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1. Topical imiquimod therapy for actinic keratosis: is long-term clearance a realistic benefit? J Clin Aesthet Dermatol; 2008 Sep;1(3):44-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Topical imiquimod therapy for actinic keratosis: is long-term clearance a realistic benefit?

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  • (PMID = 21203362.001).
  • [ISSN] 1941-2789
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical and aesthetic dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Aesthet Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3013595
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2. Rivers JK, Wolf J: Assessing clinically meaningful end points for the management of actinic keratosis with diclofenac 3% gel. Acta Derm Venereol; 2007;87(2):188-9
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. DICLOFENAC .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Assessing clinically meaningful end points for the management of actinic keratosis with diclofenac 3% gel.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use. Diclofenac / therapeutic use. Keratosis / drug therapy

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  • [ErratumIn] Acta Derm Venereol. 2007;87(3):286
  • (PMID = 17340038.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5555
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta dermato-venereologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Derm. Venereol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac
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3. Dornelas MT, Rodrigues MF, Machado DC, Gollner AM, Ferreira AP: [Expression of cell proliferation and apoptosis biomarkers in skin spinocellular carcinoma and actinic keratosis]. An Bras Dermatol; 2009 Sep-Oct;84(5):469-75
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Expression of cell proliferation and apoptosis biomarkers in skin spinocellular carcinoma and actinic keratosis].
  • [Transliterated title] Expressão de marcadores de proliferação celular e apoptose no carcinoma espinocelular de pele e ceratose actínica.
  • In many cases, before the onset of the carcinoma, there might be a precursor lesion--actinic keratosis, which can develop into squamous cell carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the expression of markers of cell proliferation (PCNA, Ki-67) and apoptosis (p53,Bcl-2) in patients with squamous cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis.
  • METHOD: We studied samples from 30 patients, ten patients of squamous cell carcinoma, ten with actinic keratosis and ten lesion-free samples from blepharoplasty.
  • Bcl-2 was expressed at low intensity in six cases of actinic keratosis in the skin from blepharoplasty and negative in cases of squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Ki-67 showed variable expression in cases of keratosis and carcinoma and negative in the skin from the eyelid.
  • Thus, expression of p53 and Bcl-2 in patients with actinic keratosis indicates cell immortalization.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Cell Proliferation. Keratosis, Actinic / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20098848.001).
  • [ISSN] 1806-4841
  • [Journal-full-title] Anais brasileiros de dermatologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Bras Dermatol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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4. Peris K, Micantonio T, Piccolo D, Fargnoli MC: Dermoscopic features of actinic keratosis. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges; 2007 Nov;5(11):970-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Dermoscopic features of actinic keratosis.
  • Actinic keratosis (AK) is a keratinocytic neoplasm that typically develops on sun-damaged skin of elderly individuals.
  • Only a few reports so far have described the dermoscopic diagnostic features of AK, mainly focusing on facial non-pigmented AKs.
  • A typical feature of facial non-pigmented AK is a composite pattern named "strawberry pattern", characterized by a background erythema/red pseudonetwork consisting of unfocused, large vessels located between the hair follicles, associated with prominent follicular openings surrounded by a white halo.
  • Dermoscopic characteristics of pigmented AK on the face include multiple slate-gray to dark-brown dots and globules around the follicular ostia, annular-granular pattern and brown to gray pseudonetwork.
  • Recognizing specific dermoscopic features of AK can be useful in guiding the clinician in the differential diagnosis of AK with melanocytic skin lesions such as LM and non-melanocytic lesions.
  • Histopathologic examination should be performed whenever clinical and/or dermoscopic differential diagnosis is inconclusive.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermoscopy / methods. Keratosis / pathology. Photosensitivity Disorders / pathology. Skin / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17908179.001).
  • [ISSN] 1610-0387
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft = Journal of the German Society of Dermatology : JDDG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dtsch Dermatol Ges
  • [Language] eng; ger
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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5. Nelson C, Rigel D: Long-term Follow up of Diclofenac Sodium 3% in 2.5% Hyaluronic Acid Gel for Actinic Keratosis: One-year Evaluation. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol; 2009 Jul;2(7):20-5

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term Follow up of Diclofenac Sodium 3% in 2.5% Hyaluronic Acid Gel for Actinic Keratosis: One-year Evaluation.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term effects of treatment with diclofenac sodium 3% in 2.5% hyaluronic acid gel on clinically diagnosed actinic keratosis lesions in well-defined skin areas.
  • PARTICIPANTS: Patients who had completed the initial treatment phase with no further treatment for actinic keratosis in the designated treatment blocks.
  • MEASUREMENTS: The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients achieving 75-percent clearance of actinic keratosis lesions at one-year follow up based on percent change from baseline in target lesion number score or cumulative lesion number score.
  • Secondary endpoints were the proportion of patients achieving 100-percent actinic keratosis lesion clearance and change in investigator's global improvement index scores.
  • RESULTS: Eighty-one percent of patients reported no additional treatment for actinic keratosis lesions for one year after completing treatment with diclofenac sodium 3% gel.

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  • (PMID = 20729966.001).
  • [ISSN] 1941-2789
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical and aesthetic dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Aesthet Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2924138
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6. Kanellou P, Zaravinos A, Zioga M, Stratigos A, Baritaki S, Soufla G, Zoras O, Spandidos DA: Genomic instability, mutations and expression analysis of the tumour suppressor genes p14(ARF), p15(INK4b), p16(INK4a) and p53 in actinic keratosis. Cancer Lett; 2008 Jun 8;264(1):145-61
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  • [Title] Genomic instability, mutations and expression analysis of the tumour suppressor genes p14(ARF), p15(INK4b), p16(INK4a) and p53 in actinic keratosis.
  • Actinic keratosis (AK) is a well-established pre-cancerous skin lesion that has the potential to progress to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • We investigated the involvement of the CDKN2A, CDKN2B and p53 genes in AK and in the progression of AK to SCC.
  • Mutational analysis on exons 1a, 1b and 2 of the CDKN2A locus and exon 1 of the CDKN2B locus as well as allelic imbalance was performed in 26 AK specimens.
  • Two AK samples carried a not-previously described non-UV type missense mutation at codon 184 (Val184Glu) of exon 1b in the p14(ARF) gene.
  • Microsatellite instability (MSI) was found in 15% of AKs in at least one marker, indicating that genetic instability has some implication in the development of AK.
  • Down-regulation of p16(INK4a) and p53 mRNA levels was noted in SCC compared to AK.
  • Furthermore, we suggest a possible role of p15(INK4b), independently from the intracellular pathway mediated by p16(INK4a), and of p14(ARF) in AK development, as well as in the progression of AK to SCC.
  • The deregulation of the expression profiles of the CDKN2A, CDKN2B and p53 genes may, independently of mutations and LOH at 9p21, play a significant role in AK and progression of AK to SCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Genomic Instability. Keratosis / genetics. Mutation. Precancerous Conditions / genetics. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18331779.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p15; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p14ARF; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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7. Berlin JM: Current and emerging treatment strategies for the treatment of actinic keratosis. Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol; 2010;3:119-26

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Current and emerging treatment strategies for the treatment of actinic keratosis.
  • Actinic keratoses are encountered by physicians worldwide on a daily basis.

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  • (PMID = 21437066.001).
  • [ISSN] 1178-7015
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical, cosmetic and investigational dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Cosmet Investig Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3047952
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; 5-fluorouracil / actinic keratoses / squamous cell carcinoma
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8. Ortonne JP, Gupta G, Ortonne N, Duteil L, Queille C, Mallefet P: Effectiveness of cross polarized light and fluorescence diagnosis for detection of sub-clinical and clinical actinic keratosis during imiquimod treatment. Exp Dermatol; 2010 Jul 1;19(7):641-7
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Imiquimod .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effectiveness of cross polarized light and fluorescence diagnosis for detection of sub-clinical and clinical actinic keratosis during imiquimod treatment.
  • BACKGROUND: During treatment of actinic keratosis (AK) lesions with imiquimod sub-clinical lesions often become visible.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this pilot study was to compare two techniques, cross polarized light photography (CPL) and fluorescence diagnosis (FD) using methyllevulinic acid and illumination with Wood's lamp for their ability to detect sub-clinical lesions.
  • METHODOLOGY: Twelve patients with at least five clinically visible AK lesions in a single contiguous 20 cm(2) area on the head were recruited.
  • Patients were assessed for baseline AK lesion counts (clinical and sub-clinical) at the screening visit and final counts at week 20.
  • RESULTS: The number of clinically observed AK lesions was significantly lower at week 12 and week 20 compared with baseline following imiquimod treatment versus vehicle.
  • CONCLUSION: The number of sub-clinical and clinical AK lesions detected during treatment with imiquimod can be better demonstrated using the methods of CPL and FD, but statistical significance was reached only using the CPL method.
  • However, results were encouraging and indicate that larger studies are needed to demonstrate the relevance of these two new methods for improved detection of clinical and especially sub-clinical AK lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Keratosis, Actinic / diagnosis. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20201959.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Levulinic Acids; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 3Q95S830W6 / methyl levulinate; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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9. Moloney FJ, Collins P: Randomized, double-blind, prospective study to compare topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid methylester with topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid photodynamic therapy for extensive scalp actinic keratosis. Br J Dermatol; 2007 Jul;157(1):87-91
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  • [Title] Randomized, double-blind, prospective study to compare topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid methylester with topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid photodynamic therapy for extensive scalp actinic keratosis.
  • BACKGROUND: 5-aminolaevlinic acid methylester (MAL) and 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) photodynamic therapy (PDT) are both effective treatment options for actinic keratosis (AK).
  • While MAL is significantly more expensive than ALA, no studies have directly compared their efficacy in the treatment of extensive scalp AK.
  • OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy and adverse effects of MAL-PDT with ALA-PDT in the treatment of scalp AK.
  • METHODS: Sixteen male patients aged 59-87 years with extensive scalp AK were randomized into a double-blind, split-scalp prospective study.
  • A blinded observer assessed efficacy comparing AK counts before and 1 month after treatment.
  • There was a mean reduction from baseline in AK counts with the use of ALA-PDT of 6.2 +/- 1.9 compared with 5.6 +/- 3.2 with MAL-PDT (P = 0.588).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that both ALA-PDT and MAL-PDT result in a significant reduction in scalp AK.
  • However, ALA-PDT is more painful than MAL-PDT in the treatment of extensive scalp AK.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / administration & dosage. Keratosis / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy / methods. Photosensitivity Disorders / drug therapy. Photosensitizing Agents / administration & dosage. Scalp Dermatoses / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17501954.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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10. Sherry SD, Miles BA, Finn RA: Long-term efficacy of carbon dioxide laser resurfacing for facial actinic keratosis. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 2007 Jun;65(6):1135-9
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Carbon dioxide .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term efficacy of carbon dioxide laser resurfacing for facial actinic keratosis.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and long-term effectiveness of carbon dioxide laser resurfacing in the treatment of patients with facial actinic keratosis.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart analysis was conducted of 31 patients who underwent full face carbon dioxide laser resurfacing for facial actinic keratosis from July 1998 to November 2002.
  • The average actinic keratosis free period, excluding 2 deceased patients, was 27.4 months.
  • CONCLUSION: Carbon dioxide laser resurfacing is an effective tool in the management of patients with facial actinic keratosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Facial Dermatoses / surgery. Keratosis / surgery. Laser Therapy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17517297.001).
  • [ISSN] 0278-2391
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 142M471B3J / Carbon Dioxide
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11. Zalaudek I, Giacomel J, Argenziano G, Hofmann-Wellenhof R, Micantonio T, Di Stefani A, Oliviero M, Rabinovitz H, Soyer HP, Peris K: Dermoscopy of facial nonpigmented actinic keratosis. Br J Dermatol; 2006 Nov;155(5):951-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Dermoscopy of facial nonpigmented actinic keratosis.
  • BACKGROUND: The accuracy of clinical diagnosis of nonpigmented, facial actinic keratosis (AK) is often suboptimal, even for experienced clinicians.
  • OBJECTIVES: To investigate the dermoscopic features of nonpigmented AK located on the head/neck that may assist the clinical diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: Four essential dermoscopic features were observed in facial AK: (i) erythema, revealing a marked pink-to-red 'pseudonetwork' surrounding the hair follicles (95%);.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A dermoscopic model of 'strawberry' pattern is presented, which may prove helpful in the in vivo diagnosis of nonpigmented, facial AK.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermoscopy / methods. Facial Dermatoses / diagnosis. Keratosis / diagnosis. Photosensitivity Disorders / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17034524.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
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12. Falagas ME, Angelousi AG, Peppas G: Imiquimod for the treatment of actinic keratosis: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2006 Sep;55(3):537-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Imiquimod for the treatment of actinic keratosis: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Keratosis / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16908371.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter; Meta-Analysis
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Aminoquinolines; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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13. de Roos KP, Beljaards RC: The Delphi panel in the economic evaluation of photodynamic therapy for actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma: poor results? Br J Dermatol; 2007 Jun;156(6):1393-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The Delphi panel in the economic evaluation of photodynamic therapy for actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma: poor results?
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Keratosis / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy / economics. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • [CommentOn] Br J Dermatol. 2006 Oct;155(4):784-90 [16965429.001]
  • (PMID = 17535242.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
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14. Askew DA, Mickan SM, Soyer HP, Wilkinson D: Effectiveness of 5-fluorouracil treatment for actinic keratosis--a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Int J Dermatol; 2009 May;48(5):453-63
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effectiveness of 5-fluorouracil treatment for actinic keratosis--a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19416373.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-4632
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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15. Stiefelhagen P: [Every 10th person has actinic keratosis. Cold, light and cream prevent skin cancer]. MMW Fortschr Med; 2005 Sep 29;147(39):14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Every 10th person has actinic keratosis. Cold, light and cream prevent skin cancer].
  • [Transliterated title] Jeder Zehnte hat eine aktinische Keratose. Kälte, Licht und Creme verhindern den Hautkrebs.

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  • (PMID = 16245772.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-3276
  • [Journal-full-title] MMW Fortschritte der Medizin
  • [ISO-abbreviation] MMW Fortschr Med
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] News
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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21. Hurt MA: The nature of solar (actinic) keratosis. Br J Dermatol; 2007 Feb;156(2):408-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The nature of solar (actinic) keratosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Keratosis / etiology. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / etiology. Ultraviolet Rays / adverse effects

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  • [CommentOn] Br J Dermatol. 2006 Jul;155(1):23-6 [16792747.001]
  • [CommentOn] Br J Dermatol. 2006 Jul;155(1):9-22 [16792746.001]
  • (PMID = 17223905.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
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22. Goldberg DJ: Case-based experience in the use of 5-fluorouracil cream 0.5% as monotherapy and in conjunction with glycolic acid peels for the treatment of actinic keratosis. J Cosmet Laser Ther; 2010 Feb;12(1):42-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Case-based experience in the use of 5-fluorouracil cream 0.5% as monotherapy and in conjunction with glycolic acid peels for the treatment of actinic keratosis.
  • Actinic keratosis, commonly indicative of photodamage, requires treatment secondary to the risk of progression to squamous cell carcinoma.
  • A number of effective treatments for actinic keratosis are available, including topical and lesion-directed therapies.
  • While lesion-directed therapies such as cryotherapy are appropriate for isolated lesions, topical 5-fluorouracil is an effective modality for the treatment of multiple facial actinic keratoses.
  • The cases presented here demonstrate the use of topical 5-fluorouracil cream 0.5% as monotherapy and in conjunction with glycolic acid peels to treat facial actinic keratoses in two patients with extensive histories of prior actinic keratosis and skin cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Chemexfoliation / methods. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Glycolates / therapeutic use. Keratolytic Agents / therapeutic use. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20085453.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-4180
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cosmetic and laser therapy : official publication of the European Society for Laser Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cosmet Laser Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glycolates; 0 / Keratolytic Agents; 79-14-1 / glycolic acid; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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23. Quaedvlieg PJ, Tirsi E, Thissen MR, Krekels GA: Actinic keratosis: how to differentiate the good from the bad ones? Eur J Dermatol; 2006 Jul-Aug;16(4):335-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Actinic keratosis: how to differentiate the good from the bad ones?
  • Our objective was to obtain practical clinical parameters to indicate those actinic keratoses (AK) that are at risk of becoming invasive.
  • The main outcome measure was the rates and clinical features of AK that transformed into SCC.
  • This study reviewed randomized and retrospective studies and reviews of AK and their risk of becoming SCC.
  • The only longitudinal study looking at the incidence of malignant transformation of AK to SCC dates from 1988.
  • Besides the known risk factors (skin type, photodamage, immunosuppression etc), based on this review we found clinical features that provide a practical guide to practitioners in the treatment of AK.
  • Although not prospectively studied, clinical parameters indicating those AK with an increased risk of malignancy are IDRBEU.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Sunlight / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 16935787.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-1122
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of dermatology : EJD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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24. Ferrándiz C: Update on actinic keratosis in clinical trial experience with imiquimod. Br J Dermatol; 2007 Dec;157 Suppl 2:32-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Update on actinic keratosis in clinical trial experience with imiquimod.
  • Actinic keratoses (AK) is a sun induced cutaneous lesion, currently considered as a squamous cell carcinoma in situ that has the potential to progress to invasive SCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Keratosis / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18067629.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
  • [Number-of-references] 9
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25. Feller L, Khammissa RA, Wood NH, Jadwat Y, Meyerov R, Lemmer J: Sunlight (actinic) keratosis: an update. J Prev Med Hyg; 2009 Dec;50(4):217-20

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sunlight (actinic) keratosis: an update.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis, Actinic

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  • (PMID = 20812516.001).
  • [ISSN] 1121-2233
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of preventive medicine and hygiene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Prev Med Hyg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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26. Jacobs RJ, Phillips G: Basal cell carcinoma mistaken for actinic keratosis. Clin Exp Optom; 2006 May;89(3):171-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Basal cell carcinoma mistaken for actinic keratosis.
  • Increasing age and UV exposure are well-known associations with precancerous and cancerous skin lesions, including actinic (solar) keratosis, and squamous and basal cell carcinomata.
  • This report describes a patient with a facial skin lesion close to an eye that was initially believed to be actinic (solar) keratosis but was subsequently diagnosed as a basal cell carcinoma (BCC).
  • The diagnosis of BCC was helped pre-operatively by manipulation of the surrounding facial skin, which revealed the characteristic rolled edges and telangiectasis.
  • The lesion was surgically excised and the diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma was confirmed by pathological examination.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Eyelid Neoplasms / pathology. Keratosis / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Sunlight / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 16637973.001).
  • [ISSN] 0816-4622
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & experimental optometry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Exp Optom
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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27. Vatve M, Ortonne JP, Birch-Machin MA, Gupta G: Management of field change in actinic keratosis. Br J Dermatol; 2007 Dec;157 Suppl 2:21-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of field change in actinic keratosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Keratosis / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18067627.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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28. Zide MF: Actinic keratosis: from the skin to the lip. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 2008 Jun;66(6):1162-76
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Actinic keratosis: from the skin to the lip.
  • PURPOSE: Actinic keratoses are commonly the result of intense sun damage to the skin and lips of susceptible patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Facial Dermatoses / surgery. Keratosis / surgery. Lip Diseases / surgery. Sunlight / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 18486781.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5053
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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29. Berman B, Villa AM, Ramirez CC: Mechanisms of action of new treatment modalities for actinic keratosis. J Drugs Dermatol; 2006 Feb;5(2):167-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mechanisms of action of new treatment modalities for actinic keratosis.
  • Actinic keratosis (AK) constitutes the initial lesion in a disease continuum that can progress to invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • In this article, we describe the mechanisms of action, tolerability, and efficacy of the most frequently used chemopreventative, chemotherapeutic, destructive, and novel immunologic methods for the control and treatment of actinic keratoses.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use. Antimetabolites / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Diclofenac / therapeutic use. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Keratosis / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy / methods

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  • (PMID = 16485885.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-9616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Drugs Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Antimetabolites; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Teratogens; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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30. Siller G, Gebauer K, Welburn P, Katsamas J, Ogbourne SM: PEP005 (ingenol mebutate) gel, a novel agent for the treatment of actinic keratosis: results of a randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled, multicentre, phase IIa study. Australas J Dermatol; 2009 Feb;50(1):16-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] PEP005 (ingenol mebutate) gel, a novel agent for the treatment of actinic keratosis: results of a randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled, multicentre, phase IIa study.
  • The sap of the plant Euphorbia peplus is a traditional remedy for skin conditions, including actinic keratosis.
  • This randomized, double-blind, vehicle-controlled, phase IIa study investigated the safety (and secondarily the efficacy) of two applications of ingenol mebutate gel in 58 patients with biopsy-confirmed actinic keratosis.
  • Ingenol mebutate gel is being developed as a short-course topical therapy for actinic keratosis and non-melanoma skin cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Diterpenes / therapeutic use. Esters / therapeutic use. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19178487.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-0960
  • [Journal-full-title] The Australasian journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Australas. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 3-ingenyl angelate; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Diterpenes; 0 / Esters; 0 / Gels
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31. Deltondo JA, Helm KF: Actinic keratosis: precancer, squamous cell carcinoma, or marker of field cancerization? G Ital Dermatol Venereol; 2009 Aug;144(4):441-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Actinic keratosis: precancer, squamous cell carcinoma, or marker of field cancerization?
  • The early detection, recognition, and progression of the actinic keratosis (AK) and its relationship with squamous cell carcinoma have long been an area of debate.
  • The role of AK as a marker for field cancerization will be here discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Keratosis, Actinic / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19755947.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-0488
  • [Journal-full-title] Giornale italiano di dermatologia e venereologia : organo ufficiale, Società italiana di dermatologia e sifilografia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Ital Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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32. Uhlenhake EE, Sangueza OP, Lee AD, Jorizzo JL: Spreading pigmented actinic keratosis: a review. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2010 Sep;63(3):499-506
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Spreading pigmented actinic keratosis: a review.
  • INTRODUCTION: Spreading pigmented actinic keratosis (SPAK) is a common, but uncommonly reported or appreciated, variant of classic actinic keratosis (AK).
  • It can mimic different pigmented lesions, which may be benign (eg, solar lentigo) or malignant (eg, lentigo maligna).
  • METHODS: A literature search was performed in both PubMed and MEDLINE databases using the search terms "spreading pigmented actinic keratosis," "pigmented solar keratosis," "pigmented actinic," and "pigmented solar."
  • RESULTS: SPAK is a rarely reported lesion that can be difficult to distinguish from other benign and malignant pigmented lesions, including seborrheic keratosis, melanoma in situ (lentigo maligna type), and lentigo maligna melanoma.
  • Pathologically, the lesion resembles classic AK with increased basal melanization.
  • CONCLUSIONS: SPAK can be associated with adjacent melanoma in situ; therefore, its diagnosis merits increased suspicion for coexisting melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Hutchinson's Melanotic Freckle / pathology. Keratosis, Actinic / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Dermoscopy / methods. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20334953.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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33. Kose O, Koc E, Erbil AH, Caliskan E, Kurumlu Z: Comparison of the efficacy and tolerability of 3% diclofenac sodium gel and 5% imiquimod cream in the treatment of actinic keratosis. J Dermatolog Treat; 2008;19(3):159-63
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparison of the efficacy and tolerability of 3% diclofenac sodium gel and 5% imiquimod cream in the treatment of actinic keratosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Topical diclofenac and imiquimod have been reported to be effective in the treatment of actinic keratosis, but a study to compare these two drugs has not been reported yet.
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and safety of topical 3% diclofenac gel plus hyaluronic acid and 5% imiquimod cream in the treatment of actinic keratosis.
  • METHODS: Forty-nine patients with actinic keratosis were enrolled in this randomized comparative open-label study.
  • CONCLUSION: The two drugs were found to be equally effective and safe in the treatment of actinic keratosis but complete remission was very low.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage. Aminoquinolines / administration & dosage. Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / administration & dosage. Diclofenac / administration & dosage. Keratosis / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18569272.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-1753
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatological treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dermatolog Treat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Gels; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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34. Zalaudek I, Ferrara G, Leinweber B, Mercogliano A, D'Ambrosio A, Argenziano G: Pitfalls in the clinical and dermoscopic diagnosis of pigmented actinic keratosis. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2005 Dec;53(6):1071-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pitfalls in the clinical and dermoscopic diagnosis of pigmented actinic keratosis.
  • Pigmented actinic keratosis and melanoma may exhibit overlapping clinical features, thus representing a diagnostic challenge for dermatologists.
  • We report the clinical and dermoscopic features of two pigmented actinic keratoses to discuss the difficulties in their preoperative differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermoscopy. Keratosis / diagnosis. Photosensitivity Disorders / diagnosis. Pigmentation Disorders / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16310072.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. Schwartz RA, Bridges TM, Butani AK, Ehrlich A: Actinic keratosis: an occupational and environmental disorder. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2008 May;22(5):606-15
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Actinic keratosis: an occupational and environmental disorder.
  • Solar ultraviolet light electromagnetic waves are a known environmental carcinogenic agent closely associated with the development of skin cancer in light-complexioned individuals.
  • We will review the topic of actinic keratoses among these individuals as this common rudimentary form of superficial cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma is explored in greater detail.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Environmental Exposure / adverse effects. Keratosis / etiology. Occupational Exposure / adverse effects. Skin Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Ultraviolet Rays / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 18410618.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-3083
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 79
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36. Lentini M, Schepis C, Cuppari DA, Batolo D: Tenascin expression in actinic keratosis. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Nov;33(11):716-20

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Tenascin expression in actinic keratosis.
  • Actinic keratoses (AKs) are intraepidermal neoplastic lesions of the sun-exposed skin.
  • METHODS: We performed an immunohistochemical study using tenascin monoclonal antibody diluted 1 : 50 on 150 cases of AKs classified, respectively, in histotypes (38 hypertrophic, 18 atrophic, 21 bowenoid, 19 acantolytic, and 40 mixed) and in stages (27 stage I, 46 stage II, 42 stage III, and 35 stage IV; 14 in tumoral progression).
  • [MeSH-major] Actins / metabolism. Keratosis / metabolism. Tenascin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Adhesion. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Disease Progression. Epidermis / metabolism. Epidermis / pathology. Gene Expression Regulation. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratinocytes / metabolism. Keratinocytes / pathology. Severity of Illness Index

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  • (PMID = 17083689.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Tenascin
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37. Smits T, van Laarhoven AI, Staassen A, van de Kerkhof PC, van Erp PE, Gerritsen MJ: Induction of protoporphyrin IX by aminolaevulinic acid in actinic keratosis, psoriasis and normal skin: preferential porphyrin enrichment in differentiated cells. Br J Dermatol; 2009 Apr;160(4):849-57
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  • [Title] Induction of protoporphyrin IX by aminolaevulinic acid in actinic keratosis, psoriasis and normal skin: preferential porphyrin enrichment in differentiated cells.
  • OBJECTIVES: To study the intrinsic PpIX-accumulating capabilities of skin explants from lesional and nonlesional skin in psoriasis and actinic keratosis, with normal skin serving as a control, and to study PpIX accumulation in relation to differentiation status in normal skin.
  • METHODS: Skin explants from patients with psoriasis, actinic keratosis and normal skin were incubated with ALA and PpIX was measured spectrofluorometrically.
  • Preferential PpIX accumulation observed in suprabasal epidermal keratinocytes and confluent cell cultures points towards a terminal differentiation-specific effect.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / pharmacology. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Photosensitizing Agents / pharmacology. Protoporphyrins / biosynthesis. Psoriasis / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19175603.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / Porphyrins; 0 / Protoporphyrins; 553-12-8 / protoporphyrin IX; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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38. Ulrich M, Drecoll U, Stockfleth E: Emerging drugs for actinic keratosis. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs; 2010 Dec;15(4):545-55
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Emerging drugs for actinic keratosis.
  • IMPORTANCE OF THE FIELD: Actinic keratoses (AK) represent a worldwide problem with continuously increasing incidence.
  • AK are characterized by a proliferation of atypical keratinocytes limited to the epidermis, but they may develop into invasive squamous cell carcinoma.
  • AREAS COVERED IN THIS REVIEW: An overview about current treatment modalities for AK including, among others, their mechanism of action, application scheme and common side effects.
  • WHAT THE READER WILL GAIN: The reader of this review will be informed about all current treatment modalities for AK.
  • Furthermore, the reader will gain knowledge about ongoing research in this field and novel topical drugs for the treatment of AK.
  • TAKE HOME MESSAGE: Many treatment modalities are available for the treatment of AK.
  • In this regard, several topical drugs have been approved for AK, differing in clearance rates, side effects, application and cost.
  • Research is continuing aiming in the development of the "ideal" treatment of AK which combines high clearance rates with few side effects, short treatment duration and low costs.
  • [MeSH-major] Drug Design. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20670178.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-7623
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on emerging drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Emerg Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
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39. Kaminaka C, Yamamoto Y, Yonei N, Kishioka A, Kondo T, Furukawa F: Phenol peels as a novel therapeutic approach for actinic keratosis and Bowen disease: prospective pilot trial with assessment of clinical, histologic, and immunohistochemical correlations. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2009 Apr;60(4):615-25
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phenol peels as a novel therapeutic approach for actinic keratosis and Bowen disease: prospective pilot trial with assessment of clinical, histologic, and immunohistochemical correlations.
  • OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to investigate the efficacy and prognostic relevance of phenol peels in Japanese patients with actinic keratosis and Bowen disease using clinical and histologic criteria.
  • We evaluated parameters for epidermal thickness, proliferation, dysplasia, and apoptosis, and clinical characteristics to correlate phenol peels with assessments of efficacy, patient-selection criteria, and risk for transformation to cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSION: We conclude that phenol peels are very effective for treating precancerous lesions of actinic keratosis and Bowen disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / drug therapy. Keratolytic Agents / therapeutic use. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Phenols / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19293009.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Keratolytic Agents; 0 / Phenols
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40. Norris P: Cytological diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis, using Papanicolaou and May-Grunwald-Giemsa stained cutaneous tissue smear. Cytopathology; 2008 Oct;19(5):333-4; author reply 334
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  • [Title] Cytological diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis, using Papanicolaou and May-Grunwald-Giemsa stained cutaneous tissue smear.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy. Carcinoma, Basal Cell. Cytodiagnosis / methods. Keratosis

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  • [CommentOn] Cytopathology. 2008 Oct;19(5):316-22 [17916094.001]
  • (PMID = 18513288.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2303
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytopathology : official journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
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41. Pock L, Drlík L, Hercogová J: Dermatoscopy of pigmented actinic keratosis--a striking similarity to lentigo maligna. Int J Dermatol; 2007 Apr;46(4):414-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Dermatoscopy of pigmented actinic keratosis--a striking similarity to lentigo maligna.
  • BACKGROUND: Pigmented actinic keratosis (PAK) resembles lentigo maligna (LM) clinically and histopathologically in some cases.
  • OBJECTIVES: To describe the dermatoscopical characteristics of this uncommon variant of actinic keratosis and evaluate whether these characteristics show common features with LM.
  • [MeSH-major] Nevus, Pigmented / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Dermoscopy. Diagnosis, Differential. Face / pathology. Female. Humans. Keratosis / diagnosis. Keratosis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17442088.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-9059
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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42. Patel MJ, Stockfleth E: Does progression from actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease end with treatment: diclofenac 3% gel, an old drug in a new environment? Br J Dermatol; 2007 May;156 Suppl 3:53-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Does progression from actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease end with treatment: diclofenac 3% gel, an old drug in a new environment?
  • Progression from actinic keratosis (AK) and Bowen's disease (BD) to invasive disease involves a complex cascade of events.
  • The preparation of diclofenac 3% gel (Solaraze; Shire Pharmaceuticals) has been shown to be efficacious and well tolerated in AK.
  • Given its mechanism of action, we hypothosize that diclofenac 3% gel may have potential to halt the progression of actinic keratoses (AKs) in the setting of field cancerisation and BD.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / administration & dosage. Bowen's Disease / drug therapy. Diclofenac / administration & dosage. Keratosis / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Disease Progression. Gels. Humans. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17488408.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Gels; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac
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43. Davis DA, Donahue JP, Bost JE, Horn TD: The diagnostic concordance of actinic keratosis and squamous cell carcinoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2005 Sep;32(8):546-51
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  • [Title] The diagnostic concordance of actinic keratosis and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Because the diagnosis of actinic keratosis (AK) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is not uniform and because such terms are not consonant with the nomenclature of other human epithelial malignancies, nomenclature revisions have been attempted.
  • One hundred dermatopathologists were solicited to review 15 tissue sections representing a spectrum of varying thickness epidermal malignancy and to choose either AK or SCC as the diagnosis.
  • Among the 77 participating dermatopathologists, intraclass correlation was high for what was perceived as AK, SCC, and their differentiation.
  • Development of a two-tiered diagnostic system that retains our present diagnostic capabilities, but better fits the pathobiology of superficial epidermal malignancy is suggested.
  • The diagnostic concordance of actinic keratosis and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Keratosis / diagnosis. Photosensitivity Disorders / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Skin / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma in Situ / classification. Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Reproducibility of Results

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  • [CommentIn] J Cutan Pathol. 2006 Sep;33(9):654; author reply 655 [16965343.001]
  • (PMID = 16115053.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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44. Stritt A, Merk HF, Braathen LR, von Felbert V: Photodynamic therapy in the treatment of actinic keratosis. Photochem Photobiol; 2008 Mar-Apr;84(2):388-98

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Photodynamic therapy in the treatment of actinic keratosis.
  • The efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with 5-aminolevulinate and methyl aminolevulinate in the treatment of actinic keratosis has been demonstrated in a large number of clinical studies over the last several years.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy

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  • (PMID = 18221454.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-8655
  • [Journal-full-title] Photochemistry and photobiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Photochem. Photobiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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45. Christensen E, Bofin A, Gudmundsdóttir I, Skogvoll E: Cytological diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis, using Papanicolaou and May-Grünwald-Giemsa stained cutaneous tissue smear. Cytopathology; 2008 Oct;19(5):316-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cytological diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis, using Papanicolaou and May-Grünwald-Giemsa stained cutaneous tissue smear.
  • The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate the diagnostic performance of scrape cytology using two different cytological staining techniques, and to evaluate additional touch imprint cytology, with that of histopathology of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and actinic keratosis (AK).
  • METHODS: We investigated 50 BCC and 28 AK histologically verified lesions, from 41 and 25 patients, respectively.
  • RESULTS: Scrape cytodiagnosis agreed with histopathology in 48 (Pap) and 47 (MGG) of the 50 BCC cases, and in 26 of 28 (Pap) and 21 of 26 (MGG) AK cases, yielding sensitivities of 96%, 94%, 93% and 81%, respectively.
  • No significant difference in sensitivity between the two staining methods was found but a trend towards higher Pap sensitivity for AK was noted (P = 0.10).
  • Touch imprint cytology confirmed histopathology in 38 of the 77 cases of BCC and AK.
  • CONCLUSION: Cytological diagnosis with either Pap or MGG stain for BCC and AK is reliable, and differentiates well between BCC and AK.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Coloring Agents. Cytodiagnosis / methods. Eosine Yellowish-(YS) / metabolism. Keratosis / diagnosis. Methylene Blue / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [CommentIn] Cytopathology. 2008 Oct;19(5):333-4; author reply 334 [18513288.001]
  • (PMID = 17916094.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2303
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytopathology : official journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Coloring Agents; 0 / May-Grunwald Giemsa; T42P99266K / Methylene Blue; TDQ283MPCW / Eosine Yellowish-(YS)
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46. Sandberg C, Stenquist B, Rosdahl I, Ros AM, Synnerstad I, Karlsson M, Gudmundson F, Ericson MB, Larkö O, Wennberg AM: Important factors for pain during photodynamic therapy for actinic keratosis. Acta Derm Venereol; 2006;86(5):404-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Important factors for pain during photodynamic therapy for actinic keratosis.
  • Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an efficient treatment for actinic keratosis.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate pain during PDT for actinic keratosis.
  • The redness of the actinic lesions was found to be related to PDT-induced pain (p=0.01), the reduction of actinic area (p=0.007), and the cure rate (p=0.01).
  • The redder the actinic area, the better the treatment outcome and the more pain experienced.
  • Patients with the largest reduction in the actinic area experienced more pain (p=0.053).
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis / drug therapy. Pain / etiology. Photochemotherapy / adverse effects. Photosensitivity Disorders / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16955183.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5555
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta dermato-venereologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Derm. Venereol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] S07O44R1ZM / Capsaicin
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47. Nakano A, Tamada Y, Watanabe D, Ishida N, Yamashita N, Kuhara T, Yanagishita T, Kawamura C, Akita Y, Matsumoto Y: A pilot study to assess the efficacy of photodynamic therapy for Japanese patients with actinic keratosis in relation to lesion size and histological severity. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed; 2009 Feb;25(1):37-40

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A pilot study to assess the efficacy of photodynamic therapy for Japanese patients with actinic keratosis in relation to lesion size and histological severity.
  • BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-based photodynamic therapy (PDT) is effective for actinic keratosis (AK); few studies have examined Oriental patients.
  • The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy of PDT for the treatment of Japanese AK patients classified by lesion size and histological severity.
  • METHODS: Thirty patients with solitary AK lesions were divided into two groups according to diameter: a small lesion group (SL), diameter < or =10 mm and a larger lesion group (LL), diameter >10 mm, and histological severity: Group I (mild and moderate) and Group II (severe).
  • CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that ALA-PDT might be useful for treatment of Japanese AK.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Keratosis, Actinic / pathology. Photochemotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19152514.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0781
  • [Journal-full-title] Photodermatology, photoimmunology & photomedicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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48. Padilla RS, Sebastian S, Jiang Z, Nindl I, Larson R: Gene expression patterns of normal human skin, actinic keratosis, and squamous cell carcinoma: a spectrum of disease progression. Arch Dermatol; 2010 Mar;146(3):288-93
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Gene expression patterns of normal human skin, actinic keratosis, and squamous cell carcinoma: a spectrum of disease progression.
  • OBJECTIVES: To identify and compare the gene expression profiles of actinic keratosis (AK) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and to further clarify critical genetic alterations in the evolution of SCC from normal sun-damaged human skin.
  • Our model was cross-validated using data from a separate study and clearly distinguishes between skin tumors (AK and SCC) and normal skin independent of sun exposure.
  • Genes that were upregulated in AK and SCC were downregulated in normal skin, and genes that were downregulated in AK and SCC were upregulated in normal skin.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The finding of similar differentially expressed genes in AK and SCC confirms that AK is a precursor lesion of SCC and indicates that they are closely related genetically.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation. Keratosis, Actinic / genetics. RNA / genetics. Skin / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / methods


49. Babilas P, Knobler R, Hummel S, Gottschaller C, Maisch T, Koller M, Landthaler M, Szeimies RM: Variable pulsed light is less painful than light-emitting diodes for topical photodynamic therapy of actinic keratosis: a prospective randomized controlled trial. Br J Dermatol; 2007 Jul;157(1):111-7
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  • [Title] Variable pulsed light is less painful than light-emitting diodes for topical photodynamic therapy of actinic keratosis: a prospective randomized controlled trial.
  • BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) of actinic keratosis (AK) using methylaminolaevulinate (MAL) is an effective and safe treatment option, but the procedure is painful.
  • METHODS: Topical MAL-PDT was conducted in 25 patients with AK (n = 238) who were suitable for two-sided comparison.
  • The overall mean +/- SD infiltration and keratosis score at 3 months after treatment was 0.86 +/- 0.71 (LED system) vs. 1.05 +/- 0.74 (VPL device) (no statistically significant difference; P = 0.292).
  • CONCLUSIONS: VPL used for MAL-PDT is an efficient alternative for the treatment of AK that results in complete remission and cosmesis equivalent to LED irradiation but causes significantly less pain.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis / drug therapy. Pain / physiopathology. Photochemotherapy / adverse effects. Photosensitivity Disorders / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17542980.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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50. Tarstedt M, Rosdahl I, Berne B, Svanberg K, Wennberg AM: A randomized multicenter study to compare two treatment regimens of topical methyl aminolevulinate (Metvix)-PDT in actinic keratosis of the face and scalp. Acta Derm Venereol; 2005;85(5):424-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A randomized multicenter study to compare two treatment regimens of topical methyl aminolevulinate (Metvix)-PDT in actinic keratosis of the face and scalp.
  • Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with topical methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) administered in two treatment sessions separated by 1 week is an effective treatment for actinic keratoses.
  • Two hundred and eleven patients with 413 thin to moderately thick actinic keratoses were randomized to either a single treatment with PDT using topical MAL (regimen I; n=105) or two treatments 1 week apart (regimen II; n=106).
  • The conclusion of this study is that single treatment with topical MAL-PDT is effective for thin actinic keratosis lesions; however, repeated treatment is recommended for thicker or non-responding lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Facial Dermatoses / drug therapy. Keratosis / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy. Photosensitizing Agents / administration & dosage. Scalp Dermatoses / drug therapy. Ultraviolet Rays / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 16159735.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5555
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta dermato-venereologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Derm. Venereol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Norway
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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51. Zelickson B, Counters J, Coles C, Selim M: Light patch: preliminary report of a novel form of blue light delivery for the treatment of actinic keratosis. Dermatol Surg; 2005 Mar;31(3):375-8
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  • [Title] Light patch: preliminary report of a novel form of blue light delivery for the treatment of actinic keratosis.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a novel light patch formulated for blue light delivery and topical activation of gamma-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) during photodynamic therapy for the treatment of actinic keratosis (AK).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten volunteers with past unsuccessful treatment of AK were enrolled.
  • Areas with AK lesions were treated with 20% ALA (Levulan) for an incubation period of 1 hour.
  • The percentage of visible AK lesions cleared at the 3-month follow-up determined therapeutic efficacy.
  • CONCLUSION: Preliminary results show that the blue light patch is a potentially safe, effective, and alternative method for light delivery and topical ALA activation during photodynamic therapy of AK.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / therapeutic use. Keratosis / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 15841647.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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52. Bagazgoitia L, Cuevas J, Juarranz A: Expression of p53 and p16 in actinic keratosis, bowenoid actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2010 Feb;24(2):228-30
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  • [Title] Expression of p53 and p16 in actinic keratosis, bowenoid actinic keratosis and Bowen's disease.
  • INTRODUCTION: Bowen's disease (BD) and bowenoid actinic keratosis (bAK) have traditionally been differentiated according to the presence or absence of dysplasia in the follicular epithelium. p16 has been suggested to be a useful tool to make the differential diagnosis between BD and AK and as a marker of bad prognosis.
  • MATERIALS: Five biopsies of BD, five of AK and five of bAK where stained for p53 and p16.
  • DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: These findings suggest a common pathogenic mechanism for BD and bAK. bAK might have worse prognosis than AK. p16 might not be useful as a tool for differential diagnosis between AK and BD because bAK and BD show an extremely similar immunohistochemical pattern.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / metabolism. Genes, p16. Keratosis, Actinic / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19515076.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-3083
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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53. Choi KH, Kim GM, Kim SY: The keratin-14 expression in actinic keratosis and squamous cell carcinoma: is this a prognostic factor for tumor progression? Cancer Res Treat; 2010 Jun;42(2):107-14
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  • [Title] The keratin-14 expression in actinic keratosis and squamous cell carcinoma: is this a prognostic factor for tumor progression?
  • PURPOSE: Actinic keratosis (AK) is an incipient form of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • We determined if the pattern of expression of keratin-14 (K14) is a factor for tumor progression in AK and SCC.
  • Among the 16 patients, 4 were diagnosed with both SCC and AK at the same site, but AK developed first and SCC developed subsequently.
  • Thus, SCC may have evolved from AK.
  • The other 12 patients were only diagnosed with AK.
  • RESULTS: In all of the AK and SCC tissues, basement membranes showed positive staining for K14.
  • However, strong reactivities were shown in the spinous and granular layers and focuses of dermal invasion in the SCC tissues developed from AK.
  • Two and 3 of the 12 AK cases had moderately positive reactions for K14 in the spinous and granular layers, respectively.
  • Two of the 12 AK cases had weak-to-moderate positive reactions in the basal, spinous, and horny layers for p16(INK4a).
  • CONCLUSION: The results of our study advance our understanding of the pathogenesis of SCC developing from AK.
  • The results also indicate a differential role in the control of K14 in normal epithelia, AK, and SCC.
  • K14 expression in the spinous and granular layers may be a prognostic factor for tumor progression of AK.

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  • (PMID = 20622965.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-9256
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research and treatment : official journal of Korean Cancer Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res Treat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2901083
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Actinic / Carcinoma / Keratin-14 / Keratosis / Squamous cell / p16INK4a
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54. Szeimies RM, Radny P, Sebastian M, Borrosch F, Dirschka T, Krähn-Senftleben G, Reich K, Pabst G, Voss D, Foguet M, Gahlmann R, Lübbert H, Reinhold U: Photodynamic therapy with BF-200 ALA for the treatment of actinic keratosis: results of a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III study. Br J Dermatol; 2010 Aug;163(2):386-94
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  • [Title] Photodynamic therapy with BF-200 ALA for the treatment of actinic keratosis: results of a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III study.
  • BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) provides a therapeutic option for the treatment of actinic keratosis (AK).
  • A new stable nanoemulsion-based ALA formulation, BF-200 ALA, is currently in clinical development for PDT of AK.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of PDT of AK with BF-200 ALA.
  • A total of 122 patients with four to eight mild to moderate AK lesions on the face and/or the bald scalp were included in eight German study centres.
  • CONCLUSIONS: BF-200 ALA is a very effective new formulation for the treatment of AK with PDT.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / therapeutic use. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy / methods. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use

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  • [CommentIn] Br J Dermatol. 2010 Aug;163(2):236-7 [20666768.001]
  • (PMID = 20518784.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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55. Annemans L, Caekelbergh K, Roelandts R, Boonen H, Leys C, Nikkels AF, van Den Haute V, van Quickenborne L, Verhaeghe E, Leroy B: Real-life practice study of the clinical outcome and cost-effectiveness of photodynamic therapy using methyl aminolevulinate (MAL-PDT) in the management of actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma. Eur J Dermatol; 2008 Sep-Oct;18(5):539-46
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  • [Title] Real-life practice study of the clinical outcome and cost-effectiveness of photodynamic therapy using methyl aminolevulinate (MAL-PDT) in the management of actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma.
  • Clinical trials have shown that photodynamic therapy using methyl aminolevulinate (MAL-PDT) is an effective treatment for actinic keratosis (AK), and nodular and superficial basal cell carcinoma (nBCC and sBCC) unsuitable for other available therapies.
  • The objectives of this prospective, observational, one arm study were (i) to verify in a real-life practice study the results obtained in previous clinical trials with MAL-PDT in the treatment of AK, nBCC and sBCC;.
  • Patients with AK and/or BCC were selected according to Belgian reimbursement criteria for treatment with MAL-PDT.
  • Data were collected from 247 patients (117 AK, 130 BCC).
  • A complete clinical response was obtained for 83% of AK (85/102) and BCC (97/116) patients.
  • A good or excellent cosmetic outcome was obtained for 95% of AK patients and 93% of BCC patients.
  • Total cost of care per patient was euro 381 for AK, euro 318 for nBCC, and euro 298 for sBCC.
  • Total cost per lesion was euro 58 for AK (identical to model prediction), euro 316 for nBCC and euro 178 for sBCC (both within 20% of model prediction).
  • Costs calculated from this study confirm predicted cost-effectiveness in the original model for MAL-PDT in the management of AK and BCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / economics. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Keratosis, Actinic / economics. Photochemotherapy / economics. Photosensitizing Agents / economics. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / economics

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  • (PMID = 18693157.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-1122
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of dermatology : EJD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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56. McLoone N, Donnelly RF, Walsh M, Dolan OM, McLoone S, McKenna K, McCarron PA: Aminolaevulinic acid diffusion characteristics in 'in vitro' normal human skin and actinic keratosis: implications for topical photodynamic therapy. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed; 2008 Aug;24(4):183-90
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  • [Title] Aminolaevulinic acid diffusion characteristics in 'in vitro' normal human skin and actinic keratosis: implications for topical photodynamic therapy.
  • BACKGROUND: The response rate of aminolaevulinic acid (ALA)-based photodynamic therapy (PDT) in certain subtypes of actinic keratosis (AK), such as hypertrophic and hyperkeratotic lesions, is variable, an effect attributable to a supposed lack of ALA penetration.
  • A detailed and depth-related profile of spatial ALA permeation in AK following drug administration would lead to a greater understanding of concentrations achievable before protoporphyrin IX biosynthesis and subsequent PDT.
  • METHODS: ALA penetration through excised normal human skin (NS) and AK lesions was evaluated using a cryostatic sectioning technique and radio-isotope counting following drug delivery using a novel, bioadhesive patch, loaded with 19, 38 or 50 mg/cm(2) ALA.
  • RESULTS: Distinct differences in ALA concentration with respect to depth between AK and NS samples were shown, particularly within the superficial layers of the tissue structure, down to a depth of 1.0 mm.
  • Patch application times were shown to influence ALA concentrations in tissue, but there was no clear correlation between ALA penetration in AK lesions taken from different body locations and from patients of different age.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Sizable variation in ALA concentration was a prominent feature of profiles through AK lesions, which may explain the variation of observed protoporphyrin IX production seen in the clinical implementation of AK PDT.
  • That said, the results of this study show sufficient ALA penetration to a depth of 1.0 mm, which should be satisfactory for successful treatment of the majority of non-hyperkeratotic, hypertrophic AK using patch-based delivery methods.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / pharmacokinetics. Keratosis / metabolism. Photosensitizing Agents / pharmacokinetics. Skin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18717959.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0781
  • [Journal-full-title] Photodermatology, photoimmunology & photomedicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carbon Radioisotopes; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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57. Ooi T, Barnetson RS, Zhuang L, McKane S, Lee JH, Slade HB, Halliday GM: Imiquimod-induced regression of actinic keratosis is associated with infiltration by T lymphocytes and dendritic cells: a randomized controlled trial. Br J Dermatol; 2006 Jan;154(1):72-8
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  • [Title] Imiquimod-induced regression of actinic keratosis is associated with infiltration by T lymphocytes and dendritic cells: a randomized controlled trial.
  • BACKGROUND: Imiquimod 5% cream is a topically applied immune response modifier that has been shown to give effective treatment of actinic keratosis (AK).
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine the nature of cellular infiltrates induced by the application of imiquimod to AK lesions and to study cells involved in the cutaneous immune response.
  • Each patient had punch biopsies of two distinct AK lesions: a lesion was biopsied before treatment to obtain baseline biomarker levels, and a different lesion was biopsied after 2 weeks of treatment.
  • Complete clearance of all treated AK lesions was achieved in five of 11 (45%) imiquimod patients and in none of six vehicle patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Dendritic Cells / drug effects. Keratosis / drug therapy. Photosensitivity Disorders / drug therapy. T-Lymphocyte Subsets / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 16403097.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Interferon Inducers; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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58. López-Tizón E, Mencía-Gutiérrez E, Garrido-Ruíz M, Gutiérrez-Díaz E, López-Ríos F: Clinicopathological study of 21 cases of eyelid actinic keratosis. Int Ophthalmol; 2009 Oct;29(5):379-84
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  • [Title] Clinicopathological study of 21 cases of eyelid actinic keratosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic keratosis (AK) is an intraepidermal malignancy precursor form of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), which generally occurs in fair-skinned individuals with long-term sun exposure.
  • The most frequent AK type was type I (76.2%).
  • [MeSH-major] Eyelid Diseases / pathology. Keratosis, Actinic / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18633577.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-2630
  • [Journal-full-title] International ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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59. Warino L, Tusa M, Camacho F, Teuschler H, Fleischer AB Jr, Feldman SR: Frequency and cost of actinic keratosis treatment. Dermatol Surg; 2006 Aug;32(8):1045-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Frequency and cost of actinic keratosis treatment.
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic keratosis (AK) is a common lesion with its highest incidence in the aged population.
  • Although treatment strategies for AK have continued to develop, the cost of such treatments has not been recently investigated.
  • PURPOSE: The purpose of this article is to determine the frequency of visits for AK, the methods used to treat AK, and the cost of the treatments used annually.
  • METHODS: Data from the Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey and National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey were used to determine the frequency of office visits for AK and the frequency of destructive procedures and topical treatment of AK.
  • RESULTS: There are an estimated 5.2 million AK visits annually, 60% of which are made by the Medicare population.
  • A total of Dollars 920 million was spent on the treatment of AK annually, 6% being spent on topical therapy, 43% on office visits, and 51% on destructive procedures.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Even though new topical therapies are evolving for the treatment of AK, destructive procedures remain the standard of care when considering frequency of use, efficacy, and cost control.
  • [MeSH-major] Costs and Cost Analysis. Keratosis / economics. Keratosis / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16918567.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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60. Akay BN, Kocyigit P, Heper AO, Erdem C: Dermatoscopy of flat pigmented facial lesions: diagnostic challenge between pigmented actinic keratosis and lentigo maligna. Br J Dermatol; 2010 Dec;163(6):1212-7
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  • [Title] Dermatoscopy of flat pigmented facial lesions: diagnostic challenge between pigmented actinic keratosis and lentigo maligna.
  • BACKGROUND: The similarity between clinical pictures of pigmented actinic keratosis (PAK) and lentigo maligna (LM) is well known.
  • The lesions showing one or more dermatoscopic features considered as specific patterns for the diagnosis of LM/LMM, mainly slate-grey to black dots and globules, slate-grey areas, annular-granular pattern, asymmetrical pigmented follicular openings, black blotches, rhomboidal structures, hyperpigmented rim of follicular openings, slate-grey streaks and dark streaks, were included in the study selectively.
  • RESULTS: PAK was diagnosed in 67, LM or LMM in 20 and lichen planus-like keratosis in two lesions, histopathologically.
  • As dermatoscopic diagnosis of a pigmented skin lesion cannot be based on the presence of a single criterion, we may conclude that histopathology still remains the gold standard for correct diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Facial Dermatoses / pathology. Hutchinson's Melanotic Freckle / pathology. Keratosis, Actinic / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Dermoscopy. Diagnosis, Differential. Face / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Young Adult

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 The Authors. BJD © 2010 British Association of Dermatologists.
  • (PMID = 21083845.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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61. Tomas D, Kruslin B, Cupic H, Stanimirovic A, Bosnjak B, Lovricevic I, Belicza M: Correlation between Bcl-2 and Bax in atrophic and hypertrophic type of actinic keratosis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2006 Jan;20(1):51-7
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  • [Title] Correlation between Bcl-2 and Bax in atrophic and hypertrophic type of actinic keratosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Recent investigations consider actinic keratosis (AK) as an earliest visible pattern of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • We have analysed the expression of apoptosis-related proteins TP53, Bcl-2 and Bax in 30 atrophic and 30 hypertrophic AK cases.
  • RESULTS: Expression of TP53 showed no significant differences between two analysed groups (chi2-test, P = 0.35636) whereas expression of Bcl-2 and Bax protein was significantly higher in atrophic compared to hypertrophic AK (chi2-test, P = 0.01458 and P = 0.00358, respectively).
  • Comparison of Bcl-2 : Bax ratio in two analysed AK showed significantly higher value in hypertrophic compared to atrophic AK (Mann-Whitney U test, P = 0.02272).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results may indicate higher resistance of keratinocytes on apoptotic stimuli in hypertrophic compared to atrophic AK.
  • Thus, we suppose that keratinocytes in hypertrophic AK live longer and probably have higher propensity for additional mutations and conversion to overt SCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis / metabolism. bcl-2-Associated X Protein / metabolism. bcl-X Protein / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16405608.001).
  • [ISSN] 0926-9959
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein; 0 / bcl-X Protein
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62. Jirakulaporn T, Mathew J, Lindgren BR, Dudek AZ: Efficacy of capecitabine in secondary prevention of skin cancer in solid organ-transplanted recipients (OTR). J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):1519

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Topical 5% 5-FU has been used to successfully treat squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in situ and actinic keratosis (AK).
  • Cumulative incidence rates of SCC, BCC, and AK before and after treatment were scored and statistically compared for each patient with a non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test.
  • Mean incidence rates of SCC, BCC, and AK before treatment were 0.45, 0.05, and 4.99 lesions per month, respectively.
  • Mean incidence rates of SCC, BCC, and AK after treatment were 0.22, 0.04, and 2.80 lesions per month, respectively.
  • The differences in incidence rates of SCC, BCC, and AK before and after treatment were 0.24, 0.02, and 2.08 lesions per month with p value of 0.048, 0.844, and 0.151, respectively.

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  • (PMID = 27964327.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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63. Brasanac D, Boricic I, Todorovic V, Tomanovic N, Radojevic S: Cyclin A and beta-catenin expression in actinic keratosis, Bowen's disease and invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. Br J Dermatol; 2005 Dec;153(6):1166-75
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cyclin A and beta-catenin expression in actinic keratosis, Bowen's disease and invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the skin.
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic keratosis (AK) has been defined as a precancerous lesion or an early phase in the evolution of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and histological changes seen in the individual cells of an AK are indistinguishable from those seen in SCC, which invade the dermis.
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine cyclin A and beta-catenin expression pattern in cutaneous SCC and in in situ lesions classified as keratinocytic intraepidermal neoplasia (KIN) and, using traditional terms, as AK and Bowen's disease (BD), and to analyse it in relation to SCC differentiation, diameter and thickness.
  • On histological examination, 53 lesions were diagnosed as AK, 16 as BD and 41 as SCC-11 well differentiated (WD), 16 moderately differentiated (MD) and 14 poorly differentiated (PD).
  • RESULTS: Diffuse cyclin A presence was observed more frequently in BD than in AK (P < 0.0001) or SCC (P = 0.0002), and in SCC-PD compared with SCC-WD (P < 0.0001) or SCC-MD (P = 0.0003).
  • Cyclin A LI was significantly lower (P < 0.05) in AK than in BD or SCC, but no difference between BD and SCC was found, and LI in BD was even higher than in SCC-WD or SCC-MD, while analysis regarding SCC differentiation and KIN classification revealed the same correlation as for the cyclin A distribution.
  • Reduced or absent beta-catenin membranous staining was found in 90 cases (81.8%), more often in SCC than in AK (P = 0.03) or in AK and BD grouped together (P = 0.02).
  • Diffuse loss of membranous beta-catenin staining showed 36 lesions (32.7%), more frequently SCC than AK (P = 0.003) or AK and BD grouped (P = 0.006), as well as SCC-PD compared with SCC-WD (P = 0.01) and SCC-MD (P = 0.03), whereas all KIN comparisons remained nonsignificant.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Cyclin A LI showed greater difference between AK and BD than between BD and SCC, suggesting that increased proliferation (measured by cyclin A LI) characterizes progression of in situ lesions from AK to BD, whereas reduced beta-catenin expression separates more clearly SCC from the in situ lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Cyclin A / metabolism. Keratosis / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. beta Catenin / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Bowen's Disease / metabolism. Bowen's Disease / pathology. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / metabolism. Precancerous Conditions / pathology


64. Goldberg LH, Kaplan B, Vergilis-Kalner I, Landau J: Liquid nitrogen: temperature control in the treatment of actinic keratosis. Dermatol Surg; 2010 Dec;36(12):1956-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Liquid nitrogen: temperature control in the treatment of actinic keratosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic keratoses (AKs) are in situ epidermal tumors that may progress to invasive squamous cell carcinomas.
  • No recurrence of AK, scarring, or hypopigmentation was noted.
  • [MeSH-major] Cryosurgery / methods. Keratosis, Actinic / surgery. Nitrogen / therapeutic use

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.
  • (PMID = 21070460.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4725
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] N762921K75 / Nitrogen
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65. Ritter CG, Kuhl IC, Lenhardt C, Weissbluth ML, Bakos RM: Photodynamic therapy with delta-aminolevulinic acid and light-emitting diodes in actinic keratosis. An Bras Dermatol; 2010 Sep-Oct;85(5):639-45

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  • [Title] Photodynamic therapy with delta-aminolevulinic acid and light-emitting diodes in actinic keratosis.
  • New light sources are being evaluated for use in the treatment of actinic keratoses.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of photodynamic therapy with delta-aminolevulinic acid using a light emitting diode device as a light source in the treatment of actinic keratoses of the face and upper limbs.
  • METHODS: Eighteen patients with actinic keratoses of the face or upper limbs received an application of a 20% delta-aminolevulinic acid cream and were submitted to diode light irradiation at a wavelength of 630 nm.
  • RESULTS: A total of 328 actinic keratoses were treated, obtaining complete cure in 210 (64.0%) after 24 weeks.
  • CONCLUSION: Photodynamic therapy with a diode light emitting source proved effective and well-tolerated for the treatment of actinic keratoses, with results similar to those reported in the literature with other light sources.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / therapeutic use. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy / methods. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 21152788.001).
  • [ISSN] 1806-4841
  • [Journal-full-title] Anais brasileiros de dermatologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Bras Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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66. Fuchs A, Marmur E: The kinetics of skin cancer: progression of actinic keratosis to squamous cell carcinoma. Dermatol Surg; 2007 Sep;33(9):1099-101
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  • [Title] The kinetics of skin cancer: progression of actinic keratosis to squamous cell carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic keratoses (AKs) are intraepidermal skin tumors that have the potential to progress to squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs).
  • METHODS: To determine the time scale of AK progression, we conducted a retrospective electronic medical record study of all patients diagnosed histopathologically with an SCC between July 1, 2003, and June 30, 2005.
  • RESULTS: Of a total patient population of 6,691, 91 had a histopathologically confirmed diagnosis of an AK at the same site as the subsequent SCC.
  • The length of time for an AK to progress to an SCC was determined to be 24.6 months (95% confidence interval, 21.04-28.16 months).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although a more controlled in vivo study is indicated, these data provide a good estimate of the time course from an AK to an SCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Keratosis / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease Progression. Humans. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17760601.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Piaserico S, Belloni Fortina A, Rigotti P, Rossi B, Baldan N, Alaibac M, Marchini F: Topical photodynamic therapy of actinic keratosis in renal transplant recipients. Transplant Proc; 2007 Jul-Aug;39(6):1847-50
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  • [Title] Topical photodynamic therapy of actinic keratosis in renal transplant recipients.
  • Organ transplant recipients (OTRs) show an increased risk of precancerous (mostly actinic keratosis [AK]) and cancerous (mostly squamous cell carcinomas [SCC] and basal cell carcinomas [BCC]) cutaneous lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Keratosis / drug therapy. Kidney Transplantation / adverse effects. Photochemotherapy. Photosensitivity Disorders / drug therapy. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Postoperative Complications / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17692630.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-1345
  • [Journal-full-title] Transplantation proceedings
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Transplant. Proc.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / delta-aminolevulinic acid methyl ester; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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68. Kozyreva ON, Konnikov N: The incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer after a single field treatment with aminolevulinic acid and blue light photodynamic therapy. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e14646

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Study population included immunocompetent pts with history of NMSC, multiple actinic keratosis (AKs), and moderate to severe dermatoheliosis (DH).

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  • (PMID = 27964235.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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69. Toll A, Salgado R, Yébenes M, Martín-Ezquerra G, Gilaberte M, Baró T, Solé F, Alameda F, Espinet B, Pujol RM: MYC gene numerical aberrations in actinic keratosis and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Br J Dermatol; 2009 Nov;161(5):1112-8
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  • [Title] MYC gene numerical aberrations in actinic keratosis and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma.
  • BACKGROUND: The genetic alterations that drive the transition from actinic keratoses (AKs) to cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) have not been defined precisely.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / genetics. Chromosome Aberrations. Disease Progression. Genes, myc / genetics. Keratosis, Actinic / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19673870.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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70. Zaravinos A, Kanellou P, Spandidos DA: Viral DNA detection and RAS mutations in actinic keratosis and nonmelanoma skin cancers. Br J Dermatol; 2010 Feb 1;162(2):325-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Viral DNA detection and RAS mutations in actinic keratosis and nonmelanoma skin cancers.
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic keratosis (AK) is a well-established precancerous skin lesion that has the potential to progress to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • METHODS: HPV, CMV, HSV and EBV detection was performed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in skin biopsies (26 AK, 12 SCC and 15 BCC samples) that were collected from immunocompetent patients.
  • The HPV incidence was eight of 26 (31%) in AK and eight of 53 (15%) in normal skin tissue.
  • The CMV incidence was two of 26 (8%) in AK and four of 12 (33%) in SCC.
  • Only three samples, one AK (4%), one BCC (6%) and one SCC (8%), were found to carry a G>T transversion at the second position of HRAS codon 12.
  • CONCLUSIONS: HPV DNA is detected in NMSC, AK and normal skin biopsies.
  • Moreover, we suggest that the HRAS codon 12 mutation is not a very common event in AK or NMSC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. DNA, Viral / isolation & purification. Genes, ras / genetics. Keratosis, Actinic / virology. Skin Neoplasms / virology

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  • (PMID = 19849697.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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71. Berman B, Amini S, Valins W, Block S: Pharmacotherapy of actinic keratosis. Expert Opin Pharmacother; 2009 Dec;10(18):3015-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pharmacotherapy of actinic keratosis.
  • Actinic keratosis (AK) represents the initial intraepidermal manifestation of abnormal keratinocyte proliferation with the potential of progression to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • Owing to difficulties in predicting which AK will progress to SCC, the general rule is to treat all AKs.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19925043.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-7666
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Pharmacother
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 179
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72. Brodsky J: Management of benign skin lesions commonly affecting the face: actinic keratosis, seborrheic keratosis, and rosacea. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2009 Aug;17(4):315-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of benign skin lesions commonly affecting the face: actinic keratosis, seborrheic keratosis, and rosacea.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Actinic keratosis can now be treated with photodynamic therapy or with many topical agents, as alternatives to traditional surgical techniques.
  • Seborrheic keratosis, as well as actinic keratosis and rosacea, are now often treated with laser therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Facial Dermatoses / therapy. Keratosis, Actinic / therapy. Keratosis, Seborrheic / therapy. Rosacea / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19465852.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-6998
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in otolaryngology & head and neck surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dermatologic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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73. Gold MH, Nestor MS: Current treatments of actinic keratosis. J Drugs Dermatol; 2006 Feb;5(2 Suppl):17-25
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Skin Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Current treatments of actinic keratosis.
  • Actinic keratosis (AK) lesions should be treated because they may evolve into lesions clinically indistinguishable from those of invasive squamous cell carcinoma which require expensive therapy.
  • Treatment options for AK include cryosurgery, curettage and excisional surgery, dermabrasion, chemical peels, laser resurfacing, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), imiquimod, diclofenac, and tretinoin, each with advantages and limitations.
  • Clinical trial results show that photodynamic therapy (PDT) with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is an effective and safe treatment of nonhypertrophic AK lesions of the scalp and face.
  • ALA incubation times of 1-hour make ALA PDT a practical procedure for the treatment of AK lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / therapeutic use. Keratosis / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy / methods. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16485877.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-9616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Drugs Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
  • [Number-of-references] 76
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74. Tejera-Vaquerizo A, Solís-García E, Sanchez-Vizcaino J, Segura J, Vazquez MC, Haro V, Gonzalez T: Proliferative actinic keratosis. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2007 Oct;21(9):1289-91

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Proliferative actinic keratosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17894744.001).
  • [ISSN] 0926-9959
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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75. Ericson MB, Wennberg AM, Larkö O: Review of photodynamic therapy in actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma. Ther Clin Risk Manag; 2008 Feb;4(1):1-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Review of photodynamic therapy in actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma.
  • Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) using aminolaevulinic acid or its methyl ester has recently become good treatment options for actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma; especielly when treating large areas and areas with field cancerization.
  • This review covers the fundamental aspects of topical PDT and its application for treatment of actinic keratosis and basal cell carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 18728698.001).
  • [ISSN] 1176-6336
  • [Journal-full-title] Therapeutics and clinical risk management
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ther Clin Risk Manag
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2503644
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; actinic keratosis / basal cell carcinoma / photodynamic therapy
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76. Prajapati V, Barankin B: Dermacase. Actinic keratosis. Can Fam Physician; 2008 May;54(5):691, 699

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Dermacase. Actinic keratosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis / diagnosis. Photosensitivity Disorders / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18474700.001).
  • [ISSN] 1715-5258
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian family physician Médecin de famille canadien
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can Fam Physician
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2377206
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77. van der Waal RI: [Actinic Keratosis]. Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd; 2010 Dec;117(12):609

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Actinic Keratosis].
  • [Transliterated title] Actinische keratose.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis, Actinic / diagnosis. Sunlight / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 21298887.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2200
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor tandheelkunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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78. Rossi R, Mori M, Lotti T: Actinic keratosis. Int J Dermatol; 2007 Sep;46(9):895-904
ClinicalTrials.gov. clinical trials - ClinicalTrials.gov .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Actinic keratosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis. Precancerous Conditions. Ultraviolet Rays / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Dermatologic Agents / therapeutic use. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / etiology. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / pathology. Skin / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17822489.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-9059
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Dermatologic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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79. Barrera MV, Herrera E: [Topical chemotherapy for actinic keratosis and nonmelanoma skin cancer: current options and future perspectives]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2007 Oct;98(8):556-62
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Skin Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Topical chemotherapy for actinic keratosis and nonmelanoma skin cancer: current options and future perspectives].
  • [Transliterated title] Tratamiento quimioterápico tópico de la queratosis actínica y el cáncer cutáneo no melanoma: situación actual y perspectivas.
  • Actinic keratosis is currently considered not to be a precursor of squamous cell carcinoma but, rather, an initial stage of the disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis / drug therapy. Keratosis / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17919432.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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80. Morré DJ, Geilen CC, Welch AM, Morré DM: Response of carcinoma in situ (actinic keratosis) to green tea concentrate plus capsicum. J Diet Suppl; 2009;6(4):385-9
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Skin Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Response of carcinoma in situ (actinic keratosis) to green tea concentrate plus capsicum.
  • A single case of carcinoma in situ (actinic keratosis) was treated topically with a patch consisting of an aqueous paste of a commercially available mixture (50:1) of green tea concentrate plus Capsicum (Capsol-T®) for approximately 14 days.
  • [MeSH-major] Camellia sinensis. Capsicum. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Phytotherapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Herbal Medicine.
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  • (PMID = 22435520.001).
  • [ISSN] 1939-022X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of dietary supplements
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Diet Suppl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Plant Extracts
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81. Quatresooz P, Paquet P, Piérard GE: [Actinic keratosis in tune with field photocarcinogenesis. A revisited concept]. Rev Med Liege; 2010 Nov;65(11):619-22

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Actinic keratosis in tune with field photocarcinogenesis. A revisited concept].
  • [Transliterated title] La kératose actinique au diapason de la photocarcinogenèse en champs. Un concept revisité.
  • Actinic keratosis should no more be considered as a single neoplasm calling for an individual treatment.
  • The concept of actinic photocarcinogenesis presently turns upside down the perception of skin cancers induced by nonionizing electromagnetic radiations.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis, Actinic / etiology. Keratosis, Actinic / therapy. Ultraviolet Rays / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 21189527.001).
  • [ISSN] 0370-629X
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue médicale de Liège
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Liege
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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82. Fernández-Guarino M, Harto A, Jaén P: [Studies of methyl aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy for actinic keratosis]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2010 May;101(4):315-22

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Studies of methyl aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy for actinic keratosis].
  • [Transliterated title] Terapia fotodinámica: estudios con metilaminolevulinato en queratosis actínicas.
  • Photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the treatment of actinic keratosis has been shown to be effective and safe in large clinical trials published in the last 5 years.
  • However, evidence has since emerged that raises questions or that introduces new issues, such as the management of field cancerization, fluorescence diagnosis and results in transplant recipients.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 20487686.001).
  • [ISSN] 1578-2190
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
  • [Number-of-references] 49
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83. Nelson CG, Spencer J, Nelson CG Jr: A single-arm, open-label efficacy and tolerability study of diclofenac sodium 3% gel for the treatment of actinic keratosis of the upper and lower lip. J Drugs Dermatol; 2007 Jul;6(7):712-7
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. DICLOFENAC .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A single-arm, open-label efficacy and tolerability study of diclofenac sodium 3% gel for the treatment of actinic keratosis of the upper and lower lip.
  • OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: This study is an evaluation of patients diagnosed with actinic keratosis (AK) lesions of the upper and lower lip (both cutaneous and mucosal surfaces), with at least one lesion on the vermilion (mucosal) lip.
  • CONCLUSION: The application of diclofenac sodium 3% gel provides an effective approach for the treatment of AK of the lip.
  • The cure rate reported in this study for AK of the lip was similar to that of diclofenac sodium 3% gel for AK on skin elsewhere on the body, and has a low incidence of irritation and other adverse reactions, as well as a high rate of patient satisfaction.
  • [MeSH-major] Diclofenac / therapeutic use. Keratosis / drug therapy. Lip Diseases / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17763595.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-9616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Drugs Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Gels; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac
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84. Werschler WP: Considerations for use of Fluorouracil cream 0.5% for the treatment of actinic keratosis in elderly patients. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol; 2008 Jul;1(2):22-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Considerations for use of Fluorouracil cream 0.5% for the treatment of actinic keratosis in elderly patients.
  • Actinic keratosis (AK), the initial lesion in a disease continuum that may progress to squamous cell carcinoma, often begins with ultraviolet B light-induced photo damage and increases in prevalence with age.
  • Topical 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) for the treatment of widespread multiple AK lesions has cure rates of more than 90 percent.

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  • (PMID = 21103319.001).
  • [ISSN] 1941-2789
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical and aesthetic dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Aesthet Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2989823
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85. Esmann S, Jemec GB: Management of actinic keratosis patients: a qualitative study. J Dermatolog Treat; 2007;18(1):53-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of actinic keratosis patients: a qualitative study.
  • OBJECTIVES: In order to reinforce the appropriate UV-related behaviour of patients with actinic keratosis (AK), it is of importance to understand the underlying psychological aspects of having AK.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Open and systematic explorative interviews were conducted with 15 AK patients.
  • Partly based on topics found by the single interviews, two qualitative group interviews (n = 7) with AK patients were performed.
  • RESULTS: Important topics for patients with AK were found to relate to the way to act in the sun (leisure time and outdoor work), a changed appearance, the seriousness of the AK diagnosis, control of the disease, and the sense of illness due to AK.
  • Awareness of these topics is therefore recommended in the management of patient information related to AK.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis / psychology

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  • (PMID = 17365267.001).
  • [ISSN] 0954-6634
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatological treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dermatolog Treat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Sunscreening Agents
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86. Radakovic-Fijan S, Blecha-Thalhammer U, Kittler H, Hönigsmann H, Tanew A: Efficacy of 3 different light doses in the treatment of actinic keratosis with 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy: a randomized, observer-blinded, intrapatient, comparison study. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2005 Nov;53(5):823-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Efficacy of 3 different light doses in the treatment of actinic keratosis with 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy: a randomized, observer-blinded, intrapatient, comparison study.
  • BACKGROUND: Topical 5-aminolevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) has been established in recent years as an effective treatment for disseminated actinic keratosis (AK).
  • As yet, however, data are lacking to define the optimal light dose for activation of ALA-induced protoporphyrin IX in AK.
  • OBJECTIVE: In the present study our purpose was to compare the efficacy and tolerability of 3 different doses of red light for ALA-PDT of AK.
  • After occlusion for 4 hours with 20% ALA, one AK each was irradiated at random with a single dose of 70, 100, or 140 J/cm2.
  • CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that a red light dose of 70 J/cm2 may be sufficient for effective topical ALA-PDT of disseminated, mild to moderate AK on the face and scalp.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / therapeutic use. Keratosis / etiology. Photochemotherapy. Photosensitivity Disorders / drug therapy. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16243131.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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87. Korman N, Moy R, Ling M, Matheson R, Smith S, McKane S, Lee JH: Dosing with 5% imiquimod cream 3 times per week for the treatment of actinic keratosis: results of two phase 3, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, vehicle-controlled trials. Arch Dermatol; 2005 Apr;141(4):467-73
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Dosing with 5% imiquimod cream 3 times per week for the treatment of actinic keratosis: results of two phase 3, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, vehicle-controlled trials.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of 5% imiquimod cream compared with vehicle in the treatment of actinic keratosis (AK).
  • PATIENTS: Four hundred ninety-two patients, 18 years and older, with 4 to 8 AK lesions in a 25-cm(2) treatment area on the face or the balding scalp were randomized; an additional 162 patients underwent screening but were ineligible.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Complete clearance rate (proportion of patients at the 8-week posttreatment visit with no clinically visible AK lesions in the treatment area), partial clearance rate (proportion of patients at the 8-week posttreatment visit with a >/=75% reduction in the number of baseline AK lesions in the treatment area), and frequency and severity of adverse events and local skin reactions were measured.
  • CONCLUSION: The 5% imiquimod cream dosed 3 times weekly for 16 weeks is safe and effective for the treatment of AK.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Keratosis / drug therapy. Keratosis / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology

  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Imiquimod .
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  • (PMID = 15837864.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-987X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase III; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Ointments; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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88. Park MY, Sohn S, Lee ES, Kim YC: Photorejuvenation induced by 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy in patients with actinic keratosis: a histologic analysis. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2010 Jan;62(1):85-95

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Photorejuvenation induced by 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy in patients with actinic keratosis: a histologic analysis.
  • METHODS: Fourteen patients with one to three actinic keratoses on the face were treated twice with ALA-PDT by using a 1200 W metal halogen lamp at 1-month intervals.
  • RESULTS: After ALA-PDT, the mean epidermal thickness and dermal inflammatory infiltrate were reduced.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / therapeutic use. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19926165.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Microfilament Proteins; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / Procollagen; 0 / Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor beta; 0 / Tropoelastin; 0 / fibrillin; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid; EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinases
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89. Chen GJ, Feldman SR, Williford PM, Hester EJ, Kiang SH, Gill I, Fleischer AB Jr: Clinical diagnosis of actinic keratosis identifies an elderly population at high risk of developing skin cancer. Dermatol Surg; 2005 Jan;31(1):43-7
COS Scholar Universe. author profiles.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical diagnosis of actinic keratosis identifies an elderly population at high risk of developing skin cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Development of actinic keratoses (AK) involves some of the same processes as nonmelanoma skin cancer and may serve as a marker for overall increased risk of skin cancer.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the risk of developing skin cancer in an elderly population with and without AK.
  • RESULTS: Multivariate analysis showed that the risk (odds ratio [OR]) of developing nonmelanoma or melanoma was increased more than sixfold (p < or = .0001) in patients with AK.
  • CONCLUSION: Using data from a nationally representive sample of the Medicare population, this study demonstrates that elders with AK are a population at high risk of developing cutaneous cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Skin Cancer.
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  • (PMID = 15720095.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / T32 AR07411
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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90. Vasiljevic N, Hazard K, Dillner J, Forslund O: Four novel human betapapillomaviruses of species 2 preferentially found in actinic keratosis. J Gen Virol; 2008 Oct;89(Pt 10):2467-74
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Four novel human betapapillomaviruses of species 2 preferentially found in actinic keratosis.
  • This study determined the complete genomes of four betapapillomaviruses of species 2 from skin lesions designated HPV-107, -110 and -111 and FA75[KI88-03], an isolate of an unpublished HPV type, and analysed their prevalence and viral loads in biopsies from SCC, actinic keratosis (AK), basal cell carcinoma, seborrhoeic keratosis and the healthy skin of 263 immunocompetent patients by HPV type-specific real-time PCR assays.
  • Overall, the four viruses were more common in AK than in healthy skin (odds ratio 5.0, 95 % confidence interval 1.4-17.5), but the prevalence and viral loads were low.
  • [MeSH-major] Betapapillomavirus / classification. Betapapillomavirus / isolation & purification. Keratosis / virology. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / virology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. Female. Humans. Keratosis, Seborrheic / epidemiology. Keratosis, Seborrheic / virology. Male. Molecular Sequence Data. Phylogeny. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Prevalence. Sequence Analysis, DNA. Skin / virology. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / virology. Species Specificity. Viral Load

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  • (PMID = 18796715.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1317
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of general virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gen. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ EF422221/ EU410347/ EU410348/ EU410349
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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91. Gebauer K, Shumack S, Cowen PS: Effect of dosing frequency on the safety and efficacy of imiquimod 5% cream for treatment of actinic keratosis on the forearms and hands: a phase II, randomized placebo-controlled trial. Br J Dermatol; 2009 Oct;161(4):897-903
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Effect of dosing frequency on the safety and efficacy of imiquimod 5% cream for treatment of actinic keratosis on the forearms and hands: a phase II, randomized placebo-controlled trial.
  • BACKGROUND: Clinical studies in cutaneous conditions other than actinic keratosis (AK) have revealed that the safety and efficacy profile of imiquimod is influenced by dosing frequency.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate dosing frequency response of imiquimod 5% for treatment of AK.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage. Aminoquinolines / administration & dosage. Hand Dermatoses / drug therapy. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Precancerous Conditions / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19545297.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Aminoquinolines; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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92. Larkö O: The current options in the management of actinic keratosis. G Ital Dermatol Venereol; 2009 Aug;144(4):445-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The current options in the management of actinic keratosis.
  • Actinic keratosis is a precursor for squamous cell skin cancer.
  • For single actinic keratoses, cryo surgery is recommended.
  • For widespread actinic keratoses, imiquimod, photodynamic therapy (PDT) or 5-FU may be used.
  • Consequently, cryo surgery for single actinic keratoses and PDT for widespread actinic keratoses should primarily be recommended.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis, Actinic / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19755948.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-0488
  • [Journal-full-title] Giornale italiano di dermatologia e venereologia : organo ufficiale, Società italiana di dermatologia e sifilografia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Ital Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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93. Colombo GL, Chimenti S, Di Matteo S, Fargnoli MC, Frascione P, Silipo V, Peris K: Cost-effectiveness analysis of topical treatments for actinic keratosis in the perspective of the Italian health care system. G Ital Dermatol Venereol; 2010 Oct;145(5):573-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cost-effectiveness analysis of topical treatments for actinic keratosis in the perspective of the Italian health care system.
  • Actinic keratosis (AK) is the most common cutaneous malignant neoplasm and its prevalence continues to increase.
  • According to the most recent findings, AK is currently considered the initial stage, in situ, of squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Based on this cost-effectiveness model, diclofenac 3% in HA can be considered the treatment of choice for AK lesions and surrounding field under a pharmacoeconomic point of view.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Aminoquinolines / economics. Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Diclofenac / economics. Diclofenac / therapeutic use. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Keratosis, Actinic / economics

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  • (PMID = 20930692.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-0488
  • [Journal-full-title] Giornale italiano di dermatologia e venereologia : organo ufficiale, Società italiana di dermatologia e sifilografia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Ital Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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94. Saglam O, Salama M, Meier F, Chaffins M, Ma C, Ormsby A, Lee M: Immunohistochemical staining of palisading basal cells in Bowen's disease and basal involvement in actinic keratosis: contrasting staining patterns suggest different cells of origin. Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Apr;30(2):123-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunohistochemical staining of palisading basal cells in Bowen's disease and basal involvement in actinic keratosis: contrasting staining patterns suggest different cells of origin.
  • Actinic keratosis (AK) and Bowen's disease (BD) are common patterns of in situ squamous cell carcinoma of the epidermis.
  • In AK, atypical keratinocytes proliferate in the lower portion of the epidermis including the basal layer.
  • To characterize immunohistochemically keratocyte proliferation in AK and Palisading Basal Cells (PBC) in BD, we stained microarray samples of 45 AK and 25 BD with Molecular Immunology Borstel (MIB-1).
  • Subsequent immunostaining of full mounted sections examined 11 BD, 7 AK, and 4 examples of psoriasis for MIB-1 (as a proliferative marker) and p53 (as a cell cycle regulatory marker).
  • AK stained for MIB-1 and p53 antibodies only in lower portion of epidermis and included the basal layer.
  • Normal epidermis adjacent to the lesions in AK and BD biopsies stained sparsely in the basal layers.
  • The correlation of different histologic patterns of epidermal involvement with different immunohistochemical patterns of stains argues for different cells of origin for BD versus AK.
  • Conversely in AK, expression of MIB-1 and p53 in basal cells argues that these cells play a role in histogenesis of AK.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Keratosis / pathology. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biopsy, Needle. Cohort Studies. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Sensitivity and Specificity. Staining and Labeling / methods

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  • (PMID = 18360114.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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95. Lee AD, Jorizzo JL: Optimizing management of actinic keratosis and photodamaged skin: utilizing a stepwise approach. Cutis; 2009 Sep;84(3):169-75
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Optimizing management of actinic keratosis and photodamaged skin: utilizing a stepwise approach.
  • The incidence of photodamaged skin and skin lesions of all degrees of severity, from actinic keratosis (AK) to skin cancers, has dramatically increased.
  • Actinic keratoses are pathologic, reflecting damage of essential skin cell functions and potentially progressing to invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • We propose a comprehensive 5-step approach for managing AK lesions and photodamaged skin that includes periodic clinical skin examinations; treating AK lesions with a combination of field- and lesion-directed therapy; and patient education regarding sun-protective measures and regular skin self-examinations.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / prevention & control. Keratosis, Actinic / therapy. Skin Aging / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / prevention & control
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease Progression. Humans. Patient Education as Topic. Risk Factors. Severity of Illness Index. Sunlight / adverse effects


96. Talghini S, Halimi M, Baybordi H: Expression of P27, Ki67 and P53 in squamous cell carcinoma, actinic keratosis and Bowen disease. Pak J Biol Sci; 2009 Jun 15;12(12):929-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of P27, Ki67 and P53 in squamous cell carcinoma, actinic keratosis and Bowen disease.
  • This study aims at evaluating the expression of P27, Ki67 and P53 in Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC), Actinic Keratosis (AK) and Bowen Disease (BD) specimens.
  • In an analytic-descriptive setting, skin biopsy specimens of 45 patients were evaluated in three 15-case groups including BD, AK and SCC specimens.
  • Ki67 was expressed in 0.8, 23.7, 12.3 and 19.3% of the cells in the normal skin, AK, BD and SCC groups, respectively.
  • P27 was positive in 23.4, 26.2, 25.9 and 4.5% of specimens in the normal skin, AK, BD and SCC groups, respectively.
  • P53 expression was detected in 26.6, 41.8 and 54.6% of the assessed cells in the AK, BD and SCC groups, respectively.
  • Based on these results, the quantitative and qualitative (pattern of distribution) evaluation of the expressions of Ki67, P27 and P53 may be helpful in differentiating malignant and premalignant epidermal lesions, particularly in unsatisfactory or fragmented specimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Bowen's Disease / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism. Keratosis, Actinic / metabolism. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Case-Control Studies. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Skin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19777788.001).
  • [ISSN] 1028-8880
  • [Journal-full-title] Pakistan journal of biological sciences : PJBS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pak. J. Biol. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDKN1B protein, human; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
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97. Smits T, Robles CA, van Erp PE, van de Kerkhof PC, Gerritsen MJ: Correlation between macroscopic fluorescence and protoporphyrin IX content in psoriasis and actinic keratosis following application of aminolevulinic acid. J Invest Dermatol; 2005 Oct;125(4):833-9
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  • [Title] Correlation between macroscopic fluorescence and protoporphyrin IX content in psoriasis and actinic keratosis following application of aminolevulinic acid.
  • In fluorescence diagnosis with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-induced porphyrins (FDAP), protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) accumulation can be macroscopically visualized.
  • In this study, PpIX accumulation is investigated in patients with psoriasis and actinic keratosis (AK) following FDAP.
  • PpIX per biopsy in lesional skin in both psoriasis and AK was significantly higher than in non-lesional skin (p < 0.05).
  • When corrected for epidermal involvement, only lesional psoriatic skin showed significantly higher PpIX levels than non-lesional skin.
  • The PpIX-ratio lesional:non-lesional skin (mean(pmol per mL)+/-SEM) was 4.12+/-0.91 in psoriasis and 1.96+/-0.24 in AK.
  • In FDAP, the ratio of lesional:non-lesional skin was 1.77+/-0.06 in psoriasis and 1.37+/-0.07 in AK.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid. Keratosis / diagnosis. Protoporphyrins / analysis. Psoriasis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16185285.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-202X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of investigative dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Invest. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protoporphyrins; 553-12-8 / protoporphyrin IX; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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98. Muston D, Downs A, Rives V: An economic evaluation of topical treatments for actinic keratosis. J Dermatolog Treat; 2009;20(5):266-75
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An economic evaluation of topical treatments for actinic keratosis.
  • Actinic keratoses (AK) commonly occur as lesions, in sun-exposed areas.
  • We assessed the cost-effectiveness in 2007 of topical treatments (5-fluorouracil, imiquimod) and photodynamic therapy with methyl aminolevulinate (MAL-PDT) for AK under the perspective of the UK National Health Service (NHS) in England and Wales over two lines of treatment.
  • Based on this model, the costs and effectiveness of MAL-PDT in the UK NHS compare well with other treatments for AK.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / economics. Keratosis, Actinic / economics. Keratosis, Actinic / therapy. Photochemotherapy / economics. Photosensitizing Agents / economics

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  • [CommentIn] J Dermatolog Treat. 2011 Oct;22(5):298-301 [20666679.001]
  • (PMID = 19421918.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-1753
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatological treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dermatolog Treat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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99. da Silva TA, Coelho G, Lorenzetti Bocca A, Figueiredo Cavalcante Neto F: Expression of apoptotic, cell proliferation regulatory, and structural proteins in actinic keratosis and their association with dermal elastosis. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Apr;34(4):315-23
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of apoptotic, cell proliferation regulatory, and structural proteins in actinic keratosis and their association with dermal elastosis.
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic keratosis (AK) is a premalignant lesion caused by ultraviolet (UV) radiation and characterized by epithelial and connective tissue alterations.
  • However, little is known about the link between connective and UV-damaged epithelial tissues in AK.
  • OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: To examine the potential relationship between connective tissue degeneration and molecular alterations in epithelial cells without evident morphologic changes, 30 cases of AK (8, grade I; 10, grade II; 12, grade III), divided into three grades according to the proportion of dermal elastosis (in grade I, up to 30% of collagen degeneration; in grade II, 30-60%; in grade III, more than 60%), were immunohistochemically analyzed for the expression of Ki67, p53, p63, bcl-2, E-cadherin, 34-betaE12, and CD99.
  • RESULTS: The increase in the solar elastosis grade was associated with an increase in positive cell numbers for all analyzed markers.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that the epithelial expression of apoptotic, cell proliferation, and structural proteins is augmented with the increase of the solar elastosis grade.
  • Thus, the grade of solar elastosis could be a helpful morphologic marker in the assessment of neoplastic changes in sun-damaged skin.

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  • (PMID = 17381802.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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100. Hensen P, Müller ML, Haschemi R, Ständer H, Luger TA, Sunderkötter C, Schiller M: Predisposing factors of actinic keratosis in a North-West German population. Eur J Dermatol; 2009 Jul-Aug;19(4):345-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Predisposing factors of actinic keratosis in a North-West German population.
  • The growing incident rates of skin cancer and their corresponding precursor lesions, e.g. actinic keratosis (AK), among Caucasians have become an important public health problem.
  • A multicenter case-control study was conducted to identify the risk factors of AK of a prototypical Central European population.
  • Using multivariate analysis we identified ten independent variables predicting the AK risk.
  • Additionally, sun exposure for recreational reasons, denial of the use of sunscreens, painful sunburn episodes before the age of 20, and a familial history of skin malignancies are also significant independent correlates of AK.
  • Our epidemiological data suggest that constitutional susceptibility and sunlight exposure are equally involved in the onset of AK.
  • These measures should be able to reduce the excessive incidence rates of AK among Caucasians in Central Europe.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis, Actinic / etiology. Precancerous Conditions / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Case-Control Studies. Chi-Square Distribution. Disease Susceptibility. Female. Germany / epidemiology. Humans. Logistic Models. Male. Middle Aged. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 19470418.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-1122
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of dermatology : EJD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] France
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