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51. Hofbauer GF, Anliker M, Arnold A, Binet I, Hunger R, Kempf W, Laffitte E, Lapointe AC, Pascual M, Pelloni F, Serra A, SGDV working group for organ transplant recipients: Swiss clinical practice guidelines for skin cancer in organ transplant recipients. Swiss Med Wkly; 2009 Jul 25;139(29-30):407-15
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  • Once transplanted, SOTRs should be seen by a dermatologist yearly for repeat education as well as early diagnosis, prevention and treatment of skin cancer.
  • Cumulative sun damage results in field cancerisation with numerous in-situ SCC such as actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease which should be treated proactively.


52. Deprez M, Uffer S: Clinicopathological features of eyelid skin tumors. A retrospective study of 5504 cases and review of literature. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 May;31(3):256-62
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  • Benign tumors largely predominated over malignant ones, representing 84% of cases in this series, and the 5 most frequent subtypes were squamous cell papilloma (26%), seborrheic keratosis (21%), melanocytic nevus (20%), hidrocystoma (8%), and xanthoma/xanthelasma (6%).
  • For several tumor subtypes, there was a poor correlation between clinical and histological diagnosis, stressing the numerous pitfalls in the diagnosis of eyelid tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Hidrocystoma / pathology. Humans. Infant. Keratosis, Seborrheic / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Nevus, Pigmented / pathology. Papilloma / pathology. Predictive Value of Tests. Retrospective Studies. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Xanthomatosis / pathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19384066.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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53. Carrera C, Segura S, Palou J, Puig S, Segura J, Martí RM, Malvehy J: Seborrheic keratosislike melanoma with folliculotropism. Arch Dermatol; 2007 Mar;143(3):373-6
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  • OBSERVATIONS: A 34-year-old man was seen for a conspicuous pigmented lesion on his back that clinically resembled a seborrheic keratosis because of the presence of multiple comedolike openings.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Keratosis, Seborrheic / pathology. Male

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  • (PMID = 17372102.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-987X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Rossi R, Calzavara-Pinton PG, Giannetti A, Peserico A, Santucci M, Vena GA, Lotti T: Italian guidelines and therapeutic algorithm for actinic keratoses. G Ital Dermatol Venereol; 2009 Dec;144(6):713-23
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  • [Title] Italian guidelines and therapeutic algorithm for actinic keratoses.
  • The prevalence of actinic keratosis (AK) continues to rise among white people throughout the world and it is necessary to increase the level of attention paid to it from a diagnostic and a preventive point of view.
  • Today, AK must be considered an in situ squamous cell carcinoma and as such, must be managed using one of the available approved therapeutic alternatives.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis, Actinic / therapy. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Precancerous Conditions / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Algorithms. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / prevention & control. Cryotherapy. Curettage. Dermatologic Agents / therapeutic use. Disease Progression. Electrocoagulation. Female. Humans. Italy / epidemiology. Laser Therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / etiology. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / prevention & control. Phototherapy. Prevalence. Risk Factors. Sunscreening Agents. Ultraviolet Rays / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 19907409.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-0488
  • [Journal-full-title] Giornale italiano di dermatologia e venereologia : organo ufficiale, Società italiana di dermatologia e sifilografia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Ital Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dermatologic Agents; 0 / Sunscreening Agents
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55. Arits AH, van de Weert MM, Nelemans PJ, Kelleners-Smeets NW: Pain during topical photodynamic therapy: uncomfortable and unpredictable. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2010 Dec;24(12):1452-7
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  • A total of 141 lesions in 108 patients were included, treated from November 2008 until June 2009 with PDT for superficial basal cell carcinoma, Bowen's disease (BD) or actinic keratosis (AK).
  • Factors associated with higher PI-NRS scores were treatment of AK or BD, tumour localization in the head/neck region, patient's age over 70, Fitzpatrick skintype I/II, photosensitizer 5-aminolevulinic acid and use of oral analgesics.

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.
  • (PMID = 20456543.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-3083
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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56. Zaballos P, Salsench E, Serrano P, Cuellar F, Puig S, Malvehy J: Studying regression of seborrheic keratosis in lichenoid keratosis with sequential dermoscopy imaging. Dermatology; 2010;220(2):103-9
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  • [Title] Studying regression of seborrheic keratosis in lichenoid keratosis with sequential dermoscopy imaging.
  • BACKGROUND: Lichenoid keratosis (LK) is a well-described entity that has been proposed to represent a regressive response to a pre-existent epidermal lesion.
  • AIMS: To evaluate the natural evolution of a series of cases showing the intermediate stage of the regression of seborrheic keratosis in LK using sequential dermoscopy imaging over time.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: A series of lesions with dermoscopic areas of seborrheic keratosis and LK in the same tumor were consecutively collected for over 3 years at the Dermatology Department of the Hospital de Sant Pau i Santa Tecla, Tarragona, Spain.
  • In 11 cases (50%), the seborrheic keratosis part disappeared completely, and in another 5 cases (22.7%), seborrheic keratosis comprised only 10% of the remaining area.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These dermoscopic study findings support the proposal that LK represents a regressive response to a pre-existent epidermal lesion, in this case seborrheic keratosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermoscopy. Keratosis, Seborrheic / diagnosis. Lichen Planus / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Pigmentation

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  • (PMID = 19996577.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9832
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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57. Talghini S, Halimi M, Baybordi H: Expression of P27, Ki67 and P53 in squamous cell carcinoma, actinic keratosis and Bowen disease. Pak J Biol Sci; 2009 Jun 15;12(12):929-33
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  • [Title] Expression of P27, Ki67 and P53 in squamous cell carcinoma, actinic keratosis and Bowen disease.
  • This study aims at evaluating the expression of P27, Ki67 and P53 in Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC), Actinic Keratosis (AK) and Bowen Disease (BD) specimens.
  • In an analytic-descriptive setting, skin biopsy specimens of 45 patients were evaluated in three 15-case groups including BD, AK and SCC specimens.
  • Ki67 was expressed in 0.8, 23.7, 12.3 and 19.3% of the cells in the normal skin, AK, BD and SCC groups, respectively.
  • P27 was positive in 23.4, 26.2, 25.9 and 4.5% of specimens in the normal skin, AK, BD and SCC groups, respectively.
  • P53 expression was detected in 26.6, 41.8 and 54.6% of the assessed cells in the AK, BD and SCC groups, respectively.
  • Based on these results, the quantitative and qualitative (pattern of distribution) evaluation of the expressions of Ki67, P27 and P53 may be helpful in differentiating malignant and premalignant epidermal lesions, particularly in unsatisfactory or fragmented specimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism. Keratosis, Actinic / metabolism. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Case-Control Studies. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Skin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19777788.001).
  • [ISSN] 1028-8880
  • [Journal-full-title] Pakistan journal of biological sciences : PJBS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pak. J. Biol. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDKN1B protein, human; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
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58. Prior SL, Griffiths AP, Lewis PD: A study of mitochondrial DNA D-loop mutations and p53 status in nonmelanoma skin cancer. Br J Dermatol; 2009 Nov;161(5):1067-71
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  • However, they have not been examined in the SCC precursor lesions, Bowen disease or actinic keratosis.

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  • (PMID = 19624548.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Mitochondrial; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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59. Situm M, Bulat V, Buljan M, Puljiz Z, Situm V, Bolanca Z: Senile lentigo--cosmetic or medical issue of the elderly population. Coll Antropol; 2010 Apr;34 Suppl 2:85-8
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  • [Title] Senile lentigo--cosmetic or medical issue of the elderly population.
  • Senile lentigo or age spots are hyperpigmented macules of skin that occur in irregular shapes, appearing most commonly in the sun-exposed areas of the skin such as on the face and back of the hands.
  • Senile lentigo is a common component of photoaged skin and is seen most commonly after the age of 50.
  • There are many disscusions on whether senile lentigo represents a melanoma precursor, namely lentigo maligna melanoma and, if there is a need for a regular follow up in cases of multiple lesions.
  • On contrary, some authors believe that senile lentigo represents a precursor of seborrheic keratosis, which does not require a serious medical treatment.
  • However, the observation of the possible association of senile lentigo with the melanoma development makes us cautious in the assessment of this lesion.
  • If the lesion becomes inflammed it may evolve into benign lichenoid keratosis.

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  • (PMID = 21302707.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics
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60. Logié A, Dunois-Lardé C, Rosty C, Levrel O, Blanche M, Ribeiro A, Gasc JM, Jorcano J, Werner S, Sastre-Garau X, Thiery JP, Radvanyi F: Activating mutations of the tyrosine kinase receptor FGFR3 are associated with benign skin tumors in mice and humans. Hum Mol Genet; 2005 May 1;14(9):1153-60
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  • Mice expressing the transgene developed benign epidermal tumors with no sign of malignancy.
  • These skin lesions had features in common with acanthosis nigricans and other benign human skin tumors, including seborrheic keratosis, one of the most common benign epidermal tumors in humans.
  • We therefore screened a series of 62 cases of seborrheic keratosis for FGFR3 mutations.
  • Our findings directly implicate FGFR3 activation as a major cause of benign epidermal tumors in humans.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression. Keratosis, Seborrheic / genetics. Point Mutation. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / genetics. Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15772091.001).
  • [ISSN] 0964-6906
  • [Journal-full-title] Human molecular genetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Mol. Genet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / FGFR3 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Fgfr3 protein, mouse; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 3; G34N38R2N1 / Bromodeoxyuridine
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61. Pribuisiene R, Uloza V, Kupcinskas L: Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of laryngoscopic signs of reflux laryngitis. Medicina (Kaunas); 2008;44(4):280-7
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  • Presence of mucosal lesions of the interarytenoid notch (roughness, hypertrophy, keratosis, granuloma) increases the odds ratio to attribute the patient to the reflux laryngitis patient group 21 times (OR=21.32, 95% CI 4.38-103.93; P<0.001).
  • Mucosal lesions (hypertrophy, keratosis, granuloma) and edema of vocal cords were determined as the most sensitive and rather specific laryngoscopic signs.
  • [MeSH-major] Gastroesophageal Reflux / complications. Laryngitis / diagnosis. Laryngoscopy / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Data Interpretation, Statistical. Female. Humans. Laryngeal Edema / diagnosis. Laryngeal Mucosa. Male. Middle Aged. Odds Ratio. ROC Curve. Sensitivity and Specificity. Stroboscopy. Video Recording. Vocal Cords

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  • (PMID = 18469504.001).
  • [ISSN] 1648-9144
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Medicina (Kaunas)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Lithuania
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62. Tomas D, Kruslin B, Cupic H, Stanimirovic A, Bosnjak B, Lovricevic I, Belicza M: Correlation between Bcl-2 and Bax in atrophic and hypertrophic type of actinic keratosis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2006 Jan;20(1):51-7
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  • [Title] Correlation between Bcl-2 and Bax in atrophic and hypertrophic type of actinic keratosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Recent investigations consider actinic keratosis (AK) as an earliest visible pattern of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • We have analysed the expression of apoptosis-related proteins TP53, Bcl-2 and Bax in 30 atrophic and 30 hypertrophic AK cases.
  • RESULTS: Expression of TP53 showed no significant differences between two analysed groups (chi2-test, P = 0.35636) whereas expression of Bcl-2 and Bax protein was significantly higher in atrophic compared to hypertrophic AK (chi2-test, P = 0.01458 and P = 0.00358, respectively).
  • Comparison of Bcl-2 : Bax ratio in two analysed AK showed significantly higher value in hypertrophic compared to atrophic AK (Mann-Whitney U test, P = 0.02272).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results may indicate higher resistance of keratinocytes on apoptotic stimuli in hypertrophic compared to atrophic AK.
  • Thus, we suppose that keratinocytes in hypertrophic AK live longer and probably have higher propensity for additional mutations and conversion to overt SCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis / metabolism. bcl-2-Associated X Protein / metabolism. bcl-X Protein / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16405608.001).
  • [ISSN] 0926-9959
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein; 0 / bcl-X Protein
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63. Bäckvall H, Asplund A, Gustafsson A, Sivertsson A, Lundeberg J, Ponten F: Genetic tumor archeology: microdissection and genetic heterogeneity in squamous and basal cell carcinoma. Mutat Res; 2005 Apr 1;571(1-2):65-79
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  • A high frequency of epidermal p53 clones has been detected in chronically sun-exposed skin.
  • Studies using p53 mutations as a clonality marker have suggested a direct link between actinic keratosis, SCC in situ and invasive SCC.


64. Hauschild A, Popp G, Stockfleth E, Meyer KG, Imberger D, Mohr P, Itschert G, Kaufmann R, Neuber K, Frambach Y, Gollnick H, Brunnert M, Stocker M, Ortland C, Karrer S: Effective photodynamic therapy of actinic keratoses on the head and face with a novel, self-adhesive 5-aminolaevulinic acid patch. Exp Dermatol; 2009 Feb;18(2):116-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effective photodynamic therapy of actinic keratoses on the head and face with a novel, self-adhesive 5-aminolaevulinic acid patch.
  • BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is increasingly used for the treatment of actinic keratosis (AK).
  • OBJECTIVES: To investigate both the efficacy of different application times and the safety of a novel patch (PD P 506 A) containing aminolaevulinic acid in the PDT of mild to moderate AK.
  • Eight weeks after treatment, 86% of the AK lesions (74% of the patients) treated with 4-h patch application showed complete clearance.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / administration & dosage. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy / methods. Photosensitizing Agents / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 18643849.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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65. Neuhaus IM, LeBoit PE, McCalmont TM: Seborrheic keratosis with basal clear cells: a distinctive microscopic mimic of melanoma in situ. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2006 Jan;54(1):132-5
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  • [Title] Seborrheic keratosis with basal clear cells: a distinctive microscopic mimic of melanoma in situ.
  • BACKGROUND: We observed seborrheic keratoses with many basilar clear cells, creating a microscopic pattern that mimicked a seborrheic keratosis involved by melanoma in situ.
  • OBJECTIVE: We sought to report a series of these seborrheic keratoses and the immunohistochemical stains used to reach a proper diagnosis.
  • METHODS: We reviewed 9 cases of seborrheic keratosis that had a distinctive pattern of basal clear cells with ample cytoplasm.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We describe a previously uncharacterized pattern of seborrheic keratosis that can microscopically mimic melanoma in situ.
  • Careful conventional microscopy coupled with a panel of immunostains can allow the proper diagnosis to be reached.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis, Seborrheic / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antibodies. Antigens, Neoplasm. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immune Sera. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Keratins / immunology. MART-1 Antigen. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / immunology. Retrospective Studies. S100 Proteins / immunology. Staining and Labeling

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  • [CommentIn] J Cutan Pathol. 2017 Jun;44(6):600-602 [28401581.001]
  • (PMID = 16384768.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Immune Sera; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Proteins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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66. Cardoso CL, Freitas P, Taveira LA, Consolaro A: Darier disease: case report with oral manifestations. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal; 2006 Aug;11(5):E404-6
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  • [Title] Darier disease: case report with oral manifestations.
  • Darier disease, also known as keratosis follicularis or dyskeratosis follicularis, is a rare autosomal dominant genodermatosis.
  • This paper reports a case of an adult male patient presenting clinical signs of Darier disease in the palatal mucosa and skin on the neck and upper limbs.
  • Intraoral biopsy of the affected area, analysis of family history and evaluation by a multidisciplinary team led to the diagnosis of Darier disease.
  • Dental professionals and pathologists should be aware of these lesions to allow correct diagnosis and proper management of this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Darier Disease / pathology. Mouth Diseases / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16878056.001).
  • [ISSN] 1698-6946
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina oral, patología oral y cirugía bucal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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67. Ross AH, Kennedy CT, Collins C, Harrad RA: The use of imiquimod in the treatment of periocular tumours. Orbit; 2010 Apr;29(2):83-7
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  • Two patients were diagnosed with basal cell carcinoma of the eyelid, one patient with actinic keratosis, one with intraepidermal squamous cell carcinoma (Bowen's disease) and one patient had concomitant squamous cell carcinoma and intraepidermal squamous cell carcinoma.
  • In our experience, it is a safe and effective treatment for periocular lesions, including actinic keratosis, intraepidermal squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Eyelid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Aged. Bowen's Disease / drug therapy. Bowen's Disease / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Ophthalmic Solutions. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 20394545.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-5108
  • [Journal-full-title] Orbit (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orbit
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Ophthalmic Solutions; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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68. Nindl I, Dang C, Forschner T, Kuban RJ, Meyer T, Sterry W, Stockfleth E: Identification of differentially expressed genes in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma by microarray expression profiling. Mol Cancer; 2006;5:30
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  • RESULTS: Three different biopsies of 5 immunosuppressed organ-transplanted recipients each normal skin (all were pooled), actinic keratosis (AK) (two were pooled), and invasive SCC and additionally 5 normal skin tissues from immunocompetent patients were analyzed.
  • Broad coherent patterns in normal skin vs. AK and SCC were observed for 118 genes.

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  • (PMID = 16893473.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-4598
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1569867
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69. Bugatti L, Filosa G: Dermoscopy of lichen planus-like keratosis: a model of inflammatory regression. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2007 Nov;21(10):1392-7
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  • [Title] Dermoscopy of lichen planus-like keratosis: a model of inflammatory regression.
  • BACKGROUND: Lichen planus-like keratosis (LPLK) or benign lichenoid keratosis is an involuting cutaneous entity where regressing features are the histologic hallmark.
  • Most authors consider LPLK as an heterogeneous spectrum of intraepithelial epidermal or melanocytic lesions, mainly pigmented, involuting by inflammatory regression.
  • All cases were excised and submitted to histopathologic examination and subdivided into three groups according to the early, classic and atrophic subtypes.
  • FE correlates mainly with early/atrophic types, while the FP nearly exclusively with the late atrophic type.
  • The classic dermoscopic features of regressing lesion for LPLK (pigmented granular pattern) apply to the most frequent encountered pigmented atrophic flat type or classic pigmented type, where sometimes regression is advanced or almost complete and no clear diagnosis of a previous benign/malignant - epithelial or melanocytic lesion can often be given.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis / pathology. Lichen Planus / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Dermoscopy. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17958847.001).
  • [ISSN] 0926-9959
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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70. Lipozenčić J, Bukvić Mokos Z: Dermatologic lasers in the treatment of aging skin. Acta Dermatovenerol Croat; 2010;18(3):176-80
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  • The major clinical features of aging skin include xerosis, laxity, wrinkles, slackness, and the occurrence of benign neoplasms such as seborrheic keratoses and cherry angiomas.
  • Photoaging is characterized by dryness (roughness), actinic keratoses, irregular pigmentation (freckling, lentigines, guttate hypomelanosis, persistent hyperpigmentation), wrinkling, stellate pseudoscars, elastosis (fine nodularity and/or coarseness), inelasticity, telangiectasia, venous lakes, purpura (easy bruising), comedones (maladie de Favre et Racouchot) and sebaceous hyperplasia.

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  • (PMID = 20887699.001).
  • [ISSN] 1847-6538
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta dermatovenerologica Croatica : ADC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Dermatovenerol Croat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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71. Pivarcsi A, Müller A, Hippe A, Rieker J, van Lierop A, Steinhoff M, Seeliger S, Kubitza R, Pippirs U, Meller S, Gerber PA, Liersch R, Buenemann E, Sonkoly E, Wiesner U, Hoffmann TK, Schneider L, Piekorz R, Enderlein E, Reifenberger J, Rohr UP, Haas R, Boukamp P, Haase I, Nürnberg B, Ruzicka T, Zlotnik A, Homey B: Tumor immune escape by the loss of homeostatic chemokine expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2007 Nov 27;104(48):19055-60
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  • Here we demonstrate that human keratinocyte-derived skin tumors may evade T cell-mediated antitumor immune responses by down-regulating the expression of CCL27 through the activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-Ras-MAPK-signaling pathways.
  • Compared with healthy skin, CCL27 mRNA and protein expression was progressively lost in transformed keratinocytes of actinic keratoses and basal and squamous cell carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antibodies, Monoclonal / pharmacology. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Cytotoxicity, Immunologic. Down-Regulation. Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases / metabolism. Humans. Keratinocytes / metabolism. Melanoma, Experimental / genetics. Melanoma, Experimental / immunology. Melanoma, Experimental / metabolism. Mice. Mice, Inbred C57BL. Photosensitivity Disorders / immunology. Photosensitivity Disorders / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / immunology. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras) / physiology. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / physiology. Signal Transduction

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  • (PMID = 18025475.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-6490
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / CCL27 protein, human; 0 / Ccl27 protein, mouse; 0 / Chemokine CCL27; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; EC 2.7.10.1 / EGFR protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases; EC 3.6.5.2 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins p21(ras)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2141907
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72. Proweller A, Tu L, Lepore JJ, Cheng L, Lu MM, Seykora J, Millar SE, Pear WS, Parmacek MS: Impaired notch signaling promotes de novo squamous cell carcinoma formation. Cancer Res; 2006 Aug 1;66(15):7438-44
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  • Here, we report that DNMAML1 mice display hyperplastic epidermis and spontaneously develop cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) as well as dysplastic precursor lesions, actinic keratoses.
  • Mice expressing epidermal DNMAML1 display enhanced accumulation of nuclear beta-catenin and cyclin D1 in suprabasilar keratinocytes and in lesional cells from SCCs, which was also observed in human cutaneous SCC.
  • The demonstration that inhibition of canonical Notch signaling in mice leads to spontaneous formation of SCC and recapitulates the disease in humans yields fundamental insights into the pathogenesis of SCC and provides a unique in vivo animal model to examine the pathobiology of cutaneous SCC and for evaluating novel therapies.


73. Cowen EW, Nguyen JC, Miller DD, McShane D, Arron ST, Prose NS, Turner ML, Fox LP: Chronic phototoxicity and aggressive squamous cell carcinoma of the skin in children and adults during treatment with voriconazole. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2010 Jan;62(1):31-7
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  • Underlying diagnoses included graft-versus-host disease, HIV, and Wegener granulomatosis.
  • Signs of chronic phototoxicity and accelerated photoaging included erythema, actinic keratoses, and lentigo formation.


74. Fatmi Z, Azam I, Ahmed F, Kazi A, Gill AB, Kadir MM, Ahmed M, Ara N, Janjua NZ, Core Group for Arsenic Mitigation in Pakistan: Health burden of skin lesions at low arsenic exposure through groundwater in Pakistan. Is river the source? Environ Res; 2009 Jul;109(5):575-81
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  • The prevalence of skin lesions of arsenic was estimated for complex survey design, using surveyfreq and surveylogistic options of SAS 9.1 software.The prevalence of definitive cases i.e. hyperkeratosis of both palms and soles, was 3.4 per 1000 and suspected cases i.e. any sign of arsenic skin lesions (melanosis and/or keratosis), were 13.0 per 1000 among > or = 15-year-old persons in the district.

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  • (PMID = 19419713.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-0953
  • [Journal-full-title] Environmental research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Environ. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Water Pollutants, Chemical
  • [Investigator] Panhwar SA; Tahir A; Ahmad T; Dil A; Shahbaz A; Ahmed S
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75. Scheinfeld NS: Actinic keratoses. Skinmed; 2007 Jul-Aug;6(4):188-90
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  • [Title] Actinic keratoses.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis. Ultraviolet Rays / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Lentigo / diagnosis. Male. Precancerous Conditions. Skin / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17618171.001).
  • [ISSN] 1540-9740
  • [Journal-full-title] Skinmed
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skinmed
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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76. Corbalán-Vélez R, Ruiz-Macia JA, Brufau C, López-Lozano JM, Martínez-Barba E, Carapeto FJ: [Clear cells in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2009 May;100(4):307-16
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  • Advanced or established SCCs and SCCs associated with Bowen disease contained a larger proportion of clear cells.
  • We defined 2 histological patterns: a) clear cells around the keratin pearls of SCCs arising from pre-existing actinic keratosis and with indirect signs of human papilloma virus infection in hair follicles; and b) clear cells that simulate adnexal differentiation in lesions arising on pre-existing Bowen disease lesions.
  • The presence of clear cells is suggestive of adnexal differentiation; however, in the majority of cases, their presence is due to infiltration of normal adnexal structures by the cells of pagetoid Bowen disease.


77. Nagpal S, Na S, Rathnachalam R: Noncalcemic actions of vitamin D receptor ligands. Endocr Rev; 2005 Aug;26(5):662-87
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  • Physiological and pharmacological actions of 1,25-(OH)(2)D(3) in various systems, along with the detection of VDR in target cells, have indicated potential therapeutic applications of VDR ligands in inflammation (rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis), dermatological indications (psoriasis, actinic keratosis, seborrheic dermatitis, photoaging), osteoporosis (postmenopausal and steroid-induced osteoporosis), cancers (prostate, colon, breast, myelodysplasia, leukemia, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma), secondary hyperparathyroidism, and autoimmune diseases (systemic lupus erythematosus, type I diabetes, multiple sclerosis, and organ transplantation).

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  • (PMID = 15798098.001).
  • [ISSN] 0163-769X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ligands; 0 / Receptors, Calcitriol; 1406-16-2 / Vitamin D
  • [Number-of-references] 284
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78. Benatiya AI, Bouayed MA, Touiza E, Daoudi K, Bhalil S, Elmesbahi I, Tahri H: [Tyrosinemia type II. Case report]. Bull Soc Belge Ophtalmol; 2005;(296):57-61
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  • Tyrosinemia type II or Richner-Hanhart syndrome is a rare hereditary disease characterized by the association of pseudoherpetiform corneal ulcerations and palmoplantar hyperkeratosis.
  • We report the case of a 12 year-old young man presenting a superficial punctate keratitis and a corneal dystrophy in both eyes, associated with a palmoplantar hyperkeratosis.
  • Tyrosinemia type II is an autosomal recessive disease, due to an enzymatic deficit in tyrosine aminotransferase.
  • The diagnosis is based on the clinic and high level of serum and urinary tyrosine as well as of its urinary metabolites.
  • This disease must be suspected in all cases of dentritic keratitis not reacting on the antiviral treatment, and more especially if it is associated with cutaneous lesions such as palmo-plantar keratosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Tyrosinemias / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16050420.001).
  • [ISSN] 0081-0746
  • [Journal-full-title] Bulletin de la Société belge d'ophtalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Bull Soc Belge Ophtalmol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 42HK56048U / Tyrosine
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79. Micali G, Lacarrubba F, Dinotta F, Massimino D, Nasca MR: Treating skin cancer with topical cream. Expert Opin Pharmacother; 2010 Jun;11(9):1515-27
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  • TAKE HOME MESSAGE: Topical pharmacotherapy represents an option for treatment of actinic keratoses and selected basal cell carcinomas.
  • Moreover, preliminary reports indicate imiquimod to be effective for skin or mucosal cancers such as Bowen's disease, erythroplasia of Queyrat and lentigo maligna.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20408746.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-7666
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Pharmacother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Retinoids; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 112
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80. Jainkittivong A, Aneksuk V, Langlais RP: Oral mucosal lesions in denture wearers. Gerodontology; 2010 Mar;27(1):26-32
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  • When analysed by type, traumatic ulcer, denture hyperplasia, frictional keratosis and candidiasis were more common in complete denture wearers, whereas denture-induced stomatitis was more common in partial denture wearers.
  • Frictional keratosis was more common in men than in women.
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Aged. Atrophy. Candidiasis, Oral / epidemiology. Cheilitis / epidemiology. Denture, Complete / statistics & numerical data. Denture, Partial / statistics & numerical data. Disease. Female. Friction. Humans. Hyperplasia. Leukoedema, Oral / epidemiology. Leukoplakia, Oral / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Mouth Mucosa / pathology. Oral Ulcer / epidemiology. Prevalence. Retrospective Studies. Sex Factors. Stomatitis, Denture / epidemiology. Thailand / epidemiology. Tongue / pathology. Tongue, Fissured / epidemiology


81. Kalisiak MS, Rao J: Photodynamic therapy for actinic keratoses. Dermatol Clin; 2007 Jan;25(1):15-23
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  • [Title] Photodynamic therapy for actinic keratoses.
  • Actinic keratoses (AKs) are one of the most common conditions that are treated by dermatologists and they have the potential to progress to squamous cell carcinoma if left untreated.
  • This article focuses on practical aspects of PDT in the treatment of AKs, outcomes of relevant clinical trials, and special applications of PDT in transplant recipients and other who are predisposed to AK formation.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy. Ultraviolet Rays / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 17126738.001).
  • [ISSN] 0733-8635
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic clinics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Clin
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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82. Mann M, Berk DR, Petersen J: Chemowraps as an adjuvant to surgery for patients with diffuse squamous cell carcinoma of the extremities. J Drugs Dermatol; 2008 Jul;7(7):685-8
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  • BACKGROUND: Managing patients with diffuse squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and actinic damage on their extremities is challenging because SCCs may be ill-defined, confluent, and only amenable to radical surgery.
  • Diffuse actinic keratoses put patients at risk for further malignancies and may be difficult to distinguish from SCCs.
  • An experience using chemowraps, a novel approach involving weekly 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) 5% cream under Unna wraps to reduce actinic keratoses, as an adjuvant to surgery is described.
  • Before chemowraps were applied, biopsies and clinical lymph node examinations were performed to confirm the diagnosis of SCC.
  • Patients were informed that chemowraps represent an off-label use of 5-FU to reduce actinic keratoses as an adjuvant to definitive surgery for SCCs.
  • RESULTS: Three patients were referred for diffuse actinic damage and biopsy-proven SCCs on the legs.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Chemowraps may be useful in managing patients with diffuse SCCs in fields of severe actinic damage on the extremities.
  • As an adjuvant to surgery, chemowraps may treat surrounding actinic keratoses, help define tumor borders, and minimize the extent of surgery required.
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Cutaneous. Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Keratosis / drug therapy. Leg


83. Gerster JF, Lindstrom KJ, Miller RL, Tomai MA, Birmachu W, Bomersine SN, Gibson SJ, Imbertson LM, Jacobson JR, Knafla RT, Maye PV, Nikolaides N, Oneyemi FY, Parkhurst GJ, Pecore SE, Reiter MJ, Scribner LS, Testerman TL, Thompson NJ, Wagner TL, Weeks CE, Andre JD, Lagain D, Bastard Y, Lupu M: Synthesis and structure-activity-relationships of 1H-imidazo[4,5-c]quinolines that induce interferon production. J Med Chem; 2005 May 19;48(10):3481-91
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  • The in vitro results reported herein and the in vivo results reported previously led to the discovery of imiquimod, 26, which was developed as a topical agent and has been approved for the treatment of genital warts, actinic keratosis, and superficial basal cell carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 15887957.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-2623
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medicinal chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Imidazoles; 0 / Interferon Inducers; 0 / Quinolines; 9008-11-1 / Interferons; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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84. Pastar Z, Lipozencić J, Rados J, Stajminger G: Regressing seborrheic keratosis - clinically and dermoscopically mimicking a regressing melanoma. Acta Dermatovenerol Croat; 2007;15(1):24-6
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  • [Title] Regressing seborrheic keratosis - clinically and dermoscopically mimicking a regressing melanoma.
  • The diagnosis of seborrheic keratosis is a clinical diagnosis.
  • In a certain percentage of cases, differential diagnosis between seborrheic keratosis and malignant melanoma is difficult.
  • We describe a case of regressing seborrheic keratosis simulating malignant melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis, Seborrheic / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Dermoscopy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 17433176.001).
  • [ISSN] 1330-027X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta dermatovenerologica Croatica : ADC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Dermatovenerol Croat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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85. Kwon EJ, Kish LS, Jaworsky C: The histologic spectrum of epithelial neoplasms induced by sorafenib. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2009 Sep;61(3):522-7
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  • Three lesions showed keratin-filled endophytic epithelial-lined invaginations, one with a coexistent actinic keratosis.
  • To our knowledge, diffuse eruptions of epidermal invaginations, ectatic follicular infundibula, and follicular infundibular cysts have not been reported previously with sorafenib, although they are well known to occur with epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor therapy.

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  • (PMID = 19700018.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzenesulfonates; 0 / Phenylurea Compounds; 0 / Pyridines; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; 9ZOQ3TZI87 / sorafenib
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86. Stockfleth E: Topical management of actinic keratosis and field cancerisation. G Ital Dermatol Venereol; 2009 Aug;144(4):459-62
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  • [Title] Topical management of actinic keratosis and field cancerisation.
  • Actinic keratosis (AK) is a squamous cell carcinoma of the epidermis in situ.
  • In around 10% of all patients with AK and in approximately 30% of patients with additional immune suppression an invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the skin is subsequently observed highlighting that AKs should be identified and treated early.
  • The hallmarks and characteristic features of non-melanoma skin cancer have been defined histologically: histopathology allows the differentiation based on a small tissue sample and remains the gold standard for diagnosis.
  • For all therapies the objective is to cure lesions, both clinically and histologically, by the destruction of mutated keratinocytes and to reduce the numbers of AK lesions with the minimum of pain, scarring and recurrence.
  • Recurrence of a lesion (which by definition affects the same site) is often the result of incomplete removal of clinically apparent AK lesions after treatment or the presence of subclinical lesions that were not identified and removed.
  • AK lesions can be treated individually or, if the lesions are numerous in an area of sun-damaged skin the whole area should be treated to remove subclinical lesions as well as those clinically visible (field-directed therapy).Overall the treatment choice is based on several factors, including location and number of lesions, growth and morphology, area of sun-damaged skin, age, lifestyle, and factors related to previous treatment or patient history.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis, Actinic / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19755950.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-0488
  • [Journal-full-title] Giornale italiano di dermatologia e venereologia : organo ufficiale, Società italiana di dermatologia e sifilografia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Ital Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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87. Ming M, Han W, Maddox J, Soltani K, Shea CR, Freeman DM, He YY: UVB-induced ERK/AKT-dependent PTEN suppression promotes survival of epidermal keratinocytes. Oncogene; 2010 Jan 28;29(4):492-502
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  • [Title] UVB-induced ERK/AKT-dependent PTEN suppression promotes survival of epidermal keratinocytes.
  • As compared with normal skin, PTEN levels are reduced in human actinic keratosis, a precancerous skin lesion caused by solar UV.

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  • (PMID = 19881543.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5594
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA014599-34; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024999; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R01 ES016936-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA014599; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA014599-33; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA014599-330014; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR024999-03; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR024999-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA014599-34; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024999-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA014599-340014; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / R01 ES016936; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA014599-330014; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024999-02; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1 RR024999-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA014599-32; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA014599-33; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA014599-340014; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES016936-01A2; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / UL1RR024999; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA014599-32
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTEN protein, human; EC 3.1.3.48 / Pten protein, mouse; EC 3.1.3.67 / PTEN Phosphohydrolase; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS147984; NLM/ PMC2813408
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88. Degen A, Satzger I, Voelker B, Kapp A, Hauschild A, Gutzmer R: Does basal cell carcinoma belong to the spectrum of sorafenib-induced epithelial skin cancers? Dermatology; 2010;221(3):193-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • To our knowledge, few cases of actinic keratoses and variants of squamous cell carcinomas associated with sorafenib have been published.

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  • (PMID = 20720388.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9832
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzenesulfonates; 0 / Phenylurea Compounds; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyridines; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; 9ZOQ3TZI87 / sorafenib
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89. Caekelbergh K, Annemans L, Lambert J, Roelandts R: Economic evaluation of methyl aminolaevulinate-based photodynamic therapy in the management of actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma. Br J Dermatol; 2006 Oct;155(4):784-90
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  • [Title] Economic evaluation of methyl aminolaevulinate-based photodynamic therapy in the management of actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Various effective therapeutic options are currently available for the treatment of actinic keratosis (AK) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC), but none is perfect.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a recent approach, methyl aminolaevulinate-based photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT; Metvix; Galderma, Lausanne, Switzerland) in AK and BCC.
  • The time horizon was 1 year for AK and 5 years for BCC.
  • The comparators were cryotherapy in AK and excision surgery in BCC.
  • RESULTS: MAL-PDT is a more expensive treatment compared with cryotherapy for AK.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that MAL-PDT is a cost-effective intervention in AK taking a 1-year time horizon, if society is willing to pay euro1.50 per day of response, and that MAL-PDT is better value for money than excision in BCC, taking a 5-year time horizon.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / economics. Keratosis / economics. Photochemotherapy / economics. Skin Neoplasms / economics

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  • [CommentIn] Br J Dermatol. 2007 Jun;156(6):1393-4 [17535242.001]
  • [CommentIn] Br J Dermatol. 2007 Jun;156(6):1392; author reply 1393 [17535240.001]
  • (PMID = 16965429.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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90. Melnikova VO, Ananthaswamy HN: Cellular and molecular events leading to the development of skin cancer. Mutat Res; 2005 Apr 1;571(1-2):91-106
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  • Apoptosis-resistant keratinocytes undergo clonal expansion that eventually leads to formation of actinic keratoses and squamous cell carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Disease Progression. Genes, p53. Humans. Mice. Ultraviolet Rays

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  • (PMID = 15748641.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-5107
  • [Journal-full-title] Mutation research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mutat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / 5 P30 ES07784; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 16672; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 46523; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA105345
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 136
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91. Greenberg HL, Cohen JL, Rosen T, Orengo I: Severe reaction to 5% imiquimod cream with excellent clinical and cosmetic outcomes. J Drugs Dermatol; 2007 Apr;6(4):452-8
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  • Imiquimod, an immune response modifier approved for the treatment of external genital warts, actinic keratoses, and superficial basal cell carcinoma, can induce a severe local inflammatory response.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage. Adjuvants, Immunologic / adverse effects. Adjuvants, Immunologic / chemistry. Administration, Topical. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cheilitis / chemically induced. Cheilitis / drug therapy. Female. Humans. Keratosis / chemically induced. Keratosis / drug therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Ointments. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17668546.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-9616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Drugs Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Ointments; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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92. Choi MJ, Kim HS, Kim HO, Song KY, Park YM: A case of lymphomatoid keratosis. Ann Dermatol; 2010 May;22(2):219-22
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  • [Title] A case of lymphomatoid keratosis.
  • Lymphomatoid keratosis (LK) is considered to be a rare variant of cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia, with epidermotropism.
  • Histopathologically, the specimen showed hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis, acanthosis and Pautrier's micro-abscess in the epidermis, and a lichenoid infiltration of lymphocytes in the dermis, which expressed both B cell and T cell lineage on the immune-histochemical staining.

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  • (PMID = 20548920.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-3894
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2883432
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia / Epidermotropism / Lymphomatoid keratosis
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93. Raasch BA, Buettner PG: Knowledge and perceptions about sunburn and solar keratoses in Australia. Australas J Dermatol; 2008 Aug;49(3):142-7
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  • [Title] Knowledge and perceptions about sunburn and solar keratoses in Australia.
  • An omnibus telephone survey of 1200 adult Australians determined self-reported prevalence of and attitudes to sunburn and sunspots, knowledge of the term solar keratosis and prevalence of skin checks.
  • While 29% reported currently having sunspots, 69% had never heard of the term solar keratosis, 30% had never had a skin check and 28% had their last skin check more than 12 months ago.
  • [MeSH-major] Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice. Keratosis / epidemiology. Sunburn / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 18638221.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-0960
  • [Journal-full-title] The Australasian journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Australas. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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94. Kopera D, Kerl H: Detection and treatment of preclinical actinic keratoses (PAK). J Dtsch Dermatol Ges; 2010 Sep;8(9):693-4
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  • [Title] Detection and treatment of preclinical actinic keratoses (PAK).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Facial Dermatoses / diagnosis. Keratosis, Actinic / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20561117.001).
  • [ISSN] 1610-0387
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft = Journal of the German Society of Dermatology : JDDG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dtsch Dermatol Ges
  • [Language] eng; ger
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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95. Anderson L, Schmieder GJ, Werschler WP, Tschen EH, Ling MR, Stough DB, Katsamas J: Randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, vehicle-controlled study of ingenol mebutate gel 0.025% and 0.05% for actinic keratosis. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2009 Jun;60(6):934-43
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  • [Title] Randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, vehicle-controlled study of ingenol mebutate gel 0.025% and 0.05% for actinic keratosis.
  • BACKGROUND: There is a need for improved medical approaches to the treatment of actinic keratosis.
  • Ingenol mebutate, a diterpene ester extracted and purified from the plant Euphorbia peplus, is being evaluated as a topical therapy for actinic keratosis.
  • OBJECTIVE: Assess the efficacy and safety of ingenol mebutate (formerly PEP005) gel at 3 dosing regimens for the treatment of actinic keratosis.
  • METHODS: Patients with non-facial actinic keratoses applied vehicle gel for 3 days, ingenol mebutate gel, 0.025% for 3 days, or ingenol mebutate gel, 0.05% for 2 or 3 days, with an 8-week follow-up period.
  • RESULTS: All 3 active treatments were significantly more effective than vehicle at clearing actinic keratosis lesions, with a dose response observed.
  • The median percentage reduction in baseline actinic keratosis lesions for patients treated with ingenol mebutate gel ranged from 75% to 100% compared with 0% for vehicle gel (P < .0001 vs vehicle).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Short-course, field-directed therapy with ingenol mebutate gel for actinic keratoses on non-facial sites seems to be effective with a favorable safety profile and potential benefits over topical agents that require a more prolonged course of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Diterpenes / administration & dosage. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19467365.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 3-ingenyl angelate; 0 / Diterpenes; 0 / Gels; 0 / Pharmaceutical Vehicles; 0 / Plant Extracts
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96. Saraceno R, Teoli M, Chimenti S: Hydroxyurea associated with concomitant occurrence of diffuse longitudinal melanonychia and multiple squamous cell carcinomas in an elderly subject. Clin Ther; 2008 Jul;30(7):1324-9
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  • His current medication regimen was hydroxyurea (500 mg BID), iron (525 mg QD), and folic acid (15 mg QD) for the myeloproliferative disease and the associated anemia; spironolactone (25 mg BID) and furosemide (20 mg BID) for the complications of cirrhosis; allopurinol (100 mg QD) to treat gout; and theophylline (250 mg QD) for chronic bronchitis.
  • The patient presented with several actinic keratoses, squamous cell carcinomas, and multiple keratoacanthomas, one of which was pigmented.
  • Based on the Naranjo algorithm, the adverse reaction observed was probably related to the hydroxyurea treatment (score = 6); however, the hydroxyurea chemotherapy could not be discontinued because of the myeloproliferative disorder.

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  • (PMID = 18691992.001).
  • [ISSN] 0149-2918
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod; X6Q56QN5QC / Hydroxyurea
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97. Zhang Q, Wang WH, Zhao M, Shen L, Cheng JH, Zhang BY, Li LF: Clinical and pathological study of lichen-planus-like keratosis in China. J Dermatol; 2006 Jul;33(7):457-61
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  • [Title] Clinical and pathological study of lichen-planus-like keratosis in China.
  • Lichen-planus-like keratosis is usually diagnosed pathologically; rarely, a definitive diagnosis can be made grossly in the clinic.
  • Only a few cases of lichen-planus-like keratosis have been reported in China.
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical and pathological features of lichen-planus-like keratosis in China.
  • Fifty cases of lichen-planus-like keratosis patients diagnosed pathologically during a 5-year period in our clinic were analyzed.
  • Only one case (2%) was considered to be lichen-planus-like keratosis clinically.
  • By hematoxylin and eosin staining, solar lentigo and solar elastosis could be found in 68% and 32% of lichen-planus-like keratosis lesions, respectively.
  • Lichen-planus-like keratosis is not uncommon in clinical practice in China, the diagnosis of lichen-planus-like keratosis should be made by a combination of clinical manifestations and pathological changes.
  • It is better to classify lichen-planus-like keratosis as a benign skin tumor.
  • More attention should be paid to lichen-planus-like keratosis in China.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. China / epidemiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Lichen Planus / diagnosis. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16848817.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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98. Batchelor RJ, Stables GI, Stringer MR: Successful treatment of scalp actinic keratoses with photodynamic therapy using ambient light. Br J Dermatol; 2007 Apr;156(4):779-81
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  • [Title] Successful treatment of scalp actinic keratoses with photodynamic therapy using ambient light.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / therapeutic use. Keratosis / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy / methods. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Scalp Dermatoses / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17286635.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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99. Jorizzo J, Weiss J, Vamvakias G: One-week treatment with 0.5% fluorouracil cream prior to cryosurgery in patients with actinic keratoses: a double-blind, vehicle-controlled, long-term study. J Drugs Dermatol; 2006 Feb;5(2):133-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] One-week treatment with 0.5% fluorouracil cream prior to cryosurgery in patients with actinic keratoses: a double-blind, vehicle-controlled, long-term study.
  • Topical fluorouracil is currently approved for the treatment of actinic keratosis (AK) and is often used prior to or following cryosurgery as interval therapy in patients with severe AK lesions.
  • Efficacy was determined by evaluating AK reduction and clearance (complete lack of AK lesions in the treatment area) at 4 weeks follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Cryosurgery. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Keratosis / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16485881.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-9616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Drugs Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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100. Saita V, Azzolina A, Galia A, Fraggetta F: Schwannoma of the epiglottis: case report focusing on clinico-pathological aspects. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital; 2005 Dec;25(6):378-80
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  • Herein we present a further case of a schwannoma of the epiglottis, occurring in a 62-year-old with a clinical history of a cutaneous malignant melanoma and laryngeal glottic keratosis.
  • Authors focus on the diagnostic and therapeutic options for this unusual lesion and discuss the differential diagnosis of the spindle cell proliferation of the larynx.
  • [MeSH-major] Epiglottis / pathology. Epiglottis / surgery. Laryngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Laryngeal Neoplasms / surgery. Neurilemmoma / pathology. Neurilemmoma / surgery. Voice Disorders / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Endoscopy / methods. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16749608.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-100X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta otorhinolaryngologica Italica : organo ufficiale della Società italiana di otorinolaringologia e chirurgia cervico-facciale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2639895
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