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1. Halldin CB, Paoli J, Sandberg C, Ericson MB, Wennberg AM: Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for pain relief during photodynamic therapy of actinic keratoses. Acta Derm Venereol; 2008;88(3):311-3
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  • [Title] Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation for pain relief during photodynamic therapy of actinic keratoses.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis / drug therapy. Pain / prevention & control. Photochemotherapy / adverse effects. Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation

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  • (PMID = 18480950.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5555
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta dermato-venereologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Derm. Venereol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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2. Burkhart CG: Reports of immunologic reactions to imiquimod: an assessment of actinic keratoses and treatment concerns in this era of litigation lotto. Dermatol Online J; 2005;11(3):40
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  • [Title] Reports of immunologic reactions to imiquimod: an assessment of actinic keratoses and treatment concerns in this era of litigation lotto.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / adverse effects. Aminoquinolines / adverse effects. Drug Hypersensitivity / etiology. Keratosis / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16409936.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Aminoquinolines; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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3. Dubauskas Z, Kunishige J, Prieto VG, Jonasch E, Hwu P, Tannir NM: Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and inflammation of actinic keratoses associated with sorafenib. Clin Genitourin Cancer; 2009 Jan;7(1):20-3
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  • [Title] Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and inflammation of actinic keratoses associated with sorafenib.
  • Cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and inflammation of actinic keratosis (AK) were reported in 2 patients treated with sorafenib (Lacouture et al), but the scope of this observation has not been evaluated.
  • The time to development of SCC or AK from the start of sorafenib was 9.3 months (median, 6.5 months; range, 0.9-43 months).
  • Ten of these 14 patients discontinued therapy with sorafenib: 7 patients as a result of disease progression, 2 patients as a result of nondermatologic toxicity, and 1 patient as a result of dermatologic toxicity.
  • CONCLUSION: These data suggest that there could be an association between sorafenib therapy and the development of cutaneous SCC and inflammation of AK.
  • [MeSH-major] Benzenesulfonates / adverse effects. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / chemically induced. Drug Eruptions / etiology. Keratosis, Actinic / chemically induced. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / adverse effects. Pyridines / adverse effects. Skin Neoplasms / chemically induced

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  • [CommentIn] Clin Genitourin Cancer. 2009 Jan;7(1):9-10 [19213661.001]
  • (PMID = 19213663.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-7673
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical genitourinary cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Genitourin Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzenesulfonates; 0 / Phenylurea Compounds; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyridines; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; 9ZOQ3TZI87 / sorafenib
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS773866; NLM/ PMC4825856
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4. Shoimer I, Rosen N, Muhn C: Current management of actinic keratoses. Skin Therapy Lett; 2010 May;15(5):5-7
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  • [Title] Current management of actinic keratoses.
  • An actinic keratosis (AK) is a pre-malignant cutaneous lesion that frequently manifests in sun-exposed areas of the skin as a small, rough, scaly erythematous papule.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / prevention & control. Keratosis, Actinic / therapy. Skin Neoplasms / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 20505896.001).
  • [ISSN] 1201-5989
  • [Journal-full-title] Skin therapy letter
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skin Therapy Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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5. Rishpon A, Kim N, Scope A, Porges L, Oliviero MC, Braun RP, Marghoob AA, Fox CA, Rabinovitz HS: Reflectance confocal microscopy criteria for squamous cell carcinomas and actinic keratoses. Arch Dermatol; 2009 Jul;145(7):766-72
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  • [Title] Reflectance confocal microscopy criteria for squamous cell carcinomas and actinic keratoses.
  • OBJECTIVE: To identify criteria for the diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and actinic keratosis (AK) by in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM).
  • DESIGN: Prospective RCM imaging of lesions suspected clinically and/or dermoscopically to be SCC or AK, followed by RCM assessment of the biopsy-proven SCCs and AKs.
  • Polygonal nucleated cells at the stratum corneum were seen in 3 SCCs (10%) and 1 AK (14%).
  • All 38 cases displayed an atypical honeycomb and/or a disarranged pattern of the spinous-granular layer of the epidermis; round nucleated cells were seen in the spinous-granular layer in 20 SCCs (65%) and 1 AK (14%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: An increasing frequency of abnormal RCM features can be observed across the spectrum of keratinocytic neoplasias.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Keratosis, Actinic / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology


6. Krathen M, Treat J, James WD: Capecitabine induced inflammation of actinic keratoses. Dermatol Online J; 2007;13(4):13
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  • [Title] Capecitabine induced inflammation of actinic keratoses.
  • Patients undergoing capecitabine therapy may experience inflammation and irritation of existing actinic keratoses.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Capecitabine. Female. Humans. Keratosis / etiology. Ultraviolet Rays / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 18319010.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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7. Einspahr JG, Xu MJ, Warneke J, Saboda K, Ranger-Moore J, Bozzo P, Duckett L, Goldman R, Lin P, Buckmeier J, Alberts DS: Reproducibility and expression of skin biomarkers in sun-damaged skin and actinic keratoses. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2006 Oct;15(10):1841-8
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  • [Title] Reproducibility and expression of skin biomarkers in sun-damaged skin and actinic keratoses.
  • METHODS: Biopsies were collected from three groups: 78 subjects with sun damage on forearms, 33 with actinic keratosis (AK) on forearms, and 32 with previous squamous cell carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: We found significant differences in p53 and polyamines in forearms from the sun-damaged group (11.5 +/- 1.2% for p53, 65.5 +/- 1.9 nmol/g for putrescine, and 187.7 +/- 3.3 nmol/g for spermidine) compared with the group with sun damage plus AK (20.9 +/- 2.3% for p53, P = 0.0001; 81.7 +/- 3.9 nmol/g for putrescine, P = 0.0001; 209.4 +/- 8.2 nmol/g for spermidine, P < 0.06).
  • When lesion histology was considered, there was a stepwise significant increase in p53 in biopsies without characteristics of AK compared with early AK (P = 0.02) and AK (P = 0.0006) and a similar pattern for PCNA with the only significant difference between early AK and AK.
  • There was a stepwise increase in putrescine and spermidine in normal, sun-damaged forearm, forearm from subjects with AK, and the AK lesion itself (P < 0.0001).
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers / metabolism. Keratosis / etiology. Keratosis / metabolism. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / biosynthesis. Sunscreening Agents / therapeutic use. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / biosynthesis. Ultraviolet Rays / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 17021352.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA23074; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA27502
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biogenic Polyamines; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 0 / Sunscreening Agents; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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8. Stockfleth E, Kerl H, Guideline Subcommittee of the European Dermatology Forum: Guidelines for the management of actinic keratoses. Eur J Dermatol; 2006 Nov-Dec;16(6):599-606
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  • [Title] Guidelines for the management of actinic keratoses.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis / therapy. Photosensitivity Disorders / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17229598.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-1122
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of dermatology : EJD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Practice Guideline
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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9. Rivers JK, Rosoph L, Provost N, Bissonnette R: Open-label study to assess the safety and efficacy of imiquimod 5% cream applied once daily three times per week in cycles for treatment of actinic keratoses on the head. J Cutan Med Surg; 2008 May-Jun;12(3):97-101
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  • [Title] Open-label study to assess the safety and efficacy of imiquimod 5% cream applied once daily three times per week in cycles for treatment of actinic keratoses on the head.
  • BACKGROUND: Local skin reactions are common during imiquimod treatment of actinic keratosis (AK).
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the tolerability of imiquimod and clearance rate of AK lesions after imiquimod application.
  • METHODS: Imiquimod 5% cream was administered three times per week for 4 weeks followed by 4 weeks of rest (cycle 1) to AK lesions on the head.
  • If AK lesions remained visible at the end of cycle 1, a second treatment cycle was instituted.
  • RESULTS: Fifty percent (30 of 60) of patients experienced complete clearance of AK lesions, and 75% (30 of 40) of patients experienced partial clearance of AK lesions after imiquimod treatment at the end of cycle 2.
  • Moreover, 77% of patients who achieved complete clearance had no visible AK lesions 12 weeks post-treatment.
  • CONCLUSION: Imiquimod cycle therapy may be a safe and effective treatment option for AK lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage. Aminoquinolines / administration & dosage. Head. Keratosis / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18544290.001).
  • [ISSN] 1203-4754
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous medicine and surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cutan Med Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Ointments; P1QW714R7M / imiquimod
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10. Toll A, Parera ME, Vélez M, Pujol RM: Letter: photodynamic therapy with methyl aminolevulinate induces phototoxic reactions on areas of the nose adjacent to basal cell carcinomas and actinic keratoses. Dermatol Surg; 2008 Aug;34(8):1145-7; discussion 1147-8
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  • [Title] Letter: photodynamic therapy with methyl aminolevulinate induces phototoxic reactions on areas of the nose adjacent to basal cell carcinomas and actinic keratoses.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Dermatitis, Phototoxic / etiology. Keratosis / drug therapy. Nose Neoplasms / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 18518890.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4725
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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11. Yentzer B, Hick J, Williams L, Inabinet R, Wilson R, Camacho FT, Russell GB, Feldman SR: Adherence to a topical regimen of 5-fluorouracil, 0.5%, cream for the treatment of actinic keratoses. Arch Dermatol; 2009 Feb;145(2):203-5
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  • [Title] Adherence to a topical regimen of 5-fluorouracil, 0.5%, cream for the treatment of actinic keratoses.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Medication Adherence

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  • (PMID = 19221274.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3652
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00696488
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Letter; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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12. Alomar A, Bichel J, McRae S: Vehicle-controlled, randomized, double-blind study to assess safety and efficacy of imiquimod 5% cream applied once daily 3 days per week in one or two courses of treatment of actinic keratoses on the head. Br J Dermatol; 2007 Jul;157(1):133-41
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  • [Title] Vehicle-controlled, randomized, double-blind study to assess safety and efficacy of imiquimod 5% cream applied once daily 3 days per week in one or two courses of treatment of actinic keratoses on the head.
  • BACKGROUND: Imiquimod has been investigated as a safe and effective therapeutic option for the treatment of actinic keratosis (AK).
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate imiquimod vs. vehicle applied three times a week for 4 weeks in one or two courses of treatment for AK on the face or balding scalp.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients diagnosed with AK were enrolled in this multicentre, vehicle-controlled, double-blind study conducted in Europe.
  • There was a high rate of agreement between the clinical assessment and histological findings with respect to AK lesion clearance.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A 4-week course of treatment with three times weekly dosing of imiquimod 5% cream, with a repeated course of treatment for those patients who fail to clear after the first course of treatment, is a safe and effective treatment for AK.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / administration & dosage. Interferon Inducers / administration & dosage. Keratosis / drug therapy. Photosensitivity Disorders / drug therapy. Scalp Dermatoses / drug therapy. Sunlight / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 17501955.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Interferon Inducers; 0 / Ointments; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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13. Gold MH: Pharmacoeconomic analysis of the treatment of multiple actinic keratoses. J Drugs Dermatol; 2008 Jan;7(1):23-5
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  • [Title] Pharmacoeconomic analysis of the treatment of multiple actinic keratoses.
  • Actinic keratosis (AK) is common and lesions may progress to squamous cell carcinoma.
  • This report provides a simple pharmacoeconomic analysis of 4 FDA-cleared therapies (imiquimod, diclofenac, 5-fluorouacil [5-FU], and ALA PDT) for AK given in combination with cryotherapy.
  • Among these 4 FDA-cleared therapies for multiple AK lesions, ALA PDT is the least expensive treatment and imiquimod is the most expensive treatment under the stated assumptions.
  • [MeSH-major] Cryotherapy / methods. Keratosis / therapy. Photochemotherapy / methods

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  • (PMID = 18246694.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-9616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Drugs Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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14. Ostertag JU, Quaedvlieg PJ, Neumann MH, Krekels GA: Recurrence rates and long-term follow-up after laser resurfacing as a treatment for widespread actinic keratoses on the face and scalp. Dermatol Surg; 2006 Feb;32(2):261-7
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  • [Title] Recurrence rates and long-term follow-up after laser resurfacing as a treatment for widespread actinic keratoses on the face and scalp.
  • BACKGROUND: Diffuse widespread actinic keratoses are difficult to treat, have a tendency toward higher recurrence rates, and therefore require ablative treatment.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate patients who underwent laser resurfacing for widespread actinic keratoses with long-term follow-up for recurrence rates, time until new lesions occur, and the most common side effects.
  • METHODS: Retrospective case-control study from 25 patients who underwent laser resurfacing for widespread actinic keratoses on the scalp, forehead, or full face at our department.
  • The most common short- and long-term side effects were infections (12%), hypopigmentation (48%), hyperpigmentation (8%), acne (12%), milia (12%), scar formation (8%), and atrophic and/or easily bruised skin (20%).
  • CONCLUSION: Laser resurfacing is an effective treatment modality for diffuse widespread actinic keratoses with long-term recurrence-free intervals.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis / surgery. Laser Therapy. Precancerous Conditions / surgery. Skin Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16442048.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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15. Zouboulis CC, Röhrs H: [Cryosurgical treatment of actinic keratoses and evidence-based review]. Hautarzt; 2005 Apr;56(4):353-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Cryosurgical treatment of actinic keratoses and evidence-based review].
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic keratoses are focal epithelial carcinomas in situ, which are considered precursors of squamous cell carcinoma and must therefore be treated.
  • In the USA, cryosurgery is the most frequent surgical procedure for the treatment of actinic keratoses and considered the treatment of choice.
  • METHODS: Our own results of cryosurgical treatment of actinic keratoses were evaluated.
  • Original publications and reviews on the treatment of actinic keratoses with cryosurgery were retrieved from MEDLINE and classified according to their evidence level.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Cryosurgery is beneficial in the treatment of actinic keratoses.
  • [MeSH-major] Cryosurgery / methods. Cryosurgery / statistics & numerical data. Keratosis / epidemiology. Keratosis / surgery. Photosensitivity Disorders / epidemiology. Photosensitivity Disorders / surgery. Risk Assessment / methods

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  • (PMID = 15580450.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-8470
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und verwandte Gebiete
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hautarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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16. Kaufmann R, Spelman L, Weightman W, Reifenberger J, Szeimies RM, Verhaeghe E, Kerrouche N, Sorba V, Villemagne H, Rhodes LE: Multicentre intraindividual randomized trial of topical methyl aminolaevulinate-photodynamic therapy vs. cryotherapy for multiple actinic keratoses on the extremities. Br J Dermatol; 2008 May;158(5):994-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Multicentre intraindividual randomized trial of topical methyl aminolaevulinate-photodynamic therapy vs. cryotherapy for multiple actinic keratoses on the extremities.
  • BACKGROUND: Methyl aminolaevulinate-photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT) is an effective treatment in facial/scalp actinic keratosis (AK).
  • OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to compare efficacy, safety, cosmetic outcome and patient preference of MAL-PDT vs. cryotherapy in patients with AK at other locations.
  • Patients with nonhyperkeratotic AK were treated once with MAL-PDT and cryotherapy on either side of the body.
  • CONCLUSIONS: MAL-PDT showed inferior efficacy for treatment of non-face/scalp AK compared with cryotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / therapeutic use. Cryosurgery. Keratosis / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy / standards. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18341663.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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17. Hauschild A, Kähler KC, Egberts F: [Modern treatment modalities in actinic keratoses of the skin]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr; 2006 Mar 3;131(9):447-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Modern treatment modalities in actinic keratoses of the skin].
  • It has been estimated that approximately 4 million Germans are suffering from actinic keratoses, which are considered as a carcinoma in situ today.
  • Typically, actinic keratoses appear in sun-exposed skin areas, conventionally they have been treated by curettage and cryotherapy.
  • The rate of complete clearance from actinic keratoses varies between 50 and 90 % in clinical trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis / therapy. Photosensitivity Disorders / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16493570.001).
  • [ISSN] 0012-0472
  • [Journal-full-title] Deutsche medizinische Wochenschrift (1946)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dtsch. Med. Wochenschr.
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / Retinoids; 0 / Sunscreening Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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18. Naldi L, Chatenoud L, Piccitto R, Colombo P, Placchesi EB, La Vecchia C, Prevalence of Actinic Keratoses Italian Study (PraKtis) Group: Prevalence of actinic keratoses and associated factors in a representative sample of the Italian adult population: Results from the Prevalence of Actinic Keratoses Italian Study, 2003-2004. Arch Dermatol; 2006 Jun;142(6):722-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prevalence of actinic keratoses and associated factors in a representative sample of the Italian adult population: Results from the Prevalence of Actinic Keratoses Italian Study, 2003-2004.
  • OBJECTIVE: The Prevalence of Actinic Keratoses Italian Study (PraKtis) was designed to estimate the point prevalence of actinic keratoses (AKs) and associated factors in a representative sample of the Italian adult population.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16785374.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-987X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Fariba I, Ali A, Hossein SA, Atefeh S, Atarzadeh Behbahan SA: Efficacy of 3% diclofenac gel for the treatment of actinic keratoses: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol; 2006 Sep-Oct;72(5):346-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Efficacy of 3% diclofenac gel for the treatment of actinic keratoses: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study.
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic keratoses (AKs) are premalignant skin lesions caused by excessive sun exposure.
  • AIMS: To explore the therapeutic efficacy of 3% diclofenac in 2.5% hyaluronan gel in the topical treatment of AK.
  • CONCLUSION: Considering the malignant potential of actinic keratoses and the importance of clearing them to prevent their transformation to squamous cell carcinoma, the efficacy of diclofenac gel seen in our study seems to be low.
  • This treatment may be useful for patients who do not tolerate other, more effective kinds of treatment for actinic keratoses.
  • [MeSH-major] Diclofenac / administration & dosage. Keratosis / drug therapy. Precancerous Conditions / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17050927.001).
  • [ISSN] 0973-3922
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of dermatology, venereology and leprology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gels; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac
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20. Schmid-Wendtner MH, Wendtner CM: Intensified inflammatory reaction of actinic keratoses after single application of topical 5-fluorouracil in a patient treated with nilotinib for chronic myeloid leukemia. Dermatology; 2009;219(4):341-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intensified inflammatory reaction of actinic keratoses after single application of topical 5-fluorouracil in a patient treated with nilotinib for chronic myeloid leukemia.
  • Actinic keratoses frequently occur in sun-exposed areas of the skin and, today, a variety of therapeutic options are available, including topical application of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU).
  • We, therefore, discuss possible modes of action including other reports about different tyrosine kinase inhibitors which led to regression of aggravation of actinic keratoses.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Dermatologic Agents / therapeutic use. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Keratosis, Actinic / pathology. Leukemia, Myelogenous, Chronic, BCR-ABL Positive / drug therapy. Pyrimidines / adverse effects

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19468201.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9832
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 4-methyl-N-(3-(4-methylimidazol-1-yl)-5-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)-3-((4-pyridin-3-ylpyrimidin-2-yl)amino)benzamide; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Dermatologic Agents; 0 / Pyrimidines; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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21. Alexiades-Armenakas M: Aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy for actinic keratoses/actinic cheilitis/acne: vascular lasers. Dermatol Clin; 2007 Jan;25(1):25-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy for actinic keratoses/actinic cheilitis/acne: vascular lasers.
  • In particular, LP PDL PDT has been shown to be safe and effective in the treatment of actinic keratoses, actinic cheilitis, photodamage, and acne vulgaris with minimal discomfort, rapid treatment and recovery, and excellent posttreatment cosmesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Acne Vulgaris / drug therapy. Aminolevulinic Acid / therapeutic use. Cheilitis / drug therapy. Keratosis / drug therapy. Low-Level Light Therapy. Photochemotherapy. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Ultraviolet Rays / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 17126739.001).
  • [ISSN] 0733-8635
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic clinics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Clin
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
  • [Number-of-references] 72
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22. Peters-Kennedy J, Scott DW, Miller WH Jr: Apparent clinical resolution of pinnal actinic keratoses and squamous cell carcinoma in a cat using topical imiquimod 5% cream. J Feline Med Surg; 2008 Dec;10(6):593-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Apparent clinical resolution of pinnal actinic keratoses and squamous cell carcinoma in a cat using topical imiquimod 5% cream.
  • This case report describes a cat with actinic keratoses and squamous cell carcinoma of the pinnae.
  • These results suggest that topical imiquimod, although unproven, might be a therapeutic option or adjunct to therapy for cats with actinic keratoses and squamous cell carcinoma, especially those cats for whom surgery and radiation therapy are not an option.

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  • (PMID = 18417398.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-612X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of feline medicine and surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Feline Med. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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23. Serra-Guillen C, Hueso L, Nagore E, Vila M, Llombart B, Requena Caballero C, Botella-Estrada R, Sanmartin O, Alfaro-Rubio A, Guillen C: Comparative study between cold air analgesia and supraorbital and supratrochlear nerve block for the management of pain during photodynamic therapy for actinic keratoses of the frontotemporal zone. Br J Dermatol; 2009 Aug;161(2):353-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Comparative study between cold air analgesia and supraorbital and supratrochlear nerve block for the management of pain during photodynamic therapy for actinic keratoses of the frontotemporal zone.
  • BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective treatment for actinic keratoses, Bowen's disease and basal cell carcinoma.
  • METHODS: A controlled open clinical trial was conducted in 34 patients having multiple actinic keratoses in the frontal region treated with PDT.
  • [MeSH-major] Analgesia / methods. Cold Temperature. Facial Dermatoses / drug therapy. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Nerve Block / methods. Pain Management. Photochemotherapy / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 19438468.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Controlled Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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24. Zeichner JA, Stern DW, Uliasz A, Itenberg S, Lebwohl M: Placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized pilot study of imiquimod 5% cream applied once per week for 6 months for the treatment of actinic keratoses. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2009 Jan;60(1):59-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized pilot study of imiquimod 5% cream applied once per week for 6 months for the treatment of actinic keratoses.
  • BACKGROUND: Imiquimod 5% cream applied twice weekly for 16 weeks is effective for treating actinic keratoses but may be limited by local side effects.
  • CONCLUSION: Imiquimod 5% cream applied once weekly for 24 weeks was convenient for patients and resulted in improvement of actinic keratoses with minimal side effects.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage. Aminoquinolines / administration & dosage. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18937999.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Pharmaceutical Preparations; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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25. Ibrahim SF, Brown MD: Actinic keratoses: a comprehensive update. J Clin Aesthet Dermatol; 2009 Jul;2(7):43-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Actinic keratoses: a comprehensive update.
  • Actinic keratoses are common intra-epidermal neoplasms that lie on a continuum with squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Tightly linked to ultraviolet irradiation, they occur in areas of chronic sun exposure, and early treatment of these lesions may prevent their progression to invasive disease.
  • Several previously experimental options, such as imiquimod and photodynamic therapy, have become incorporated as first-line options for the treatment of actinic keratoses, while combination treatment strategies have been gaining in popularity.

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  • [Cites] Arch Dermatol. 1991 Jul;127(7):1029-31 [2064402.001]
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  • (PMID = 20729970.001).
  • [ISSN] 1941-2789
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical and aesthetic dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Aesthet Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2924136
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26. Huyke C, Reuter J, Rödig M, Kersten A, Laszczyk M, Scheffler A, Nashan D, Schempp C: Treatment of actinic keratoses with a novel betulin-based oleogel. A prospective, randomized, comparative pilot study. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges; 2009 Feb;7(2):128-33

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of actinic keratoses with a novel betulin-based oleogel. A prospective, randomized, comparative pilot study.
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic keratoses (AK) are squamous cell carcinomas in situ and require treatment.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the prospective, randomized, monocentric phase 2a study 45 patients with < 10 AK were included and randomly assigned to one of the three treatment groups.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Betulin-based oleogel seems to be an effective novel approach in the topical treatment of actinic keratoses.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Triterpenes / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 18808378.001).
  • [ISSN] 1610-0387
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft = Journal of the German Society of Dermatology : JDDG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dtsch Dermatol Ges
  • [Language] eng; ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organic Chemicals; 0 / Triterpenes; 0 / oleogels; 6W70HN7X7O / betulin
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27. Fenske NA, Spencer J, Adam F: Actinic keratoses: past, present and future. J Drugs Dermatol; 2010 May;9(5 Suppl ODAC Conf Pt 1):s45-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Actinic keratoses: past, present and future.
  • Actinic keratoses (AKs) are cutaneous neoplasms composed of proliferations of cytologically aberrant, epidermal keratinocytes caused by prolonged exposure to ultraviolet radiation.
  • Combining the evidence that AKs are the second most common reason for visits to the dermatologist and it is generally believed that they should be treated, it is no surprise that the direct cost of the management of actinic keratoses in the United States (U.S.) is exceedingly high.
  • The future of AK treatment involves both the continued investigation of current novel therapies, as well as the development of new treatment modalities.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis, Actinic / therapy

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  • (PMID = 20518359.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-9616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Drugs Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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28. Ulrich M, Stockfleth E: Field treatment of actinic keratoses - focus on COX-2-inhibitors. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2009 Dec;100 Suppl 2:55-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Field treatment of actinic keratoses - focus on COX-2-inhibitors.
  • Actinic keratoses (AK) represent the most common carcinoma in situ of the skin and show continuously increasing incidences worldwide.
  • Clinically, AK occur as multiple lesions in sun-exposed areas, which has been referred to as field cancerization.
  • Novel treatment modalities for actinic field cancerization include 3 % diclofenac in 2.5 % hyaluronic acid (HA).
  • Herein, we give an overview about actinic keratosis focusing on treatment with the COX-2 inhibitor diclofenac 3 % gel and summarize current concepts of its antineoplastic mode of action.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20096163.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors
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29. Chia A, Moreno G, Lim A, Shumack S: Actinic keratoses. Aust Fam Physician; 2007 Jul;36(7):539-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Actinic keratoses.
  • Actinic keratoses (AK) commonly occur in the caucasian population living in environments of high levels of sun exposure, and are considered to be a marker for chronic sun damage.
  • This article reviews the epidemiology, pathogenesis, and current debate on AK as precancerous lesions.
  • The various treatment options for AK, including combination therapy, are also discussed.

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  • (PMID = 17619671.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8495
  • [Journal-full-title] Australian family physician
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aust Fam Physician
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Antimetabolites; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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30. Szeimies RM, Matheson RT, Davis SA, Bhatia AC, Frambach Y, Klövekorn W, Fesq H, Berking C, Reifenberger J, Thaçi D: Topical methyl aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy using red light-emitting diode light for multiple actinic keratoses: a randomized study. Dermatol Surg; 2009 Apr;35(4):586-92
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Topical methyl aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy using red light-emitting diode light for multiple actinic keratoses: a randomized study.
  • BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective treatment for actinic keratoses (AKs).
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy. Photosensitizing Agents / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 19309347.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4725
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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31. Epstein E: Twice daily vs. four times daily 5-fluorouracil therapy for actinic keratoses: a split face study. Br J Dermatol; 2006 Apr;154(4):794-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Twice daily vs. four times daily 5-fluorouracil therapy for actinic keratoses: a split face study.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites / administration & dosage. Facial Dermatoses / drug therapy. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Keratosis / drug therapy. Photosensitivity Disorders / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16536841.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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32. Smith SR, Morhenn VB, Piacquadio DJ: Bilateral comparison of the efficacy and tolerability of 3% diclofenac sodium gel and 5% 5-fluorouracil cream in the treatment of actinic keratoses of the face and scalp. J Drugs Dermatol; 2006 Feb;5(2):156-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bilateral comparison of the efficacy and tolerability of 3% diclofenac sodium gel and 5% 5-fluorouracil cream in the treatment of actinic keratoses of the face and scalp.
  • Actinic keratoses (AKs) are a common precancerous condition and are said to account for 14% of visits to dermatologists in the US each year.
  • Additionally, topical therapies have a perceived benefit of treating subclinical lesions along with clinically evident keratoses.
  • We conducted a bilateral comparison study of the efficacy and tolerability of diclofenac 3% gel used for 90 days and 5% fluorouracil cream used for 28 days in thirty patients with AK of the face and scalp.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Diclofenac / therapeutic use. Facial Dermatoses / drug therapy. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Keratosis / drug therapy. Scalp Dermatoses / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16485883.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-9616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Drugs Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Gels; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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33. Moloney F, Vestergaard M, Radojkovic B, Damian D: Randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled study to assess the effect of topical 1% nicotinamide on actinic keratoses. Br J Dermatol; 2010 May;162(5):1138-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Randomized, double-blinded, placebo controlled study to assess the effect of topical 1% nicotinamide on actinic keratoses.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Niacinamide / therapeutic use. Vitamin B Complex / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 20199551.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12001-76-2 / Vitamin B Complex; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide
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34. Reuter J, Wölfle U, Korting HC, Schempp C: Which plant for which skin disease? Part 2: Dermatophytes, chronic venous insufficiency, photoprotection, actinic keratoses, vitiligo, hair loss, cosmetic indications. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges; 2010 Nov;8(11):866-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Which plant for which skin disease? Part 2: Dermatophytes, chronic venous insufficiency, photoprotection, actinic keratoses, vitiligo, hair loss, cosmetic indications.
  • Extracts from the garden spurge (Euphorbia peplus) and from birch bark (Betula alba) have been shown to be effective in the treatment of actinic keratoses in phase II studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Dermatologic Agents / therapeutic use. Dermatomycoses / drug therapy. Hypotrichosis / prevention & control. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Plant Extracts / therapeutic use. Venous Insufficiency / drug therapy. Vitiligo / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Chronic Disease / prevention & control. Cosmetics / classification. Cosmetics / therapeutic use. Humans. Sunscreening Agents / therapeutic use

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  • [Copyright] © The Authors • Journal compilation © Blackwell Verlag GmbH, Berlin.
  • (PMID = 20707877.001).
  • [ISSN] 1610-0387
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft = Journal of the German Society of Dermatology : JDDG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dtsch Dermatol Ges
  • [Language] eng; ger
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Dermatologic Agents; 0 / Plant Extracts; 0 / Sunscreening Agents
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35. Patel MJ, Ulrich C, Forschner T: Genetically determined susceptibility to COX-2 inhibitors: a report of exaggerated responders to diclofenac 3% gel in the treatment of actinic keratoses. Br J Dermatol; 2007 May;156 Suppl 3:57-61
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. DICLOFENAC .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Genetically determined susceptibility to COX-2 inhibitors: a report of exaggerated responders to diclofenac 3% gel in the treatment of actinic keratoses.
  • Diclofenac 3% gel is an effective treatment for actinic keratoses (AKs) and is reported to be generally well tolerated with only mild local reactions.
  • This raises the question as to whether there is a subset of patients with skin cancer or AK lesions that are highly/more susceptible to local reactions caused by cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists?
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / adverse effects. Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors / adverse effects. Diclofenac / adverse effects. Drug Eruptions / genetics. Keratosis / drug therapy. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17488409.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors; 0 / Gels; 0 / Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac
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36. Ostertag JU, Quaedvlieg PJ, van der Geer S, Nelemans P, Christianen ME, Neumann MH, Krekels GA: A clinical comparison and long-term follow-up of topical 5-fluorouracil versus laser resurfacing in the treatment of widespread actinic keratoses. Lasers Surg Med; 2006 Sep;38(8):731-9
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. FLUOROURACIL .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A clinical comparison and long-term follow-up of topical 5-fluorouracil versus laser resurfacing in the treatment of widespread actinic keratoses.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Many treatment modalities exist for actinic keratoses (AK).
  • Fifty-five patients with multiple AK on the scalp and or the face were included.
  • Although significantly more side effects occur, laser resurfacing is a useful therapeutic option especially in patients with widespread AK.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Keratosis / drug therapy. Keratosis / radiotherapy. Low-Level Light Therapy / methods

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16912977.001).
  • [ISSN] 0196-8092
  • [Journal-full-title] Lasers in surgery and medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lasers Surg Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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37. Jorizzo JL, Markowitz O, Lebwohl MG, Bourcier M, Kulp J, Meng TC, Levy S: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, multicenter, efficacy and safety study of 3.75% imiquimod cream following cryosurgery for the treatment of actinic keratoses. J Drugs Dermatol; 2010 Sep;9(9):1101-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, multicenter, efficacy and safety study of 3.75% imiquimod cream following cryosurgery for the treatment of actinic keratoses.
  • OBJECTIVE: Evaluate cryosurgery followed by 3.75% imiquimod cream to treat actinic keratoses (AK).
  • RESULTS: For the cryosurgery/3.75% imiquimod (n=126) and cryosurgery/placebo (n=121) groups, respectively, median total AK reductions were 86.5 and 50 percent, and proportions of subjects with complete clearance were 30.2 and 3.3 percent (P < 0.0001, both).
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Cryosurgery. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Keratosis, Actinic / therapy

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  • (PMID = 20865842.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-9616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Drugs Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Ointments; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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38. Iraji F, Siadat AH, Asilian A, Enshaieh S, Shahmoradi Z: The safety of diclofenac for the management and treatment of actinic keratoses. Expert Opin Drug Saf; 2008 Mar;7(2):167-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The safety of diclofenac for the management and treatment of actinic keratoses.
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic keratoses (AKs), defined as carcinoma in situ of squamous carcinoma, is usually induced by excessive sun exposure.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / adverse effects. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Diclofenac / adverse effects. Keratosis / drug therapy. Photosensitivity Disorders / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18324879.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-764X
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on drug safety
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Drug Saf
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Gels; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac; 9004-61-9 / Hyaluronic Acid
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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39. Ortiz-Policarpio B, Lui H: Methyl aminolevulinate-PDT for actinic keratoses and superficial nonmelanoma skin cancers. Skin Therapy Lett; 2009 Jul-Aug;14(6):1-3
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Skin Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Methyl aminolevulinate-PDT for actinic keratoses and superficial nonmelanoma skin cancers.
  • Methyl aminolevulinate-hydrochloride cream (Metvix [in Canada] and Metvixia [in the US], Galderma) in combination with photodynamic therapy (PDT) provides an effective treatment option for actinic keratoses (AKs), superficial basal cell carcinoma (sBCC), and Bowen's disease (BD).
  • Complete responses (CRs) in AK range from 69% to 93% at 3 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy / methods. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Cutaneous. Bowen's Disease / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Treatment Outcome. Ultraviolet Rays

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  • (PMID = 19609473.001).
  • [ISSN] 1201-5989
  • [Journal-full-title] Skin therapy letter
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skin Therapy Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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40. Kalisiak MS, Rao J: Photodynamic therapy for actinic keratoses. Dermatol Clin; 2007 Jan;25(1):15-23

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Photodynamic therapy for actinic keratoses.
  • Actinic keratoses (AKs) are one of the most common conditions that are treated by dermatologists and they have the potential to progress to squamous cell carcinoma if left untreated.
  • This article focuses on practical aspects of PDT in the treatment of AKs, outcomes of relevant clinical trials, and special applications of PDT in transplant recipients and other who are predisposed to AK formation.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy. Ultraviolet Rays / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 17126738.001).
  • [ISSN] 0733-8635
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic clinics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Clin
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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41. Richtig E, Ahlgrimm-Siess V, Koller S, Gerger A, Horn M, Smolle J, Hofmann-Wellenhof R: Follow-up of actinic keratoses after shave biopsy by in-vivo reflectance confocal microscopy--a pilot study. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2010 Mar;24(3):293-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Follow-up of actinic keratoses after shave biopsy by in-vivo reflectance confocal microscopy--a pilot study.
  • BACKGROUND: Monitoring of treatment efficacy after shave biopsy of actinic keratoses (AK) is often difficult, as clinical and dermoscopic features may not be reliable.
  • OBJECTIVES: We investigated the applicability of in-vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) for the follow-up of AK after shave biopsy.
  • RESULTS: At baseline all lesions showed typical clinical, dermoscopic and RCM criteria of AK.
  • Three months after shave biopsy, all lesions presented clinically as normal skin (NS), but two lesions showed features suspicious for AK by RCM.
  • After 12 months, one lesion of these two lesions changed into NS in RCM, whereas the other lesion progressed into clinical visible AK.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that RCM might be a useful tool in the follow-up of AK after shave biopsy and might be used in inconclusive clinical and dermoscopic presentations of lesions after surgery or other treatment modalities.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy / methods. Keratosis, Actinic / pathology. Microscopy, Confocal / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Pilot Projects. Prognosis. Reproducibility of Results. Severity of Illness Index. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 19732253.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-3083
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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42. Fai D, Arpaia N, Romano I, Vestita M, Cassano N, Vena GA: Methyl-aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy for the treatment of actinic keratoses and non-melanoma skin cancers: a retrospective analysis of response in 462 patients. G Ital Dermatol Venereol; 2009 Jun;144(3):281-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Methyl-aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy for the treatment of actinic keratoses and non-melanoma skin cancers: a retrospective analysis of response in 462 patients.
  • AIM: Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) with methyl-aminolevulinate (MAL) is widely used for the management of actinic keratoses (AK) and non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSCs).
  • METHODS: The medical records selected concerned all patients who completed the MAL-PDT regimen (one single session for AK and two sessions one week apart for NMSCs) and who underwent post-treatment assessments over a follow-up period of at least 12 months.
  • RESULTS: Present case series included a total of 462 patients: 210 patients with AK, 228 subjects with 348 basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), 213 of nodular type (nBCC) and 135 of superficial type (sBCC), 17 patients with Bowen's disease and seven with squamous cell carcinoma.
  • On the whole, following a single session, complete clearance of AK was achieved in 79% of patients at three months and in 68.1% at 12 months.
  • Our results, even if obtained in very few cases, indicate that Bowen's disease is very responsive to MAL-PDT, unlike microinvasive or invasive SCC.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our experience confirms that MAL-PDT is a valid approach to patients with AK, BCC and Bowen's disease, with an acceptable tolerability profile and a very low risk of complications.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Bowen's Disease / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Drug Evaluation. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / drug therapy. Pain / etiology. Retrospective Studies. Salvage Therapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19528909.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-0488
  • [Journal-full-title] Giornale italiano di dermatologia e venereologia : organo ufficiale, Società italiana di dermatologia e sifilografia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Ital Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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43. Pariser D, Loss R, Jarratt M, Abramovits W, Spencer J, Geronemus R, Bailin P, Bruce S: Topical methyl-aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy using red light-emitting diode light for treatment of multiple actinic keratoses: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2008 Oct;59(4):569-76

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Topical methyl-aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy using red light-emitting diode light for treatment of multiple actinic keratoses: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
  • BACKGROUND: The use of light-emitting diode light offers practical advantages in photodynamic therapy (PDT) with topical methyl-aminolevulinate (MAL) for management of actinic keratoses (AK).
  • A total of 49 patients with 363 AK lesions had 16.8% MAL cream applied under occlusion for 3 hours, and 47 patients with 360 AK lesions had vehicle cream similarly applied.
  • LIMITATIONS: The study population may not be representative of all patients with AK.
  • CONCLUSION: MAL PDT using red light-emitting diode light is an appropriate treatment alternative for multiple AK lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Keratosis / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy / methods. Photosensitizing Agents / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 18707799.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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44. Ulrich M, Krueger-Corcoran D, Roewert-Huber J, Sterry W, Stockfleth E, Astner S: Reflectance confocal microscopy for noninvasive monitoring of therapy and detection of subclinical actinic keratoses. Dermatology; 2010;220(1):15-24
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Reflectance confocal microscopy for noninvasive monitoring of therapy and detection of subclinical actinic keratoses.
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic keratoses (AK) represent cutaneous carcinoma in situ and have previously been evaluated by reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM).
  • Treatment of AK with imiquimod (IMIQ) 5% cream has been shown to 'highlight' subclinical lesions.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to test the applicability of RCM for noninvasive monitoring of actinic field cancerization and detection of subclinical AK.
  • SUBJECTS AND METHODS: AK and surrounding skin sites with no apparent AK of 11 volunteers were selected for imaging and subsequently classified as 'clinical' and 'subclinical' AK.
  • RESULTS: RCM was able to detect morphologic features of AK in both clinical and subclinical AK; features were more pronounced in clinical lesions.
  • CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that RCM allows noninvasive monitoring of treatment response in vivo and permits early detection of subclinical AK, thus substantiating the incentive for therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Drug Monitoring / methods. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Microscopy, Confocal / methods

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19907131.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9832
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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45. Stockfleth E, Sterry W, Carey-Yard M, Bichel J: Multicentre, open-label study using imiquimod 5% cream in one or two 4-week courses of treatment for multiple actinic keratoses on the head. Br J Dermatol; 2007 Dec;157 Suppl 2:41-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Multicentre, open-label study using imiquimod 5% cream in one or two 4-week courses of treatment for multiple actinic keratoses on the head.
  • OBJECTIVE: In the USA, Imiquimod 5% cream is approved for use 2-3 times per week over 16 weeks for the treatment of actinic keratoses (AKs).
  • PATIENTS: Patients were eligible if they had clinically typical, visible AK lesions located anywhere on the head, excluding the upper and lower eyelids, nostrils, lip vermilion, and inside the ears.
  • Patients with AK lesions remaining in the treatment area underwent a second 4-week treatment course.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary variable was the complete clearance rate, defined as the proportion of patients with no clinically visible AK lesions in the treatment area at the course 1 or course 2 post-treatment visit.
  • Overall, the complete clearance rate was 68.9% (571/829) and the partial clearance rate (percentage of patients with >/= 75% reduction in the number of baseline AK lesions) was 80.2%.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Facial Neoplasms / drug therapy. Keratosis / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18067631.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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46. Tan JK, Thomas DR, Poulin Y, Maddin F, Tang J: Efficacy of imiquimod as an adjunct to cryotherapy for actinic keratoses. J Cutan Med Surg; 2007 Nov-Dec;11(6):195-201
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Efficacy of imiquimod as an adjunct to cryotherapy for actinic keratoses.
  • BACKGROUND: Cryotherapy is the standard of care for clinically apparent (target) actinic keratoses (AKs).
  • At 12 weeks, target AK clearance was similar for imiquimod and vehicle (79% vs 76%), but fewer total AKs were noted for imiquimod (78 vs 116).
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Facial Dermatoses / drug therapy. Keratosis / drug therapy. Scalp Dermatoses / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18042331.001).
  • [ISSN] 1203-4754
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous medicine and surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cutan Med Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Ointments; P1QW714R7M / imiquimod
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47. Sotiriou E, Apalla Z, Maliamani F, Zaparas N, Panagiotidou D, Ioannides D: Intraindividual, right-left comparison of topical 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy vs. 5% imiquimod cream for actinic keratoses on the upper extremities. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2009 Sep;23(9):1061-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intraindividual, right-left comparison of topical 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy vs. 5% imiquimod cream for actinic keratoses on the upper extremities.
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic keratoses (AKs) are considered as in situ squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Efficacy end point included the individual AK lesion clearance rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / therapeutic use. Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Interferon Inducers / therapeutic use. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy / methods. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19470041.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-3083
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Interferon Inducers; 0 / Ointments; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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48. Ulrich C, Hackethal M, Ulrich M, Howorka A, Forschner T, Sterry W, Stockfleth E: Treatment of multiple actinic keratoses with topical diclofenac 3% gel in organ transplant recipients: a series of six cases. Br J Dermatol; 2007 May;156 Suppl 3:40-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of multiple actinic keratoses with topical diclofenac 3% gel in organ transplant recipients: a series of six cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) represents a significant cause of morbidity in organ transplant patients; the relative risk of squamous cell carcinoma and actinic keratosis (AK) is 100 and 250 times higher, respectively, compared with immunocompetent patients.
  • PATIENTS/METHODS: An open-label study was conducted in six patients (three kidney, one liver and two heart transplant patients) with histories of multiple NMSCs and extensive actinic keratoses (AKs).
  • Two further patients showed a marked (> or = 75% lesion reduction) improvement in their overall AK lesion count in the treatment area.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that diclofenac 3% gel may be useful in the treatment and control of multiple AK lesions in OTRs.
  • Further studies are needed to investigate the efficacy and safety of this therapy for the local treatment of AK in greater numbers of immunosuppressed patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / administration & dosage. Diclofenac / administration & dosage. Keratosis / drug therapy. Postoperative Complications / drug therapy. Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 17488405.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Gels; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac
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49. Hanke CW, Beer KR, Stockfleth E, Wu J, Rosen T, Levy S: Imiquimod 2.5% and 3.75% for the treatment of actinic keratoses: results of two placebo-controlled studies of daily application to the face and balding scalp for two 3-week cycles. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2010 Apr;62(4):573-81
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Imiquimod 2.5% and 3.75% for the treatment of actinic keratoses: results of two placebo-controlled studies of daily application to the face and balding scalp for two 3-week cycles.
  • BACKGROUND: Imiquimod 5% cream is approved as a 16-week regimen for the treatment of actinic keratoses involving a 25-cm(2) area of skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage. Aminoquinolines / administration & dosage. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20133012.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Dosage Forms; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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50. Wiegell SR, Haedersdal M, Philipsen PA, Eriksen P, Enk CD, Wulf HC: Continuous activation of PpIX by daylight is as effective as and less painful than conventional photodynamic therapy for actinic keratoses; a randomized, controlled, single-blinded study. Br J Dermatol; 2008 Apr;158(4):740-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Continuous activation of PpIX by daylight is as effective as and less painful than conventional photodynamic therapy for actinic keratoses; a randomized, controlled, single-blinded study.
  • BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a highly effective treatment for actinic keratoses (AK); however, it is time consuming and often painful for the patient.
  • PATIENTS/METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with AK of the face and scalp were treated with MAL-PDT in two symmetrical areas.
  • RESULTS: We found no significant difference in the treatment effect between the two treatments (P = 0.13), with a reduction of AK lesions of 79% in the daylight area compared with 71% in the LED area.
  • CONCLUSIONS: PDT of AK by continuous activation of porphyrins by daylight proved to be as effective as conventional PDT.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Heliotherapy / methods. Keratosis / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy / adverse effects. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Protoporphyrins / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 18294318.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / Protoporphyrins; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 553-12-8 / protoporphyrin IX; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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51. Pirard D, Vereecken P, Mélot C, Heenen M: Three percent diclofenac in 2.5% hyaluronan gel in the treatment of actinic keratoses: a meta-analysis of the recent studies. Arch Dermatol Res; 2005 Nov;297(5):185-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Three percent diclofenac in 2.5% hyaluronan gel in the treatment of actinic keratoses: a meta-analysis of the recent studies.
  • Three percent diclofenac in 2.5% hyaluronan gel (DHA) is approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the treatment of actinic keratoses (AK).
  • DHA is effective compared to HAV in the treatment of AK.
  • Further studies should establish subgroup analyses according to sites and severity of the AK lesions in order to determine if more patients could be improved in restricted indications.
  • Biopsies, a longer follow-up evaluation, and comparisons with the other treatments of AK will also be helpful in the future to define the place of this treatment in the management of AK.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / administration & dosage. Diclofenac / administration & dosage. Hyaluronic Acid / administration & dosage. Keratosis / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16235081.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-3696
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatological research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Dermatol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Gels; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac; 27YG812J1I / Arachidonic Acid; 9004-61-9 / Hyaluronic Acid
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52. Langan SM, Collins P: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled prospective study of the efficacy of topical anaesthesia with a eutetic mixture of lignocaine 2.5% and prilocaine 2.5% for topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy for extensive scalp actinic keratoses. Br J Dermatol; 2006 Jan;154(1):146-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled prospective study of the efficacy of topical anaesthesia with a eutetic mixture of lignocaine 2.5% and prilocaine 2.5% for topical 5-aminolaevulinic acid-photodynamic therapy for extensive scalp actinic keratoses.
  • BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an effective treatment modality for the treatment of extensive scalp actinic keratoses (AKs), but pain is a significant drawback when treating large areas with topical PDT using 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA) as sensitizer.
  • [MeSH-major] Anesthesia, Local / methods. Keratosis / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy / methods. Photosensitivity Disorders / drug therapy. Scalp Dermatoses / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16403108.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anesthetics, Combined; 0 / Anesthetics, Local; 046O35D44R / Prilocaine; 98PI200987 / Lidocaine
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53. Gilbert DJ: Treatment of actinic keratoses with sequential combination of 5-fluorouracil and photodynamic therapy. J Drugs Dermatol; 2005 Mar-Apr;4(2):161-3
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  • [Title] Treatment of actinic keratoses with sequential combination of 5-fluorouracil and photodynamic therapy.
  • Actinic keratoses (AKs) are traditionally treated with cryotherapy, curettage, and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU, Efudex, ICN Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / administration & dosage. Facial Dermatoses / drug therapy. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Keratosis / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy

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  • (PMID = 15776772.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-9616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Drugs Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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54. Jury CS, Ramraka-Jones VS, Gudi V, Herd RM: A randomized trial of topical 5% 5-fluorouracil (Efudix cream) in the treatment of actinic keratoses comparing daily with weekly treatment. Br J Dermatol; 2005 Oct;153(4):808-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A randomized trial of topical 5% 5-fluorouracil (Efudix cream) in the treatment of actinic keratoses comparing daily with weekly treatment.
  • BACKGROUND: Topical 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) cream is widely used in the treatment of actinic keratoses (AKs) but the optimum treatment regimen that provides efficacy while minimizing side-effects remains unclear.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites / administration & dosage. Facial Dermatoses / drug therapy. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Keratosis / drug therapy. Scalp Dermatoses / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16181465.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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55. von Felbert V, Hoffmann G, Hoff-Lesch S, Abuzahra F, Renn CN, Braathen LR, Merk HF: Photodynamic therapy of multiple actinic keratoses: reduced pain through use of visible light plus water-filtered infrared A compared with light from light-emitting diodes. Br J Dermatol; 2010 Sep;163(3):607-15
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Photodynamic therapy of multiple actinic keratoses: reduced pain through use of visible light plus water-filtered infrared A compared with light from light-emitting diodes.
  • BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with methyl aminolaevulinate (MAL) is an effective treatment for multiple actinic keratoses (AKs).
  • [MeSH-major] Infrared Rays / therapeutic use. Keratosis, Actinic / therapy. Pain / etiology. Photochemotherapy / methods

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 The Authors. Journal Compilation © 2010 British Association of Dermatologists.
  • (PMID = 20426780.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 059QF0KO0R / Water; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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56. Bernard P, Dupuy A, Brun P, Sasko A, Duru G, Nicoloyannis N, Decuypere L, Grob JJ: [Therapeutic modalities and economic assessment in the treatment of superficial basal cell carcinomas and multiple actinic keratoses by French dermatologists]. Ann Dermatol Venereol; 2007 Jun-Jul;134(6-7):527-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Therapeutic modalities and economic assessment in the treatment of superficial basal cell carcinomas and multiple actinic keratoses by French dermatologists].
  • INTRODUCTION: To date, no prospective studies have been conducted in France describing the management of actinic keratoses (AK) and superficial basal cell carcinomas (sBCC).
  • The aim of the present study was to describe the therapeutic modalities for AK and sBCC adopted by French dermatologists and to determine the direct annual medical costs.
  • The therapeutic modalities, the physicians involved and the laboratory examinations during the 3 months following diagnosis were recorded prospectively.
  • Histological confirmation of diagnosis of BCC was obtained in 85% of cases.
  • In addition, 226 patients with AK (mean age: 76 years; sex-ratio M/F: 2.1) were included in the study.
  • DISCUSSION: This is the first study conducted in France to evaluate both the medical approach and treatment costs of sBCC and AK.

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  • (PMID = 17657178.001).
  • [ISSN] 0151-9638
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de dermatologie et de vénéréologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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57. Ulrich C, Johannsen A, Röwert-Huber J, Ulrich M, Sterry W, Stockfleth E: Results of a randomized, placebo-controlled safety and efficacy study of topical diclofenac 3% gel in organ transplant patients with multiple actinic keratoses. Eur J Dermatol; 2010 Jul-Aug;20(4):482-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Results of a randomized, placebo-controlled safety and efficacy study of topical diclofenac 3% gel in organ transplant patients with multiple actinic keratoses.
  • Effective management of actinic keratoses (AK) could help to prevent the further development of invasive SCC.
  • Diclofenac in hyaluronic acid has previously shown to be an effective and well tolerated option for the treatment of AK in immuno-competent patients.
  • Patients who had stable status of the transplanted graft in the 12 months prior to entering the study and >/= 3 AK lesions in a contiguous 50 cm2 area on the face, forehead, hands or balding scalp were eligible for inclusion in the study.
  • Treatment of AK with 3% diclofenac in 2.5% hyaluronic acid or placebo twice daily was conducted over a total of 16 weeks, followed by a final evaluation 4 weeks after last application of the study drug.
  • In the diclofenac 3% gel treatment group, a complete clearance of AK lesions was achieved in 41% (9/22) compared to 0% (0/6) in the vehicle group.
  • In 55% of the previously cleared patients, new AK developed in the study area after an average of 9.3 months.
  • Despite recurrent AK in 55% of the previously cleared patients, the 24 month results showed no invasive SCC in this group.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use. Diclofenac / therapeutic use. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Organ Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 20507841.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-1122
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of dermatology : EJD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Gels; 0 / Placebos; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac; 9004-61-9 / Hyaluronic Acid
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58. Somani N, Rivers JK: Imiquimod 5% cream for the treatment of actinic keratoses. Skin Therapy Lett; 2005 Mar;10(2):1-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Imiquimod 5% cream for the treatment of actinic keratoses.
  • Actinic keratoses (AKs) are premalignant inflammatory skin lesions with the potential to transform into squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • Five clinical studies to date have demonstrated its safety and efficacy in the treatment of actinic keratoses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Keratosis / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15986078.001).
  • [ISSN] 1201-5989
  • [Journal-full-title] Skin therapy letter
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skin Therapy Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Aminoquinolines; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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59. Tschen EH, Wong DS, Pariser DM, Dunlap FE, Houlihan A, Ferdon MB, Phase IV ALA-PDT Actinic Keratosis Study Group: Photodynamic therapy using aminolaevulinic acid for patients with nonhyperkeratotic actinic keratoses of the face and scalp: phase IV multicentre clinical trial with 12-month follow up. Br J Dermatol; 2006 Dec;155(6):1262-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Photodynamic therapy using aminolaevulinic acid for patients with nonhyperkeratotic actinic keratoses of the face and scalp: phase IV multicentre clinical trial with 12-month follow up.
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic keratoses (AKs) are the most common epithelial precancerous lesions, especially among individuals with light complexions.
  • (ii) to characterize the histopathology of treated AK lesions that do not completely respond to ALA-PDT or recur in long-term follow up;.
  • (iii) to characterize the histopathology of untreated clinically diagnosed AK lesions in the study population at baseline; and (iv) to evaluate ALA-PDT in darker skin types than previously studied.
  • METHODS: Patients enrolled in this study had six to 12 discrete AK lesions, either on the face or the scalp.
  • Individual AK lesions designated for treatment were graded as either grade 1 (lesions slightly palpable and more easily felt than seen) or grade 2 (moderately thick AKs, easily seen and felt).
  • The target AK lesions in the per-protocol population clearing completely in the first and second months following a single ALA-PDT treatment (baseline) were 76% and 72%, respectively.
  • With respect to the lesions biopsied, 91% (127/139) were diagnosed histopathologically as AK, with the balance of lesions being SCC (nine of 139: 7%), basal cell carcinoma (one of 139: 0.7%) and other non-AK diagnoses (two of 139: 1%).
  • The clinical diagnosis of AK by investigators appeared to be accurate, with 91% (200/220) of the untreated clinically diagnosed AK lesions being histopathologically confirmed to be AK (AK, 142/220: 65%; advanced AK, 29/220: 13%; macular AK, 29/220: 13%).
  • The demographics of this study population are typical of a patient population with AK.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / therapeutic use. Facial Dermatoses / drug therapy. Keratosis / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use. Scalp Dermatoses / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17107399.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase IV; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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60. Weissenborn SJ, Nindl I, Purdie K, Harwood C, Proby C, Breuer J, Majewski S, Pfister H, Wieland U: Human papillomavirus-DNA loads in actinic keratoses exceed those in non-melanoma skin cancers. J Invest Dermatol; 2005 Jul;125(1):93-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Human papillomavirus-DNA loads in actinic keratoses exceed those in non-melanoma skin cancers.
  • In this study viral DNA loads of six frequent HPV types were determined by quantitative, type-specific real-time-PCR (Q-PCR) in actinic keratoses (AK, n=26), NMSC (n=31), perilesional tissue (n=22), and metastases of squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) (n=8) which were previously shown to be positive for HPV5, 8, 15, 20, 24, or 36.
  • HPV-DNA loads in AK, (partially microdissected) NMSC, and perilesional skin ranged between one HPV-DNA copy per 0.02 and 14,200 cell equivalents (median: 1 HPV-DNA copy per 344 cell equivalents; n=48).
  • But, viral loads found in AK were significantly higher than in SCC (p=0.035).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / virology. DNA Probes, HPV. DNA, Viral / analysis. Keratosis / virology. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Skin Neoplasms / virology. Viral Load

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  • [CommentIn] J Invest Dermatol. 2005 Jul;125(1):xii-xiii [15982294.001]
  • (PMID = 15982308.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-202X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of investigative dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Invest. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Probes, HPV; 0 / DNA, Viral
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61. Lacouture ME, Desai A, Soltani K, Petronic-Rosic V, Laumann AE, Ratain MJ, Stadler WM: Inflammation of actinic keratoses subsequent to therapy with sorafenib, a multitargeted tyrosine-kinase inhibitor. Clin Exp Dermatol; 2006 Nov;31(6):783-5
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  • [Title] Inflammation of actinic keratoses subsequent to therapy with sorafenib, a multitargeted tyrosine-kinase inhibitor.
  • In this report, we present two patients in whom treatment with sorafenib resulted in inflammation of actinic keratosis, which in some cases progressed to invasive squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Benzenesulfonates / adverse effects. Drug Eruptions / etiology. Keratosis / chemically induced. Photosensitivity Disorders / chemically induced. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / adverse effects. Pyridines / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 16824050.001).
  • [ISSN] 0307-6938
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Exp. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzenesulfonates; 0 / Phenylurea Compounds; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyridines; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; 9ZOQ3TZI87 / sorafenib
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62. Resnick L, Rabinovitz H, Binninger D, Marchetti M, Weissbach H: Topical sulindac combined with hydrogen peroxide in the treatment of actinic keratoses. J Drugs Dermatol; 2009 Jan;8(1):29-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Topical sulindac combined with hydrogen peroxide in the treatment of actinic keratoses.
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic keratoses (AKs) are a precancerous condition of the skin that have the potential to become squamous cell cancer (SCC).
  • METHODS: Cell culture studies were performed using a skin SCC cell line and normal human epidermal keratinocytes.
  • A clinical trial using the combination of sulindac and hydrogen peroxide therapy in 5 patients with AKs revealed that 60% of the treated AKs responded and 50% showed no residual AK on histopathology specimens after skin biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Hydrogen Peroxide / therapeutic use. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Oxidants / therapeutic use. Sulindac / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19180893.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-9616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Drugs Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1 R15 CA122001-01A1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Gels; 0 / Oxidants; 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; 184SNS8VUH / Sulindac; BBX060AN9V / Hydrogen Peroxide
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63. Breuninger H: [Reader's letter concerning K. Kreutzer, B.Bonnekoh, I. Franke, H. Gollnick. Photodynamic therapy with methylaminooxopentanoate (Metvix) and a broad band light source (Photdyn 501): practical experiences in problem patients with actinic keratoses and basal cell carcinomas. JDDG 2004,12:992-999]. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges; 2005 May;3(5):397
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  • [Title] [Reader's letter concerning K. Kreutzer, B.Bonnekoh, I. Franke, H. Gollnick. Photodynamic therapy with methylaminooxopentanoate (Metvix) and a broad band light source (Photdyn 501): practical experiences in problem patients with actinic keratoses and basal cell carcinomas. JDDG 2004,12:992-999].
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Keratosis / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy. Photosensitivity Disorders / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • [CommentOn] J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2004 Dec;2(12):992-9 [16285312.001]
  • (PMID = 16372809.001).
  • [ISSN] 1610-0379
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft = Journal of the German Society of Dermatology : JDDG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dtsch Dermatol Ges
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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64. Weinberg JM: Topical therapy for actinic keratoses: current and evolving therapies. Rev Recent Clin Trials; 2006 Jan;1(1):53-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Topical therapy for actinic keratoses: current and evolving therapies.
  • Actinic keratoses (AKs) are evolving malignant cutaneous neoplasms.
  • They are also known as solar keratosis, squamous cell carcinoma in situ-solar keratotic type, or keratinocytic intraepidermal neoplasia.
  • Actinic keratoses can be treated by two general methods: by physical/destructive methods and with topical therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Carcinoma in Situ / drug therapy. Keratosis / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18393780.001).
  • [ISSN] 1574-8871
  • [Journal-full-title] Reviews on recent clinical trials
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Recent Clin Trials
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United Arab Emirates
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Retinoids; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod; SML2Y3J35T / Colchicine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 66
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65. Downs AM, Bower CB, Oliver DA, Stone CA: Methyl aminolaevulinate-photodynamic therapy for actinic keratoses, squamous cell carcinoma in situ and superficial basal cell carcinoma employing a square wave intense pulsed light device for photoactivation. Br J Dermatol; 2009 Jul;161(1):189-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Methyl aminolaevulinate-photodynamic therapy for actinic keratoses, squamous cell carcinoma in situ and superficial basal cell carcinoma employing a square wave intense pulsed light device for photoactivation.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Bowen's Disease / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / drug therapy. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy / methods. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19416229.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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66. DeBoyes T, Kouba D, Ozog D, Fincher E, Moy L, Iwata K, Moy R: Reduced number of actinic keratoses with topical application of DNA repair enzyme creams. J Drugs Dermatol; 2010 Dec;9(12):1519-21

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Reduced number of actinic keratoses with topical application of DNA repair enzyme creams.
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic keratosis is regarded as a carcinoma in situ by some dermatologists and its incidence continues to rise.
  • DNA repair enzymes have been shown to reverse sun-damage, resulting in reduced rates of actinic keratoses and non-melanoma skin cancers in specific patient populations.
  • METHODS: Seventeen patients were evaluated for differences in actinic keratoses following topical application of T4N5 liposome lotion over 48 weeks.
  • RESULTS: Compared to baseline, a statistically significant reduction in the number of actinic keratoses was seen following the treatment period.
  • DISCUSSION: This study suggests that DNA repair enzyme creams effectively reduce the number of actinic keratoses in normal individuals with moderate-to-severe photodamaged skin.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA Repair Enzymes / therapeutic use. Deoxyribonuclease (Pyrimidine Dimer) / therapeutic use. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Viral Proteins / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 21120260.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-9616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Drugs Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Liposomes; 0 / Viral Proteins; 0 / endonuclease V, phage T4; EC 3.1.25.1 / Deoxyribonuclease (Pyrimidine Dimer); EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes
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67. Ko CJ: Actinic keratosis: facts and controversies. Clin Dermatol; 2010 May-Jun;28(3):249-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Actinic keratosis: facts and controversies.
  • Actinic keratoses are common lesions that are generally clinically diagnosed.
  • Although currently most actinic keratoses are treated, whether this is truly necessary is debated.
  • Treatment of all actinic keratoses is advocated because preliminary evidence indicates that actinic keratoses may progress to squamous cell carcinomas.
  • Some also consider actinic keratoses equivalent to squamous cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis, Actinic / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Disease Progression. Humans. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Skin Neoplasms / etiology. Unnecessary Procedures

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20541675.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-1131
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Petit A: [Actinic keratoses are still actinic keratoses]. Ann Dermatol Venereol; 2008 Feb;135(2):93-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Actinic keratoses are still actinic keratoses].
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis / diagnosis. Photosensitivity Disorders / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Humans. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Terminology as Topic

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  • (PMID = 18342088.001).
  • [ISSN] 0151-9638
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de dermatologie et de vénéréologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Editorial
  • [Publication-country] France
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69. McIntyre WJ, Downs MR, Bedwell SA: Treatment options for actinic keratoses. Am Fam Physician; 2007 Sep 1;76(5):667-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment options for actinic keratoses.
  • Actinic keratoses are rough, scaly lesions that commonly occur on sun-exposed areas of the skin.
  • Actinic keratoses are thought to be carcinomas in situ, which can progress to squamous cell carcinomas.
  • Fluorouracil has been the traditional topical treatment for actinic keratoses, although imiquimod 5% cream and diclofenac 3% gel are effective alternative therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis / therapy

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  • [CommentIn] Am Fam Physician. 2008 Apr 15;77(8):1078-9 [18481555.001]
  • (PMID = 17894135.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-838X
  • [Journal-full-title] American family physician
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Fam Physician
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 39
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70. Kopera D, Kerl H: Detection and treatment of preclinical actinic keratoses (PAK). J Dtsch Dermatol Ges; 2010 Sep;8(9):693-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Detection and treatment of preclinical actinic keratoses (PAK).
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Facial Dermatoses / diagnosis. Keratosis, Actinic / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20561117.001).
  • [ISSN] 1610-0387
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft = Journal of the German Society of Dermatology : JDDG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dtsch Dermatol Ges
  • [Language] eng; ger
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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71. Steinkraus V, Boer A: Treatment of actinic keratoses: why, when and how? Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol; 2006 Sep-Oct;72(5):331-3

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of actinic keratoses: why, when and how?
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis / therapy. Precancerous Conditions / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17050925.001).
  • [ISSN] 0973-3922
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of dermatology, venereology and leprology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Editorial
  • [Publication-country] India
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72. Campione E, Diluvio L, Paternò EJ, Chimenti S: Topical treatment of actinic keratoses with piroxicam 1% gel: a preliminary open-label study utilizing a new clinical score. Am J Clin Dermatol; 2010;11(1):45-50
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Topical treatment of actinic keratoses with piroxicam 1% gel: a preliminary open-label study utilizing a new clinical score.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of piroxicam 1% gel in the treatment of actinic keratoses.
  • METHODS: Piroxicam 1% gel was applied twice daily for 12 weeks to 31 actinic keratoses.
  • In our experience, the use of piroxicam 1% gel for 90 days induced complete regression in 48% of evaluated actinic keratoses, corresponding to keratotic and verrucous clinical variants.
  • [MeSH-major] Anticarcinogenic Agents / therapeutic use. Dermatologic Agents / therapeutic use. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Piroxicam / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / prevention & control. Sunlight / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 20000874.001).
  • [ISSN] 1175-0561
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Clin Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticarcinogenic Agents; 0 / Dermatologic Agents; 0 / Gels; 13T4O6VMAM / Piroxicam; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 1; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
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73. Spencer JM, Hazan C, Hsiung SH, Robins P: Therapeutic decision making in the therapy of actinic keratoses. J Drugs Dermatol; 2005 May-Jun;4(3):296-301
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Therapeutic decision making in the therapy of actinic keratoses.
  • Actinic keratoses (AKs) represent the second most common reason to visit a dermatologist in the United States and their therapy has become a major portion of most dermatologists' practice.
  • An ever-increasing array of therapeutic options exist for the therapy of actinic keratoses, offering physicians and patients a greater number of choices than ever before.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Keratosis / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy / methods

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  • (PMID = 15898284.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-9616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Drugs Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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74. Russo GG: Actinic keratoses, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma: uncommon treatments. Clin Dermatol; 2005 Nov-Dec;23(6):581-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Actinic keratoses, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma: uncommon treatments.
  • This contribution will discuss the treatment of actinic keratoses, basal cell carcinomas, and squamous cell carcinoma using methods that are not routinely established but have been used for a long period.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / therapy. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / therapy. Keratosis / drug therapy. Photosensitivity Disorders / therapy. Skin Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16325066.001).
  • [ISSN] 0738-081X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac; 9004-61-9 / Hyaluronic Acid; SML2Y3J35T / Colchicine
  • [Number-of-references] 53
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75. Ramalingam VS, Sinnakirouchenan R, Thappa DM: Malignant transformation of actinic keratoses to squamous cell carcinoma in an albino. Indian J Dermatol; 2009;54(1):46-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant transformation of actinic keratoses to squamous cell carcinoma in an albino.
  • He was diagnosed to have oculocutaneous albinism with actinic keratoses, with multiple squamous cell carcinomas (with metastatic deposits in the right inguinal region) and cutaneous horns.

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  • [Cites] Arch Dermatol. 1989 Nov;125(11):1583-6 [2684028.001]
  • [Cites] N Engl J Med. 1993 Oct 14;329(16):1147-51 [8377777.001]
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  • (PMID = 20049269.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-3611
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2800870
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Albinism / actinic keratoses / cutaneous horns / squamous cell carcinomas
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76. Burnett TJ, English JC 3rd, Ferris LK: Development of subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus associated with the use of imiquimod to treat actinic keratoses. J Drugs Dermatol; 2010 Aug;9(8):1022-4
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Imiquimod .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Development of subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus associated with the use of imiquimod to treat actinic keratoses.
  • Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to treat actinic keratoses, non-facial superficial basal cell carcinomas and genital warts.
  • The authors report the case of a 56-year-old female who developed subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE), as well as severe autoimmune retinitis following a vigorous response to imiquimod 5% cream that was prescribed to treat actinic keratoses.
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Cutaneous. Autoimmune Diseases / chemically induced. Female. Humans. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Middle Aged. Retinitis / chemically induced. Retinitis / immunology. Severity of Illness Index

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  • (PMID = 20684157.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-9616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Drugs Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Aminoquinolines; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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77. Jorizzo J, Dinehart S, Matheson R, Moore JK, Ling M, Fox TL, McRae S, Fielder S, Lee JH: Vehicle-controlled, double-blind, randomized study of imiquimod 5% cream applied 3 days per week in one or two courses of treatment for actinic keratoses on the head. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2007 Aug;57(2):265-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Vehicle-controlled, double-blind, randomized study of imiquimod 5% cream applied 3 days per week in one or two courses of treatment for actinic keratoses on the head.
  • BACKGROUND: A shorter dosing regimen of imiquimod for the treatment of actinic keratosis may be effective, with long-term clinical benefits.
  • METHODS: Patients with actinic keratosis lesions on the head applied imiquimod or vehicle cream 3x/wk for 4 weeks (course 1).
  • CONCLUSION: Imiquimod 3x/wk in one or two courses of treatment appears to be effective for the treatment of actinic keratoses on the head, providing long-term clinical benefits.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / administration & dosage. Facial Dermatoses / drug therapy. Keratosis / drug therapy. Photosensitivity Disorders / drug therapy. Scalp Dermatoses / drug therapy


78. Ulrich C, Bichel J, Euvrard S, Guidi B, Proby CM, van de Kerkhof PC, Amerio P, Rønnevig J, Slade HB, Stockfleth E: Topical immunomodulation under systemic immunosuppression: results of a multicentre, randomized, placebo-controlled safety and efficacy study of imiquimod 5% cream for the treatment of actinic keratoses in kidney, heart, and liver transplant patients. Br J Dermatol; 2007 Dec;157 Suppl 2:25-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Topical immunomodulation under systemic immunosuppression: results of a multicentre, randomized, placebo-controlled safety and efficacy study of imiquimod 5% cream for the treatment of actinic keratoses in kidney, heart, and liver transplant patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: In this study the safety and efficacy of imiquimod 5% cream for the treatments of actinic keratoses in kidney, heart and liver transplant recipients is evaluated.
  • BACKGROUND: Growing populations of organ transplant recipients face increased risk of developing actinic keratosis (AK) and skin cancer secondary to continuous systemic immunosuppressive therapy.
  • Imiquimod 5% cream is an effective option for the treatment of AK, but the safety of topical immune stimulation in immunocompromised patients has not been widely evaluated.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Imiquimod appears to be a safe alternative for the treatment of multiple actinic keratoses in patients with solid organ transplants.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Keratosis / drug therapy. Organ Transplantation. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18067628.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / A6695
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2493058; NLM/ UKMS1914
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79. Swanson N, Abramovits W, Berman B, Kulp J, Rigel DS, Levy S: Imiquimod 2.5% and 3.75% for the treatment of actinic keratoses: results of two placebo-controlled studies of daily application to the face and balding scalp for two 2-week cycles. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2010 Apr;62(4):582-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Imiquimod 2.5% and 3.75% for the treatment of actinic keratoses: results of two placebo-controlled studies of daily application to the face and balding scalp for two 2-week cycles.
  • BACKGROUND: The approved imiquimod 5% cream regimen for treating actinic keratoses requires a long treatment time and is limited to a small area of skin.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Both imiquimod 2.5% and 3.75% creams were more effective than placebo and were well tolerated when administered daily as a 2-week on/off/on regimen to treat actinic keratoses.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / administration & dosage. Aminoquinolines / administration & dosage. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20133013.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Dosage Forms; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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80. Ilyas EN, Grana G, Green JJ: Inflammatory actinic keratoses secondary to systemic chemotherapy. Cutis; 2005 Mar;75(3):167-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Inflammatory actinic keratoses secondary to systemic chemotherapy.
  • Traditionally, systemic 5-fluorouracil has been associated with a reaction that produces inflammation of preexisting and subclinical actinic keratoses (AKs).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Doxorubicin / adverse effects. Keratosis / etiology. Ultraviolet Rays / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 15839360.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-4162
  • [Journal-full-title] Cutis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cutis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenal Cortex Hormones; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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81. Dianzani C, Pierangeli A, Chiricozzi A, Avola A, Degener AM: Cutaneous human papillomaviruses as recurrence factor in actinic keratoses. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol; 2008 Jan-Mar;21(1):145-52

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cutaneous human papillomaviruses as recurrence factor in actinic keratoses.
  • Actinic keratoses (AK) are common, premalignant lesions cause mainly by UV DNA damage.
  • The aim of this work is to identify the presence of HPV DNA in biopsies from Actinic Keratoses (AK) and from normal skin samples collected from dermatological healthy subjects in Italy, in order to evaluate the severity and the clinical evolution of the HPV positive lesions.
  • The DNA test revealed 37% HPV positivity in AK patients versus 0% in the control group; many different genotypes and variants were identified by direct sequencing of PCR product.
  • The HPV positive AK were usually clinically indistinguishable from the HPV negative.
  • All AK lesions were removed by laser treatment, but AK lesions recurred in all HPV positive patients after a period of 45-60 days whereas the same disappeared in the HPV negative ones.
  • These data permit to hypothesize that the presence of HPV DNA could be an aggravating factor for AK lesion severity and recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis / virology. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Skin / virology

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  • (PMID = 18336740.001).
  • [ISSN] 0394-6320
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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82. Dixon A: Treating actinic keratoses with imiquimod. Aust Fam Physician; 2007 May;36(5):341-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treating actinic keratoses with imiquimod.
  • Mr KC, 61 years of age, has extensive actinic damage including squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and actinic keratoses (AKs) on his face and forehead.
  • [MeSH-major] Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use. Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Facial Dermatoses / drug therapy. Keratosis / drug therapy. Photosensitivity Disorders / drug therapy. Scalp Dermatoses / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17492069.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8495
  • [Journal-full-title] Australian family physician
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aust Fam Physician
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Aminoquinolines; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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83. Van der Geer S, Krekels GA: Treatment of actinic keratoses on the dorsum of the hands: ALA-PDT versus diclofenac 3% gel followed by ALA-PDT. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, pilot study. J Dermatolog Treat; 2009;20(5):259-65
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of actinic keratoses on the dorsum of the hands: ALA-PDT versus diclofenac 3% gel followed by ALA-PDT. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, pilot study.
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic keratoses (AK) are sun-induced epithelial skin lesions, which are at risk to progress to squamous cell carcinoma.
  • One of the treatments of AK is photodynamic therapy (PDT), which often has to be repeated.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a pre-treatment of AK on the dorsum of the hands with diclofenac 3% gel improves the efficacy of PDT.
  • At 12 months' follow-up, significantly fewer AK were seen in the diclofenac group.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Both treatments are effective in treating AK.
  • A pre-treatment with diclofenac gel seems to result in fewer AK at 12 months' follow-up, compared to placebo.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / therapeutic use. Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use. Diclofenac / therapeutic use. Keratosis, Actinic / therapy. Photochemotherapy. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19370466.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-1753
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatological treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dermatolog Treat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal; 0 / Gels; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 144O8QL0L1 / Diclofenac; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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84. Wheeland RG: The pitfalls of treating all actinic keratoses as squamous cell carcinomas. Semin Cutan Med Surg; 2005 Sep;24(3):152-4

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The pitfalls of treating all actinic keratoses as squamous cell carcinomas.
  • The greatest difficulties in managing a patient with numerous actinic keratoses is deciding the order in which to treat the specific lesions and what modality to use.
  • If the patient's health insurance company limits coverage for the treatment of a specific number AK's per visit, it may be most prudent and logical to begin treatment of the largest or most rapidly growing AK's first and continue treatment of remaining lesions at subsequent visits until all lesions have been eradicated.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis / pathology. Keratosis / therapy. Photosensitivity Disorders / pathology. Photosensitivity Disorders / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16202952.001).
  • [ISSN] 1085-5629
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in cutaneous medicine and surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Cutan Med Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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85. Price NM: The treatment of actinic keratoses with a combination of 5-fluorouracil and imiquimod creams. J Drugs Dermatol; 2007 Aug;6(8):778-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The treatment of actinic keratoses with a combination of 5-fluorouracil and imiquimod creams.
  • BACKGROUND: 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and imiquimod creams are accepted topical therapies for actinic keratosis (AK).
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Fluorouracil / therapeutic use. Keratosis / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17763606.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-9616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Drugs Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adjuvants, Immunologic; 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Emollients; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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86. Stockfleth E, Ulrich C, Lange-Asschenfeldt B, Kremer HJ, Drecoll U, Maus J, Röwert-Huber J: Treatment of multiple, multiform actinic keratoses on the head with imiquimod 5% cream. Eur J Dermatol; 2009 Jul-Aug;19(4):355-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of multiple, multiform actinic keratoses on the head with imiquimod 5% cream.
  • The objective of this non-controlled interventional clinical study was to evaluate the efficacy of imiquimod in the treatment of fields with multiple, multiform AK.
  • Patients with clinically typical, visible AK lesions on the head were treated with 5% imiquimod cream 3 times per week for 4 weeks followed by a 4 week treatment pause.
  • Complete clearance rate, i.e. no clinically visible AK lesions in the treatment area, was the main outcome measure.
  • Patients with multiple multiform AK on the head can be successfully and safely treated with topical imiquimod in daily practice.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Precancerous Conditions / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19467962.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-1122
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of dermatology : EJD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod
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87. Struijk L, Hall L, van der Meijden E, Wanningen P, Bavinck JN, Neale R, Green AC, Ter Schegget J, Feltkamp MC: Markers of cutaneous human papillomavirus infection in individuals with tumor-free skin, actinic keratoses, and squamous cell carcinoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 2006 Mar;15(3):529-35
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Markers of cutaneous human papillomavirus infection in individuals with tumor-free skin, actinic keratoses, and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Separately, actinic keratosis (AK) and cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) have been associated with cutaneous human papillomavirus (HPV) infections.
  • To further explore the association between HPV infection and SCC development, we determined markers of cutaneous HPV infection within a single population in persons with precursor lesions (AK), cancerous lesions (SCC), and without.
  • Serum and plucked eyebrow hairs were collected from 57 tumor-free controls, 126 AK, and 64 SCC cases.
  • Significant positive associations with increasing severity of the lesions (controls, AK, and SCC, respectively) were observed for overall HPV L1 seropositivity (13%, 26%, and 37%) and for HPV8 (4%, 17%, and 30%).
  • The overall E6 seroreactivity, however, tended to decline with AK and SCC, especially for HPV8 (21%, 11%, and 2%).
  • HPV DNA positivity was most prevalent in the AK cases (54%) compared with the SCC cases (44%) and the tumor-free controls (40%).
  • Taken together, our data suggest that cutaneous HPV infections accompanied by detectable HPV DNA in eyebrow hairs and HPV L1 seropositivity, but not E6 seropositivity, are associated with an increased risk of AK and SCC.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / epidemiology. DNA Probes, HPV / analysis. Keratosis / epidemiology. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16537712.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-9965
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / DNA Probes, HPV; 0 / DNA, Viral
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88. Fauteck JD, Ackermann G, Birkel M, Breuer M, Moor AC, Ebeling A, Ortland C: Fluorescence characteristics and pharmacokinetic properties of a novel self-adhesive 5-ALA patch for photodynamic therapy of actinic keratoses. Arch Dermatol Res; 2008 Feb;300(2):53-60

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fluorescence characteristics and pharmacokinetic properties of a novel self-adhesive 5-ALA patch for photodynamic therapy of actinic keratoses.
  • Actinic keratosis (AK) can be treated by photodynamic therapy (PDT), which is becoming a well-established tool in dermatology.
  • We report the results of two clinical studies investigating the properties of a novel self-adhesive 5-ALA-patch (PD P 506 A) intended for PDT of mild to moderate AK on the face and head.
  • The PPIX fluorescence in AK lesions and normal skin after patch application (intraindividual comparison; application for 2, 3, 4, 5 h) was investigated in 13 patients using DYADERM Professional (Biocam).
  • The fluorescence in AK lesions was more intense than in normal skin.
  • PPIX-specific fluorescence in AK lesions can be steered by application duration of this novel 5-ALA patch.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / pharmacokinetics. Keratosis / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy. Photosensitizing Agents / pharmacokinetics. Protoporphyrins / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 17960406.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-069X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatological research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Dermatol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adhesives; 0 / Dosage Forms; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / Protoporphyrins; 553-12-8 / protoporphyrin IX; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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89. Jirakulaporn T, Mathew J, Lindgren BR, Dudek AZ: Efficacy of capecitabine in secondary prevention of skin cancer in solid organ-transplanted recipients (OTR). J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):1519

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Topical 5% 5-FU has been used to successfully treat squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in situ and actinic keratosis (AK).
  • Cumulative incidence rates of SCC, BCC, and AK before and after treatment were scored and statistically compared for each patient with a non-parametric Wilcoxon signed-rank test.
  • Mean incidence rates of SCC, BCC, and AK before treatment were 0.45, 0.05, and 4.99 lesions per month, respectively.
  • Mean incidence rates of SCC, BCC, and AK after treatment were 0.22, 0.04, and 2.80 lesions per month, respectively.
  • The differences in incidence rates of SCC, BCC, and AK before and after treatment were 0.24, 0.02, and 2.08 lesions per month with p value of 0.048, 0.844, and 0.151, respectively.

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  • (PMID = 27964327.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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90. Braathen LR, Paredes BE, Saksela O, Fritsch C, Gardlo K, Morken T, Frølich KW, Warloe T, Solér AM, Ros AM: Short incubation with methyl aminolevulinate for photodynamic therapy of actinic keratoses. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2009 May;23(5):550-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Short incubation with methyl aminolevulinate for photodynamic therapy of actinic keratoses.
  • BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using methyl aminolevulinate (MAL) is an effective first-line treatment for actinic keratoses.
  • OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate the effect of incubation time (1 vs. 3 h), MAL concentration (160 mg/g vs. 80 mg/g) and lesion preparation in the setting of MAL-PDT for treatment of actinic keratosis (AK).
  • SUBJECTS: One hundred and twelve patients with 384 previously untreated AK.
  • RESULTS: For lesions on the face/scalp, lesion complete response rates were 78% for thin AK and 74% for moderately thick AK lesions after 1 h vs. 96% and 87% after 3 h incubation with MAL 160 mg/g.
  • CONCLUSION: MAL-PDT using a 1-h incubation may be sufficient for successful treatment of selected AK lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy. Photosensitizing Agents / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19415804.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-3083
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cosmetics; 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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91. Tanghetti E, Werschler P: Comparison of 5% 5-fluorouracil cream and 5% imiquimod cream in the management of actinic keratoses on the face and scalp. J Drugs Dermatol; 2007 Feb;6(2):144-7
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  • [Title] Comparison of 5% 5-fluorouracil cream and 5% imiquimod cream in the management of actinic keratoses on the face and scalp.
  • It is timely to compare the efficacy and tolerability of 2 actinic keratosis (AK) therapies--5% 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) cream and imiquimod cream.
  • Five percent 5-FU was more effective than imiquimod in exposing what were presumed to be subclinical AKs, reducing the final AK count (total AK count declined during the 24-week study by 94% vs. 66%, P < .05), achieving complete clearance (incidence of 84% vs. 24% by week 24, P < .01), and achieving clearance rapidly.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminoquinolines / administration & dosage. Facial Dermatoses / drug therapy. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Keratosis / drug therapy. Scalp Dermatoses / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Topical. Adult. Disease Management. Erythema / chemically induced. Humans. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17373172.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-9616
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of drugs in dermatology : JDD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Drugs Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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92. Ulrich M, Maltusch A, Rius-Diaz F, Röwert-Huber J, González S, Sterry W, Stockfleth E, Astner S: Clinical applicability of in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy for the diagnosis of actinic keratoses. Dermatol Surg; 2008 May;34(5):610-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical applicability of in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy for the diagnosis of actinic keratoses.
  • BACKGROUND: In vivo reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) has been used for evaluation of the morphologic features of nonmelanoma skin cancer.
  • The application of RCM for diagnosis of basal cell carcinoma has been reported; however, the evaluation of actinic keratoses (AKs) has only been the subject of preliminary studies.
  • STUDY GOAL: The goal of this study was to evaluate the applicability of RCM in the diagnosis of AK in correlation with routine histology.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-four Caucasians with a minimum of one AK participated in this study.
  • RCM features of AK included parakeratosis, architectural disarray, and keratinocyte pleomorphism.
  • The presence of architectural disarray and cellular pleomorphism appeared to be the best predictor of AK.
  • CONCLUSION: In summary, RCM may be a promising technology for the noninvasive detection of AK and as adjunct tool to clinical diagnosis and monitoring.
  • [MeSH-major] Epidermis / pathology. Keratosis / pathology. Microscopy, Confocal / methods

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  • (PMID = 18261097.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4725
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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93. Krawtchenko N, Roewert-Huber J, Ulrich M, Mann I, Sterry W, Stockfleth E: A randomised study of topical 5% imiquimod vs. topical 5-fluorouracil vs. cryosurgery in immunocompetent patients with actinic keratoses: a comparison of clinical and histological outcomes including 1-year follow-up. Br J Dermatol; 2007 Dec;157 Suppl 2:34-40
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  • [Title] A randomised study of topical 5% imiquimod vs. topical 5-fluorouracil vs. cryosurgery in immunocompetent patients with actinic keratoses: a comparison of clinical and histological outcomes including 1-year follow-up.
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic keratoses (AK) frequently occur on sun-exposed skin and are considered as in situ squamous cell carcinoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: This study compared the initial and 12-month clinical clearance, histological clearance, and cosmetic outcomes of topically applied 5% imiquimod (IMIQ) cream, 5% 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) ointment and cryosurgery for the treatment of AK.
  • CONCLUSION: Imiquimod treatment of AK resulted in superior sustained clearance and cosmetic outcomes compared with cryosurgery and 5-FU.
  • It should be considered as a first line therapy for sustained treatment of AK.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / drug therapy. Cryosurgery. Keratosis / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18067630.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 99011-02-6 / imiquimod; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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94. Smits T, Moor AC: New aspects in photodynamic therapy of actinic keratoses. J Photochem Photobiol B; 2009 Sep 4;96(3):159-69

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] New aspects in photodynamic therapy of actinic keratoses.
  • Photodynamic therapy (PDT) using 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) or its methyl ester (MAL) is a very effective method to treat actinic keratosis (AK).
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Photochemotherapy

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  • (PMID = 19592269.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2682
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of photochemistry and photobiology. B, Biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Photochem. Photobiol. B, Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 0 / Protoporphyrins; 0 / delta-aminolevulinic acid methyl ester; 553-12-8 / protoporphyrin IX; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
  • [Number-of-references] 132
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95. Venna SS, Lee D, Stadecker MJ, Rogers GS: Clinical recognition of actinic keratoses in a high-risk population: how good are we? Arch Dermatol; 2005 Apr;141(4):507-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical recognition of actinic keratoses in a high-risk population: how good are we?
  • BACKGROUND: Actinic keratoses (AKs) are dysplastic epidermal lesions considered to be potential precursors of squamous cell carcinoma.
  • High interobserver variation exists among dermatologists for the diagnosis of AKs.
  • Previous studies of the positive predictive value of the diagnosis of AKs have yielded rates as high as 94%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The positive predictive value of 74% for the diagnosis of AKs in this study is substantially lower than that of 2 previous studies, suggesting that physicians may be misdiagnosing many patients with classic features of AKs.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15837871.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-987X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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96. Larkö O: The current options in the management of actinic keratosis. G Ital Dermatol Venereol; 2009 Aug;144(4):445-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The current options in the management of actinic keratosis.
  • Actinic keratosis is a precursor for squamous cell skin cancer.
  • For single actinic keratoses, cryo surgery is recommended.
  • For widespread actinic keratoses, imiquimod, photodynamic therapy (PDT) or 5-FU may be used.
  • Consequently, cryo surgery for single actinic keratoses and PDT for widespread actinic keratoses should primarily be recommended.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis, Actinic / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19755948.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-0488
  • [Journal-full-title] Giornale italiano di dermatologia e venereologia : organo ufficiale, Società italiana di dermatologia e sifilografia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Ital Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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97. Gholam P, Denk K, Sehr T, Enk A, Hartmann M: Factors influencing pain intensity during topical photodynamic therapy of complete cosmetic units for actinic keratoses. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2010 Aug;63(2):213-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Factors influencing pain intensity during topical photodynamic therapy of complete cosmetic units for actinic keratoses.
  • BACKGROUND: Topical photodynamic therapy is a good treatment option for extensively photodamaged skin with multiple actinic keratoses.
  • All patients had multiple actinic keratoses on the face, scalp, or back of hands and received an extensive treatment of the complete photodamaged area in our dermatologic outpatient department between February and May 2009.
  • [MeSH-major] Aminolevulinic Acid / adverse effects. Aminolevulinic Acid / analogs & derivatives. Keratosis, Actinic / drug therapy. Pain / etiology. Photochemotherapy / adverse effects

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • [CommentIn] J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011 Jul;65(1):201-2 [21679812.001]
  • (PMID = 20538367.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protoporphyrins; 0 / methyl 5-aminolevulinate; 553-12-8 / protoporphyrin IX; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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98. Butler GJ, Neale R, Green AC, Pandeya N, Whiteman DC: Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and the risk of actinic keratoses and squamous cell cancers of the skin. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2005 Dec;53(6):966-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and the risk of actinic keratoses and squamous cell cancers of the skin.
  • BACKGROUND: Although animal studies suggest that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including aspirin, may protect against cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and actinic keratoses (AKs), possible effects on keratinocytic cancers in humans are unknown.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / prevention & control. Keratosis / prevention & control. Photosensitivity Disorders / prevention & control. Skin Neoplasms / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 16310056.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
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99. Rossi R, Calzavara-Pinton PG, Giannetti A, Peserico A, Santucci M, Vena GA, Lotti T: Italian guidelines and therapeutic algorithm for actinic keratoses. G Ital Dermatol Venereol; 2009 Dec;144(6):713-23

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Italian guidelines and therapeutic algorithm for actinic keratoses.
  • The prevalence of actinic keratosis (AK) continues to rise among white people throughout the world and it is necessary to increase the level of attention paid to it from a diagnostic and a preventive point of view.
  • Today, AK must be considered an in situ squamous cell carcinoma and as such, must be managed using one of the available approved therapeutic alternatives.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratosis, Actinic / therapy. Practice Guidelines as Topic. Precancerous Conditions / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Algorithms. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / prevention & control. Cryotherapy. Curettage. Dermatologic Agents / therapeutic use. Disease Progression. Electrocoagulation. Female. Humans. Italy / epidemiology. Laser Therapy. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / etiology. Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced / prevention & control. Phototherapy. Prevalence. Risk Factors. Sunscreening Agents. Ultraviolet Rays / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 19907409.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-0488
  • [Journal-full-title] Giornale italiano di dermatologia e venereologia : organo ufficiale, Società italiana di dermatologia e sifilografia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] G Ital Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dermatologic Agents; 0 / Sunscreening Agents
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100. Menter A, Vamvakias G, Jorizzo J: One-week treatment with once-daily fluorouracil cream 0.5% in participants with actinic keratoses. Cutis; 2008 Jun;81(6):509-16
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] One-week treatment with once-daily fluorouracil cream 0.5% in participants with actinic keratoses.
  • Actinic keratoses (AKs) are common in fair-skinned individuals with a history of chronic and excessive sun exposure and may progress to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • The efficacy and tolerability of 1-week treatment using microsponge-based fluorouracil cream 0.5% were analyzed in 356 participants with AK lesions.
  • One-week treatment with once-daily fluorouracil cream 0.5% was significantly more effective than vehicle control in reducing AK lesions and in achieving complete clearance (P<.001).
  • Extending treatment for up to 4 weeks will further improve AK lesion clearance rates.
  • [MeSH-major] Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Immunosuppressive Agents / administration & dosage. Keratosis / drug therapy. Photosensitivity Disorders / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18666394.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-4162
  • [Journal-full-title] Cutis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cutis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Meta-Analysis; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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