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1. Jacobs RJ, Phillips G: Basal cell carcinoma mistaken for actinic keratosis. Clin Exp Optom; 2006 May;89(3):171-5
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  • [Title] Basal cell carcinoma mistaken for actinic keratosis.
  • Increasing age and UV exposure are well-known associations with precancerous and cancerous skin lesions, including actinic (solar) keratosis, and squamous and basal cell carcinomata.
  • This report describes a patient with a facial skin lesion close to an eye that was initially believed to be actinic (solar) keratosis but was subsequently diagnosed as a basal cell carcinoma (BCC).
  • The diagnosis of BCC was helped pre-operatively by manipulation of the surrounding facial skin, which revealed the characteristic rolled edges and telangiectasis.
  • The lesion was surgically excised and the diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma was confirmed by pathological examination.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Eyelid Neoplasms / pathology. Keratosis / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Sunlight / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 16637973.001).
  • [ISSN] 0816-4622
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & experimental optometry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Exp Optom
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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2. Berner A: [Actinic keratosis and development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen; 2005 Jun 16;125(12):1653-4
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  • [Title] [Actinic keratosis and development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Aktinisk keratose og utvikling av plateepitelkarsinom i hud.
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic keratosis is a common sun-induced skin disease.
  • For many years there has been a great deal of discussion of the term used for the disease and of its classification.
  • Recent molecular studies indicate an association between actinic keratosis and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Review of recent reports on histological, molecular, biochemical and clinical findings in actinic keratosis and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.
  • RESULTS AND INTERPRETATION: The morphology of atypical cells in both actinic keratosis and squamous cell carcinoma is identical.
  • The risk of progression to squamous cell carcinoma is minimal, but up to 60% of squamous cell carcinoma cases begin as actinic keratosis.
  • Regression of actinic keratosis occurs when sun exposure is decreased.
  • Examination of possible chromosome aberrations and gene mutations in both actinic keratosis and squamous cell carcinoma reveals similar patterns, including the same mutation in the tumour suppressor gene TP53.
  • Recent studies indicate that actinic keratosis is the earliest manifestation of a potentially malignant disease similar to carcinoma in situ in cervix uteri.
  • Thus, actinic keratosis requires careful diagnosis and follow up.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Keratosis / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Ultraviolet Rays / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 15976832.001).
  • [ISSN] 0807-7096
  • [Journal-full-title] Tidsskrift for den Norske lægeforening : tidsskrift for praktisk medicin, ny række
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tidsskr. Nor. Laegeforen.
  • [Language] nor
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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3. Smits T, Robles CA, van Erp PE, van de Kerkhof PC, Gerritsen MJ: Correlation between macroscopic fluorescence and protoporphyrin IX content in psoriasis and actinic keratosis following application of aminolevulinic acid. J Invest Dermatol; 2005 Oct;125(4):833-9
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  • [Title] Correlation between macroscopic fluorescence and protoporphyrin IX content in psoriasis and actinic keratosis following application of aminolevulinic acid.
  • In fluorescence diagnosis with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced porphyrins (FDAP), protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) accumulation can be macroscopically visualized.
  • In this study, PpIX accumulation is investigated in patients with psoriasis and actinic keratosis (AK) following FDAP.
  • PpIX per biopsy in lesional skin in both psoriasis and AK was significantly higher than in non-lesional skin (p < 0.05).
  • When corrected for epidermal involvement, only lesional psoriatic skin showed significantly higher PpIX levels than non-lesional skin.
  • The PpIX-ratio lesional:non-lesional skin (mean(pmol per mL)+/-SEM) was 4.12+/-0.91 in psoriasis and 1.96+/-0.24 in AK.
  • In FDAP, the ratio of lesional:non-lesional skin was 1.77+/-0.06 in psoriasis and 1.37+/-0.07 in AK.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid. Keratosis / diagnosis. Protoporphyrins / analysis. Psoriasis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16185285.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-202X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of investigative dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Invest. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protoporphyrins; 553-12-8 / protoporphyrin IX; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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4. Ericson MB, Wennberg AM, Larkö O: Review of photodynamic therapy in actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma. Ther Clin Risk Manag; 2008 Feb;4(1):1-9
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  • [Title] Review of photodynamic therapy in actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma.
  • Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) using aminolaevulinic acid or its methyl ester has recently become good treatment options for actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma; especielly when treating large areas and areas with field cancerization.
  • This review covers the fundamental aspects of topical PDT and its application for treatment of actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 18728698.001).
  • [ISSN] 1176-6336
  • [Journal-full-title] Therapeutics and clinical risk management
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ther Clin Risk Manag
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2503644
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; actinic keratosis / basal cell carcinoma / photodynamic therapy
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5. Dornelas MT, Rodrigues MF, Machado DC, Gollner AM, Ferreira AP: [Expression of cell proliferation and apoptosis biomarkers in skin spinocellular carcinoma and actinic keratosis]. An Bras Dermatol; 2009 Sep-Oct;84(5):469-75
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  • [Title] [Expression of cell proliferation and apoptosis biomarkers in skin spinocellular carcinoma and actinic keratosis].
  • [Transliterated title] Expressão de marcadores de proliferação celular e apoptose no carcinoma espinocelular de pele e ceratose actínica.
  • In many cases, before the onset of the carcinoma, there might be a precursor lesion--actinic keratosis, which can develop into squamous cell carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the expression of markers of cell proliferation (PCNA, Ki-67) and apoptosis (p53,Bcl-2) in patients with squamous cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis.
  • METHOD: We studied samples from 30 patients, ten patients of squamous cell carcinoma, ten with actinic keratosis and ten lesion-free samples from blepharoplasty.
  • Bcl-2 was expressed at low intensity in six cases of actinic keratosis in the skin from blepharoplasty and negative in cases of squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Ki-67 showed variable expression in cases of keratosis and carcinoma and negative in the skin from the eyelid.
  • Thus, expression of p53 and Bcl-2 in patients with actinic keratosis indicates cell immortalization.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cell Proliferation. Keratosis, Actinic / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20098848.001).
  • [ISSN] 1806-4841
  • [Journal-full-title] Anais brasileiros de dermatologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Bras Dermatol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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6. Werschler WP: Considerations for use of Fluorouracil cream 0.5% for the treatment of actinic keratosis in elderly patients. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol; 2008 Jul;1(2):22-7
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  • [Title] Considerations for use of Fluorouracil cream 0.5% for the treatment of actinic keratosis in elderly patients.
  • Actinic keratosis (AK), the initial lesion in a disease continuum that may progress to squamous cell carcinoma, often begins with ultraviolet B light-induced photo damage and increases in prevalence with age.
  • Topical 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) for the treatment of widespread multiple AK lesions has cure rates of more than 90 percent.

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  • (PMID = 21103319.001).
  • [ISSN] 1941-2789
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical and aesthetic dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Aesthet Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2989823
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7. Hadley G, Derry S, Moore RA: Imiquimod for actinic keratosis: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Invest Dermatol; 2006 Jun;126(6):1251-5
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  • [Title] Imiquimod for actinic keratosis: systematic review and meta-analysis.
  • Benefit and harm associated with treating actinic keratosis (AK) with the immune response modifier imiquimod was assessed using published randomized-controlled trials.
  • Complete clearance occurred in 50% of patients treated with imiquimod, compared to 5% treated with vehicle, and the number needed to treat (NNT) for one patient to have their keratosis completely cleared after 12-16 weeks was 2.2 (95% confidence interval 2.0-2.5).
  • Imiquimod 5% cream was effective in the treatment of AK, preventing potential development of squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Keratosis / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16557235.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-202X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of investigative dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Invest. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Ointments; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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8. Walsh SN, Hurt MA, Santa Cruz DJ: Psoriasiform keratosis. Am J Dermatopathol; 2007 Apr;29(2):137-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Psoriasiform keratosis.
  • Presented herein are 18 cases of erythematous, scaly papules or plaques with microscopic features of both seborrheic keratosis and psoriasis.
  • There was, however, no known clinical diagnosis of psoriasis in any patient, neither at initial presentation nor on follow-up examination.
  • The mean age at diagnosis was 66.8 years.
  • The most common diagnoses, clinically, were seborrheic keratosis, followed by basal cell carcinoma, Bowen's disease, actinic (solar) keratosis, and squamous cell carcinoma, among others.
  • Histologic examination revealed irregular verrucous epidermal acanthosis, with hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis, hypergranulosis, and intracorneal collections of neutrophils, often in alternating tiers.
  • We have coined the term psoriasiform keratosis as a provisional appellation until the nature of these lesions is determined more definitively.
  • It is unclear whether a psoriasiform keratosis is a rudimentary manifestation of psoriasis or a lesion sui generis.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis, Seborrheic / pathology. Psoriasis / pathology. Skin / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lichenoid Eruptions / pathology. Lymphocytes / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Neutrophils / pathology. Prospective Studies. Terminology as Topic. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 17414434.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Peris K, Micantonio T, Piccolo D, Fargnoli MC: Dermoscopic features of actinic keratosis. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges; 2007 Nov;5(11):970-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Dermoscopic features of actinic keratosis.
  • Actinic keratosis (AK) is a keratinocytic neoplasm that typically develops on sun-damaged skin of elderly individuals.
  • Only a few reports so far have described the dermoscopic diagnostic features of AK, mainly focusing on facial non-pigmented AKs.
  • A typical feature of facial non-pigmented AK is a composite pattern named "strawberry pattern", characterized by a background erythema/red pseudonetwork consisting of unfocused, large vessels located between the hair follicles, associated with prominent follicular openings surrounded by a white halo.
  • Dermoscopic characteristics of pigmented AK on the face include multiple slate-gray to dark-brown dots and globules around the follicular ostia, annular-granular pattern and brown to gray pseudonetwork.
  • Recognizing specific dermoscopic features of AK can be useful in guiding the clinician in the differential diagnosis of AK with melanocytic skin lesions such as LM and non-melanocytic lesions.
  • Histopathologic examination should be performed whenever clinical and/or dermoscopic differential diagnosis is inconclusive.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermoscopy / methods. Keratosis / pathology. Photosensitivity Disorders / pathology. Skin / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17908179.001).
  • [ISSN] 1610-0387
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft = Journal of the German Society of Dermatology : JDDG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dtsch Dermatol Ges
  • [Language] eng; ger
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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10. Dissemond J, Grabbe S: [Actinic keratosis]. MMW Fortschr Med; 2006 Jun 15;148(24):38-9, 41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Actinic keratosis].
  • [Transliterated title] Krebsvorstufe aktinische Keratose. So erkennen Sie gefährliche Sonnenschäden.
  • Actinic keratosis is a precancerous lesion that is commonly seen in the elderly patient and requires treatment.
  • The diagnosis is usually based on the clinical appearance of the lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Keratosis. Precancerous Conditions. Skin Neoplasms / etiology. Ultraviolet Rays / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage. Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. Age Factors. Aged. Aminoquinolines / administration & dosage. Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Cryotherapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Humans. Interferon Inducers / administration & dosage. Interferon Inducers / therapeutic use. Laser Therapy. Male. Ointments. Photochemotherapy. Risk Factors. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16850807.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-3276
  • [Journal-full-title] MMW Fortschritte der Medizin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] MMW Fortschr Med
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon Inducers; 0 / Ointments; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 0
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11. Zalaudek I, Giacomel J, Argenziano G, Hofmann-Wellenhof R, Micantonio T, Di Stefani A, Oliviero M, Rabinovitz H, Soyer HP, Peris K: Dermoscopy of facial nonpigmented actinic keratosis. Br J Dermatol; 2006 Nov;155(5):951-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Dermoscopy of facial nonpigmented actinic keratosis.
  • BACKGROUND: The accuracy of clinical diagnosis of nonpigmented, facial actinic keratosis (AK) is often suboptimal, even for experienced clinicians.
  • OBJECTIVES: To investigate the dermoscopic features of nonpigmented AK located on the head/neck that may assist the clinical diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: Four essential dermoscopic features were observed in facial AK: (i) erythema, revealing a marked pink-to-red 'pseudonetwork' surrounding the hair follicles (95%);.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A dermoscopic model of 'strawberry' pattern is presented, which may prove helpful in the in vivo diagnosis of nonpigmented, facial AK.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermoscopy / methods. Facial Dermatoses / diagnosis. Keratosis / diagnosis. Photosensitivity Disorders / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17034524.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
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12. Helbig D, Grabbe S, Jansen T: [Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans]. Hautarzt; 2008 Jan;59(1):46-9
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  • [Title] [Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans].
  • [Transliterated title] Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans.
  • Keratosis follicularis spinulosa decalvans is a rare, X-linked disorder of keratinization of the hair follicle with inflammation and atrophy associated with corneal dystrophy and other symptoms.
  • The girl had thinning of the eyelashes and eyebrows as well as scarring alopecia of the scalp as additional features of the disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Darier Disease / diagnosis. Darier Disease / drug therapy. Genetic Diseases, X-Linked / diagnosis. Genetic Diseases, X-Linked / drug therapy. Glucocorticoids / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 17551700.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1173
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dermatologic Agents; 0 / Glucocorticoids
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13. Roewert-Huber J, Stockfleth E, Kerl H: Pathology and pathobiology of actinic (solar) keratosis - an update. Br J Dermatol; 2007 Dec;157 Suppl 2:18-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pathology and pathobiology of actinic (solar) keratosis - an update.
  • Actinic keratosis is a UV light-induced lesion and develops mostly in fair-skinned patients being susceptible to solar damage.
  • The term actinic keratosis (AK) describes clinically ill-defined reddish to reddish-brown scaly lesions on erythematous base in areas damaged severely by sunlight.
  • Actinic keratoses (AKs) have been recognized as precursor of cancer or of precancerous lesions in the past but today they are considered as an early in situ squamous cell carcinoma (1,2) and are categorized in several classifications with subdivisions into three grades depending on the amount of atypical keratinocytes in the epidermis.(3-6) The incidence of development of AK in caucasians increases with age, proximity to the equator and outdoor occupation.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Keratosis / pathology. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18067626.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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14. Arnold AW, Buechner SA: [Keratosis pilaris and keratosis pilaris atrophicans faciei]. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges; 2006 Apr;4(4):319-23
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Keratosis pilaris and keratosis pilaris atrophicans faciei].
  • [Transliterated title] Keratosis pilaris und Keratosis pilaris atrophicans faciei.
  • Keratosis pilaris and ulerythema ophryogenes (keratosis pilaris atrophicans faciei) are hereditary disorders with altered follicular keratinization that show follicular, horny papules surrounded by an erythematous halo.
  • Ulerythema ophryogenes is an uncommon variant of keratosis pilaris characterized by erythematous follicular papules of the eyebrows and cheeks followed by a gradual loss of hair.
  • On the background of 15-year-old boy who presented with keratosis pilaris and ulerythema ophryogenes, we discuss the various clinical manifestations of keratosis pilaris.
  • [MeSH-major] Alopecia / diagnosis. Alopecia / therapy. Keratosis / diagnosis. Keratosis / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16638061.001).
  • [ISSN] 1610-0379
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft = Journal of the German Society of Dermatology : JDDG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dtsch Dermatol Ges
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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15. Kaptanoglu AF, Kutluay L: Keratoacanthoma developing in previous cryotherapy site for solar keratosis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2006 Feb;20(2):197-8
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  • [Title] Keratoacanthoma developing in previous cryotherapy site for solar keratosis.
  • We report a rare case of keratoacanthoma arising in the site of cryotherapy applied for solar keratosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cryotherapy / adverse effects. Keratoacanthoma / diagnosis. Skin Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Cicatrix / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Keratosis / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Nose / pathology. Sunlight

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  • (PMID = 16441631.001).
  • [ISSN] 0926-9959
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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16. Barrera MV, Herrera E: [Topical chemotherapy for actinic keratosis and nonmelanoma skin cancer: current options and future perspectives]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2007 Oct;98(8):556-62
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  • [Title] [Topical chemotherapy for actinic keratosis and nonmelanoma skin cancer: current options and future perspectives].
  • [Transliterated title] Tratamiento quimioterápico tópico de la queratosis actínica y el cáncer cutáneo no melanoma: situación actual y perspectivas.
  • Actinic keratosis is currently considered not to be a precursor of squamous cell carcinoma but, rather, an initial stage of the disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis / drug therapy. Keratosis / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17919432.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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17. Jirakulaporn T, Mathew J, Lindgren BR, Dudek AZ: Efficacy of capecitabine in secondary prevention of skin cancer in solid organ-transplanted recipients (OTR). J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):1519
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Topical 5% 5-FU has been used to successfully treat squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in situ and actinic keratosis (AK).
  • Cumulative incidence rates of SCC, BCC, and AK before and after treatment were scored and statistically compared for each patient with a non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test.
  • Mean incidence rates of SCC, BCC, and AK before treatment were 0.45, 0.05, and 4.99 lesions per month, respectively.
  • Mean incidence rates of SCC, BCC, and AK after treatment were 0.22, 0.04, and 2.80 lesions per month, respectively.
  • The differences in incidence rates of SCC, BCC, and AK before and after treatment were 0.24, 0.02, and 2.08 lesions per month with p value of 0.048, 0.844, and 0.151, respectively.

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  • (PMID = 27964327.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Kozyreva ON, Konnikov N: The incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer after a single field treatment with aminolevulinic acid and blue light photodynamic therapy. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e14646
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  • Study population included immunocompetent pts with history of NMSC, multiple actinic keratosis (AKs), and moderate to severe dermatoheliosis (DH).

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  • (PMID = 27964235.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Stockfleth E: Topical management of actinic keratosis and field cancerisation. G Ital Dermatol Venereol; 2009 Aug;144(4):459-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Topical management of actinic keratosis and field cancerisation.
  • Actinic keratosis (AK) is a squamous cell carcinoma of the epidermis in situ.
  • In around 10% of all patients with AK and in approximately 30% of patients with additional immune suppression an invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the skin is subsequently observed highlighting that AKs should be identified and treated early.
  • The hallmarks and characteristic features of non-melanoma skin cancer have been defined histologically: histopathology allows the differentiation based on a small tissue sample and remains the gold standard for diagnosis.
  • For all therapies the objective is to cure lesions, both clinically and histologically, by the destruction of mutated keratinocytes and to reduce the numbers of AK lesions with the minimum of pain, scarring and recurrence.
  • Recurrence of a lesion (which by definition affects the same site) is often the result of incomplete removal of clinically apparent AK lesions after treatment or the presence of subclinical lesions that were not identified and removed.
  • AK lesions can be treated individually or, if the lesions are numerous in an area of sun-damaged skin the whole area should be treated to remove subclinical lesions as well as those clinically visible (field-directed therapy).Overall the treatment choice is based on several factors, including location and number of lesions, growth and morphology, area of sun-damaged skin, age, lifestyle, and factors related to previous treatment or patient history.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis, Actinic / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19755950.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-0488
  • [Journal-full-title] Giornale italiano di dermatologia e venereologia : organo ufficiale, Società italiana di dermatologia e sifilografia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Ital Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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20. Uhlenhake EE, Sangueza OP, Lee AD, Jorizzo JL: Spreading pigmented actinic keratosis: a review. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2010 Sep;63(3):499-506
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Spreading pigmented actinic keratosis: a review.
  • INTRODUCTION: Spreading pigmented actinic keratosis (SPAK) is a common, but uncommonly reported or appreciated, variant of classic actinic keratosis (AK).
  • It can mimic different pigmented lesions, which may be benign (eg, solar lentigo) or malignant (eg, lentigo maligna).
  • METHODS: A literature search was performed in both PubMed and MEDLINE databases using the search terms "spreading pigmented actinic keratosis," "pigmented solar keratosis," "pigmented actinic," and "pigmented solar."
  • RESULTS: SPAK is a rarely reported lesion that can be difficult to distinguish from other benign and malignant pigmented lesions, including seborrheic keratosis, melanoma in situ (lentigo maligna type), and lentigo maligna melanoma.
  • Pathologically, the lesion resembles classic AK with increased basal melanization.
  • CONCLUSIONS: SPAK can be associated with adjacent melanoma in situ; therefore, its diagnosis merits increased suspicion for coexisting melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Hutchinson's Melanotic Freckle / pathology. Keratosis, Actinic / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Dermoscopy / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment


21. Lintell NA, Maguire DJ, Griffiths LR, McCabe M: Analysis of SDHD and MMP12 in an affected solar keratosis and control cohort. Adv Exp Med Biol; 2007;599:79-85
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  • [Title] Analysis of SDHD and MMP12 in an affected solar keratosis and control cohort.
  • In terms of incidence up to 40% of the Australian population over 40 years of age is thought to possess the precancerous Solar Keratosis (SK) lesion and with a small, but significant, chance of progression into SCC, understanding the genetic events that play a role in this process is essential.
  • More specifically the first aim of this project was to analyse the SDHD and MMP12 genes via Dual-Labelled Probe Real-Time PCR for copy number aberrations in an affected Solar Keratosis and control cohort.
  • The significance of this study is the contribution to the knowledge of the genetic pathways that are malformed in the progression and development of the pre-cancerous skin lesion Solar Keratosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Keratosis / genetics. Matrix Metalloproteinase 12 / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics. Succinate Dehydrogenase / genetics. Sunlight / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 17727250.001).
  • [ISSN] 0065-2598
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in experimental medicine and biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / SDHD protein, human; EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase; EC 3.4.24.65 / MMP12 protein, human; EC 3.4.24.65 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 12
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22. Davis DA, Donahue JP, Bost JE, Horn TD: The diagnostic concordance of actinic keratosis and squamous cell carcinoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2005 Sep;32(8):546-51
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The diagnostic concordance of actinic keratosis and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Because the diagnosis of actinic keratosis (AK) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is not uniform and because such terms are not consonant with the nomenclature of other human epithelial malignancies, nomenclature revisions have been attempted.
  • One hundred dermatopathologists were solicited to review 15 tissue sections representing a spectrum of varying thickness epidermal malignancy and to choose either AK or SCC as the diagnosis.
  • Among the 77 participating dermatopathologists, intraclass correlation was high for what was perceived as AK, SCC, and their differentiation.
  • Development of a two-tiered diagnostic system that retains our present diagnostic capabilities, but better fits the pathobiology of superficial epidermal malignancy is suggested.
  • The diagnostic concordance of actinic keratosis and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Keratosis / diagnosis. Photosensitivity Disorders / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Skin / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma in Situ / classification. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Reproducibility of Results


23. Kvlividze O, Gogiashvili L, Burkadze G: The characteristics of human papillomavirus expression and cell proliferation in actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease of the skin. Georgian Med News; 2006 Jul;(136):108-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The characteristics of human papillomavirus expression and cell proliferation in actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease of the skin.
  • The aim of our study was to elucidate the characteristics of HPV expression and cell proliferation in actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease of the skin.
  • We examined immunocompetent patients with premalignant lesions of the skin such as actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease.
  • Actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease failed to show the specific clinical features, therefore, they can not be diagnosed based on clinical signs only and morphological examination seems to be mandatory.
  • The immunohistochemical study has showed that in both actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease HPV was positive in 60%, and 40% were HPV-negative suggesting the similar incidence of HPV infection in these premalignant lesions.
  • Our results suggest that HPV(+)/p53(+) types of actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease are characterized by higher proliferation activity in comparison to HPV(-)/p53(+) types, and expression of Bcl-2 is associated with HPV-negativity, therefore, these premalignant lesions of the skin require immunohistochemical examination with evaluation of expressions of human papillomavirus, proliferation marker PCNA and anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2.
  • The differential diagnosis of actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease should be based on the following immunohistochemical criteria: incidences of positivity for p53, Bcl-2 and PCNA are similar, but expression intensity and anatomical localization are different: their expressions are higher in Bowen's disease, positive cells are found primarily in upper epidermis in actinic keratosis, while whole epithelium is involved in Bowen's disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Viral / immunology. Bowen's Disease / virology. Human papillomavirus 6 / immunology. Photosensitivity Disorders / virology. Skin Neoplasms / virology


24. Kleinpenning MM, Wolberink EW, Smits T, Blokx WA, van De Kerkhof PC, van Erp PE, Gerritsen RM: Fluorescence diagnosis in actinic keratosis and squamous cell carcinoma. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed; 2010 Dec;26(6):297-302
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fluorescence diagnosis in actinic keratosis and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: As different tissue types have distinct capabilities to accumulate protoporphyrin IX, fluorescence diagnosis with aminolevulinic acid-induced porphyrins (FDAP) could be used to discriminate between different types of tissue.
  • Previous results demonstrated higher fluorescence ratios in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) compared with actinic keratoses (AKs).
  • METHODS: After 1 week of keratolytic pretreatment, FDAP was performed in 13 patients with 36 lesions suspected for AK or SCC.
  • Biopsies were taken for histopathological diagnosis and measurement of stratum corneum thickness.
  • RESULTS: No significant differences were found in the fluorescence ratio (lesional : non-lesional skin) between AKs and SCCs, although macroscopic fluorescence was significantly higher in Bowen's disease and micro-invasive SCCs.
  • The amount of hyperkeratosis, invasiveness and degree of differentiation seem to be responsible for variations in fluorescence intensity.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Fluorescence. Keratosis, Actinic / diagnosis. Photosensitizing Agents / administration & dosage. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Porphyrins / metabolism. Time Factors

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
  • (PMID = 21091787.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0781
  • [Journal-full-title] Photodermatology, photoimmunology & photomedicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / Porphyrins; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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25. Esmann S, Jemec GB: Management of actinic keratosis patients: a qualitative study. J Dermatolog Treat; 2007;18(1):53-8
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  • [Title] Management of actinic keratosis patients: a qualitative study.
  • OBJECTIVES: In order to reinforce the appropriate UV-related behaviour of patients with actinic keratosis (AK), it is of importance to understand the underlying psychological aspects of having AK.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Open and systematic explorative interviews were conducted with 15 AK patients.
  • Partly based on topics found by the single interviews, two qualitative group interviews (n = 7) with AK patients were performed.
  • RESULTS: Important topics for patients with AK were found to relate to the way to act in the sun (leisure time and outdoor work), a changed appearance, the seriousness of the AK diagnosis, control of the disease, and the sense of illness due to AK.
  • Awareness of these topics is therefore recommended in the management of patient information related to AK.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis / psychology

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  • (PMID = 17365267.001).
  • [ISSN] 0954-6634
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatological treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dermatolog Treat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Sunscreening Agents
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26. Saglam O, Salama M, Meier F, Chaffins M, Ma C, Ormsby A, Lee M: Immunohistochemical staining of palisading basal cells in Bowen's disease and basal involvement in actinic keratosis: contrasting staining patterns suggest different cells of origin. Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Apr;30(2):123-6
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical staining of palisading basal cells in Bowen's disease and basal involvement in actinic keratosis: contrasting staining patterns suggest different cells of origin.
  • Actinic keratosis (AK) and Bowen's disease (BD) are common patterns of in situ squamous cell carcinoma of the epidermis.
  • In AK, atypical keratinocytes proliferate in the lower portion of the epidermis including the basal layer.
  • To characterize immunohistochemically keratocyte proliferation in AK and Palisading Basal Cells (PBC) in BD, we stained microarray samples of 45 AK and 25 BD with Molecular Immunology Borstel (MIB-1).
  • Subsequent immunostaining of full mounted sections examined 11 BD, 7 AK, and 4 examples of psoriasis for MIB-1 (as a proliferative marker) and p53 (as a cell cycle regulatory marker).
  • AK stained for MIB-1 and p53 antibodies only in lower portion of epidermis and included the basal layer.
  • Normal epidermis adjacent to the lesions in AK and BD biopsies stained sparsely in the basal layers.
  • The correlation of different histologic patterns of epidermal involvement with different immunohistochemical patterns of stains argues for different cells of origin for BD versus AK.
  • Conversely in AK, expression of MIB-1 and p53 in basal cells argues that these cells play a role in histogenesis of AK.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Keratosis / pathology. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biopsy, Needle. Cohort Studies. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Sensitivity and Specificity. Staining and Labeling / methods

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  • (PMID = 18360114.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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27. Talghini S, Halimi M, Baybordi H: Expression of P27, Ki67 and P53 in squamous cell carcinoma, actinic keratosis and Bowen disease. Pak J Biol Sci; 2009 Jun 15;12(12):929-33
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  • [Title] Expression of P27, Ki67 and P53 in squamous cell carcinoma, actinic keratosis and Bowen disease.
  • This study aims at evaluating the expression of P27, Ki67 and P53 in Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC), Actinic Keratosis (AK) and Bowen Disease (BD) specimens.
  • In an analytic-descriptive setting, skin biopsy specimens of 45 patients were evaluated in three 15-case groups including BD, AK and SCC specimens.
  • Ki67 was expressed in 0.8, 23.7, 12.3 and 19.3% of the cells in the normal skin, AK, BD and SCC groups, respectively.
  • P27 was positive in 23.4, 26.2, 25.9 and 4.5% of specimens in the normal skin, AK, BD and SCC groups, respectively.
  • P53 expression was detected in 26.6, 41.8 and 54.6% of the assessed cells in the AK, BD and SCC groups, respectively.
  • Based on these results, the quantitative and qualitative (pattern of distribution) evaluation of the expressions of Ki67, P27 and P53 may be helpful in differentiating malignant and premalignant epidermal lesions, particularly in unsatisfactory or fragmented specimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism. Keratosis, Actinic / metabolism. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Case-Control Studies. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Skin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19777788.001).
  • [ISSN] 1028-8880
  • [Journal-full-title] Pakistan journal of biological sciences : PJBS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pak. J. Biol. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDKN1B protein, human; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
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28. Watkins J: Dermatology and the community nurse: actinic (solar) keratosis. Br J Community Nurs; 2010 Jan;15(1):6, 8, 10-1
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  • [Title] Dermatology and the community nurse: actinic (solar) keratosis.
  • Community nurses are in daily contact with patients and, in the course of their day's work, have every opportunity of recognizing those patients who are more vulnerable to the sun's rays, and noticing actual sun damage and actinic keratoses.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis / nursing. Skin Neoplasms / nursing. Sunlight / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Community Health Nursing. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Nursing Diagnosis. Protective Clothing. Risk Factors. Sunscreening Agents

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  • (PMID = 20216512.001).
  • [ISSN] 1462-4753
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of community nursing
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Community Nurs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Sunscreening Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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29. Fernández-Guarino M, Harto A, Jaén P: [Studies of methyl aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy for actinic keratosis]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2010 May;101(4):315-22
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  • [Title] [Studies of methyl aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy for actinic keratosis].
  • [Transliterated title] Terapia fotodinámica: estudios con metilaminolevulinato en queratosis actínicas.
  • Photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the treatment of actinic keratosis has been shown to be effective and safe in large clinical trials published in the last 5 years.
  • However, evidence has since emerged that raises questions or that introduces new issues, such as the management of field cancerization, fluorescence diagnosis and results in transplant recipients.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 20487686.001).
  • [ISSN] 1578-2190
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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30. Röwert-Huber J, Patel MJ, Forschner T, Ulrich C, Eberle J, Kerl H, Sterry W, Stockfleth E: Actinic keratosis is an early in situ squamous cell carcinoma: a proposal for reclassification. Br J Dermatol; 2007 May;156 Suppl 3:8-12
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  • [Title] Actinic keratosis is an early in situ squamous cell carcinoma: a proposal for reclassification.
  • The term actinic keratosis (AK) describes a sun-induced, clinical erythematous lesion covered with scale, but does not provide an understanding of the biology or histopathology of the lesion.
  • Consequently, several classification systems for AK have been suggested, but as yet no consensus has been reached.
  • AK is a clinical description that has a histological diagnosis consistent with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in situ.
  • We recommend an AK classification system that describes these lesions as squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs), using the terminology 'early in situ SCC Type AK I', 'early in situ SCC type AK II' and 'in situ SCC Type AK III', there by giving clinicians better guidance for diagnosis and specific treatment recommendations.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / classification. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / classification. Keratosis / classification. Skin Neoplasms / classification


31. Neidecker MV, Davis-Ajami ML, Balkrishnan R, Feldman SR: Pharmacoeconomic considerations in treating actinic keratosis. Pharmacoeconomics; 2009;27(6):451-64
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  • [Title] Pharmacoeconomic considerations in treating actinic keratosis.
  • Actinic keratosis is among the most commonly treated skin conditions in the outpatient setting.
  • The purpose of this article is to review published economic studies relating to the treatment of actinic keratosis, to summarize results discussing the cost drivers of current treatment modalities and to identify parameters most likely to influence the cost effectiveness of treatment.
  • We systematically conducted a published literature search for pharmacoeconomic research of actinic keratosis using title, abstract or full-text searches with the following search terms ([actinic OR solar] AND [keratosis OR keratoses]) AND (economic OR cost OR pharmacoeconomics OR decision).
  • We included published articles referencing actinic keratosis in a standalone study or in a broader study referencing non-melanoma skin cancer and articles evaluating cost-of-illness, cost-of-treatment, cost minimization, cost effectiveness, cost utility, cost-benefit analysis and cost consequence.
  • Our review of the literature found nine studies devoted to pharmacoeconomic considerations of actinic keratosis treatments, with one article investigating both cost-of-illness and cost-of-treatment, two measuring cost-of-illness, two evaluating cost-of-treatment, one focusing on cost minimization, and three focusing on cost effectiveness.
  • The literature compared a broad range of actinic keratosis treatments including topical medications, cryotherapy, photodynamic therapy, excision and a combination of treatment modalities.
  • The direct cost of actinic keratosis management in the US was estimated at $US1.2 billion per year, with indirect costs totalling $US295 million (year 2004 values).
  • Pharmacoeconomic research defining standards, outcomes and areas of efficiencies in the treatment of actinic keratosis is in its infancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Cost of Illness. Economics, Pharmaceutical / statistics & numerical data. Keratosis, Actinic / economics

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  • (PMID = 19640009.001).
  • [ISSN] 1170-7690
  • [Journal-full-title] PharmacoEconomics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pharmacoeconomics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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32. Zalaudek I, Ferrara G, Leinweber B, Mercogliano A, D'Ambrosio A, Argenziano G: Pitfalls in the clinical and dermoscopic diagnosis of pigmented actinic keratosis. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2005 Dec;53(6):1071-4
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  • [Title] Pitfalls in the clinical and dermoscopic diagnosis of pigmented actinic keratosis.
  • Pigmented actinic keratosis and melanoma may exhibit overlapping clinical features, thus representing a diagnostic challenge for dermatologists.
  • We report the clinical and dermoscopic features of two pigmented actinic keratoses to discuss the difficulties in their preoperative differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermoscopy. Keratosis / diagnosis. Photosensitivity Disorders / diagnosis. Pigmentation Disorders / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16310072.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. Ortonne JP, Gupta G, Ortonne N, Duteil L, Queille C, Mallefet P: Effectiveness of cross polarized light and fluorescence diagnosis for detection of sub-clinical and clinical actinic keratosis during imiquimod treatment. Exp Dermatol; 2010 Jul 1;19(7):641-7
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  • [Title] Effectiveness of cross polarized light and fluorescence diagnosis for detection of sub-clinical and clinical actinic keratosis during imiquimod treatment.
  • BACKGROUND: During treatment of actinic keratosis (AK) lesions with imiquimod sub-clinical lesions often become visible.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this pilot study was to compare two techniques, cross polarized light photography (CPL) and fluorescence diagnosis (FD) using methyllevulinic acid and illumination with Wood's lamp for their ability to detect sub-clinical lesions.
  • METHODOLOGY: Twelve patients with at least five clinically visible AK lesions in a single contiguous 20 cm(2) area on the head were recruited.
  • Patients were assessed for baseline AK lesion counts (clinical and sub-clinical) at the screening visit and final counts at week 20.
  • RESULTS: The number of clinically observed AK lesions was significantly lower at week 12 and week 20 compared with baseline following imiquimod treatment versus vehicle.
  • CONCLUSION: The number of sub-clinical and clinical AK lesions detected during treatment with imiquimod can be better demonstrated using the methods of CPL and FD, but statistical significance was reached only using the CPL method.
  • However, results were encouraging and indicate that larger studies are needed to demonstrate the relevance of these two new methods for improved detection of clinical and especially sub-clinical AK lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Keratosis, Actinic / diagnosis. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20201959.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Levulinic Acids; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 3Q95S830W6 / methyl levulinate; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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34. Higa GM, Kovach RF, Abraham J: Actinic keratosis and capecitabine therapy. J Oncol Pharm Pract; 2005 Dec;11(4):151-3
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  • [Title] Actinic keratosis and capecitabine therapy.
  • Topical application of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) is one of the most effective clinical strategies available to treat actinic keratosis (AK).
  • We report a case of a typical flare of AK in a woman treated with capecitabine for advanced breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Keratosis / chemically induced

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  • (PMID = 16595067.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-1552
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oncology pharmacy practice : official publication of the International Society of Oncology Pharmacy Practitioners
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Oncol Pharm Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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35. Bagazgoitia L, Cuevas J, Juarranz A: Expression of p53 and p16 in actinic keratosis, bowenoid actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2010 Feb;24(2):228-30
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  • [Title] Expression of p53 and p16 in actinic keratosis, bowenoid actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease.
  • INTRODUCTION: Bowen's disease (BD) and bowenoid actinic keratosis (bAK) have traditionally been differentiated according to the presence or absence of dysplasia in the follicular epithelium. p16 has been suggested to be a useful tool to make the differential diagnosis between BD and AK and as a marker of bad prognosis.
  • MATERIALS: Five biopsies of BD, five of AK and five of bAK where stained for p53 and p16.
  • DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: These findings suggest a common pathogenic mechanism for BD and bAK. bAK might have worse prognosis than AK. p16 might not be useful as a tool for differential diagnosis between AK and BD because bAK and BD show an extremely similar immunohistochemical pattern.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / metabolism. Genes, p16. Keratosis, Actinic / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19515076.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-3083
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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36. Berman B, Amini S, Valins W, Block S: Pharmacotherapy of actinic keratosis. Expert Opin Pharmacother; 2009 Dec;10(18):3015-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pharmacotherapy of actinic keratosis.
  • Actinic keratosis (AK) represents the initial intraepidermal manifestation of abnormal keratinocyte proliferation with the potential of progression to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • Owing to difficulties in predicting which AK will progress to SCC, the general rule is to treat all AKs.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19925043.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-7666
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Pharmacother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 179
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37. Gold MH, Nestor MS: Current treatments of actinic keratosis. J Drugs Dermatol; 2006 Feb;5(2 Suppl):17-25
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Current treatments of actinic keratosis.
  • Actinic keratosis (AK) lesions should be treated because they may evolve into lesions clinically indistinguishable from those of invasive squamous cell carcinoma which require expensive therapy.
  • Treatment options for AK include cryosurgery, curettage and excisional surgery, dermabrasion, chemical peels, laser resurfacing, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), imiquimod, diclofenac, and tretinoin, each with advantages and limitations.
  • Clinical trial results show that photodynamic therapy (PDT) with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is an effective and safe treatment of nonhypertrophic AK lesions of the scalp and face.
  • ALA incubation times of 1-hour make ALA PDT a practical procedure for the treatment of AK lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / therapeutic use. Keratosis / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy / methods. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16485877.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-9616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Drugs Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
  • [Number-of-references] 76
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38. Christensen E, Bofin A, Gudmundsdóttir I, Skogvoll E: Cytological diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis, using Papanicolaou and May-Grünwald-Giemsa stained cutaneous tissue smear. Cytopathology; 2008 Oct;19(5):316-22
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  • [Title] Cytological diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis, using Papanicolaou and May-Grünwald-Giemsa stained cutaneous tissue smear.
  • The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the diagnostic performance of scrape cytology using two different cytological staining techniques, and to evaluate additional touch imprint cytology, with that of histopathology of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and actinic keratosis (AK).
  • METHODS: We investigated 50 BCC and 28 AK histologically verified lesions, from 41 and 25 patients, respectively.
  • RESULTS: Scrape cytodiagnosis agreed with histopathology in 48 (Pap) and 47 (MGG) of the 50 BCC cases, and in 26 of 28 (Pap) and 21 of 26 (MGG) AK cases, yielding sensitivities of 96%, 94%, 93% and 81%, respectively.
  • No significant difference in sensitivity between the two staining methods was found but a trend towards higher Pap sensitivity for AK was noted (P = 0.10).
  • Touch imprint cytology confirmed histopathology in 38 of the 77 cases of BCC and AK.
  • CONCLUSION: Cytological diagnosis with either Pap or MGG stain for BCC and AK is reliable, and differentiates well between BCC and AK.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Coloring Agents. Cytodiagnosis / methods. Eosine Yellowish-(YS) / metabolism. Keratosis / diagnosis. Methylene Blue / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [CommentIn] Cytopathology. 2008 Oct;19(5):333-4; author reply 334 [18513288.001]
  • (PMID = 17916094.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2303
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytopathology : official journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / May-Grunwald Giemsa; T42P99266K / Methylene Blue; TDQ283MPCW / Eosine Yellowish-(YS)
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39. Akay BN, Kocyigit P, Heper AO, Erdem C: Dermatoscopy of flat pigmented facial lesions: diagnostic challenge between pigmented actinic keratosis and lentigo maligna. Br J Dermatol; 2010 Dec;163(6):1212-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Dermatoscopy of flat pigmented facial lesions: diagnostic challenge between pigmented actinic keratosis and lentigo maligna.
  • BACKGROUND: The similarity between clinical pictures of pigmented actinic keratosis (PAK) and lentigo maligna (LM) is well known.
  • The lesions showing one or more dermatoscopic features considered as specific patterns for the diagnosis of LM/LMM, mainly slate-grey to black dots and globules, slate-grey areas, annular-granular pattern, asymmetrical pigmented follicular openings, black blotches, rhomboidal structures, hyperpigmented rim of follicular openings, slate-grey streaks and dark streaks, were included in the study selectively.
  • RESULTS: PAK was diagnosed in 67, LM or LMM in 20 and lichen planus-like keratosis in two lesions, histopathologically.
  • As dermatoscopic diagnosis of a pigmented skin lesion cannot be based on the presence of a single criterion, we may conclude that histopathology still remains the gold standard for correct diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Facial Dermatoses / pathology. Hutchinson's Melanotic Freckle / pathology. Keratosis, Actinic / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Dermoscopy. Diagnosis, Differential. Face / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 The Authors. BJD © 2010 British Association of Dermatologists.
  • (PMID = 21083845.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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40. Chen GJ, Feldman SR, Williford PM, Hester EJ, Kiang SH, Gill I, Fleischer AB Jr: Clinical diagnosis of actinic keratosis identifies an elderly population at high risk of developing skin cancer. Dermatol Surg; 2005 Jan;31(1):43-7
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  • [Title] Clinical diagnosis of actinic keratosis identifies an elderly population at high risk of developing skin cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Development of actinic keratoses (AK) involves some of the same processes as nonmelanoma skin cancer and may serve as a marker for overall increased risk of skin cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the risk of developing skin cancer in an elderly population with and without AK.
  • RESULTS: Multivariate analysis showed that the risk (odds ratio [OR]) of developing nonmelanoma or melanoma was increased more than sixfold (p < or = .0001) in patients with AK.
  • CONCLUSION: Using data from a nationally representive sample of the Medicare population, this study demonstrates that elders with AK are a population at high risk of developing cutaneous cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15720095.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / T32 AR07411
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. Pock L, Drlík L, Hercogová J: Dermatoscopy of pigmented actinic keratosis--a striking similarity to lentigo maligna. Int J Dermatol; 2007 Apr;46(4):414-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Dermatoscopy of pigmented actinic keratosis--a striking similarity to lentigo maligna.
  • BACKGROUND: Pigmented actinic keratosis (PAK) resembles lentigo maligna (LM) clinically and histopathologically in some cases.
  • OBJECTIVES: To describe the dermatoscopical characteristics of this uncommon variant of actinic keratosis and evaluate whether these characteristics show common features with LM.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Pigmented / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Dermoscopy. Diagnosis, Differential. Face / pathology. Female. Humans. Keratosis / diagnosis. Keratosis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17442088.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-9059
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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42. Holmes C, Foley P, Freeman M, Chong AH: Solar keratosis: epidemiology, pathogenesis, presentation and treatment. Australas J Dermatol; 2007 May;48(2):67-74; quiz 75-6
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  • [Title] Solar keratosis: epidemiology, pathogenesis, presentation and treatment.
  • Solar keratosis is a common problem encountered by dermatologists, particularly in Australia.
  • Solar keratosis is most commonly found on sun-exposed areas such as the scalp, face and forearms.
  • Solar keratosis usually presents as a discrete, variably erythematous and irregular lesion with a scaly surface.
  • Although the exact rate of malignant transformation to squamous cell carcinoma is unknown, the majority of squamous cell carcinomas appear to arise from within solar keratosis.
  • For this reason, solar keratosis is commonly treated and, consequently, an increasing number of therapeutic options is now available.
  • [MeSH-major] Environmental Exposure / analysis. Keratosis / diagnosis. Keratosis / therapy. Ultraviolet Rays
  • [MeSH-minor] Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Australia / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Cryotherapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Humans. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / epidemiology. Precancerous Conditions / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17535191.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-8380
  • [Journal-full-title] The Australasian journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Australas. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 89
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43. Berman B, Villa AM, Ramirez CC: Mechanisms of action of new treatment modalities for actinic keratosis. J Drugs Dermatol; 2006 Feb;5(2):167-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mechanisms of action of new treatment modalities for actinic keratosis.
  • Actinic keratosis (AK) constitutes the initial lesion in a disease continuum that can progress to invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • In this article, we describe the mechanisms of action, tolerability, and efficacy of the most frequently used chemopreventative, chemotherapeutic, destructive, and novel immunologic methods for the control and treatment of actinic keratoses.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use. Antimetabolites / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Diclofenac / therapeutic use. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Keratosis / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy / methods

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  • (PMID = 16485885.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-9616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Drugs Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Antimetabolites; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Teratogens; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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44. Ulrich M, Forschner T, Röwert-Huber J, González S, Stockfleth E, Sterry W, Astner S: Differentiation between actinic keratoses and disseminated superficial actinic porokeratoses with reflectance confocal microscopy. Br J Dermatol; 2007 May;156 Suppl 3:47-52
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  • [Title] Differentiation between actinic keratoses and disseminated superficial actinic porokeratoses with reflectance confocal microscopy.
  • BACKGROUND: Clinical differentiation between actinic keratosis (AK) and disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis (DSAP) may pose a significant challenge, and histological evaluation is often also required for diagnosis.
  • Distinct morphological features can be distinguished upon histopathological examination, but the use of non-invasive tools, such as reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM), may be an eligible alternative for confirmation of diagnosis.
  • OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the relevant RCM criteria for the identification of disseminated superficial actinic porokeratoses (DSAPs) and to define distinguishing criteria for DSAPs compared with actinic keratosis (AKs).
  • PATIENTS/METHODS: A total of 20 patients with a clinical diagnosis of AK or DSAP were included in this study.
  • RESULTS: Cellular and nuclear atypia, inflammation, spongiosis, parakeratosis and changes in epidermal architecture were present in both lesion types (i.e.
  • However, further studies are warranted to assess the sensitivity and specificity of RCM in the diagnosis of DSAP.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis / pathology. Porokeratosis / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Feasibility Studies. Humans. Microscopy, Confocal / methods

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  • (PMID = 17488407.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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45. Deltondo JA, Helm KF: Actinic keratosis: precancer, squamous cell carcinoma, or marker of field cancerization? G Ital Dermatol Venereol; 2009 Aug;144(4):441-4
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  • [Title] Actinic keratosis: precancer, squamous cell carcinoma, or marker of field cancerization?
  • The early detection, recognition, and progression of the actinic keratosis (AK) and its relationship with squamous cell carcinoma have long been an area of debate.
  • The role of AK as a marker for field cancerization will be here discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Keratosis, Actinic / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19755947.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-0488
  • [Journal-full-title] Giornale italiano di dermatologia e venereologia : organo ufficiale, Società italiana di dermatologia e sifilografia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Ital Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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46. Helm K, Findeis-Hosey J: Immunohistochemistry of pigmented actinic keratoses, actinic keratoses, melanomas in situ and solar lentigines with Melan-A. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Oct;35(10):931-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunohistochemistry of pigmented actinic keratoses, actinic keratoses, melanomas in situ and solar lentigines with Melan-A.
  • Distinguishing lentigo maligna from solar lentigo, and pigmented actinic keratosis can sometimes be problematic.
  • We compared Melan-A immunohistochemical staining in pigmented actinic keratosis , non-pigmented actinic keratoses , melanoma in situ of lentigo maligna type and solar lentigines.
  • We found a statistically significant increase of Melan-A staining in melanoma in situ, but no statistical difference in the number of junctional Melan-A positively staining cells, in solar lentigines, pigmented actinic keratoses, and non-pigmented actinic keratoses, respectively.
  • In the non non-melanoma samples, the Melan-A A-positive cells located at the dermal-epidermal junction were interspersed and not observed in clusters.
  • Increased staining with Melan-A, in an actinic keratosis, or solar lentigo should raise the possibility of a contiguous melanoma in situ.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. Hutchinson's Melanotic Freckle / diagnosis. Keratosis, Actinic / diagnosis. Lentigo / diagnosis. Melanoma / diagnosis. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [CommentIn] J Cutan Pathol. 2010 Aug;37(8):917-8 [19804418.001]
  • (PMID = 18494818.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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47. Sezer E, Böer A, Falk T: Identification of human papilloma virus type 6 in psoriasiform keratosis. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Jul;32(5):492-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Identification of human papilloma virus type 6 in psoriasiform keratosis.
  • Psoriasiform keratosis is a recently reported unique clinicopathological entity characterized by the appearance of a solitary lesion mimicking seborrheic keratosis, actinic keratosis, or squamous cell carcinoma and histopathologic features closely resembling psoriasis.
  • We report a 74-year-old woman presenting with a solitary, scaly lesion on the dorsum of the left arm of several months duration and histopathologic findings of psoriasiform acanthosis of the epidermis with thinning of the suprapapillary plates and intraepidermal spongiform neutrophilic pustules, consistent with a diagnosis of psoriasiform keratosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Human papillomavirus 6 / isolation & purification. Keratosis, Seborrheic / pathology. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Psoriasis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. DNA, Viral / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Epidermis / pathology. Female. Humans. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 20442638.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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48. Newman MD, Weinberg JM: Topical therapy in the treatment of actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma. Cutis; 2007 Apr;79(4 Suppl):18-28
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Topical therapy in the treatment of actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma.
  • Actinic keratosis (AK) is an evolving malignant cutaneous neoplasm.
  • AK also is known as solar keratosis and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in situ, either solar keratotic type or keratinocytic intraepidermal neoplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Keratosis / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17508492.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-4162
  • [Journal-full-title] Cutis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cutis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors; 0 / Retinoids; 0 / Tubulin Modulators
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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49. Larkö O: The current options in the management of actinic keratosis. G Ital Dermatol Venereol; 2009 Aug;144(4):445-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The current options in the management of actinic keratosis.
  • Actinic keratosis is a precursor for squamous cell skin cancer.
  • For single actinic keratoses, cryo surgery is recommended.
  • For widespread actinic keratoses, imiquimod, photodynamic therapy (PDT) or 5-FU may be used.
  • Consequently, cryo surgery for single actinic keratoses and PDT for widespread actinic keratoses should primarily be recommended.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis, Actinic / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19755948.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-0488
  • [Journal-full-title] Giornale italiano di dermatologia e venereologia : organo ufficiale, Società italiana di dermatologia e sifilografia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Ital Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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50. Ulrich M, Maltusch A, Röwert-Huber J, González S, Sterry W, Stockfleth E, Astner S: Actinic keratoses: non-invasive diagnosis for field cancerisation. Br J Dermatol; 2007 May;156 Suppl 3:13-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Actinic keratoses: non-invasive diagnosis for field cancerisation.
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic keratoses (AKs) are among the most common cutaneous malignancies and have previously been classified as in situ squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) with reported progression rates of up to 20% over 10 years.
  • In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) has been used for evaluation of the morphological features of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and RCM evaluation parameters for the diagnosis of AKs have been reported.
  • PATIENTS/METHODS: Forty four Caucasians (SPT I-III) with a minimum of one actinic keratosis (AK) lesion were included in this study.
  • Following blinded evaluation by two independent investigators, 97.7% of all skin samples were identified as AK using RCM.
  • 2.3% were incorrectly identified as normal skin by RCM, while routine histology showed features consistent with AK.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Reflectance confocal microscopy may be a feasible alternative in the diagnosis of AK and may aid in the differentiation against normal skin, as well as in the detection of subclinical disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Skin / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Disease Progression. Humans. Microscopy, Confocal / methods. Sunlight / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 17488401.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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51. Sherry SD, Miles BA, Finn RA: Long-term efficacy of carbon dioxide laser resurfacing for facial actinic keratosis. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 2007 Jun;65(6):1135-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term efficacy of carbon dioxide laser resurfacing for facial actinic keratosis.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and long-term effectiveness of carbon dioxide laser resurfacing in the treatment of patients with facial actinic keratosis.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart analysis was conducted of 31 patients who underwent full face carbon dioxide laser resurfacing for facial actinic keratosis from July 1998 to November 2002.
  • The average actinic keratosis free period, excluding 2 deceased patients, was 27.4 months.
  • CONCLUSION: Carbon dioxide laser resurfacing is an effective tool in the management of patients with facial actinic keratosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Facial Dermatoses / surgery. Keratosis / surgery. Laser Therapy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17517297.001).
  • [ISSN] 0278-2391
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 142M471B3J / Carbon Dioxide
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52. Hafner C, Vogt T: Seborrheic keratosis. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges; 2008 Aug;6(8):664-77
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Seborrheic keratosis.
  • Seborrheic keratosis is one of the most common skin tumors.
  • Despite its frequency, many aspects of seborrheic keratosis remain elusive.
  • In the last years new molecular genetic insights into seborrheic keratoses have been gained.
  • The current knowledge about seborrheic keratosis with respect to epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis and therapy is summarized.
  • [MeSH-major] Clinical Trials as Topic / trends. Keratosis, Seborrheic / diagnosis. Keratosis, Seborrheic / therapy


53. Schäfer-Korting M, Höltje M, Korting HC, Höltje HD: Innovative agents for actinic keratosis and nanocarriers enhancing skin penetration. Skin Pharmacol Physiol; 2010;23(1):6-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Innovative agents for actinic keratosis and nanocarriers enhancing skin penetration.
  • Actinic keratosis and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma are of increasing importance with aging and increased ultraviolet light exposure in Western societies.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20090403.001).
  • [ISSN] 1660-5535
  • [Journal-full-title] Skin pharmacology and physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skin Pharmacol Physiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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54. López-Tizón E, Mencía-Gutiérrez E, Garrido-Ruíz M, Gutiérrez-Díaz E, López-Ríos F: Clinicopathological study of 21 cases of eyelid actinic keratosis. Int Ophthalmol; 2009 Oct;29(5):379-84
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinicopathological study of 21 cases of eyelid actinic keratosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic keratosis (AK) is an intraepidermal malignancy precursor form of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), which generally occurs in fair-skinned individuals with long-term sun exposure.
  • The most frequent AK type was type I (76.2%).
  • [MeSH-major] Eyelid Diseases / pathology. Keratosis, Actinic / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18633577.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-2630
  • [Journal-full-title] International ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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55. Warino L, Tusa M, Camacho F, Teuschler H, Fleischer AB Jr, Feldman SR: Frequency and cost of actinic keratosis treatment. Dermatol Surg; 2006 Aug;32(8):1045-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Frequency and cost of actinic keratosis treatment.
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic keratosis (AK) is a common lesion with its highest incidence in the aged population.
  • Although treatment strategies for AK have continued to develop, the cost of such treatments has not been recently investigated.
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this article is to determine the frequency of visits for AK, the methods used to treat AK, and the cost of the treatments used annually.
  • METHODS: Data from the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey and National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey were used to determine the frequency of office visits for AK and the frequency of destructive procedures and topical treatment of AK.
  • RESULTS: There are an estimated 5.2 million AK visits annually, 60% of which are made by the Medicare population.
  • A total of Dollars 920 million was spent on the treatment of AK annually, 6% being spent on topical therapy, 43% on office visits, and 51% on destructive procedures.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Even though new topical therapies are evolving for the treatment of AK, destructive procedures remain the standard of care when considering frequency of use, efficacy, and cost control.
  • [MeSH-major] Costs and Cost Analysis. Keratosis / economics. Keratosis / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16918567.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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56. Bon-Mardion M, Poulalhon N, Balme B, Thomas L: Ungual seborrheic keratosis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2010 Sep;24(9):1102-4
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  • [Title] Ungual seborrheic keratosis.
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Seborrheic keratoses are ubiquitous benign epithelial skin tumours.
  • We report herein the case of a seborrheic keratosis of the nail bed with typical histological features.
  • The diagnosis of typical seborrheic keratosis of the nail bed was made on histological examination.
  • CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first report of a typical, histologically documented seborrheic keratosis of the nail bed.
  • Therefore, this condition should be added to the differential diagnosis of acquired longitudinal leukoxanthonychia.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis, Seborrheic / diagnosis. Nail Diseases / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20180892.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-3083
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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57. Tomas D, Kruslin B, Cupic H, Stanimirovic A, Bosnjak B, Lovricevic I, Belicza M: Correlation between Bcl-2 and Bax in atrophic and hypertrophic type of actinic keratosis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2006 Jan;20(1):51-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Correlation between Bcl-2 and Bax in atrophic and hypertrophic type of actinic keratosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Recent investigations consider actinic keratosis (AK) as an earliest visible pattern of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • We have analysed the expression of apoptosis-related proteins TP53, Bcl-2 and Bax in 30 atrophic and 30 hypertrophic AK cases.
  • RESULTS: Expression of TP53 showed no significant differences between two analysed groups (chi2-test, P = 0.35636) whereas expression of Bcl-2 and Bax protein was significantly higher in atrophic compared to hypertrophic AK (chi2-test, P = 0.01458 and P = 0.00358, respectively).
  • Comparison of Bcl-2 : Bax ratio in two analysed AK showed significantly higher value in hypertrophic compared to atrophic AK (Mann-Whitney U test, P = 0.02272).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results may indicate higher resistance of keratinocytes on apoptotic stimuli in hypertrophic compared to atrophic AK.
  • Thus, we suppose that keratinocytes in hypertrophic AK live longer and probably have higher propensity for additional mutations and conversion to overt SCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis / metabolism. bcl-2-Associated X Protein / metabolism. bcl-X Protein / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16405608.001).
  • [ISSN] 0926-9959
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein; 0 / bcl-X Protein
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58. Kessler GM, Ackerman AB: Nomenclature for very superficial squamous cell carcinoma of the skin and of the cervix: a critique in historical perspective. Am J Dermatopathol; 2006 Dec;28(6):537-45
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  • This vexing situation is illustrated graphically in the skin by diagnoses for very superficial squamous-cell carcinoma as disparate as solar keratosis (actinic keratosis, senile keratosis), arsenical keratosis, radiation keratosis, Bowen disease, bowenoid papulosis, squamous-cell carcinoma in situ, as well as variations on the theme of "keratinocytic intraepidermal neoplasia" and "dysplasia," and in the cervix by squamous-cell carcinoma in situ, leukoplakia, cervical intraepithelial neoplasia I-III, as well as variations on the theme of "squamous dysplasia ()."
  • There is a need urgently for a single term for very superficial squamous-cell carcinoma in every organ of the body in which it develops, to wit, one that conveys diagnosis in such logical, lucid, comprehensible fashion that it is understandable, readily and immediately, to clinicians.


59. Piaserico S, Belloni Fortina A, Rigotti P, Rossi B, Baldan N, Alaibac M, Marchini F: Topical photodynamic therapy of actinic keratosis in renal transplant recipients. Transplant Proc; 2007 Jul-Aug;39(6):1847-50
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  • [Title] Topical photodynamic therapy of actinic keratosis in renal transplant recipients.
  • Organ transplant recipients (OTRs) show an increased risk of precancerous (mostly actinic keratosis [AK]) and cancerous (mostly squamous cell carcinomas [SCC] and basal cell carcinomas [BCC]) cutaneous lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Keratosis / drug therapy. Kidney Transplantation / adverse effects. Photochemotherapy. Photosensitivity Disorders / drug therapy. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Postoperative Complications / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17692630.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-1345
  • [Journal-full-title] Transplantation proceedings
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transplant. Proc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / delta-aminolevulinic acid methyl ester; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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60. Quatresooz P, Paquet P, Piérard GE: [Actinic keratosis in tune with field photocarcinogenesis. A revisited concept]. Rev Med Liege; 2010 Nov;65(11):619-22
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  • [Title] [Actinic keratosis in tune with field photocarcinogenesis. A revisited concept].
  • [Transliterated title] La kératose actinique au diapason de la photocarcinogenèse en champs. Un concept revisité.
  • Actinic keratosis should no more be considered as a single neoplasm calling for an individual treatment.
  • The concept of actinic photocarcinogenesis presently turns upside down the perception of skin cancers induced by nonionizing electromagnetic radiations.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis, Actinic / etiology. Keratosis, Actinic / therapy. Ultraviolet Rays / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 21189527.001).
  • [ISSN] 0370-629X
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue médicale de Liège
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Liege
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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61. Lee AD, Jorizzo JL: Optimizing management of actinic keratosis and photodamaged skin: utilizing a stepwise approach. Cutis; 2009 Sep;84(3):169-75
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Optimizing management of actinic keratosis and photodamaged skin: utilizing a stepwise approach.
  • The incidence of photodamaged skin and skin lesions of all degrees of severity, from actinic keratosis (AK) to skin cancers, has dramatically increased.
  • Actinic keratoses are pathologic, reflecting damage of essential skin cell functions and potentially progressing to invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • We propose a comprehensive 5-step approach for managing AK lesions and photodamaged skin that includes periodic clinical skin examinations; treating AK lesions with a combination of field- and lesion-directed therapy; and patient education regarding sun-protective measures and regular skin self-examinations.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / prevention & control. Keratosis, Actinic / therapy. Skin Aging / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease Progression. Humans. Patient Education as Topic. Risk Factors. Severity of Illness Index. Sunlight / adverse effects


62. Vasiljevic N, Hazard K, Dillner J, Forslund O: Four novel human betapapillomaviruses of species 2 preferentially found in actinic keratosis. J Gen Virol; 2008 Oct;89(Pt 10):2467-74
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  • [Title] Four novel human betapapillomaviruses of species 2 preferentially found in actinic keratosis.
  • This study determined the complete genomes of four betapapillomaviruses of species 2 from skin lesions designated HPV-107, -110 and -111 and FA75[KI88-03], an isolate of an unpublished HPV type, and analysed their prevalence and viral loads in biopsies from SCC, actinic keratosis (AK), basal cell carcinoma, seborrhoeic keratosis and the healthy skin of 263 immunocompetent patients by HPV type-specific real-time PCR assays.
  • Overall, the four viruses were more common in AK than in healthy skin (odds ratio 5.0, 95 % confidence interval 1.4-17.5), but the prevalence and viral loads were low.
  • [MeSH-major] Betapapillomavirus / classification. Betapapillomavirus / isolation & purification. Keratosis / virology. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Female. Humans. Keratosis, Seborrheic / epidemiology. Keratosis, Seborrheic / virology. Male. Molecular Sequence Data. Phylogeny. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Prevalence. Sequence Analysis, DNA. Skin / virology. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / virology. Species Specificity. Viral Load

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  • (PMID = 18796715.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1317
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of general virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gen. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ EF422221/ EU410347/ EU410348/ EU410349
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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63. Brodsky J: Management of benign skin lesions commonly affecting the face: actinic keratosis, seborrheic keratosis, and rosacea. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2009 Aug;17(4):315-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of benign skin lesions commonly affecting the face: actinic keratosis, seborrheic keratosis, and rosacea.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Actinic keratosis can now be treated with photodynamic therapy or with many topical agents, as alternatives to traditional surgical techniques.
  • Seborrheic keratosis, as well as actinic keratosis and rosacea, are now often treated with laser therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Facial Dermatoses / therapy. Keratosis, Actinic / therapy. Keratosis, Seborrheic / therapy. Rosacea / therapy


64. Stritt A, Merk HF, Braathen LR, von Felbert V: Photodynamic therapy in the treatment of actinic keratosis. Photochem Photobiol; 2008 Mar-Apr;84(2):388-98
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Photodynamic therapy in the treatment of actinic keratosis.
  • The efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with 5-aminolevulinate and methyl aminolevulinate in the treatment of actinic keratosis has been demonstrated in a large number of clinical studies over the last several years.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy

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  • (PMID = 18221454.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-8655
  • [Journal-full-title] Photochemistry and photobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Photochem. Photobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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65. Zaravinos A, Kanellou P, Spandidos DA: Viral DNA detection and RAS mutations in actinic keratosis and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Br J Dermatol; 2010 Feb 1;162(2):325-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Viral DNA detection and RAS mutations in actinic keratosis and nonmelanoma skin cancers.
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic keratosis (AK) is a well-established precancerous skin lesion that has the potential to progress to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • METHODS: HPV, CMV, HSV and EBV detection was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in skin biopsies (26 AK, 12 SCC and 15 BCC samples) that were collected from immunocompetent patients.
  • The HPV incidence was eight of 26 (31%) in AK and eight of 53 (15%) in normal skin tissue.
  • The CMV incidence was two of 26 (8%) in AK and four of 12 (33%) in SCC.
  • Only three samples, one AK (4%), one BCC (6%) and one SCC (8%), were found to carry a G>T transversion at the second position of HRAS codon 12.
  • CONCLUSIONS: HPV DNA is detected in NMSC, AK and normal skin biopsies.
  • Moreover, we suggest that the HRAS codon 12 mutation is not a very common event in AK or NMSC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. DNA, Viral / isolation & purification. Genes, ras / genetics. Keratosis, Actinic / virology. Skin Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 19849697.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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66. Sandberg C, Stenquist B, Rosdahl I, Ros AM, Synnerstad I, Karlsson M, Gudmundson F, Ericson MB, Larkö O, Wennberg AM: Important factors for pain during photodynamic therapy for actinic keratosis. Acta Derm Venereol; 2006;86(5):404-8
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  • [Title] Important factors for pain during photodynamic therapy for actinic keratosis.
  • Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an efficient treatment for actinic keratosis.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate pain during PDT for actinic keratosis.
  • The redness of the actinic lesions was found to be related to PDT-induced pain (p=0.01), the reduction of actinic area (p=0.007), and the cure rate (p=0.01).
  • The redder the actinic area, the better the treatment outcome and the more pain experienced.
  • Patients with the largest reduction in the actinic area experienced more pain (p=0.053).
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis / drug therapy. Pain / etiology. Photochemotherapy / adverse effects. Photosensitivity Disorders / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16955183.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5555
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta dermato-venereologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Derm. Venereol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] S07O44R1ZM / Capsaicin
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67. Hensen P, Müller ML, Haschemi R, Ständer H, Luger TA, Sunderkötter C, Schiller M: Predisposing factors of actinic keratosis in a North-West German population. Eur J Dermatol; 2009 Jul-Aug;19(4):345-54
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  • [Title] Predisposing factors of actinic keratosis in a North-West German population.
  • The growing incident rates of skin cancer and their corresponding precursor lesions, e.g. actinic keratosis (AK), among Caucasians have become an important public health problem.
  • A multicenter case-control study was conducted to identify the risk factors of AK of a prototypical Central European population.
  • Using multivariate analysis we identified ten independent variables predicting the AK risk.
  • Additionally, sun exposure for recreational reasons, denial of the use of sunscreens, painful sunburn episodes before the age of 20, and a familial history of skin malignancies are also significant independent correlates of AK.
  • Our epidemiological data suggest that constitutional susceptibility and sunlight exposure are equally involved in the onset of AK.
  • These measures should be able to reduce the excessive incidence rates of AK among Caucasians in Central Europe.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis, Actinic / etiology. Precancerous Conditions / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Case-Control Studies. Chi-Square Distribution. Disease Susceptibility. Female. Germany / epidemiology. Humans. Logistic Models. Male. Middle Aged. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 19470418.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-1122
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of dermatology : EJD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] France
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68. Colombo GL, Chimenti S, Di Matteo S, Fargnoli MC, Frascione P, Silipo V, Peris K: Cost-effectiveness analysis of topical treatments for actinic keratosis in the perspective of the Italian health care system. G Ital Dermatol Venereol; 2010 Oct;145(5):573-81
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  • [Title] Cost-effectiveness analysis of topical treatments for actinic keratosis in the perspective of the Italian health care system.
  • Actinic keratosis (AK) is the most common cutaneous malignant neoplasm and its prevalence continues to increase.
  • According to the most recent findings, AK is currently considered the initial stage, in situ, of squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Based on this cost-effectiveness model, diclofenac 3% in HA can be considered the treatment of choice for AK lesions and surrounding field under a pharmacoeconomic point of view.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Aminoquinolines / economics. Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Diclofenac / economics. Diclofenac / therapeutic use. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Keratosis, Actinic / economics

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  • (PMID = 20930692.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-0488
  • [Journal-full-title] Giornale italiano di dermatologia e venereologia : organo ufficiale, Società italiana di dermatologia e sifilografia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Ital Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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69. da Silva TA, Coelho G, Lorenzetti Bocca A, Figueiredo Cavalcante Neto F: Expression of apoptotic, cell proliferation regulatory, and structural proteins in actinic keratosis and their association with dermal elastosis. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Apr;34(4):315-23
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of apoptotic, cell proliferation regulatory, and structural proteins in actinic keratosis and their association with dermal elastosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic keratosis (AK) is a premalignant lesion caused by ultraviolet (UV) radiation and characterized by epithelial and connective tissue alterations.
  • However, little is known about the link between connective and UV-damaged epithelial tissues in AK.
  • OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: To examine the potential relationship between connective tissue degeneration and molecular alterations in epithelial cells without evident morphologic changes, 30 cases of AK (8, grade I; 10, grade II; 12, grade III), divided into three grades according to the proportion of dermal elastosis (in grade I, up to 30% of collagen degeneration; in grade II, 30-60%; in grade III, more than 60%), were immunohistochemically analyzed for the expression of Ki67, p53, p63, bcl-2, E-cadherin, 34-betaE12, and CD99.
  • RESULTS: The increase in the solar elastosis grade was associated with an increase in positive cell numbers for all analyzed markers.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that the epithelial expression of apoptotic, cell proliferation, and structural proteins is augmented with the increase of the solar elastosis grade.
  • Thus, the grade of solar elastosis could be a helpful morphologic marker in the assessment of neoplastic changes in sun-damaged skin.

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  • (PMID = 17381802.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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70. Repertinger S, Wang J, Adickes E, Sarma DP: Melanoma in-situ arising in seborrheic keratosis: a case report. Cases J; 2008;1(1):263
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  • [Title] Melanoma in-situ arising in seborrheic keratosis: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Seborrheic keratosis is a very common benign skin tumor in man.
  • A melanoma arising in a seborrheic keratosis is distinctly rare.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: An-86-year-old male with a history of multiple actinic keratoses and seborrheic keratoses of the head and trunk presented with a mid-back skin lesion.
  • The biopsied lesion was composed of the usual features of hyperkeratotic seborrheic keratosis, but with focal atypical melanocytic proliferation with nesting along the dermal-epidermal junction.
  • We interpreted this lesion as a melanoma in-situ arising within a seborrheic keratosis.
  • CONCLUSION: It is not uncommon for many physicians to remove a typical seborrheic keratosis without a confirmatory microscopic confirmation.

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  • [Cites] Australas J Dermatol. 2006 May;47(2):109-13 [16637806.001]
  • [Cites] J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000 May;42(5 Pt 1):831-3 [10775864.001]
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  • (PMID = 18947402.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2577645
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71. Morré DJ, Geilen CC, Welch AM, Morré DM: Response of carcinoma in situ (actinic keratosis) to green tea concentrate plus capsicum. J Diet Suppl; 2009;6(4):385-9
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  • [Title] Response of carcinoma in situ (actinic keratosis) to green tea concentrate plus capsicum.
  • A single case of carcinoma in situ (actinic keratosis) was treated topically with a patch consisting of an aqueous paste of a commercially available mixture (50:1) of green tea concentrate plus Capsicum (Capsol-T®) for approximately 14 days.
  • [MeSH-major] Camellia sinensis. Capsicum. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Phytotherapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 22435520.001).
  • [ISSN] 1939-022X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of dietary supplements
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Diet Suppl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Plant Extracts
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72. Gupta AK, Davey V, Mcphail H: Evaluation of the effectiveness of imiquimod and 5-fluorouracil for the treatment of actinic keratosis: Critical review and meta-analysis of efficacy studies. J Cutan Med Surg; 2005 Oct;9(5):209-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evaluation of the effectiveness of imiquimod and 5-fluorouracil for the treatment of actinic keratosis: Critical review and meta-analysis of efficacy studies.
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic keratosis lesions occur frequently on sun-exposed skin of Caucasians.
  • Topical therapies are useful alternatives to cryotherapy for treating diffuse actinic damage and a number of preparations have been developed for treating actinic keratosis.
  • OBJECTIVES: A cumulative meta-analysis was performed to determine the efficacy of imiquimod 5% cream, which presents a new alternative topical therapy for actinic keratosis, and to compare it to 5-fluorouracil for the treatment of actinic keratosis lesions of the face and scalp.
  • METHODS: We searched MEDLINE (1966 to October 2004) for relevant studies evaluating the efficacy of actinic keratosis topical agents imiquimod and 5-fluorouracil (0.5%, 1%, and 5%).
  • Studies also required a well-defined treatment duration and followup period, with the primary efficacy variable being the complete (100%) clearance of all actinic keratosis lesions defined as the proportion of patients at followup with no clinically visible lesions in the treatment area.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results of this meta-analysis show that both imiquimod and 5-fluorouracil are effective methods for the treatment of actinic keratosis and provide a useful alternative to cryotherapy.
  • However, this analysis suggests that imiquimod may have higher efficacy than 5-fluorouracil for actinic keratosis lesions located on the face and scalp and therefore provides another option to dermatologists.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Interferon Inducers / therapeutic use. Keratosis / drug therapy. Photosensitivity Disorders / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16502198.001).
  • [ISSN] 1203-4754
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous medicine and surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cutan Med Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Interferon Inducers; 0 / Ointments; P1QW714R7M / imiquimod; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 55
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73. Kim HS, Yoo JY, Cho KH, Kwon OS, Moon SE: Topical photodynamic therapy using intense pulsed light for treatment of actinic keratosis: clinical and histopathologic evaluation. Dermatol Surg; 2005 Jan;31(1):33-6; discussion 36-7
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  • [Title] Topical photodynamic therapy using intense pulsed light for treatment of actinic keratosis: clinical and histopathologic evaluation.
  • BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is suitable for the treatment of actinic keratosis, and, recently, topical PDT using intense pulsed light as a light source has been reported.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to confirm the histopathologic resolution of actinic keratosis treated by topical PDT using intense pulsed light as a light source.
  • METHODS: Twelve actinic keratosis lesions in seven patients were treated with 5-aminolevulinic acid-PDT using intense pulsed light as a light source.
  • However, the determination of complete remission in actinic keratosis requires caution, and long-term follow-up or histologic confirmation may be required.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / therapeutic use. Keratosis / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy / methods. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 15720093.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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74. Dang C, Gottschling M, Roewert J, Forschner T, Stockfleth E, Nindl I: Tenascin-C patterns and splice variants in actinic keratosis and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Br J Dermatol; 2006 Oct;155(4):763-70
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  • [Title] Tenascin-C patterns and splice variants in actinic keratosis and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.
  • The mRNA expression and protein level of Tn-C including its various isoforms have not been investigated comprehensively so far in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and the precursor lesion actinic keratosis (AK).
  • METHODS: Biopsies from 66 patients (or representative subsets) that comprised 25 specimens from normal skin, 19 AK and 22 cutaneous SCC were analysed for Tn-C splice variants using splice-specific primers.
  • RESULTS: The large Tn-C splice variant was present in only 5% of normal skin samples, in comparison with 63% of AK (P < 0.001) and 88% of SCC (P < 0.001).
  • Tn-C mRNA expression was significantly increased in AK and SCC compared with normal skin (P < 0.001).
  • The corresponding proteins were rarely detected in cells of the vascular epithelial layers and perifollicular layers of some normal skin specimens, and their spatial localization expanded into the papillary dermis of AK.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Tn-C is present in the dermis, its expression is increased during skin cancer development, and the large splice variant is characteristic for AK and SCC, which may prove useful for diagnostic approaches in cutaneous SCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Keratosis / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Tenascin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16965426.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Tenascin
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75. Rishpon A, Kim N, Scope A, Porges L, Oliviero MC, Braun RP, Marghoob AA, Fox CA, Rabinovitz HS: Reflectance confocal microscopy criteria for squamous cell carcinomas and actinic keratoses. Arch Dermatol; 2009 Jul;145(7):766-72
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  • [Title] Reflectance confocal microscopy criteria for squamous cell carcinomas and actinic keratoses.
  • OBJECTIVE: To identify criteria for the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and actinic keratosis (AK) by in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM).
  • DESIGN: Prospective RCM imaging of lesions suspected clinically and/or dermoscopically to be SCC or AK, followed by RCM assessment of the biopsy-proven SCCs and AKs.
  • Polygonal nucleated cells at the stratum corneum were seen in 3 SCCs (10%) and 1 AK (14%).
  • All 38 cases displayed an atypical honeycomb and/or a disarranged pattern of the spinous-granular layer of the epidermis; round nucleated cells were seen in the spinous-granular layer in 20 SCCs (65%) and 1 AK (14%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: An increasing frequency of abnormal RCM features can be observed across the spectrum of keratinocytic neoplasias.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Keratosis, Actinic / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology


76. Cohen JL: Actinic keratosis treatment as a key component of preventive strategies for nonmelanoma skin cancer. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol; 2010 Jun;3(6):39-44
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  • [Title] Actinic keratosis treatment as a key component of preventive strategies for nonmelanoma skin cancer.
  • Actinic keratosis is responsible for more than eight million visits to dermatologists and primary care physicians annually.
  • Actinic keratosis, the result of chronic sun damage to the skin, is closely linked to nonmelanoma skin cancer, both histologically and pathophysiologically.
  • Clinical evidence shows that not only does actinic keratosis have the potential to progress and transform into nonmelanoma skin cancer, but it also may in fact be an early stage of cancer.
  • The treatment of actinic keratosis is evolving from a "treat-as-you-go" strategy to a more preventive approach to curtail the potential emergence of nonmelanoma skin cancer.
  • As the interrelationship between actinic keratosis and nonmelanoma skin cancer, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma continues to strengthen, treating actinic keratosis as part of a preventive strategy to reduce nonmelanoma skin cancer is coming to the forefront.
  • The following review of the relationship between actinic keratosis and nonmelanoma skin cancer discusses the rationale for early actinic keratosis treatment to prevent or reduce nonmelanoma skin cancer occurrence.

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  • (PMID = 20725550.001).
  • [ISSN] 1941-2789
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical and aesthetic dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Aesthet Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2921751
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77. Nindl I, Gottschling M, Krawtchenko N, Lehmann MD, Röwert-Huber J, Eberle J, Stockfleth E, Forschner T: Low prevalence of p53, p16(INK4a) and Ha-ras tumour-specific mutations in low-graded actinic keratosis. Br J Dermatol; 2007 May;156 Suppl 3:34-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Low prevalence of p53, p16(INK4a) and Ha-ras tumour-specific mutations in low-graded actinic keratosis.
  • Different mutation rates of p53, p16(INK4a) and Ha-ras in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and the earlier stage actinic keratosis (AK) have been reported.
  • OBJECTIVES: To assess the presence of missense mutations in hotspot exons of p53, p16(INK4a) and Ha-ras in low-graded AK.
  • PATIENTS/METHODS: Cryo-biopsies of 75 sun-exposed AK lesions and 75 sun-shielded areas of normal skin from 75 AK patients were analysed to identify mutations in p53 (exons 7 and 8), p16(INK4a) (exon 2) and Ha-ras (exon 1) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by direct sequencing.
  • As a representative subset of the specimens, ten mutation-negative AK were also micro-dissected in order to exclude the possibility that additional mutations were undetected.
  • RESULTS: Eight missense and one nonsense point mutations were found in the 75 AK lesions examined (12%), of which seven (9%) were tumour-specific (i.e. present in AK lesions only) and two (3%) were p16(INK4a) mutations (i.e. also detected in normal skin).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The evaluation of a large number of AK specimens in this study have found a low gene mutation rate in low-graded AK lesions. p53 mutations rather than p16(INK4a) and/or Ha-ras mutations may be an early event in the development of AK to cutaneous SCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16 / genetics. Genes, p53 / genetics. Genes, ras / genetics. Keratosis / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17488404.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16
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78. Shin JW, Kim YK, Cho KH: Minichromosome maintenance protein expression according to the grade of atypism in actinic keratosis. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Dec;32(8):794-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Minichromosome maintenance protein expression according to the grade of atypism in actinic keratosis.
  • The aim of this study was to characterize the pattern and frequency of MCM 2 protein expression in actinic keratosis (AK) and determine whether the expression is correlated with the degree of histological atypism.
  • Biopsy samples of 34 patients who had been diagnosed as AK were used in this study.
  • MCM 2 protein was expressed in atypical keratinocytes in AK.
  • Moreover, the correlation between the immunoreactivity for MCM 2 protein and AK grade was significantly more positive than that for other markers.
  • Thus, we suggest that MCM 2 protein is a reliable marker for diagnosing and grading AK and further could be hypothesized as an important prognostic factor.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Cycle Proteins / analysis. Keratinocytes / chemistry. Keratosis, Actinic / metabolism. Nuclear Proteins / analysis. Skin / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 20847638.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; EC 3.6.4.12 / MCM2 protein, human; EC 3.6.4.12 / Minichromosome Maintenance Complex Component 2
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79. Halpern AC, Kopp LJ: Awareness, knowledge and attitudes to non-melanoma skin cancer and actinic keratosis among the general public. Int J Dermatol; 2005 Feb;44(2):107-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Awareness, knowledge and attitudes to non-melanoma skin cancer and actinic keratosis among the general public.
  • In a structured telephone interview lasting approximately 10 min, respondents answered questions on NMSC, specifically actinic keratosis (AK) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC).
  • Countries with a high incidence of NSMC had greater awareness of the condition, with more awareness of BCC than AK.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell. Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice. Keratosis. Photosensitivity Disorders. Skin Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 15689206.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-9059
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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80. Saunders NC, Malhotra R, Biggs N, Fagan PA: Complications of keratosis obturans. J Laryngol Otol; 2006 Sep;120(9):740-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Complications of keratosis obturans.
  • Three patients with extensive keratosis obturans were treated during a 12-month period.
  • One presented with an idiopathic sensorineural hearing loss and was found to have keratosis obturans in the contralateral, asymptomatic ear.
  • The disease process had resulted in a horizontal semicircular canal fistula in what was now, effectively, the only hearing ear.
  • They appeared to represent cases of keratosis obturans rather than external auditory canal cholesteatoma, on the basis of previously published reports.These complications and patterns of bone erosion have not previously been described in keratosis obturans.
  • The third patient is believed to have the most extensive case of keratosis obturans yet described.
  • [MeSH-major] Ear Diseases / pathology. Facial Paralysis / complications. Hearing Loss, Sensorineural / complications. Keratosis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16848919.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-5460
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of laryngology and otology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Laryngol Otol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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81. Mogensen M, Nürnberg BM, Forman JL, Thomsen JB, Thrane L, Jemec GB: In vivo thickness measurement of basal cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis with optical coherence tomography and 20-MHz ultrasound. Br J Dermatol; 2009 May;160(5):1026-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] In vivo thickness measurement of basal cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis with optical coherence tomography and 20-MHz ultrasound.
  • METHODS: In total, 93 patients were scanned and 34 lesions [23 basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and 11 actinic keratosis (AK) lesions] < 2 mm thick and easily identified in OCT images were studied.
  • CONCLUSIONS: OCT appears more precise and less biased than HFUS for thickness measurement in AK and BCC lesions < 2 mm, but both OCT and especially HFUS tended to overestimate tumour thickness.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Keratosis, Actinic / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Br J Dermatol. 2014 Mar;170(3):737-9 [24124649.001]
  • (PMID = 19183171.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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82. Del Rosso JQ: The use of topical imiquimod for the treatment of actinic keratosis: a status report. Cutis; 2005 Oct;76(4):241-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The use of topical imiquimod for the treatment of actinic keratosis: a status report.
  • Topical imiquimod 5% cream is approved for the treatment of actinic keratosis (AK), superficial basal cell carcinoma, and external genital warts.
  • This article reviews available data on the use of topical imiquimod for AK.
  • Topical imiquimod is an effective and safe treatment option for AK that produces complete eradication or marked reduction in the number of lesions in most patients.
  • Recent evidence suggests that many patients who effectively are cleared of AK lesions after topical imiquimod use remain free of lesions for several months to 2 years or develop a minimal number of new AK lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Keratosis / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16315560.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-4162
  • [Journal-full-title] Cutis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cutis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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83. Martin G: The impact of the current United States guidelines on the management of actinic keratosis: is it time for an update? J Clin Aesthet Dermatol; 2010 Nov;3(11):20-5
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  • [Title] The impact of the current United States guidelines on the management of actinic keratosis: is it time for an update?
  • Actinic keratosis is one of the most common diagnoses made by dermatologists.
  • Many experts recommend treating all actinic keratoses because of their potential to progress to invasive squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Physicians have a large armamentarium of actinic keratosis treatment modalities available to them, including destructive therapies, such as cryotherapy, curettage and electrodessication, chemical peels, photodynamic therapy, and topical therapies, including 5-fluorouracil, imiquimod, and diclofenac.
  • This abundance of treatment options prompted development of several actinic keratosis management guidelines.
  • While there are benefits and potential limitations to developing an updated set of United States-based guidelines, there is a clearly defined need for a unified, comprehensive, evidence-based guideline approach to actinic keratosis treatment that balances the need to tailor long-term management of the disease to the needs of the individual patient.

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  • (PMID = 21103312.001).
  • [ISSN] 1941-2789
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical and aesthetic dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Aesthet Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2989810
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84. Torres A, Storey L, Anders M, Miller RL, Bulbulian BJ, Jin J, Raghavan S, Lee J, Slade HB, Birmachu W: Immune-mediated changes in actinic keratosis following topical treatment with imiquimod 5% cream. J Transl Med; 2007;5:7
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  • [Title] Immune-mediated changes in actinic keratosis following topical treatment with imiquimod 5% cream.
  • BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to identify the molecular processes responsible for the anti-lesional activity of imiquimod in subjects with actinic keratosis using global gene expression profiling.
  • METHODS: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study was conducted to evaluate gene expression changes in actinic keratosis treated with imiquimod 5% cream.
  • Male subjects (N = 17) with > or = 5 actinic keratosis on the scalp applied placebo cream or imiquimod 3 times a week on nonconsecutive days for 4 weeks.
  • To elucidate the molecular processes involved in actinic keratosis lesion regression by imiquimod, gene expression analysis using oligonucleotide arrays and real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction were performed on shave biopsies of lesions taken before and after treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / administration & dosage. Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Keratosis, Actinic / immunology

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  • (PMID = 17257431.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-5876
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of translational medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Transl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Chemokines; 0 / Dosage Forms; 0 / Interferon Type I; 0 / Receptors, Pattern Recognition; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1796543
  • [General-notes] NLM/ Original DateCompleted: 20070724
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85. Makdsi F, Deversa R: Inflammation of actinic keratosis with combination of alkylating and taxane agents: a case report. Cases J; 2009;2:6946
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Inflammation of actinic keratosis with combination of alkylating and taxane agents: a case report.
  • This combination has not been documented to date to cause an inflammation of a preexisting actinic keratosis.
  • One previous report has described inflammation of AK lesions after the use of docetaxel alone.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 54-year-old male with a history of untreated actinic keratosis and lung cancer.

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  • (PMID = 19829884.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2740192
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86. Quatresooz P, Piérard-Franchimont C, Paquet P, Hubert P, Delvenne P, Piérard GE: Crossroads between actinic keratosis and squamous cell carcinoma, and novel pharmacological issues. Eur J Dermatol; 2008 Jan-Feb;18(1):6-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Crossroads between actinic keratosis and squamous cell carcinoma, and novel pharmacological issues.
  • Actinic keratoses (AKs) and their derived squamous cell carcinomas are distinctive lesions forming a continuum in a multi-step carcinogenesis process.
  • In addition, recent findings are presented about pharmacotherapy using anti-epidermal growth factor receptors, imidazoquinolines, diclofenac-hyaluronan, and methyl aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Keratosis / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sunlight / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Humans. Photochemotherapy. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / antagonists & inhibitors

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  • (PMID = 18086582.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-1122
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of dermatology : EJD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
  • [Number-of-references] 76
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87. Quaedvlieg PJ, Tirsi E, Thissen MR, Krekels GA: Actinic keratosis: how to differentiate the good from the bad ones? Eur J Dermatol; 2006 Jul-Aug;16(4):335-9
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  • [Title] Actinic keratosis: how to differentiate the good from the bad ones?
  • Our objective was to obtain practical clinical parameters to indicate those actinic keratoses (AK) that are at risk of becoming invasive.
  • The main outcome measure was the rates and clinical features of AK that transformed into SCC.
  • This study reviewed randomized and retrospective studies and reviews of AK and their risk of becoming SCC.
  • The only longitudinal study looking at the incidence of malignant transformation of AK to SCC dates from 1988.
  • Besides the known risk factors (skin type, photodamage, immunosuppression etc), based on this review we found clinical features that provide a practical guide to practitioners in the treatment of AK.
  • Although not prospectively studied, clinical parameters indicating those AK with an increased risk of malignancy are IDRBEU.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Sunlight / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 16935787.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-1122
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of dermatology : EJD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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88. Giuffrè G, Barresi V, Catalano A, Cappiello A, Stagno d'Alcontres F, Tuccari G: Actinic keratosis associated with squamous and basal cell carcinomas: an evaluation of neoplastic progression by a standardized AgNOR analysis. Eur J Histochem; 2008 Jan-Mar;52(1):53-60
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  • [Title] Actinic keratosis associated with squamous and basal cell carcinomas: an evaluation of neoplastic progression by a standardized AgNOR analysis.
  • In an attempt to investigate the neoplastic progression in different stages of actinic keratosis (AK), a standardized AgNOR analysis was performed in 94 cases of AK, 35 of which were associated with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or basal cell carcinoma (BCC), and in 31 cases of SCC and 22 cases of BCC.
  • The cases were subdivided into low- and high-AgNOR-expressing (AgNOR status) AK by using the mean area of AgNORs per cell (NORA) value (3.996 micro(2)) as the cut-off.
  • In AK samples, a progressive increase of the mean NORA value from Stage I to Stage IV was encountered.
  • In addition, a significantly higher mean NORA value was found in the AK cases associated with SCC, in comparison to those without SCC; by contrast, no significant differences in the mean NORA value were noted between AK cases with or without BCC.
  • A highly significant association between a high AgNOR quantity and the coexistence of SCC was encountered in AK; no association was appreciable between the AgNOR quantity and the co-occurrence of BCC.
  • Moreover, when the co-existence of SCC in AK was considered as the reference point, the AK cases associated with SCC mostly (95.5%) presented a high AgNOR quantity (high sensitivity), but only 57.6% of cases without SCC displayed a low AgNOR quantity (low specificity).
  • Additionally, our data document that the standardised AgNOR analysis represents a strong negative predictor for the association between SCC and AK.
  • Indeed, a low AgNOR quantity mostly is associated with AK cases without SCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Nuclear / analysis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / chemistry. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / chemistry. Keratosis / metabolism. Nucleolus Organizer Region / chemistry. Skin Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Silver Staining

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  • (PMID = 18502723.001).
  • [ISSN] 1121-760X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of histochemistry : EJH
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Histochem
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Nuclear; 0 / nucleolar organizer region associated proteins
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89. Puizina-Ivić N, Sapunar D, Marasović D, Mirić L: An overview of Bcl-2 expression in histopathological variants of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, actinic keratosis and seborrheic keratosis. Coll Antropol; 2008 Oct;32 Suppl 2:61-5
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  • [Title] An overview of Bcl-2 expression in histopathological variants of basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, actinic keratosis and seborrheic keratosis.
  • In this study the authors have analyzed imunohistochemically the expression of Bcl-2 protein in the histopathological variants of the most common malignant tumors of the skin--basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell tumor (SCC), as well as in the precancerous lesion actinic keratosis (AK) and in benign tumor seborrheic keratosis (SK).
  • In cases of hypertrophic and atrophic variants of AK, Bcl-2 expression was confined to basal cell layer, as well as in one case of hypertrophic variant in suprabasal cells.
  • In three histological variants of SK expresseion of Bcl-2 protein was in areas of basaloid proliferation, while in areas of squamous differentiation was negative.
  • In AK results suggest that immunoreactivity is regulated with respect of the keratinocyte's differentiation status, but not closely correlate with proliferative rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Keratosis, Actinic / metabolism. Keratosis, Seborrheic / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism


90. Lee PK, Harwell WB, Loven KH, Phillips TJ, Whiting DA, Andres KL, Lee JH: Long-term clinical outcomes following treatment of actinic keratosis with imiquimod 5% cream. Dermatol Surg; 2005 Jun;31(6):659-64
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term clinical outcomes following treatment of actinic keratosis with imiquimod 5% cream.
  • BACKGROUND: The results from four phase III, randomized, vehicle-controlled studies showed that imiquimod 5% cream (imiquimod) was safe and effective in the treatment of actinic keratosis (AK).
  • Patients applied imiquimod or vehicle cream to AK lesions on the face or balding scalp, dosing three times per week or two times per week for 16 weeks.
  • OBJECTIVE: To obtain long-term safety follow-up data and estimate AK recurrence in patients who completely cleared their AK lesions in the treatment area at the 8-week post-treatment visit in the phase III studies.
  • METHODS: One hundred forty-six patients from 30 study centers in the United States were evaluated for clinical evidence of AK, and safety data were collected.
  • RESULTS: After a median follow-up period of 16 months, 24.7% (19 of 77) of the patients administered imiquimod three times per week and 42.6% (23 of 54) of the patients administered imiquimod two times per week had a recurrence of AK (the appearance of at least one AK lesion) in the original treatment area.
  • The median number of AK lesions present was one lesion for both patients receiving imiquimod three times and those receiving imiquimod two times per week compared with a median of six lesions at baseline in the combined three times per week and two times per week phase III studies.
  • CONCLUSION: One and a half years following treatment, imiquimod continued to provide a long-term clinical benefit in a majority of patients who experienced complete clearance of their AK lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage. Aminoquinolines / administration & dosage. Keratosis / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15996416.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase IV; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Aminoquinolines; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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91. Angell-Petersen E, Sørensen R, Warloe T, Soler AM, Moan J, Peng Q, Giercksky KE: Porphyrin formation in actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma after topical application of methyl 5-aminolevulinate. J Invest Dermatol; 2006 Feb;126(2):265-71
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  • [Title] Porphyrin formation in actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma after topical application of methyl 5-aminolevulinate.
  • Photodynamic therapy using topical methyl 5-aminolevulinate (MAL) is a new treatment modality for basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and actinic keratosis (AK).
  • MAL induces endogenous porphyrins, which act as photosensitizers.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Keratosis / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Porphyrins / biosynthesis. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16374471.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-202X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of investigative dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Invest. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ointments; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / Porphyrins; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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92. Szeimies RM, Bichel J, Ortonne JP, Stockfleth E, Lee J, Meng TC: A phase II dose-ranging study of topical resiquimod to treat actinic keratosis. Br J Dermatol; 2008 Jul;159(1):205-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A phase II dose-ranging study of topical resiquimod to treat actinic keratosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Resiquimod, a toll-like receptor 7 and 8 agonist, may be effective as a topical treatment of actinic keratosis (AK).
  • METHODS: Patients with AK lesions on the face or balding scalp were randomly assigned to resiquimod 0.01%, 0.03%, 0.06% or 0.1% gel applied once daily three times a week for 4 weeks to a contiguous 25-cm(2) area with four to eight lesions.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Efficacy in clearing AK lesions was similar between the resiquimod concentrations evaluated, but resiquimod 0.01% and 0.03% were better tolerated than the higher concentrations.
  • [MeSH-major] Imidazoles / therapeutic use. Keratosis / drug therapy. Precancerous Conditions / prevention & control. Skin Neoplasms / prevention & control. Toll-Like Receptor 7 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18476957.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gels; 0 / Imidazoles; 0 / TLR7 protein, human; 0 / Toll-Like Receptor 7; V3DMU7PVXF / resiquimod
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93. Anderson L, Schmieder GJ, Werschler WP, Tschen EH, Ling MR, Stough DB, Katsamas J: Randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, vehicle-controlled study of ingenol mebutate gel 0.025% and 0.05% for actinic keratosis. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2009 Jun;60(6):934-43
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  • [Title] Randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, vehicle-controlled study of ingenol mebutate gel 0.025% and 0.05% for actinic keratosis.
  • BACKGROUND: There is a need for improved medical approaches to the treatment of actinic keratosis.
  • Ingenol mebutate, a diterpene ester extracted and purified from the plant Euphorbia peplus, is being evaluated as a topical therapy for actinic keratosis.
  • OBJECTIVE: Assess the efficacy and safety of ingenol mebutate (formerly PEP005) gel at 3 dosing regimens for the treatment of actinic keratosis.
  • METHODS: Patients with non-facial actinic keratoses applied vehicle gel for 3 days, ingenol mebutate gel, 0.025% for 3 days, or ingenol mebutate gel, 0.05% for 2 or 3 days, with an 8-week follow-up period.
  • RESULTS: All 3 active treatments were significantly more effective than vehicle at clearing actinic keratosis lesions, with a dose response observed.
  • The median percentage reduction in baseline actinic keratosis lesions for patients treated with ingenol mebutate gel ranged from 75% to 100% compared with 0% for vehicle gel (P < .0001 vs vehicle).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Short-course, field-directed therapy with ingenol mebutate gel for actinic keratoses on non-facial sites seems to be effective with a favorable safety profile and potential benefits over topical agents that require a more prolonged course of treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Diterpenes / administration & dosage. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19467365.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 3-ingenyl angelate; 0 / Diterpenes; 0 / Gels; 0 / Pharmaceutical Vehicles; 0 / Plant Extracts
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94. Caekelbergh K, Annemans L, Lambert J, Roelandts R: Economic evaluation of methyl aminolaevulinate-based photodynamic therapy in the management of actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma. Br J Dermatol; 2006 Oct;155(4):784-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Economic evaluation of methyl aminolaevulinate-based photodynamic therapy in the management of actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Various effective therapeutic options are currently available for the treatment of actinic keratosis (AK) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC), but none is perfect.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of a recent approach, methyl aminolaevulinate-based photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT; Metvix; Galderma, Lausanne, Switzerland) in AK and BCC.
  • The time horizon was 1 year for AK and 5 years for BCC.
  • The comparators were cryotherapy in AK and excision surgery in BCC.
  • RESULTS: MAL-PDT is a more expensive treatment compared with cryotherapy for AK.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that MAL-PDT is a cost-effective intervention in AK taking a 1-year time horizon, if society is willing to pay euro1.50 per day of response, and that MAL-PDT is better value for money than excision in BCC, taking a 5-year time horizon.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / economics. Keratosis / economics. Photochemotherapy / economics. Skin Neoplasms / economics

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  • [CommentIn] Br J Dermatol. 2007 Jun;156(6):1393-4 [17535242.001]
  • [CommentIn] Br J Dermatol. 2007 Jun;156(6):1392; author reply 1393 [17535240.001]
  • (PMID = 16965429.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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95. Kanellou P, Zaravinos A, Zioga M, Stratigos A, Baritaki S, Soufla G, Zoras O, Spandidos DA: Genomic instability, mutations and expression analysis of the tumour suppressor genes p14(ARF), p15(INK4b), p16(INK4a) and p53 in actinic keratosis. Cancer Lett; 2008 Jun 8;264(1):145-61
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  • [Title] Genomic instability, mutations and expression analysis of the tumour suppressor genes p14(ARF), p15(INK4b), p16(INK4a) and p53 in actinic keratosis.
  • Actinic keratosis (AK) is a well-established pre-cancerous skin lesion that has the potential to progress to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • We investigated the involvement of the CDKN2A, CDKN2B and p53 genes in AK and in the progression of AK to SCC.
  • Mutational analysis on exons 1a, 1b and 2 of the CDKN2A locus and exon 1 of the CDKN2B locus as well as allelic imbalance was performed in 26 AK specimens.
  • Two AK samples carried a not-previously described non-UV type missense mutation at codon 184 (Val184Glu) of exon 1b in the p14(ARF) gene.
  • Microsatellite instability (MSI) was found in 15% of AKs in at least one marker, indicating that genetic instability has some implication in the development of AK.
  • Down-regulation of p16(INK4a) and p53 mRNA levels was noted in SCC compared to AK.
  • Furthermore, we suggest a possible role of p15(INK4b), independently from the intracellular pathway mediated by p16(INK4a), and of p14(ARF) in AK development, as well as in the progression of AK to SCC.
  • The deregulation of the expression profiles of the CDKN2A, CDKN2B and p53 genes may, independently of mutations and LOH at 9p21, play a significant role in AK and progression of AK to SCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Genomic Instability. Keratosis / genetics. Mutation. Precancerous Conditions / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18331779.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p15; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p14ARF; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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96. Torres A, Storey L, Anders M, Miller RL, Bulbulian BJ, Jin J, Raghavan S, Lee J, Slade HB, Birmachu W: Microarray analysis of aberrant gene expression in actinic keratosis: effect of the Toll-like receptor-7 agonist imiquimod. Br J Dermatol; 2007 Dec;157(6):1132-47
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Microarray analysis of aberrant gene expression in actinic keratosis: effect of the Toll-like receptor-7 agonist imiquimod.
  • BACKGROUND: The molecular events leading to actinic keratosis (AK) are not well understood.
  • OBJECTIVE: To identify and compare gene expression changes in AK lesions and in sun-exposed nonlesional skin and to determine the effect of imiquimod 5% cream on these changes.
  • METHOD: A double-blind, vehicle-controlled, randomized study was conducted to evaluate the molecular changes in AK treated with imiquimod.
  • Seventeen male subjects with >/= 5 AK lesions on the scalp applied vehicle or imiquimod three times a week for 4 weeks.
  • RESULTS: We identified gene expression changes which occur in sun-exposed, nonlesional skin as well as in AK lesions.
  • The gene expression changes observed in AK lesions and in sun-exposed, nonlesional skin were consistent with the confocal microscopy observations, which showed abnormalities in the sun-exposed, nonlesional skin, similar in nature but less pronounced than abnormalities seen in AK.
  • Imiquimod partially or totally reversed the aberrant expression of some of the genes observed in AK, consistent with clearing of lesions and normalization of confocal cellular images.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The data show that profound gene expression changes occur in sun-exposed, nonlesional skin which progress further in AK lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Gene Expression / drug effects. Keratosis / genetics. Photosensitivity Disorders / genetics. Scalp Dermatoses / genetics. Toll-Like Receptor 7 / agonists

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  • (PMID = 17944981.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Toll-Like Receptor 7; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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97. Tsai TM, Wu YH, Yang KC, Yang CY, Tsai TH, Chan JY: Sebaceous carcinoma associated with seborrheic keratosis. J Cutan Med Surg; 2010 Sep-Oct;14(5):240-4
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  • [Title] Sebaceous carcinoma associated with seborrheic keratosis.
  • BACKGROUND: The association of a seborrheic keratosis with other common cutaneous neoplasms such as basal cell carcinoma and Bowen disease has been reported, but the association between a seborrheic keratotis and a malignant neoplasm with sebaceous differentiation is very unusual.
  • OBJECTIVE: We present a case of two contiguous neoplasms, a seborrheic keratosis and a sebaceous carcinoma, and discuss the possibility of malignant change in a seborrheic keratosis as an explanation for the findings.
  • Histopathologic examination revealed that the plaque was composed of two different adjacent tumors, including a central portion showing findings consistent with a sebaceous carcinoma and a peripheral part showing a seborrheic keratosis.
  • CONCLUSION: Although the association is likely to be a coincidence and probably represents a collision tumor, the possibility that the sebaceous carcinoma represents malignant degeneration of the seborrheic keratosis cannot be entirely excluded.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis, Seborrheic / pathology. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20868621.001).
  • [ISSN] 1203-4754
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous medicine and surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cutan Med Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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98. Padilla RS, Sebastian S, Jiang Z, Nindl I, Larson R: Gene expression patterns of normal human skin, actinic keratosis, and squamous cell carcinoma: a spectrum of disease progression. Arch Dermatol; 2010 Mar;146(3):288-93
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Gene expression patterns of normal human skin, actinic keratosis, and squamous cell carcinoma: a spectrum of disease progression.
  • OBJECTIVES: To identify and compare the gene expression profiles of actinic keratosis (AK) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and to further clarify critical genetic alterations in the evolution of SCC from normal sun-damaged human skin.
  • Our model was cross-validated using data from a separate study and clearly distinguishes between skin tumors (AK and SCC) and normal skin independent of sun exposure.
  • Genes that were upregulated in AK and SCC were downregulated in normal skin, and genes that were downregulated in AK and SCC were upregulated in normal skin.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The finding of similar differentially expressed genes in AK and SCC confirms that AK is a precursor lesion of SCC and indicates that they are closely related genetically.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation. Keratosis, Actinic / genetics. RNA / genetics. Skin / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / methods


99. Patel MJ, Stockfleth E: Does progression from actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease end with treatment: diclofenac 3% gel, an old drug in a new environment? Br J Dermatol; 2007 May;156 Suppl 3:53-6
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  • [Title] Does progression from actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease end with treatment: diclofenac 3% gel, an old drug in a new environment?
  • Progression from actinic keratosis (AK) and Bowen's disease (BD) to invasive disease involves a complex cascade of events.
  • The preparation of diclofenac 3% gel (Solaraze; Shire Pharmaceuticals) has been shown to be efficacious and well tolerated in AK.
  • Given its mechanism of action, we hypothosize that diclofenac 3% gel may have potential to halt the progression of actinic keratoses (AKs) in the setting of field cancerisation and BD.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / administration & dosage. Bowen's Disease / drug therapy. Diclofenac / administration & dosage. Keratosis / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Disease Progression. Gels. Humans. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17488408.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Gels; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac
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100. Goldberg DJ: Case-based experience in the use of 5-fluorouracil cream 0.5% as monotherapy and in conjunction with glycolic acid peels for the treatment of actinic keratosis. J Cosmet Laser Ther; 2010 Feb;12(1):42-6
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  • [Title] Case-based experience in the use of 5-fluorouracil cream 0.5% as monotherapy and in conjunction with glycolic acid peels for the treatment of actinic keratosis.
  • Actinic keratosis, commonly indicative of photodamage, requires treatment secondary to the risk of progression to squamous cell carcinoma.
  • A number of effective treatments for actinic keratosis are available, including topical and lesion-directed therapies.
  • While lesion-directed therapies such as cryotherapy are appropriate for isolated lesions, topical 5-fluorouracil is an effective modality for the treatment of multiple facial actinic keratoses.
  • The cases presented here demonstrate the use of topical 5-fluorouracil cream 0.5% as monotherapy and in conjunction with glycolic acid peels to treat facial actinic keratoses in two patients with extensive histories of prior actinic keratosis and skin cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Chemexfoliation / methods. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Glycolates / therapeutic use. Keratolytic Agents / therapeutic use. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20085453.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-4180
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cosmetic and laser therapy : official publication of the European Society for Laser Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cosmet Laser Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glycolates; 0 / Keratolytic Agents; 79-14-1 / glycolic acid; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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