 0 / Receptors, Pattern Recognition; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1796543
  • [General-notes] NLM/ Original DateCompleted: 20070724
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64. Goldberg DJ: Case-based experience in the use of 5-fluorouracil cream 0.5% as monotherapy and in conjunction with glycolic acid peels for the treatment of actinic keratosis. J Cosmet Laser Ther; 2010 Feb;12(1):42-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Case-based experience in the use of 5-fluorouracil cream 0.5% as monotherapy and in conjunction with glycolic acid peels for the treatment of actinic keratosis.
  • Actinic keratosis, commonly indicative of photodamage, requires treatment secondary to the risk of progression to squamous cell carcinoma.
  • A number of effective treatments for actinic keratosis are available, including topical and lesion-directed therapies.
  • While lesion-directed therapies such as cryotherapy are appropriate for isolated lesions, topical 5-fluorouracil is an effective modality for the treatment of multiple facial actinic keratoses.
  • The cases presented here demonstrate the use of topical 5-fluorouracil cream 0.5% as monotherapy and in conjunction with glycolic acid peels to treat facial actinic keratoses in two patients with extensive histories of prior actinic keratosis and skin cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Chemexfoliation / methods. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Glycolates / therapeutic use. Keratolytic Agents / therapeutic use. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20085453.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-4180
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cosmetic and laser therapy : official publication of the European Society for Laser Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cosmet Laser Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glycolates; 0 / Keratolytic Agents; 79-14-1 / glycolic acid; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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65. Niimi Y, Kawana S: Type 2 segmental manifestation of disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis in a 7-year-old girl. Eur J Dermatol; 2009 Jan-Feb;19(1):25-8
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  • [Title] Type 2 segmental manifestation of disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis in a 7-year-old girl.
  • We report here a rare case of porokeratosis in which two different clinical types of porokeratosis (linear porokeratosis and disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis) coexisted.
  • A 7-year-old girl developed a centrifugal lesion on her left abdomen at the age of 2, disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis on her face at the age of 3 after ultraviolet exposure, and linear porokeratosis on her left body at the age of 5.
  • We consider that this case may represent a type 2 segmental manifestation of disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis.

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  • (PMID = 19059828.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-1122
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of dermatology : EJD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dermatologic Agents; 103909-75-7 / maxacalcitol; FXC9231JVH / Calcitriol
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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66. Fariba I, Ali A, Hossein SA, Atefeh S, Atarzadeh Behbahan SA: Efficacy of 3% diclofenac gel for the treatment of actinic keratoses: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol; 2006 Sep-Oct;72(5):346-9
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  • [Title] Efficacy of 3% diclofenac gel for the treatment of actinic keratoses: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study.
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic keratoses (AKs) are premalignant skin lesions caused by excessive sun exposure.
  • RESULTS: There was a reduction in the lesion size in 64.7% of diclofenac-treated lesions and 34.3% of control lesions during the three-month course of treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: Considering the malignant potential of actinic keratoses and the importance of clearing them to prevent their transformation to squamous cell carcinoma, the efficacy of diclofenac gel seen in our study seems to be low.
  • This treatment may be useful for patients who do not tolerate other, more effective kinds of treatment for actinic keratoses.

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  • (PMID = 17050927.001).
  • [ISSN] 0973-3922
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of dermatology, venereology and leprology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gels; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac
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67. Kanellou P, Zaravinos A, Zioga M, Stratigos A, Baritaki S, Soufla G, Zoras O, Spandidos DA: Genomic instability, mutations and expression analysis of the tumour suppressor genes p14(ARF), p15(INK4b), p16(INK4a) and p53 in actinic keratosis. Cancer Lett; 2008 Jun 8;264(1):145-61
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  • [Title] Genomic instability, mutations and expression analysis of the tumour suppressor genes p14(ARF), p15(INK4b), p16(INK4a) and p53 in actinic keratosis.
  • Actinic keratosis (AK) is a well-established pre-cancerous skin lesion that has the potential to progress to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).

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  • (PMID = 18331779.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p15; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p14ARF; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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68. Gomes AP, Johann JE, Lovato GG, Ferreira AM: Comparative analysis of the mast cell density in normal oral mucosa, actinic cheilitis and lip squamous cell carcinoma. Braz Dent J; 2008;19(3):186-9
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  • [Title] Comparative analysis of the mast cell density in normal oral mucosa, actinic cheilitis and lip squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Actinic cheilitis (AC) is a lesion caused by excessive exposure to sunlight that can transform into lip squamous cell carcinoma.
  • The aim of this study was to compare the number of mast cells in 4 groups: NOM = normal oral mucosa (n=6); MDAC = mild dysplasia in actinic cheilitis (n=13); SDAC = severe dysplasia in actinic cheilitis (n=13); and LSCC = lip squamous cell carcinoma (n=15).


69. Warren CB, Lohser S, Wene LC, Pogue BW, Bailin PL, Maytin EV: Noninvasive fluorescence monitoring of protoporphyrin IX production and clinical outcomes in actinic keratoses following short-contact application of 5-aminolevulinate. J Biomed Opt; 2010 Sep-Oct;15(5):051607
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  • [Title] Noninvasive fluorescence monitoring of protoporphyrin IX production and clinical outcomes in actinic keratoses following short-contact application of 5-aminolevulinate.
  • Topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is widely used in photodynamic therapy (PDT) of actinic keratoses (AK), a type of premalignant skin lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / administration & dosage. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Keratosis, Actinic / metabolism. Photochemotherapy / methods. Protoporphyrins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 21054081.001).
  • [ISSN] 1560-2281
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biomedical optics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Biomed Opt
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA084203
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protoporphyrins; 553-12-8 / protoporphyrin IX; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2955723
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70. Orenstein A, Goldan O, Weissman O, Winkler E, Haik J: A new modality in the treatment of actinic cheilitis using the Er:YAG laser. J Cosmet Laser Ther; 2007 Mar;9(1):23-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A new modality in the treatment of actinic cheilitis using the Er:YAG laser.
  • BACKGROUND: Cheilitis is a precancerous skin lesion most often affecting the lower lip.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and outcome of a new modality in the treatment of actinic cheilitis with the Er:YAG laser.
  • METHODS: Between 2002 and 2005, 12 patients with actinic cheilitis were treated at our institute with the Er:YAG laser.

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  • (PMID = 17506137.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-4172
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cosmetic and laser therapy : official publication of the European Society for Laser Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cosmet Laser Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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71. Ulrich C, Hackethal M, Ulrich M, Howorka A, Forschner T, Sterry W, Stockfleth E: Treatment of multiple actinic keratoses with topical diclofenac 3% gel in organ transplant recipients: a series of six cases. Br J Dermatol; 2007 May;156 Suppl 3:40-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of multiple actinic keratoses with topical diclofenac 3% gel in organ transplant recipients: a series of six cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) represents a significant cause of morbidity in organ transplant patients; the relative risk of squamous cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis (AK) is 100 and 250 times higher, respectively, compared with immunocompetent patients.
  • PATIENTS/METHODS: An open-label study was conducted in six patients (three kidney, one liver and two heart transplant patients) with histories of multiple NMSCs and extensive actinic keratoses (AKs).
  • Two further patients showed a marked (> or = 75% lesion reduction) improvement in their overall AK lesion count in the treatment area.
  • One patient showed a 30% lesion reduction in the area treated.

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  • (PMID = 17488405.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Gels; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac
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72. Stough D, Bucko AD, Vamvakias G, Rafal ES, Davis SA: Fluorouracil cream 0.5% for the treatment of actinic keratoses on the face and anterior scalp: interim results of an 18-month open-label study. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol; 2008 Jul;1(2):16-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fluorouracil cream 0.5% for the treatment of actinic keratoses on the face and anterior scalp: interim results of an 18-month open-label study.
  • OBJECTIVE: This study further assessed the long-term safety and efficacy of fluorouracil cream 0.5% in patients with multiple actinic keratosis (AK) on the face/anterior scalp and other body sites.
  • At the end of Cycle 1, significant reductions were noted in lesion counts on the face/anterior scalp (84.8%; P<0.0001).

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  • (PMID = 21103318.001).
  • [ISSN] 1941-2789
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical and aesthetic dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Aesthet Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2989824
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73. Bruscino N, Rossi R, Dindelli M, Ghersetich I, Lotti T: Therapeutic Hotline: Facial skin rejuvenation in a patient treated with photodynamic therapy for actinic keratosis. Dermatol Ther; 2010 Jan-Feb;23(1):86-9
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  • [Title] Therapeutic Hotline: Facial skin rejuvenation in a patient treated with photodynamic therapy for actinic keratosis.
  • The aim of the most used treatments of actinic keratoses (AKs) is to avoid the conversion into invasive squamous cell carcinoma through the destruction of the lesion; a lot of therapeutic modalities (imiquimod, 5-fluorouracil, electrosurgery with curettage, cryosurgery) are effective and safe in this field, but not many can do it with excellent cosmetic results like treatment with photodynamic therapy (PDT).
  • This kind of therapy has removed not only the lesion but also the photoaging manifestations like the wrinkles and the ugly lines, leaving a smooth skin, as we have proved with 3D-profilometry technique.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / therapeutic use. Keratosis, Actinic / radiotherapy. Photochemotherapy / methods. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Rejuvenation

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  • (PMID = 20136912.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-8019
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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74. Nelson C, Rigel D: Long-term Follow up of Diclofenac Sodium 3% in 2.5% Hyaluronic Acid Gel for Actinic Keratosis: One-year Evaluation. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol; 2009 Jul;2(7):20-5
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  • [Title] Long-term Follow up of Diclofenac Sodium 3% in 2.5% Hyaluronic Acid Gel for Actinic Keratosis: One-year Evaluation.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term effects of treatment with diclofenac sodium 3% in 2.5% hyaluronic acid gel on clinically diagnosed actinic keratosis lesions in well-defined skin areas.
  • PARTICIPANTS: Patients who had completed the initial treatment phase with no further treatment for actinic keratosis in the designated treatment blocks.
  • MEASUREMENTS: The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving 75-percent clearance of actinic keratosis lesions at one-year follow up based on percent change from baseline in target lesion number score or cumulative lesion number score.
  • Secondary endpoints were the proportion of patients achieving 100-percent actinic keratosis lesion clearance and change in investigator's global improvement index scores.
  • RESULTS: Eighty-one percent of patients reported no additional treatment for actinic keratosis lesions for one year after completing treatment with diclofenac sodium 3% gel.

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  • (PMID = 20729966.001).
  • [ISSN] 1941-2789
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical and aesthetic dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Aesthet Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2924138
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75. Zelickson B, Counters J, Coles C, Selim M: Light patch: preliminary report of a novel form of blue light delivery for the treatment of actinic keratosis. Dermatol Surg; 2005 Mar;31(3):375-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Light patch: preliminary report of a novel form of blue light delivery for the treatment of actinic keratosis.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a novel light patch formulated for blue light delivery and topical activation of gamma-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) during photodynamic therapy for the treatment of actinic keratosis (AK).
  • RESULTS: The mean lesion count for all treatment areas was decreased from 7.60 to 2.40 (p<.01).

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  • (PMID = 15841647.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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76. Marks S, Varma R, Cantrell W, Chen SC, Gold M, Muellenhoff M, Elewski B: Diclofenac sodium 3% gel as a potential treatment for disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2009 Jan;23(1):42-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diclofenac sodium 3% gel as a potential treatment for disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis (DSAP) is a chronic cutaneous disorder of keratinization for which there is no known cure.
  • Target area lesion counts were performed monthly, and global lesion counts were performed at baseline and at weeks 12 and 24.
  • CONCLUSION: Target area DSAP lesions in the majority of patients treated with diclofenac sodium 3% gel (both 12 and 24 weeks) progressed to a lesser extent as compared to the global lesion count.
  • [MeSH-major] Diclofenac / therapeutic use. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Porokeratosis / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18702625.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-3083
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gels; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac
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77. Atasoy M, Anadolu-Braise R, Pirim I, Dogan H, Ikbal M: HLA Antigen Profile Differences in Patients with SCC (Squamous Cell Carcinoma) In-Situ /Actinic Keratosis and Invasive SCC: Is There a Genetic Succeptibility for Invasive SCC Development? Eurasian J Med; 2009 Dec;41(3):162-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] HLA Antigen Profile Differences in Patients with SCC (Squamous Cell Carcinoma) In-Situ /Actinic Keratosis and Invasive SCC: Is There a Genetic Succeptibility for Invasive SCC Development?
  • OBJECTIVE: Actinic keratoses (AK) are proliferation of neoplastic keratinocytes confined to the epidermis induced by damaging solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR).
  • When the neoplastic keratinocytes extend in to papillary-reticular dermis, then the lesion termed as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • From dermatopathological point of view AK is clearly SCC in-situ, however although AK is a common lesion in Caucasians, not all AKs develop in to invasive SCC, at least not with the same biological pace.

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  • (PMID = 25610095.001).
  • [ISSN] 1308-8734
  • [Journal-full-title] The Eurasian journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eurasian J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4261280
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Actinic keratoses / HLA / Squamous cell carcinoma
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78. Smith SR, Morhenn VB, Piacquadio DJ: Bilateral comparison of the efficacy and tolerability of 3% diclofenac sodium gel and 5% 5-fluorouracil cream in the treatment of actinic keratoses of the face and scalp. J Drugs Dermatol; 2006 Feb;5(2):156-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bilateral comparison of the efficacy and tolerability of 3% diclofenac sodium gel and 5% 5-fluorouracil cream in the treatment of actinic keratoses of the face and scalp.
  • Actinic keratoses (AKs) are a common precancerous condition and are said to account for 14% of visits to dermatologists in the US each year.
  • The diclofenac gel and 5-fluorouracil cream each demonstrated substantial efficacy in the number of lesions cleared and the proportion of patients with significant lesion clearing.

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  • (PMID = 16485883.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-9616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Drugs Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Gels; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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79. Jorizzo JL, Markowitz O, Lebwohl MG, Bourcier M, Kulp J, Meng TC, Levy S: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, multicenter, efficacy and safety study of 3.75% imiquimod cream following cryosurgery for the treatment of actinic keratoses. J Drugs Dermatol; 2010 Sep;9(9):1101-8
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  • [Title] A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, multicenter, efficacy and safety study of 3.75% imiquimod cream following cryosurgery for the treatment of actinic keratoses.
  • OBJECTIVE: Evaluate cryosurgery followed by 3.75% imiquimod cream to treat actinic keratoses (AK).
  • CONCLUSION: A short, cyclical treatment course of field-directed daily 3.75% imiquimod cream following lesion-directed cryosurgery was well tolerated and provided additional therapeutic benefits to cryosurgery alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Cryosurgery. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Keratosis, Actinic / therapy

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  • (PMID = 20865842.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-9616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Drugs Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Ointments; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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80. Christensen E, Bofin A, Gudmundsdóttir I, Skogvoll E: Cytological diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis, using Papanicolaou and May-Grünwald-Giemsa stained cutaneous tissue smear. Cytopathology; 2008 Oct;19(5):316-22
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  • [Title] Cytological diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis, using Papanicolaou and May-Grünwald-Giemsa stained cutaneous tissue smear.
  • The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the diagnostic performance of scrape cytology using two different cytological staining techniques, and to evaluate additional touch imprint cytology, with that of histopathology of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and actinic keratosis (AK).
  • Two separate skin scrape samples and one touch imprint sample were taken from each lesion.

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  • [CommentIn] Cytopathology. 2008 Oct;19(5):333-4; author reply 334 [18513288.001]
  • (PMID = 17916094.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2303
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytopathology : official journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / May-Grunwald Giemsa; T42P99266K / Methylene Blue; TDQ283MPCW / Eosine Yellowish-(YS)
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81. Richtig E, Ahlgrimm-Siess V, Koller S, Gerger A, Horn M, Smolle J, Hofmann-Wellenhof R: Follow-up of actinic keratoses after shave biopsy by in-vivo reflectance confocal microscopy--a pilot study. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2010 Mar;24(3):293-8
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  • [Title] Follow-up of actinic keratoses after shave biopsy by in-vivo reflectance confocal microscopy--a pilot study.
  • BACKGROUND: Monitoring of treatment efficacy after shave biopsy of actinic keratoses (AK) is often difficult, as clinical and dermoscopic features may not be reliable.
  • After 12 months, one lesion of these two lesions changed into NS in RCM, whereas the other lesion progressed into clinical visible AK.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy / methods. Keratosis, Actinic / pathology. Microscopy, Confocal / methods

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  • (PMID = 19732253.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-3083
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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82. Padilla RS, Sebastian S, Jiang Z, Nindl I, Larson R: Gene expression patterns of normal human skin, actinic keratosis, and squamous cell carcinoma: a spectrum of disease progression. Arch Dermatol; 2010 Mar;146(3):288-93
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  • [Title] Gene expression patterns of normal human skin, actinic keratosis, and squamous cell carcinoma: a spectrum of disease progression.
  • OBJECTIVES: To identify and compare the gene expression profiles of actinic keratosis (AK) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and to further clarify critical genetic alterations in the evolution of SCC from normal sun-damaged human skin.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The finding of similar differentially expressed genes in AK and SCC confirms that AK is a precursor lesion of SCC and indicates that they are closely related genetically.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation. Keratosis, Actinic / genetics. RNA / genetics. Skin / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / genetics


83. Brasanac D, Boricic I, Todorovic V, Tomanovic N, Radojevic S: Cyclin A and beta-catenin expression in actinic keratosis, Bowen's disease and invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. Br J Dermatol; 2005 Dec;153(6):1166-75
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  • [Title] Cyclin A and beta-catenin expression in actinic keratosis, Bowen's disease and invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the skin.
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic keratosis (AK) has been defined as a precancerous lesion or an early phase in the evolution of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and histological changes seen in the individual cells of an AK are indistinguishable from those seen in SCC, which invade the dermis.
  • Diffuse pattern of loss of membranous beta-catenin staining correlated better with the type of lesion, SCC differentiation and tumour size than reduced expression in general or aberrant cellular localization of beta-catenin.


84. Szeimies RM, Radny P, Sebastian M, Borrosch F, Dirschka T, Krähn-Senftleben G, Reich K, Pabst G, Voss D, Foguet M, Gahlmann R, Lübbert H, Reinhold U: Photodynamic therapy with BF-200 ALA for the treatment of actinic keratosis: results of a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III study. Br J Dermatol; 2010 Aug;163(2):386-94
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  • [Title] Photodynamic therapy with BF-200 ALA for the treatment of actinic keratosis: results of a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III study.
  • BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) provides a therapeutic option for the treatment of actinic keratosis (AK).
  • RESULTS: PDT with BF-200 ALA was superior to placebo PDT with respect to patient complete clearance rate (per-protocol group: 64% vs. 11%; P < 0.0001) and lesion complete clearance rate (per-protocol group: 81% vs. 22%) after the last PDT treatment.
  • Statistically significant differences in the patient and lesion complete clearance rates and adverse effect profiles were observed for the two light sources, Aktilite CL128 and PhotoDyn 750, at both time points of assessment.
  • The patient and lesion complete clearance rates after illumination with the Aktilite CL128 were 96% and 99%, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / therapeutic use. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy / methods. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use

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  • [CommentIn] Br J Dermatol. 2010 Aug;163(2):236-7 [20666768.001]
  • (PMID = 20518784.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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85. Jury CS, Ramraka-Jones VS, Gudi V, Herd RM: A randomized trial of topical 5% 5-fluorouracil (Efudix cream) in the treatment of actinic keratoses comparing daily with weekly treatment. Br J Dermatol; 2005 Oct;153(4):808-10
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  • [Title] A randomized trial of topical 5% 5-fluorouracil (Efudix cream) in the treatment of actinic keratoses comparing daily with weekly treatment.
  • BACKGROUND: Topical 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) cream is widely used in the treatment of actinic keratoses (AKs) but the optimum treatment regimen that provides efficacy while minimizing side-effects remains unclear.
  • At each review a lesion count and lesion map were completed and patients were asked to score efficacy and inflammation.
  • RESULTS: At week 0 the median lesion count was the same in both groups, 17.5 lesions.
  • At 12 weeks the median lesion count in group 1 had fallen to 0 where it remained for the duration of follow-up.
  • In group 2 the median lesion count fell to 6 at 12 weeks, 5.5 at 24 weeks and was 3 at 52 weeks.
  • The difference in the lesion count was significant at all time points after week 0: P < 0.05 at weeks 12 and 52, and P < 0.01 at week 24.

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  • (PMID = 16181465.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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86. Sotiriou E, Apalla Z, Maliamani F, Zaparas N, Panagiotidou D, Ioannides D: Intraindividual, right-left comparison of topical 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy vs. 5% imiquimod cream for actinic keratoses on the upper extremities. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2009 Sep;23(9):1061-5
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  • [Title] Intraindividual, right-left comparison of topical 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy vs. 5% imiquimod cream for actinic keratoses on the upper extremities.
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic keratoses (AKs) are considered as in situ squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Assessments included lesion response one and six months after treatment, cosmetic outcome evaluated by the investigators and patients' preference 6 months after treatment.
  • Efficacy end point included the individual AK lesion clearance rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / therapeutic use. Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Interferon Inducers / therapeutic use. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy / methods. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19470041.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-3083
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Interferon Inducers; 0 / Ointments; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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87. Fernández-Guarino M, Harto A, Sánchez-Ronco M, Pérez-García B, Marquet A, Jaén P: [Retrospective, descriptive, observational study of treatment of multiple actinic keratoses with topical methyl aminolevulinate and red light: results in clinical practice and correlation with fluorescence imaging]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2008 Dec;99(10):779-87
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  • [Title] [Retrospective, descriptive, observational study of treatment of multiple actinic keratoses with topical methyl aminolevulinate and red light: results in clinical practice and correlation with fluorescence imaging].
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic keratosis (AK) is one of the most common skin diseases seen in clinical practice.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this retrospective, descriptive, observational study of 57 patients treated in our hospital with photodynamic therapy for multiple AKs, we recorded age, sex, and lesion site (face, scalp, and dorsum of the hands).
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19091216.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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88. Ooi T, Barnetson RS, Zhuang L, McKane S, Lee JH, Slade HB, Halliday GM: Imiquimod-induced regression of actinic keratosis is associated with infiltration by T lymphocytes and dendritic cells: a randomized controlled trial. Br J Dermatol; 2006 Jan;154(1):72-8
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  • [Title] Imiquimod-induced regression of actinic keratosis is associated with infiltration by T lymphocytes and dendritic cells: a randomized controlled trial.
  • BACKGROUND: Imiquimod 5% cream is a topically applied immune response modifier that has been shown to give effective treatment of actinic keratosis (AK).
  • Each patient had punch biopsies of two distinct AK lesions: a lesion was biopsied before treatment to obtain baseline biomarker levels, and a different lesion was biopsied after 2 weeks of treatment.

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  • (PMID = 16403097.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Interferon Inducers; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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89. Pirard D, Vereecken P, Mélot C, Heenen M: Three percent diclofenac in 2.5% hyaluronan gel in the treatment of actinic keratoses: a meta-analysis of the recent studies. Arch Dermatol Res; 2005 Nov;297(5):185-9
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  • [Title] Three percent diclofenac in 2.5% hyaluronan gel in the treatment of actinic keratoses: a meta-analysis of the recent studies.
  • Three percent diclofenac in 2.5% hyaluronan gel (DHA) is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the treatment of actinic keratoses (AK).
  • We conducted a meta-analysis of the few prospective studies that evaluated the effect of DHA on the target lesion number score TLNS0 (indicating complete resolution of all target lesions in the treatment area) and/or the cumulative target lesion number score CLNS0 (indicating resolution of the target and new lesions in the treatment area) with assessment 30 days after the end of treatment.

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  • (PMID = 16235081.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-3696
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatological research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Dermatol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Gels; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac; 27YG812J1I / Arachidonic Acid; 9004-61-9 / Hyaluronic Acid
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90. Szeimies RM, Matheson RT, Davis SA, Bhatia AC, Frambach Y, Klövekorn W, Fesq H, Berking C, Reifenberger J, Thaçi D: Topical methyl aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy using red light-emitting diode light for multiple actinic keratoses: a randomized study. Dermatol Surg; 2009 Apr;35(4):586-92
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  • [Title] Topical methyl aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy using red light-emitting diode light for multiple actinic keratoses: a randomized study.
  • BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective treatment for actinic keratoses (AKs).
  • MAL or matching placebo cream was applied to the débrided lesion surface for 3 hours before illumination with noncoherent red light (630 nm, light dose 37 J/cm(2)).
  • MAL PDT was superior (p< .001) to placebo PDT in lesion complete response rates (83.3%, 95% confidence interval (CI)=79.3-86.7%, vs 28.7%, 95% CI=24.4-33.4%) and patient complete response rates (all lesions showing complete response; 68.4%, 95% CI=54.8-80.1% vs 6.9%, 95% CI=1.9-16.7%).
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy. Photosensitizing Agents / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 19309347.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4725
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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91. Castiñeiras I, Del Pozo J, Mazaira M, Rodríguez-Lojo R, Fonseca E: Actinic cheilitis: evolution to squamous cell carcinoma after carbon dioxide laser vaporization. A study of 43 cases. J Dermatolog Treat; 2010 Jan;21(1):49-53
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  • [Title] Actinic cheilitis: evolution to squamous cell carcinoma after carbon dioxide laser vaporization. A study of 43 cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic cheilitis (AC) is a precancerous lesion of the lip.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / prevention & control. Cheilitis / therapy. Keratosis, Actinic / therapy. Laser Therapy. Lasers, Gas / therapeutic use. Lip Neoplasms / prevention & control


92. Pariser D, Loss R, Jarratt M, Abramovits W, Spencer J, Geronemus R, Bailin P, Bruce S: Topical methyl-aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy using red light-emitting diode light for treatment of multiple actinic keratoses: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2008 Oct;59(4):569-76
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Topical methyl-aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy using red light-emitting diode light for treatment of multiple actinic keratoses: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
  • BACKGROUND: The use of light-emitting diode light offers practical advantages in photodynamic therapy (PDT) with topical methyl-aminolevulinate (MAL) for management of actinic keratoses (AK).
  • Complete lesion and patient (all lesions showing complete response) response rates were evaluated 3 months after last treatment.
  • RESULTS: MAL PDT was superior (P<.0001) to vehicle PDT with respect to lesion complete response (86.2% vs 52.2%, odds ratio 6.9 [95% confidence interval 4.7-10.3]) and patient complete response (59.2% vs 14.9%, odds ratio 13.2 [95% confidence interval 4.1-43.1]).

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  • (PMID = 18707799.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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93. Ulrich C, Johannsen A, Röwert-Huber J, Ulrich M, Sterry W, Stockfleth E: Results of a randomized, placebo-controlled safety and efficacy study of topical diclofenac 3% gel in organ transplant patients with multiple actinic keratoses. Eur J Dermatol; 2010 Jul-Aug;20(4):482-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Results of a randomized, placebo-controlled safety and efficacy study of topical diclofenac 3% gel in organ transplant patients with multiple actinic keratoses.
  • Effective management of actinic keratoses (AK) could help to prevent the further development of invasive SCC.
  • This study demonstrated a greater lesion clearance rate of AKs in OTRs treated with diclofenac 3% gel than with vehicle.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use. Diclofenac / therapeutic use. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Organ Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 20507841.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-1122
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of dermatology : EJD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Gels; 0 / Placebos; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac; 9004-61-9 / Hyaluronic Acid
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94. Annemans L, Caekelbergh K, Roelandts R, Boonen H, Leys C, Nikkels AF, van Den Haute V, van Quickenborne L, Verhaeghe E, Leroy B: Real-life practice study of the clinical outcome and cost-effectiveness of photodynamic therapy using methyl aminolevulinate (MAL-PDT) in the management of actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma. Eur J Dermatol; 2008 Sep-Oct;18(5):539-46
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Real-life practice study of the clinical outcome and cost-effectiveness of photodynamic therapy using methyl aminolevulinate (MAL-PDT) in the management of actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma.
  • Clinical trials have shown that photodynamic therapy using methyl aminolevulinate (MAL-PDT) is an effective treatment for actinic keratosis (AK), and nodular and superficial basal cell carcinoma (nBCC and sBCC) unsuitable for other available therapies.
  • Total cost per lesion was euro 58 for AK (identical to model prediction), euro 316 for nBCC and euro 178 for sBCC (both within 20% of model prediction).
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / economics. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Keratosis, Actinic / economics. Photochemotherapy / economics. Photosensitizing Agents / economics. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / economics

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  • (PMID = 18693157.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-1122
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of dermatology : EJD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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95. Hanke CW, Beer KR, Stockfleth E, Wu J, Rosen T, Levy S: Imiquimod 2.5% and 3.75% for the treatment of actinic keratoses: results of two placebo-controlled studies of daily application to the face and balding scalp for two 3-week cycles. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2010 Apr;62(4):573-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Imiquimod 2.5% and 3.75% for the treatment of actinic keratoses: results of two placebo-controlled studies of daily application to the face and balding scalp for two 3-week cycles.
  • BACKGROUND: Imiquimod 5% cream is approved as a 16-week regimen for the treatment of actinic keratoses involving a 25-cm(2) area of skin.
  • Median baseline lesion counts for the treatment groups were 9 to 10.
  • Median reductions from baseline in lesion count were 23.6%, 66.7%, and 80.0% for the placebo, imiquimod 2.5%, and imiquimod 3.75% groups, respectively (P < .001 each imiquimod vs placebo).
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage. Aminoquinolines / administration & dosage. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20133012.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Dosage Forms; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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96. Morton C, Campbell S, Gupta G, Keohane S, Lear J, Zaki I, Walton S, Kerrouche N, Thomas G, Soto P, AKtion Investigators: Intraindividual, right-left comparison of topical methyl aminolaevulinate-photodynamic therapy and cryotherapy in subjects with actinic keratoses: a multicentre, randomized controlled study. Br J Dermatol; 2006 Nov;155(5):1029-36
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intraindividual, right-left comparison of topical methyl aminolaevulinate-photodynamic therapy and cryotherapy in subjects with actinic keratoses: a multicentre, randomized controlled study.
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic keratosis (AK), the most common premalignant skin condition, can represent a management challenge.
  • OBJECTIVES: The primary objective was to compare the lesion response and subject preference for topical methyl aminolaevulinate (MAL)-photodynamic therapy (PDT) vs. cryotherapy for the treatment of AK.
  • The primary assessments were the subject's overall preference and lesion response at week 24.
  • Secondary assessments included lesion response at week 12, cosmetic outcome, subject and investigator cosmetic outcome preference at week 24, and investigator overall preference at week 24.
  • At week 12, treatment with MAL-PDT resulted in a significantly larger rate of cured lesions relative to cryotherapy (percentage lesion reduction from baseline: 86.9% vs. 76.2%; P < 0.001).

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  • (PMID = 17034536.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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97. Campione E, Diluvio L, Paternò EJ, Chimenti S: Topical treatment of actinic keratoses with piroxicam 1% gel: a preliminary open-label study utilizing a new clinical score. Am J Clin Dermatol; 2010;11(1):45-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Topical treatment of actinic keratoses with piroxicam 1% gel: a preliminary open-label study utilizing a new clinical score.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of piroxicam 1% gel in the treatment of actinic keratoses.
  • METHODS: Piroxicam 1% gel was applied twice daily for 12 weeks to 31 actinic keratoses.
  • Changes were evaluated using a new scoring system (AKESA), based on the clinical presence of erythema, scale, and atrophy on a target lesion.
  • In our experience, the use of piroxicam 1% gel for 90 days induced complete regression in 48% of evaluated actinic keratoses, corresponding to keratotic and verrucous clinical variants.
  • [MeSH-major] Anticarcinogenic Agents / therapeutic use. Dermatologic Agents / therapeutic use. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Piroxicam / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / prevention & control. Sunlight / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 20000874.001).
  • [ISSN] 1175-0561
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Clin Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticarcinogenic Agents; 0 / Dermatologic Agents; 0 / Gels; 13T4O6VMAM / Piroxicam; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 1; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
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98. Nelson CG, Spencer J, Nelson CG Jr: A single-arm, open-label efficacy and tolerability study of diclofenac sodium 3% gel for the treatment of actinic keratosis of the upper and lower lip. J Drugs Dermatol; 2007 Jul;6(7):712-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A single-arm, open-label efficacy and tolerability study of diclofenac sodium 3% gel for the treatment of actinic keratosis of the upper and lower lip.
  • OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: This study is an evaluation of patients diagnosed with actinic keratosis (AK) lesions of the upper and lower lip (both cutaneous and mucosal surfaces), with at least one lesion on the vermilion (mucosal) lip.

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  • (PMID = 17763595.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-9616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Drugs Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Gels; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac
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99. Van der Geer S, Krekels GA: Treatment of actinic keratoses on the dorsum of the hands: ALA-PDT versus diclofenac 3% gel followed by ALA-PDT. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, pilot study. J Dermatolog Treat; 2009;20(5):259-65
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of actinic keratoses on the dorsum of the hands: ALA-PDT versus diclofenac 3% gel followed by ALA-PDT. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, pilot study.
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic keratoses (AK) are sun-induced epithelial skin lesions, which are at risk to progress to squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Total lesion number scores, total thickness scores and global improvement scores were used to assess efficacy.
  • Total lesion thickness scores decreased significantly in both groups.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / therapeutic use. Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use. Diclofenac / therapeutic use. Keratosis, Actinic / therapy. Photochemotherapy. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19370466.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-1753
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatological treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dermatolog Treat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Gels; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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100. Swanson N, Abramovits W, Berman B, Kulp J, Rigel DS, Levy S: Imiquimod 2.5% and 3.75% for the treatment of actinic keratoses: results of two placebo-controlled studies of daily application to the face and balding scalp for two 2-week cycles. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2010 Apr;62(4):582-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Imiquimod 2.5% and 3.75% for the treatment of actinic keratoses: results of two placebo-controlled studies of daily application to the face and balding scalp for two 2-week cycles.
  • BACKGROUND: The approved imiquimod 5% cream regimen for treating actinic keratoses requires a long treatment time and is limited to a small area of skin.
  • Complete and partial clearance (> or =75% lesion reduction) rates were 6.3% and 22.6% for placebo, 30.6% and 48.1% for imiquimod 2.5%, and 35.6% and 59.4% for imiquimod 3.75%, respectively (P < .001 vs placebo, each; P = .047, 3.75% vs 2.5% for partial clearance).
  • Median reductions from baseline in lesion counts were 25.0% for placebo, 71.8% for imiquimod 2.5%, and 81.8% for imiquimod 3.75% (P < .001, each active vs placebo; P = .048 3.75% vs 2.5%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Both imiquimod 2.5% and 3.75% creams were more effective than placebo and were well tolerated when administered daily as a 2-week on/off/on regimen to treat actinic keratoses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage. Aminoquinolines / administration & dosage. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20133013.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Dosage Forms; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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