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1. Tani Y, Inoshita N, Sugiyama T, Kato M, Yamada S, Shichiri M, Hirata Y: Upregulation of CDKN2A and suppression of cyclin D1 gene expressions in ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas. Eur J Endocrinol; 2010 Oct;163(4):523-9
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  • [Title] Upregulation of CDKN2A and suppression of cyclin D1 gene expressions in ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: Cushing's disease (CD) is usually caused by ACTH-secreting pituitary microadenomas, while silent corticotroph adenomas (SCA) are macroadenomas without Cushingoid features.
  • However, the molecular mechanism(s) underlying their different tumor growth remains unknown.
  • The aim of the current study was to evaluate and compare the gene expression profile of cell cycle regulators and cell growth-related transcription factors in CD, SCA, and non-functioning adenomas (NFA).
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: Tumor tissue specimens resected from 43 pituitary tumors were studied: CD (n=10), SCA (n=11), and NFA (n=22).
  • The gene expressions of cyclins D1, E1, and B1, but not of A1, in CD were significantly suppressed than those in NFA.
  • The gene expressions of E2F1, RB1, BUB1, BUBR1, ETS1, and ETS2 did not differ between each group.
  • Thus, it is suggested that upregulated CDKN2A with the concomitant downregulated cyclin gene family is partly involved in the small size of ACTH-secreting adenoma.

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  • (PMID = 20616110.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
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2. Andrioli M, Pecori Giraldi F, Losa M, Terreni M, Invitti C, Cavagnini F: Cushing's disease due to double pituitary ACTH-secreting adenomas: the first case report. Endocr J; 2010;57(9):833-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cushing's disease due to double pituitary ACTH-secreting adenomas: the first case report.
  • Double pituitary adenomas are rare occurrences in autoptical, surgical and neuroradiological series and are mostly due to non-functioning pituitary adenomas, GH-secreting and prolactin-secreting adenomas.
  • ACTH secreting tumours are more rare and, to our knowledge, two distinct ACTH-producing adenomas within the same pituitary have never been reported.
  • We herewith describe a 56 year old woman with Cushing' s disease due to two clearly distinct ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas.
  • She presented with signs and symptoms of hypercortisolism and hormonal testing was indicative for pituitary-dependent Cushing' s syndrome.
  • Sellar MRI visualized an asymmetric pituitary gland with suspect lesions in both the right and the left pituitary lobes.
  • Pathology confirmed the existence of two distinct adenomas located in different sites in the gland.
  • Both presented ACTH immunoreactivity but displayed distinct morphological features.
  • Our case indicates that double ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas may occur in patients with Cushing' s disease.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20595779.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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3. Bezerra MG, Latronico AC, Fragoso MC: [Endocrine tumors associated to protein Gsalpha/Gi2alpha mutations]. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2005 Oct;49(5):784-90

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  • Many oncogenic mutations promote tumor growth by inducing autonomous activity of proteins that normally transmit proliferative signal initiated by extracellular factors.
  • The G proteins couple an array of seven transmembrane receptors at the cell surface with a variety of intracellular effectors, which produce second messenger molecules.
  • A subset of endocrine tumors, such as GH- or ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas, functioning thyroid adenomas, adrenocortical and gonadal tumors were associated with somatic activating mutations in the highly conserved codons of the Gs (Arg201 and Gln227) and Gi (Arg179 and Gln205) proteins.
  • [MeSH-major] Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / genetics. GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go / genetics. GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs / genetics. Mutation / genetics. Oncogenes / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16444361.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.6.5.1 / GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gi-Go; EC 3.6.5.1 / GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gs
  • [Number-of-references] 64
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4. Tagliati F, Gentilin E, Buratto M, Molè D, degli Uberti EC, Zatelli MC: Magmas, a gene newly identified as overexpressed in human and mouse ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas, protects pituitary cells from apoptotic stimuli. Endocrinology; 2010 Oct;151(10):4635-42
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  • [Title] Magmas, a gene newly identified as overexpressed in human and mouse ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas, protects pituitary cells from apoptotic stimuli.
  • Pituitary tumors are mostly benign, being locally invasive in 5-35% of cases.
  • Deregulation of several genes has been suggested as a possible alteration underlying the development and progression of pituitary tumors.
  • We here report the identification of a cDNA, corresponding to Magmas gene (mitochondria-associated protein involved in granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor signal transduction), which is highly expressed in two different ACTH-secreting mouse pituitary adenoma cell lines as compared with normal pituitary as well as in two thirds of 64 examined pituitary adenomas as compared with human normal pituitary.
  • Tim 16, the mitochondrial protein encoded by Magmas, was indeed expressed in a mouse ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma cell line, AtT-20 D16v-F2 cells, in a subcellular compartment likely corresponding to mitochondria.
  • Our data demonstrate that Magmas is overexpressed in mouse and human ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas.
  • Moreover, our results show that Magmas protects pituitary cells from apoptosis, suggesting its possible involvement in neoplastic transformation.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / genetics. Apoptosis / genetics. Mitochondrial Proteins / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Proliferation. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Cells, Cultured. Cytoprotection / drug effects. Cytoprotection / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Humans. Mice. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. RNA, Small Interfering / pharmacology. Up-Regulation / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 20719856.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7170
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Mitochondrial Proteins; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 0 / magmas protein, human
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5. Pecori Giraldi F, Bucciarelli LG, Saccani A, Scacchi M, Pesce S, Losa M, Cavagnini F: Ghrelin stimulates adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) secretion by human ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas in vitro. J Neuroendocrinol; 2007 Mar;19(3):208-12
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  • [Title] Ghrelin stimulates adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) secretion by human ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas in vitro.
  • Ghrelin is a brain-gut peptide with wide-ranging endocrine, metabolic, cardiovascular and neural effects.
  • Ghrelin, like its synthetic counterparts, the growth hormone (GH) secretagogues, has been shown to markedly stimulate adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol secretion in humans and the ACTH-releasing effect of GH secretagogues is even greater in patients with pituitary ACTH-secreting tumours.
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of ghrelin on ACTH secretion by human pituitary corticotroph tumours in vitro to test the functionality of this circuit.
  • Nine ACTH-secreting pituitary tumours (four microadenomas, five macroadenomas) were collected during surgery and incubated with 10-100 nM human ghrelin or with 10 nM human corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH).
  • Control experiments were performed in rat anterior pituitary primary cultures.
  • ACTH secretion was assessed after 4 h and 24 h incubation by immunometric assay.
  • After 4 h of incubation with ghrelin, medium ACTH concentrations were two- to ten-fold higher compared to ACTH concentrations in unstimulated wells.
  • The ACTH-releasing effect of ghrelin was significantly less than the response elicited by 10 nM CRH (up to 40-fold) Similar results were obtained after 24 h of incubation and a superimposable response pattern was observed in rat anterior pituitary primary cultures.
  • The present study demonstrates that the endogenous GH secretagogue, ghrelin, stimulates ACTH secretion directly from human tumoural corticotrophs, as well as from normal rat pituitary, and indicates that the marked ACTH release elicited by ghrelin in patients with Cushing's disease in vivo is due, at least in part, to its action on the pituitary tumour.
  • Moreover, these data uphold the concept of a functional intratumoural ghrelin paracrine circuit in human corticotroph adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / secretion. Adenoma / secretion. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / secretion. Corticotrophs / secretion. Peptide Hormones / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Animals. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / physiology. Female. Ghrelin. Humans. In Vitro Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / metabolism. Pituitary Gland, Anterior / metabolism. Rats

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  • (PMID = 17280594.001).
  • [ISSN] 0953-8194
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroendocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuroendocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ghrelin; 0 / Peptide Hormones; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone
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6. Gejman R, Batista DL, Zhong Y, Zhou Y, Zhang X, Swearingen B, Stratakis CA, Hedley-Whyte ET, Klibanski A: Selective loss of MEG3 expression and intergenic differentially methylated region hypermethylation in the MEG3/DLK1 locus in human clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Oct;93(10):4119-25
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  • [Title] Selective loss of MEG3 expression and intergenic differentially methylated region hypermethylation in the MEG3/DLK1 locus in human clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas.
  • CONTEXT: MEG3 is an imprinted gene encoding a novel noncoding RNA that suppresses tumor cell growth.
  • Although highly expressed in the normal human pituitary, it is unknown which of the normal pituitary cell types and pituitary tumors express MEG3.
  • OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were 1) to investigate cell-type- and tumor-type-specific expression of MEG3 in the human pituitary and 2) to investigate whether methylation in the intergenic differentially methylated region (IG-DMR) at the DLK1/MEG3 locus is involved in the loss of MEG3 expression in tumors.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: RT-PCR, quantitative RT-PCR, Northern blot, and a combination of in situ hybridization and immunofluorescence were used to determine the cell-type- and tumor-type-specific MEG3 expression.
  • Bisulfite treatment and PCR sequencing of genomic DNA were used to measure the CpG methylation status in the normal and tumor tissues.
  • Five normal human pituitaries and 17 clinically nonfunctioning, 11 GH-secreting, seven prolactin-secreting, and six ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas were used.
  • RESULTS: All normal human pituitary cell types express MEG3.
  • However, loss of MEG3 expression occurs only in nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas of a gonadotroph origin.
  • All other pituitary tumor phenotypes examined express MEG3.
  • Hypermethylation of the IG-DMR at the DLK1/MEG3 locus is present in nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: MEG3 is the first human gene identified expressed in multiple normal human pituitary cell types with loss of expression specifically restricted to clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas.

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  • (PMID = 18628527.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK040947; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / R01 DK-40947
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DLK1 protein, human; 0 / DNA, Intergenic; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / MEG3 non-coding RNA, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Proteins; 0 / RNA, Long Noncoding
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2579639
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7. Sahdev A, Reznek RH, Evanson J, Grossman AB: Imaging in Cushing's syndrome. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2007 Nov;51(8):1319-28
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  • [Title] Imaging in Cushing's syndrome.
  • Once the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome (CS) has been established, the main step is to differentiate between ACTH dependent and independent disease.
  • In adults, 80% of CS is due to ACTH-dependent causes and 20% due to adrenal causes.
  • ACTH-secreting neoplasms cause ACTH-dependent CS.
  • These are usually anterior pituitary microadenomas, which result in the classic Cushing's disease.
  • Non-pituitary ectopic sources of ACTH, such as a small-cell lung carcinoma or carcinoid tumours, are the source of the remainder of ACTH-dependent disease.
  • Imaging is essential for determining the source of ACTH in ectopic ACTH production, locating the pituitary tumours and distinguishing adrenal adenomas, carcinomas and hyperplasias.
  • In our chapter we review the adrenal appearances in ACTH-dependent and ACTH-independent CS.
  • We also include a discussion on the use of MRI and CT for the detection and management of pituitary ACTH secreting adenomas.
  • CT of the chest, abdomen and pelvis with intravenous injection of contrast medium is the most sensitive imaging modality for the identification of the ectopic ACTH source and detecting adrenal pathology.
  • MRI is used for characterising adrenal adenomas, problem solving in difficult cases and for detecting ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / radiography. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Carcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma / radiography. Humans. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Hyperplasia / radiography. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / secretion. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18209870.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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8. Manetti L, Bogazzi F, Giovannetti C, Raffaelli V, Genovesi M, Pellegrini G, Ruocco L, Iannelli A, Martino E: Changes in coagulation indexes and occurrence of venous thromboembolism in patients with Cushing's syndrome: results from a prospective study before and after surgery. Eur J Endocrinol; 2010 Nov;163(5):783-91
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  • [Title] Changes in coagulation indexes and occurrence of venous thromboembolism in patients with Cushing's syndrome: results from a prospective study before and after surgery.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether patients with Cushing's syndrome (CS) had i) changes in coagulative and fibrinolytic parameters associated with CS activity and ii) higher prevalence of venous thromboembolic events (VTE).
  • DESIGN: Prospective study conducted on patients with CS evaluated at diagnosis and 12 months after surgery.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty patients with active CS (36 with Cushing's disease (CD) and 4 with an adrenal adenoma) were evaluated.
  • Forty normal subjects and 70 patients with non-ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas served as controls.
  • Patients with still active disease after surgery had higher coagulative parameters than those in remission (VWF (P<0.0001), PAI-1 (P=0.004), TAT (P=0.0001), ATIII (P=0.0002) and α(2) antiplasmin (or SERPINF2; P=0.006)), whereas aPTT levels (P=0.007) were significantly reduced.
  • VTE occurred in three patients with CD (7.5%): one had a pulmonary embolism and two patients had a deep venous thrombosis; no patients submitted to transsphenoidal surgery for non-Cushing's pituitary adenoma had VTE (P=0.04).
  • Thromboprophylaxis seems to be appropriated in patients with active disease, particularly in the postoperative period.


9. Jiang ZQ, Gui SB, Zhang YZ: Differential gene expression by fiber-optic beadarray and pathway in adrenocorticotrophin-secreting pituitary adenomas. Chin Med J (Engl); 2010 Dec;123(23):3455-61

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Differential gene expression by fiber-optic beadarray and pathway in adrenocorticotrophin-secreting pituitary adenomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenomas account for approximately 7% - 14% of all pituitary adenomas, but its pathogenesis is still enigmatic.
  • This study aimed to explore mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas.
  • METHODS: We used fiber-optic beadarray to examine gene expression in three ACTH-secreting adenomas compared with three normal pituitaries.
  • Four differentially expressed genes from the three ACTH-secreting adenomas and three normal pituitaries were chosen randomly for validation by reverse transcriptase-real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR).
  • Bioinformatic and pathway analysis showed that the genes HIGD1B, EPS8, HPGD, DAPK2, and IGFBP3 and the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β signaling pathway and extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction pathway may play important roles in tumorigenesis and progression of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that numerous aberrantly expressed genes and several pathways are involved in the pathogenesis of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / etiology. Adenoma / etiology. Gene Expression Profiling. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / methods. Signal Transduction / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Disease Progression. Expressed Sequence Tags. Extracellular Matrix Proteins / physiology. Female. Fiber Optic Technology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Transforming Growth Factor alpha / physiology

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  • (PMID = 22166531.001).
  • [ISSN] 0366-6999
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Extracellular Matrix Proteins; 0 / Transforming Growth Factor alpha
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10. Kreutzer J, Jeske I, Hofmann B, Blumcke I, Fahlbusch R, Buchfelder M, Buslei R: No effect of the PPAR-gamma agonist rosiglitazone on ACTH or cortisol secretion in Nelson's syndrome and Cushing's disease in vitro and in vivo. Clin Neuropathol; 2009 Nov-Dec;28(6):430-9
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  • [Title] No effect of the PPAR-gamma agonist rosiglitazone on ACTH or cortisol secretion in Nelson's syndrome and Cushing's disease in vitro and in vivo.
  • OBJECTIVE: Surgical tumor resection remains the primary treatment strategy in ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas, i.e.
  • Cushing's disease (CD) and Nelson's syndrome (NS).
  • However, an effective long-term pharmacological regime is not available in patients with persistent ACTH-hypersecretion.
  • The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma) is abundantly expressed in most pituitary adenomas.
  • First encouraging data reported that the PPAR-gamma ligand rosiglitazone antagonizes ACTH hypersecretion and exerts also antiproliferative effects in pituitary cell lines.
  • Herein, we studied the potential therapeutical effects of rosiglitazone in patients with ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas in vitro and in vivo.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seven patients with persistent ACTH-hypersecretion (3 with NS, 4 with persistent CD) were treated 5 months with rosiglitazone (4 - 16 mg/day).
  • In vitro assays were performed in primary cell cultures obtained from eight additional patients with ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas applying 80 microM rosiglitazone repeatedly over a time period of 14 days.
  • RESULTS: Our long-term clinical trial with the PPAR-gamma activator rosiglitazone showed no amelioration of clinical symptoms nor an inhibiting effect on ACTH-secretion in vivo.
  • In vitro, rosiglitazone treatment led to a statistically significant decrease of ACTH levels in 2 out of 8 primary cell cultures after 14 days compared to untreated controls.
  • CONCLUSION: In contrast to the initially promising laboratory data gathered in pituitary cell line experiments and nude mice models, our experimental data obtained in primary human ACTH-expressing pituitary adenoma cell cultures as well as our clinical experience with a long-term rosiglitazone trial in approved antidiabetic doses support the recently reported disappointing reports on acute or short-term medical treatment of ACTH-hypersecretion with PPAR-gamma activators.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / secretion. Hydrocortisone / secretion. Nelson Syndrome / blood. PPAR gamma / agonists. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / blood. Thiazolidinediones / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / secretion. Adult. Female. Humans. In Vitro Techniques. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion. Treatment Outcome. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 19919817.001).
  • [ISSN] 0722-5091
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Neuropathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / PPAR gamma; 0 / Thiazolidinediones; 05V02F2KDG / rosiglitazone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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11. Salehi F, Scheithauer BW, Moyes VJ, Drake WM, Syro LV, Manoranjan B, Sharma S, Horvath E, Kovacs K: Low immunohistochemical expression of MGMT in ACTH secreting pituitary tumors of patients with Nelson syndrome. Endocr Pathol; 2010 Dec;21(4):227-9
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  • [Title] Low immunohistochemical expression of MGMT in ACTH secreting pituitary tumors of patients with Nelson syndrome.
  • The aim of the present study was to assess immunohistochemical expression of MGMT in ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas of patients with Nelson syndrome.
  • Our material consisted of eight specimens from ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas of patients with Nelson syndrome.
  • Absent or low MGMT staining in brain and other neoplasms has been shown to correlate with successful treatment with temozolomide, and recent reports of aggressive pituitary adenomas suggest similar outcomes.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / metabolism. DNA Modification Methylases / biosynthesis. DNA Repair Enzymes / biosynthesis. Nelson Syndrome / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 21061089.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-0097
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 7GR28W0FJI / Dacarbazine; 85622-93-1 / temozolomide; EC 2.1.1.- / DNA Modification Methylases; EC 2.1.1.63 / MGMT protein, human; EC 6.5.1.- / DNA Repair Enzymes
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12. Bucciarelli LG, Pecori Giraldi F, Cavagnini F: No mutations in TPIT, a corticotroph-specific gene, in human tumoral pituitary ACTH-secreting cells. J Endocrinol Invest; 2005 Dec;28(11):1015-8
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  • [Title] No mutations in TPIT, a corticotroph-specific gene, in human tumoral pituitary ACTH-secreting cells.
  • BACKGROUND: TPIT is a recently identified transcription factor specific to proopiomelanocortin (POMC)-expressing cells within the pituitary and plays a pivotal role in the embryonal development of POMC lineage.
  • As with other transcription factors, TPIT could theoretically also be involved in corticotroph adenomatous transformation and ACTH hypersecretion and published data indicate that TPIT is present in normal and adenomatous human corticotrophs.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to corroborate this finding and to seek evidence for mutations in the TPIT coding sequence in human tumoral corticotrophs.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: Eight human ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas were collected during surgery, mRNA extracted from primary cultures and reverse transcribed.
  • RESULTS: TPIT mRNA was detected in all 8 ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas without apparent mRNA variants.
  • Lastly, sequencing did not reveal differences in the nucleotide arrangement compared with the published sequence.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Aberrant TPIT is unlikely to play a role in corticotroph tumoral trasformation, ie, Cushing's disease, as the entire coding sequence is expressed without any mutation by human pituitary ACTH-secreting adenomas.
  • Conversely, the significance of this transcription factor in tumoral ACTH hypersecretion remains to be clarified.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / secretion. Homeodomain Proteins / genetics. Mutation / genetics. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics. Transcription Factors / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. T-Box Domain Proteins. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16483181.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-4097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 0 / T-Box Domain Proteins; 0 / TBX19 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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13. Dam-Hieu P, Irthum B, Seizeur R, Roudaut N, Besson G: Management of ACTH-secreting supradiaphragmatic adenomas. Clin Neurol Neurosurg; 2007 Oct;109(8):698-704
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  • [Title] Management of ACTH-secreting supradiaphragmatic adenomas.
  • Supradiaphragmatic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secreting pituitary adenomas are exceptionally encountered (14 cases previously described) and raise issues concerning their nosology and management.
  • To illustrate this issue, we presented two cases of supradiaphragmatic ACTH secreting pituitary adenomas successfully excised via a subfrontal approach.
  • Both patients were female (20 and 41 years) and had a typical Cushing's syndrome.
  • MRI revealed, in both cases, a suprasellar mass in contact with the pars tuberalis of the pituitary.
  • One year later, the patient was operated on again via a subfrontal approach, allowing excision of a supradiaphragmatic adenoma and a complete cure of Cushing's disease.
  • In both cases, the diaphragma sellae was found to be intact and the pituitary stalk could be preserved.
  • Postoperative MRI demonstrated a clearly visible intact pituitary stalk in conjunction with normal aspect of the pituitary.
  • Supradiaphragmatic pituitary adenomas are most likely adenomas of the pituitary stalk with extra-axial development.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / pathology. ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / surgery. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17532556.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-8467
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neurology and neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Neurol Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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14. Giacomini D, Páez-Pereda M, Theodoropoulou M, Labeur M, Refojo D, Gerez J, Chervin A, Berner S, Losa M, Buchfelder M, Renner U, Stalla GK, Arzt E: Bone morphogenetic protein-4 inhibits corticotroph tumor cells: involvement in the retinoic acid inhibitory action. Endocrinology; 2006 Jan;147(1):247-56
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  • [Title] Bone morphogenetic protein-4 inhibits corticotroph tumor cells: involvement in the retinoic acid inhibitory action.
  • The molecular mechanisms governing the pathogenesis of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas are still obscure.
  • In this study, we report that bone morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) is expressed in the corticotrophs of human normal adenohypophysis and its expression is reduced in corticotrophinomas obtained from Cushing's patients compared with the normal pituitary.
  • BMP-4 treatment of AtT-20 mouse corticotrophinoma cells has an inhibitory effect on ACTH secretion and cell proliferation.
  • AtT-20 cells stably transfected with a dominant-negative form of the BMP-4 signal cotransducer Smad-4 or the BMP-4 inhibitor noggin have increased tumorigenicity in nude mice, showing that BMP-4 has an inhibitory role on corticotroph tumorigenesis in vivo.
  • Because the activation of the retinoic acid receptor has an inhibitory action on Cushing's disease progression, we analyzed the putative interaction of these two pathways.
  • Indeed, retinoic acid induces both BMP-4 transcription and expression and its antiproliferative action is blocked in Smad-4dn- and noggin-transfected Att-20 cells that do not respond to BMP-4.
  • This new mechanism is a potential target for therapeutic approaches for Cushing's disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Bone Morphogenetic Proteins / pharmacology. Bone Morphogenetic Proteins / physiology. Cushing Syndrome / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Tretinoin / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Bone Morphogenetic Protein 4. Cell Division / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mice. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Pituitary Gland / physiology. Reference Values


15. van Rijn SJ, Grinwis GC, Penning LC, Meij BP: Expression of Ki-67, PCNA, and p27kip1 in canine pituitary corticotroph adenomas. Domest Anim Endocrinol; 2010 May;38(4):244-52
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  • [Title] Expression of Ki-67, PCNA, and p27kip1 in canine pituitary corticotroph adenomas.
  • Pituitary-dependent hypercortisolism (PDH), which is caused by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenomas, is a common endocrinopathy in dogs.
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of the proliferation markers Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and the cell-cycle inhibitor p27kip1 in corticotroph adenomas in enlarged and non-enlarged pituitaries.
  • The expression of Ki-67, PCNA, and p27kip1 was analyzed by immunohistochemical staining of 17 pituitary adenoma samples harvested during pituitary surgery in dogs with PDH.
  • However, a trend toward significance was observed when comparing the expression of p27kip1 in enlarged pituitaries versus normal pituitary tissue.
  • It is concluded that Ki-67 and PCNA are not useful as proliferative markers for studying the pathobiology of pituitary corticotroph adenomas in dogs.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / veterinary. Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27 / analysis. Dog Diseases / metabolism. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Pituitary Neoplasms / veterinary. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / analysis

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20022446.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0054
  • [Journal-full-title] Domestic animal endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Domest. Anim. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27; 581-05-5 / alpha-MSH; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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16. Pecori Giraldi F, Scaroni C, Arvat E, Martin M, Giordano R, Albiger N, Leao AA, Picu A, Mantero F, Cavagnini F: Effect of protracted treatment with rosiglitazone, a PPARgamma agonist, in patients with Cushing's disease. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2006 Feb;64(2):219-24
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  • [Title] Effect of protracted treatment with rosiglitazone, a PPARgamma agonist, in patients with Cushing's disease.
  • OBJECTIVE: Cushing's disease, hypercortisolism due to a pituitary ACTH-secreting tumour, is a highly morbid illness as yet without effective medical therapy.
  • Recent studies have demonstrated that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) agonists effectively suppress ACTH secretion in a murine tumoral corticotroph cell line, but the few studies conducted so far in patients with ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas have yielded variable results.
  • DESIGN: Ten patients with Cushing's disease were treated with 4-16 mg rosiglitazone p.o. daily for 1-8 months (median 3 months) and plasma ACTH and cortisol, urinary free cortisol (UFC), as well as parameters of insulin sensitivity, were recorded.
  • RESULTS: The acute challenge with rosiglitazone did not significantly modify plasma ACTH and cortisol levels.
  • In the others, UFC as well as plasma ACTH and cortisol decrements were inscribed within wide, random oscillations indicating that disease activity was substantially unchanged.
  • Insulin sensitivity was ameliorated in most patients, without relation to ACTH or cortisol secretion.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although effective in a subset of patients, protracted rosiglitazone administration did not consistently restrain ACTH and cortisol secretion in patients with Cushing's disease.
  • Further investigations are needed to fully define the therapeutic potential of PPARgamma agonists in this disorder.
  • [MeSH-major] Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors / agonists. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / drug therapy. Thiazolidinediones / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 16430724.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors; 0 / Thiazolidinediones; 05V02F2KDG / rosiglitazone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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17. Xing B, Deng K, Ren ZY, Su CB, Wang RZ, Yang Y, Ma WB, Li YN: Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics and surgical results of adrenocorticotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas. Chin Med Sci J; 2008 Mar;23(1):44-8
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  • [Title] Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics and surgical results of adrenocorticotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics and surgical results of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenomas.
  • METHODS: MRI characteristics and relationship between MRI positive rate and surgical results of 266 patients with pathologically confirmed Cushing's disease were analyzed retrospectively.
  • All patients underwent thin-section sagittal and coronal scans of the pituitary gland before and after administration of gadolinium-diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-DTPA) on a 1.5 Tesla MRI scanner, and dynamic enhanced MRI was performed in 39 patients.
  • RESULTS: Preoperative MRI revealed normal results in 41 (15.4%) cases, microadenoma in 179 (67.3%), macroadenoma in 42 (15.8%), and huge adenoma in 4 (1.5%).
  • Pituitary apoplexy was found in 13 (4.9%) cases.
  • Positive rate of ACTH-secreting adenomas was 84.6% (225/266) on MRI scans, and that of small microadenomas was 87.2% (34/39) on dynamic enhanced MRI scans.
  • Preoperative endocrinological tests of 199 cases supported the diagnosis of typical Cushing's disease, while the other 67 cases had atypical endocrinological results.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Enhanced coronal pituitary MRI is helpful for preoperative localization of ACTH-secreting pituitary microadenoma.

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  • (PMID = 18437910.001).
  • [ISSN] 1001-9294
  • [Journal-full-title] Chinese medical sciences journal = Chung-kuo i hsueh k'o hsueh tsa chih
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chin. Med. Sci. J.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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18. Minniti G, Osti M, Jaffrain-Rea ML, Esposito V, Cantore G, Maurizi Enrici R: Long-term follow-up results of postoperative radiation therapy for Cushing's disease. J Neurooncol; 2007 Aug;84(1):79-84
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  • [Title] Long-term follow-up results of postoperative radiation therapy for Cushing's disease.
  • OBJECTIVES: Radiotherapy is currently used in patients with residual or recurrent pituitary adenomas after surgery.
  • However, there is little information of long-term outcome of patients with Cushing's disease following radiotherapy.
  • We assessed the long-term efficacy and toxicity of conventional radiotherapy in the control of Cushing's disease after unsuccessful transsphenoidal surgery.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty patients with Cushing's disease were treated with conventional external beam radiotherapy at our Institution between 1988 and 2002.
  • The persistence of active disease after surgery was diagnosed by the increased high plasma cortisol levels, high 24 h urinary cortisol levels and absence of cortisol suppression after administration of dexamethasone.
  • CONCLUSION: Radiotherapy is effective in the long-term tumour- and hormone hypersecretion control of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenomas, however with a high prevalence of hypopituitarism.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / radiotherapy. Adenoma / radiotherapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Neoplasm, Residual / radiotherapy. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17356896.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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19. Mauermann WJ, Sheehan JP, Chernavvsky DR, Laws ER, Steiner L, Vance ML: Gamma Knife surgery for adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing pituitary adenomas after bilateral adrenalectomy. J Neurosurg; 2007 Jun;106(6):988-93
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  • [Title] Gamma Knife surgery for adrenocorticotropic hormone-producing pituitary adenomas after bilateral adrenalectomy.
  • OBJECT: Patients with adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenomas may require a bilateral adrenalectomy to treat their Cushing's disease.
  • Approximately one third of these patients, however, will experience progressive enlargement of the residual pituitary adenoma, develop hyperpigmentation, and have an elevated level of serum ACTH.
  • METHODS: The prospectively collected University of Virginia Gamma Knife database of patients with pituitary adenomas was reviewed to identify all individuals with Nelson's syndrome who were treated with GKS.
  • These patients were assessed for tumor control (that is, lack of tumor growth over time) with neuroimaging studies (median follow-up duration 22 months) and for biochemical normalization of their ACTH levels (median follow-up duration 50 months).
  • Neuroimaging follow-up studies were available for 22 patients, and endocrine follow up was available for 15 patients in whom elevation of ACTH levels was documented prior to GKS.
  • In the 22 patients in whom neuroimaging follow-up studies were available, 12 had a decrease in tumor size, eight had no tumor growth, and two had an increase in tumor volume.
  • Ten of 15 patients with elevated ACTH levels prior to GKS showed a decrease in their ACTH levels at last follow up; three of these 10 patients achieved normal ACTH levels (< 50 pg/ml) and the other five patients with initially elevated values had an increase in ACTH levels.
  • Ten patients were thoroughly evaluated for post-GKS pituitary function; four were found to have new pituitary hormone deficiency and six did not have hypopituitarism after GKS.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Gamma Knife surgery may control the residual pituitary adenoma and decrease ACTH levels in patients with Nelson's syndrome.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / surgery. Adenoma / surgery. Adrenalectomy. Nelson Syndrome / surgery. Radiosurgery

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  • (PMID = 17564169.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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20. Guignat L, Assie G, Bertagna X, Bertherat J: [Corticotroph adenoma]. Presse Med; 2009 Jan;38(1):125-32
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  • [Title] [Corticotroph adenoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Adénome corticotrope.
  • Corticotroph adenomas cause ACTH oversecretion responsible for Cushing's disease.
  • This represents the most frequent cause of Cushing's syndrome, or chronic excess of endogenous glucocorticoids.
  • Ninety percent of corticotroph adenomas are microadenomas, sometime not visible on MRI.
  • Corticotroph macroadenomas are rare, but can be responsible for an aggressive tumor.
  • Cushing's disease diagnosis requires careful hormonal and imaging investigations, aiming first at the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome and in a second step at the diagnosis of its pituitary origin.
  • The treatment of corticotroph adenoma is mainly based on pituitary surgery.
  • In case of failure of pituitary surgery, or in patients in whom surgery is not appropriate as a first line treatment, medical therapy (mainly anticortisolic drugs), pituitary radiotherapy or surgical bilateral adrenalectomy can be discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / complications. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / analysis. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / analysis. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Cushing Syndrome / therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Hydrocortisone / analysis. Hydrocortisone / antagonists & inhibitors. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoadjuvant Therapy. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 19041214.001).
  • [ISSN] 2213-0276
  • [Journal-full-title] Presse medicale (Paris, France : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Presse Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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21. Alzahrani AS, Farhat R, Al-Arifi A, Al-Kahtani N, Kanaan I, Abouzied M: The diagnostic value of fused positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the localization of adrenocorticotropin-secreting pituitary adenoma in Cushing's disease. Pituitary; 2009;12(4):309-14
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  • [Title] The diagnostic value of fused positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the localization of adrenocorticotropin-secreting pituitary adenoma in Cushing's disease.
  • Despite the high resolution of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary gland, up to 40% of cases of Cushing's disease (CD) have normal MRI.
  • Objective of this study is to explore the diagnostic potential of PET-CT for localization of adrenocorticotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas in CD.
  • PET-CT was performed in 12 cases with de novo (7 cases) or persistent CD (5 cases) that were proven to have CD on biochemical, radiological and/or histopathological findings.
  • PET-CT was positive in 7 of the 12 cases of CD (58%) showing a focal area of uptake in the pituitary gland.
  • If these findings are confirmed in larger studies, PET-CT might become an important diagnostic technique, especially when the more invasive and technically demanding procedure of IPSS is not available or inconclusive.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / diagnosis. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / pathology. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Pituitary Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19387839.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7403
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Hanson JM, Mol JA, Leegwater PA, Bilodeau S, Drouin J, Meij BP: Expression and mutation analysis of Tpit in the canine pituitary gland and corticotroph adenomas. Domest Anim Endocrinol; 2008 Apr;34(3):217-22
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  • [Title] Expression and mutation analysis of Tpit in the canine pituitary gland and corticotroph adenomas.
  • Pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) in dogs is caused by a pituitary corticotroph adenoma.
  • Although PDH is a common disorder in dogs, little is known about the underlying pathogenesis.
  • In the pituitary glands of humans and mice, the pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-expressing cell lineages, the corticotrophs and melanotrophs, have a specific marker in common, the T-box transcription factor Tpit (Tbx19), which is obligate for POMC expression.
  • Tpit also regulates the late differentiation of the corticotrophs and melanotrophs, and therefore may contribute to the pathogenesis of the corticotroph adenomas.
  • The aim of this study was to perform an expression and mutation analysis of Tpit in the normal canine pituitary and in corticotroph adenomas.
  • The distribution of the Tpit protein in the pituitary gland was studied with immunohistochemistry and the expression of the gene with RT-PCR.
  • Tpit was expressed in corticotroph and melanotroph cells of the normal and adenomatous canine pituitary, and remained present in non-adenomatous corticotrophs of pituitaries from PDH dogs.
  • No tumor-specific mutation in the Tpit cDNA from the corticotroph adenomas was found.
  • It is concluded that Tpit can be used as a reliable marker for the corticotroph and melanotroph cells in the canine pituitary tissue and that mutations in the Tpit gene are unlikely to play a major role in the pathogenesis of canine corticotroph adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / veterinary. Adenoma / veterinary. Dog Diseases / genetics. Pituitary Gland / chemistry. Pituitary Neoplasms / veterinary. T-Box Domain Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17544240.001).
  • [ISSN] 0739-7240
  • [Journal-full-title] Domestic animal endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Domest. Anim. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / T-Box Domain Proteins; 9007-49-2 / DNA
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23. de Bruin C, Pereira AM, Feelders RA, Romijn JA, Roelfsema F, Sprij-Mooij DM, van Aken MO, van der Lelij AJ, de Herder WW, Lamberts SW, Hofland LJ: Coexpression of dopamine and somatostatin receptor subtypes in corticotroph adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Apr;94(4):1118-24

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Coexpression of dopamine and somatostatin receptor subtypes in corticotroph adenomas.
  • CONTEXT: Previous studies have demonstrated the expression of somatostatin receptor subtypes (mainly sst(5)) and dopamine (DA) receptor subtypes (mainly D(2)) in smaller series of human corticotroph adenomas.
  • In line with these findings, sst(5) and D(2)-targeting agents have already been used clinically in patients with Cushing's disease (CD) and have shown promising results in subsets of patients.
  • To what extent these receptor subtypes are coexpressed within individual adenomas, is not known however.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the (co-)expression of both sst and DA receptors in a large series of human corticotroph adenomas.
  • DESIGN: We performed in vitro analysis of corticotroph adenoma tissue obtained via transsphenoidal adenomectomy.
  • PATIENTS: Adenoma tissue from 30 patients with CD was analyzed in this study.
  • RESULTS: Analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR, D(2) and sst(5) were significantly (co-) expressed in the majority (60%) of adenomas, whereas 23% of adenomas only expressed D(2), but not sst(5).
  • The remaining 17% of adenomas did not significantly express either sst(5) or D(2).
  • Corticotroph adenomas with invasive growth invariably showed loss of sst(5) and D(2) expression.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Sst(5) and especially D(2) are highly expressed in the majority of human corticotroph adenomas, with coexpression of sst(5) and D(2) being a common phenomenon.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / genetics. Receptors, Dopamine / genetics. Receptors, Somatostatin / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19141584.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Receptors, Dopamine; 0 / Receptors, Dopamine D2; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin
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24. Teshima T, Hara Y, Takekoshi S, Teramoto A, Osamura RY, Tagawa M: Expression of genes related to corticotropin production and glucocorticoid feedback in corticotroph adenomas of dogs with Cushing's disease. Domest Anim Endocrinol; 2009 Jan;36(1):3-12
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Corticotropin .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of genes related to corticotropin production and glucocorticoid feedback in corticotroph adenomas of dogs with Cushing's disease.
  • Cushing's disease caused by pituitary corticotroph adenoma is a common endocrine disease in dogs.
  • A characteristic biochemical feature of corticotroph adenomas is their relative resistance to negative feedback by glucocorticoids.
  • In this study, we examined gene expression related to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) production and secretion, and the negative feedback by glucocorticoids in canine corticotroph adenoma.
  • We used resected corticotroph adenomas from 10 dogs with Cushing's disease.
  • In order to investigate the alteration of gene expression between corticotroph adenoma and normal corticotrophic cells, ACTH-positive cells in the anterior lobe were microdissected using a laser-capture microdissection system, and mRNA levels of proopiomelanocortin (POMC), corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1), glucocorticoid receptor (GR), mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), and 11 beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11HSD) type 1 and type 2 were determined using real-time RT-PCR.
  • POMC, CRHR1, and 11HSD2 mRNA levels in corticotroph adenoma were greater than those in normal corticotrophic cells (POMC, 5.5-fold; CRHR1, 4.9-fold; 11HSD2, 4.2-fold, P<0.01, respectively).
  • MR and 11HSD1 mRNA levels in corticotroph adenoma were lower than those in normal corticotrophic cells (MR, 2.2-fold; 11HSD1, 2.9-fold, P<0.01, respectively).
  • GR mRNA levels did not differ between corticotroph adenoma and normal corticotrophic cells.
  • Our results may help to understand the increased ACTH production and the resistance to negative feedback suppression by glucocorticoids in canine corticotroph adenomas.
  • These changes in gene expression may have a role in the growth of canine corticotroph adenoma, and help elucidate the pathophysiology of dogs with Cushing's disease.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / veterinary. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / biosynthesis. Dog Diseases / genetics. Glucocorticoids / physiology. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / veterinary. Pituitary Neoplasms / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] 11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases / genetics. Animals. Dogs. Feedback, Physiological. Female. Gene Expression / genetics. Male. Pro-Opiomelanocortin / genetics. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone / genetics. Receptors, Glucocorticoid / genetics. Receptors, Mineralocorticoid / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 18818046.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0054
  • [Journal-full-title] Domestic animal endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Domest. Anim. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; 0 / Receptors, Glucocorticoid; 0 / Receptors, Mineralocorticoid; 66796-54-1 / Pro-Opiomelanocortin; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; EC 1.1.1.146 / 11-beta-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases
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25. Keil MF, Stratakis CA: Facial metrics in children with corticotrophin-producing pituitary adenomas suggest abnormalities in midface development. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2009 Jan;22(1):47-53
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Facial metrics in children with corticotrophin-producing pituitary adenomas suggest abnormalities in midface development.
  • BACKGROUND: Tumors of the hypothalamic-pituitary unit have been linked to genetic syndromes that are associated with midfacial abnormalities.
  • AIM: We hypothesized that mutations of genes that affect the development of the face (and consequently of the anterior pituitary) may be present in children with ACTH-producing pituitary adenomas, and if this is true then facial measurements would be different from those predicted by parental features.
  • METHODS: We studied 20 children with corticotropinomas and a control group and their parents.
  • RESULTS: Significant differences were seen between the children with pituitary adenomas and their parents for vertical facial height measures: nasal length (p < 0.001), lower facial height (p < 0.03) and overall facial height (p < 0.01).
  • CONCLUSION: We conclude that some of the indices of midline craniofacial development, in particular those affecting the vertical axis, are different in children with corticotroph adenomas producing ACTH.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / pathology. Face / pathology. Maxillofacial Abnormalities / etiology. Maxillofacial Development / physiology

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  • [Cites] J Craniofac Surg. 2003 Jan;14(1):13-28 [12544216.001]
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  • (PMID = 19344074.001).
  • [ISSN] 0334-018X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00001595
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / Z01 HD000642; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIA HD000642-13; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / Z01-HD-000642-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS310299; NLM/ PMC3143028
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26. Suzuki K, Hattori Y, Aoki C, Nakano A, Tomizawa A, Kase H, Kasai K: An ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma within the sphenoid sinus. Intern Med; 2010;49(8):763-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma within the sphenoid sinus.
  • She was found to have a markedly elevated plasma ACTH-cortisol level.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a mass in the left sphenoidal sinus, which had become enlarged to a point where it could not be removed by transsphenoidal surgery.
  • We decided to proceed with radiation therapy to shrink the tumor.
  • We describe a rare case of an ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma within the sphenoid sinus.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / diagnosis. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sphenoid Sinus / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20424367.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7235
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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27. Raverot G, Wierinckx A, Jouanneau E, Auger C, Borson-Chazot F, Lachuer J, Pugeat M, Trouillas J: Clinical, hormonal and molecular characterization of pituitary ACTH adenomas without (silent corticotroph adenomas) and with Cushing's disease. Eur J Endocrinol; 2010 Jul;163(1):35-43
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Corticotropin .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical, hormonal and molecular characterization of pituitary ACTH adenomas without (silent corticotroph adenomas) and with Cushing's disease.
  • OBJECTIVE: Silent corticotroph adenomas (SCAs) are rare pituitary tumours immunoreactive for ACTH, but without clinical evidence of Cushing's disease.
  • We characterized SCAs based on clinical, hormonal and molecular data, and compared the characteristics of these tumours with those of macro (MCA)- and micro (mCA)-ACTH adenomas with Cushing's disease.
  • METHODS: Fifty ACTH adenomas (14 SCAs, 15 MCAs and 21 mCAs) with complete corresponding clinical, radiological and biochemical data were selected.
  • Histological corticotroph differentiation; immunostaining for ACTH, beta-endorphin and beta-LPH; and mRNA expression levels of TPIT, POMC, GRalpha, prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC1/3) and galectin-3 were compared in 21 representative tumours.
  • RESULTS: Despite the absence of clinical hypercortisolism in patients with SCA, elevated plasma ACTH levels that were similar to those associated with mCA were observed.
  • The cortisol/ACTH ratio was similar between SCA and MCA groups and lower than that found with mCA (P<0.05).
  • After an i.v. dexamethasone suppression test, ACTH levels were significantly higher in patients with MCA than in those with mCA (P<0.05).
  • Cytological and immunocytochemical analyses as well as mRNA expression levels of TPIT, POMC and GRalpha confirmed corticotroph differentiation in both mCAs and MCAs and in half of the SCAs, with a strong correlation between TPIT and POMC mRNA expression levels in SCAs (R(2)=0.72; P<0.01) and in MCAs (R(2)=0.65; P<0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Despite the absence of hypercortisolism, SCAs exhibit histological, biochemical and molecular corticotroph differentiation.

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  • (PMID = 20385723.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Glucocorticoid; 0 / T-Box Domain Proteins; 0 / TBX19 protein, human; 0 / glucocorticoid receptor alpha; 66796-54-1 / Pro-Opiomelanocortin; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; EC 3.4.21.93 / Proprotein Convertase 1; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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28. Thodou E, Argyrakos T, Kontogeorgos G: Galectin-3 as a marker distinguishing functioning from silent corticotroph adenomas. Hormones (Athens); 2007 Jul-Sep;6(3):227-32

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Galectin-3 as a marker distinguishing functioning from silent corticotroph adenomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: Galectin-3 (Gal-3) belongs to the family of carbohydrate-binding proteins with high affinity for galactoside and is involved in many biological processes including cell growth and differentiation, cell adhesion, tumor progression, apoptosis and metastasis.
  • The aim of this study was to disclose differences in the expression of Gal-3 in silent and functioning corticotroph pituitary adenomas.
  • DESIGN: We examined 30 pituitary adenomas (19 functioning corticotroph, 11 silent corticotroph adenomas).
  • Two prolactinomas and 2 functioning somatotroph adenomas served as positive controls.
  • The independent variables t-test was used for comparison of the mean expression of Gal-3 in the two different corticotroph adenoma subgroups.
  • RESULTS: Eighteen of the functioning corticotroph adenomas (94.73%) were positive for Gal-3 with a cytoplasmic and focally membranous distribution; two cases also exhibited nuclear expression, whereas 9 of the silent corticotroph adenomas (81.81%) had zero or<1% expression of Gal-3 (p=0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Gal-3 is highly expressed in functioning corticotroph adenomas of the pituitary gland, while silent adenomas exhibit very focal to null expression of Gal-3.
  • This observation can be used in the pathological diagnosis to separate functioning from silent corticotroph adenomas of the pituitary.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Galectin 3 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Pituitary Gland / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17724007.001).
  • [ISSN] 1109-3099
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormones (Athens, Greece)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hormones (Athens)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3
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29. Evang JA, Borota OC, Melum E, Holm R, Ramm-Pettersen J, Bollerslev J, Berg JP: HDAC2 expression and variable number of repeats in exon 1 of the HDAC2 gene in corticotroph adenomas. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2010 Aug;73(2):229-35
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] HDAC2 expression and variable number of repeats in exon 1 of the HDAC2 gene in corticotroph adenomas.
  • OBJECTIVES: Alterations in protein expression of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) have been demonstrated in various neoplasms, and lack of nuclear expression of HDAC2 has previously been shown in some human and canine corticotroph adenomas.
  • This study aimed to examine HDAC2 expression in a Norwegian cohort of corticotroph adenomas, screen for exonic HDAC2 gene variants in the adenomas and correlate the results with clinical data.
  • PATIENTS AND DESIGN: Forty-four patients with verified Cushing's disease or Nelson's syndrome, positive ACTH staining and tissue available for immunohistochemistry and/or DNA sequencing were included.
  • RESULTS: Histone deacetylase 2 expression examined by immunohistochemistry was strongly reduced in 3/30 adenomas.
  • A previously unidentified insertion of three bases in a region coding for a polyserine cluster in exon 1 of the HDAC2 gene was identified in 6/32 adenomas.
  • The same insertion was also found in 28/94 of the controls (i.e., not significantly different from the patients).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Strongly reduced HDAC2 protein expression was confirmed in a small portion of corticotroph tumours.
  • Mutations in HDAC2 exons are unlikely to play an important role in the development of corticotroph adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / genetics. Histone Deacetylase 2 / genetics. Minisatellite Repeats

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  • (PMID = 20346000.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.5.1.98 / HDAC2 protein, human; EC 3.5.1.98 / Histone Deacetylase 2
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30. Fujimura M, Ikeda H, Takahashi A, Ezura M, Yoshimoto T, Tominaga T: Diagnostic value of super-selective bilateral cavernous sinus sampling with hypothalamic stimulating hormone loading in patients with ACTH-producing pituitary adenoma. Neurol Res; 2005 Jan;27(1):11-5
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Corticotropin .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnostic value of super-selective bilateral cavernous sinus sampling with hypothalamic stimulating hormone loading in patients with ACTH-producing pituitary adenoma.
  • AIMS: Early diagnosis and early treatment by transsphenoidal surgery is desirable for ACTH-producing pituitary microadenoma, but accurate localization of the functional lesion is not always possible before surgery because magnetic resonance (MR) imaging may provide false negative and/or positive findings.
  • The diagnostic value of super-selective bilateral cavernous sinus sampling with the administration of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) was assessed in patients with functioning ACTH-producing pituitary adenoma.
  • METHODS: Fifteen patients with pituitary adenoma (14 with microadenoma) aged from 23 to 74 years (mean 46.7 years) underwent cavernous sinus sampling with or without the CRH loading test and subsequent transsphenoidal surgery in our institute from October 1997 through to November 2002.
  • To eliminate the bias due to uneven blood flow in the cavernous sinuses and the multi-hormonal response to CRH administration, the ACTH/FSH ratios were evaluated.
  • The inter-cavernous gradient (ICG) was calculated as the higher/lower ACTH venous blood levels in the right and left cavernous sinuses with or without CRH loading.
  • The adjusted ICG was calculated using the ACTH/FSH ratios.
  • RESULTS: Transsphenoidal surgery revealed the functioning lesion on the right in five cases, the left in six, the midline in three and the bilateral lateral wings (double adenoma) in one.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Super-selective cavernous sinus sampling with hypothalamic stimulating hormone administration can provide accurate localization of the responsible lesion in patients with ACTH-producing pituitary adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone. Petrosal Sinus Sampling / methods. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gadolinium DTPA. Humans. Hypophysectomy / methods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Radiography. Regional Blood Flow / drug effects. Regional Blood Flow / physiology

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  • (PMID = 15829152.001).
  • [ISSN] 0161-6412
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurological research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; K2I13DR72L / Gadolinium DTPA
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31. de Bruin C, Hanson JM, Meij BP, Kooistra HS, Waaijers AM, Uitterlinden P, Lamberts SW, Hofland LJ: Expression and functional analysis of dopamine receptor subtype 2 and somatostatin receptor subtypes in canine cushing's disease. Endocrinology; 2008 Sep;149(9):4357-66
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression and functional analysis of dopamine receptor subtype 2 and somatostatin receptor subtypes in canine cushing's disease.
  • Cushing's disease (CD) is a severe disorder characterized by chronic hypercortisolism due to an ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma.
  • Finding an effective and safe medical treatment for CD may improve long-term clinical outcome.
  • The recent demonstration of expression of somatostatin receptor subtypes (mainly sst5) and dopamine receptor subtype 2 (D2) in human corticotroph adenomas offers the possibility for medical treatment of CD with novel somatostatin analogs and dopamine agonists.
  • Interestingly, CD is a frequent disorder in dogs with striking clinical similarities with CD in humans.
  • Therefore, we investigated the expression and functional role of D2 and somatostatin receptors in corticotroph adenoma cells from 13 dogs with active CD that underwent therapeutic hypophysectomy and normal anterior pituitary cells from five dogs.
  • Quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry revealed that both in CD and normal anterior pituitary, sst2 was the predominant receptor subtype expressed, whereas D2 was modestly expressed and sst5 was expressed only at very low levels.
  • In primary cultures of canine adenomas (n = 7), the sst2-preferring agonist octreotide also showed the strongest ACTH-suppressive effects.
  • In conclusion, canine corticotroph adenomas provide an interesting model to study CD, but differences in somatostatin and dopamine receptor expression between humans and dogs should be taken into account when using dogs with CD as a model to evaluate efficacy of novel somatostatin analogs and dopamine agonists for human CD.
  • [MeSH-major] Dog Diseases / genetics. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / genetics. Receptors, Dopamine D2 / genetics. Receptors, Dopamine D2 / physiology. Receptors, Somatostatin / genetics. Receptors, Somatostatin / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / genetics. ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / metabolism. ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / pathology. Animals. Cells, Cultured. Dexamethasone / pharmacology. Dogs. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / drug effects. Male. Protein Isoforms / genetics. Protein Isoforms / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18483151.001).
  • [ISSN] 0013-7227
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Dopamine D2; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2553383
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32. Aznar Rodríguez S, Moreno Pérez O, Revert Marrahí P, Martínez Fuster S, Boix Carreño E, Picó Alfonso AM: Silent corticotroph adenomas of the pituitary gland: apropos of two cases. Endocrinol Nutr; 2008 Oct;55(8):367-71

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Silent corticotroph adenomas of the pituitary gland: apropos of two cases.
  • Clinically silent corticotroph adenomas are rare.
  • Given the absence of clinical and biochemical features of hypercortisolism, the definitive diagnosis is histological.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2008 Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 22975601.001).
  • [ISSN] 1575-0922
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinología y nutrición : órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinol Nutr
  • [Language] eng; spa
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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33. Minniti G, Traish D, Ashley S, Gonsalves A, Brada M: Fractionated stereotactic conformal radiotherapy for secreting and nonsecreting pituitary adenomas. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2006 May;64(5):542-8
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Corticotropin .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fractionated stereotactic conformal radiotherapy for secreting and nonsecreting pituitary adenomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the medium-term outcome in a cohort of patients with residual or recurrent pituitary adenoma treated with fractionated stereotactic conformal radiotherapy (SCRT).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ninety-two patients (median age 50 years) with a residual or recurrent nonfunctioning (67) or a secreting (25) pituitary adenoma were treated between 1995 and 2003.
  • Eighteen patients had a GH-secreting, five PRL-secreting and two an ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma.
  • In secreting adenomas, hormone levels declined progressively, becoming normal in more than a third of patients with GH-secreting and PRL-secreting pituitary tumours.
  • Hypopituitarism was the most common long-term effect; 22% of patients had worsening of pituitary function.
  • CONCLUSION: SCRT as a high-precision technique of localized irradiation achieves tumour and hormone control of pituitary adenomas comparable with previously published data on the efficacy of conventional radiotherapy.
  • Despite the potential advantage of reducing the volume of normal brain irradiated, the theoretical benefit over conventional radiotherapy in terms of the reduction in long-term morbidity has not yet been demonstrated and requires longer follow-up.
  • Potential effect on long-term cognitive function has not been tested.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiotherapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, Conformal / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / secretion. Adult. Aged. Cohort Studies. Female. Growth Hormone / secretion. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / radiotherapy. Neoplasm, Residual / pathology. Neoplasm, Residual / radiotherapy. Prolactinoma / radiotherapy. Prolactinoma / secretion. Radiotherapy Dosage. Statistics, Nonparametric. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16649974.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
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34. Tateno T, Kato M, Tani Y, Oyama K, Yamada S, Hirata Y: Differential expression of somatostatin and dopamine receptor subtype genes in adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)-secreting pituitary tumors and silent corticotroph adenomas. Endocr J; 2009;56(4):579-84
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Corticotropin .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Differential expression of somatostatin and dopamine receptor subtype genes in adrenocorticotropin (ACTH)-secreting pituitary tumors and silent corticotroph adenomas.
  • Somatostatin analogs and dopamine agonists are clinically used for medical therapy of functioning pituitary tumors, such as growth hormone- and prolactin-secreting tumors, however, their effects on ACTH-secreting tumors are controversial.
  • This study was aimed to determine whether somatostatin receptor (SSTR) subtype (1-5) and dopamine receptor type 2 (D2R) are differentially expressed in pituitary tumors causing Cushing's disease (CD), silent corticotroph adenoma (SCA), and non-functioning pituitary tumor (NFT).
  • Tissue specimens were obtained from 35 pituitary tumors during transsphenoidal surgery.
  • Both SSTR1 and 2 mRNA levels in SCA were greater than CD, while SSTR1 mRNA levels, but not SSTR2, in SCA were also greater than NFT.
  • SSTR5 mRNA levels in CD were greater than SCA, but did not differ between NFT and SCA.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / genetics. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics. Receptors, Dopamine D2 / genetics. Receptors, Somatostatin / physiology

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  • (PMID = 19318729.001).
  • [ISSN] 1348-4540
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Dopamine D2; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 0 / somatostatin receptor 2; 0 / somatostatin receptor 5; 0 / somatostatin receptor type 1; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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35. Teshima T, Hara Y, Shigihara K, Takekoshi S, Nezu Y, Harada Y, Yogo T, Teramoto A, Osamura RY, Tagawa M: Coexistence of corticotroph adenoma and thyrotroph hyperplasia in a dog. J Vet Med Sci; 2009 Jan;71(1):93-8

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Coexistence of corticotroph adenoma and thyrotroph hyperplasia in a dog.
  • Pituitary thyrotroph hyperplasia results from prolonged primary hypothyroidism in humans, mice and rats.
  • In dogs with Cushing's disease, many cases have low serum thyroid hormones concentrations due to euthyroid sick syndrome.
  • A 6-year-old castrated male Beagle diagnosed with Cushing's disease had a high serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) concentration that was treated by hypophysectomy.
  • On histological examination, the resected pituitary gland contained both a corticotroph adenoma and thyrotroph hyperplasia.
  • The TSH-positive cell ratio in this case was greater than that of healthy Beagles.
  • In the present case, the pituitary thyrotroph hyperplasia was probably caused by primary hypothyroidism.
  • In conclusion, this Beagle is the first histological confirmation of the coexistence of a corticotroph adenoma and thyrotroph hyperplasia.

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  • (PMID = 19194082.001).
  • [ISSN] 0916-7250
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of veterinary medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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36. Brzezińska B, Junik R, Kamińska A, Zieliński G: [Difficulties in the diagnosis of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome in a patient after left adrenalectomy and treated with glucocorticoids]. Endokrynol Pol; 2009 Nov-Dec;60(6):484-7
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Corticotropin .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Difficulties in the diagnosis of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome in a patient after left adrenalectomy and treated with glucocorticoids].
  • [Transliterated title] Trudności w diagnostyce ACTH-zaleznego zespołu Cushinga u chorej po lewostronnej adrenalektomii i leczonej glikokortykosteroidami.
  • Cushing's syndrome (CS), that is a consequence of chronic excess of corticosteroides, is most frequently of iatrogenic origin.
  • Corticotropin secreting pituitary adenomas are responsible for most cases of endogenous Cushing' s syndrome.
  • Difficulties in the diagnosis and treatment of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome concern with localization of the source of pathological ACTH secretion, particularly when magnetic resonance imaging is unable to identify the pituitary microadenoma.
  • In this paper we present the case of a patient with symptoms of Cushing's syndrome and describe problems with localization of the source of hypercortisolemia.
  • This delayed the right diagnosis and treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / metabolism. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Adult. Delayed Diagnosis. Female. Glucocorticoids / adverse effects. Glucocorticoids / therapeutic use. Humans. Lumbar Vertebrae / injuries. Lumbar Vertebrae / surgery. Methylprednisolone / adverse effects. Methylprednisolone / therapeutic use. Prednisone / adverse effects. Prednisone / therapeutic use. Spinal Fractures / complications. Spinal Fractures / surgery. Thoracic Vertebrae / injuries. Thoracic Vertebrae / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20041367.001).
  • [ISSN] 0423-104X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endokrynologia Polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endokrynol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; VB0R961HZT / Prednisone; X4W7ZR7023 / Methylprednisolone
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37. Alarifi A, Alzahrani AS, Salam SA, Ahmed M, Kanaan I: Repeated remissions of Cushing's disease due to recurrent infarctions of an ACTH-producing pituitary macroadenoma. Pituitary; 2005;8(2):81-7
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Corticotropin .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Repeated remissions of Cushing's disease due to recurrent infarctions of an ACTH-producing pituitary macroadenoma.
  • Infarction of prolactin-secreting or growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenomas is not unusual.
  • However, Infarction of ACTH-secreting adenomas has rarely been reported.
  • Cyclical course of Cushing's syndrome alternating with adrenal insufficiency due to recurrent infarction of an ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma has not been reported.
  • We report here a 20-year-old lady who presented with florid signs of Cushing's syndrome but was found to have adrenal insufficiency on biochemical evaluation.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary gland showed that she had infarction of an ACTH-secreting macroadenoma.
  • Over the next 6 years, her disease ran a cyclical course characterized by periods of hypercortisolism alternating with adrenal insufficiency due to repeated episodes of infarctions of the ACTH-secreting pituitary macroadenoma with corresponding changes in the pituitary adenoma on serial MRIs.
  • The case alerts clinicians to this possibility when a patient presents with clinical picture of Cushing's syndrome but has adrenal insufficiency on biochemical testing.
  • It also suggests that silent or subclinical infarction of pituitary adenomas is not uncommon and is probably under diagnosed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / blood supply. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / secretion. Infarction / physiopathology. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / physiopathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / blood supply

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  • (PMID = 16195779.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-341X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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38. Karavitaki N, Scheithauer BW, Watt J, Ansorge O, Moschopoulos M, Llaguno AV, Wass JA: Collision lesions of the sella: co-existence of craniopharyngioma with gonadotroph adenoma and of Rathke's cleft cyst with corticotroph adenoma. Pituitary; 2008;11(3):317-23
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Collision lesions of the sella: co-existence of craniopharyngioma with gonadotroph adenoma and of Rathke's cleft cyst with corticotroph adenoma.
  • Most contributions include a pituitary adenoma or a cyst/cystic tumor, particularly a Rathke cleft cyst.
  • The association of craniopharyngioma with an adenoma is particularly rare.
  • Among reported cases, some have included secondary prolactin cell hyperplasia due to pituitary stalk section effect.
  • Herein, we report two collision lesions, including a gonadotroph adenoma with adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma and a corticotroph adenoma with Rathke's cleft cyst.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / complications. Central Nervous System Cysts / complications. Corticotrophs / pathology. Craniopharyngioma / complications. Gonadotrophs / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Sella Turcica / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17917812.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-341X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 65
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39. Martínez-Fuentes AJ, Moreno-Fernández J, Vázquez-Martínez R, Durán-Prado M, de la Riva A, Tena-Sempere M, Diéguez C, Jiménez-Reina L, Webb SM, Pumar A, Leal-Cerro A, Benito-López P, Malagón MM, Castaño JP: Ghrelin is produced by and directly activates corticotrope cells from adrenocorticotropin-secreting adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Jun;91(6):2225-31
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Corticotropin .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ghrelin is produced by and directly activates corticotrope cells from adrenocorticotropin-secreting adenomas.
  • CONTEXT: In Cushing's disease, ACTH hypersecretion by pituitary corticotrope adenoma cells and resulting hypercortisolism is accompanied by a severely blunted GH secretory response.
  • Interestingly, in Cushing's disease, ghrelin markedly increases plasma ACTH, whereas its stimulatory action on GH secretion is reduced.
  • Although the reported expression of ghrelin receptors (GHS-R) in corticotrope tumors offers a potential mechanism for ghrelin-induced ACTH hypersecretion, studies on the direct effects of synthetic GH secretagogues on corticotropinoma cells offered contradictory results.
  • OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: To evaluate the direct action of ghrelin on corticotropinoma cells from two patients with Cushing's disease, we measured its effect on free cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)).
  • Additionally, expression of GHS-R and its ligand ghrelin was examined in these cells and in five additional corticotropinomas.
  • RESULTS: Ghrelin (10(-6) m) induced a marked [Ca(2+)](i) increase in 89.5% (case 1; n = 19 cells) and 85% (case 2; n = 13 cells) of corticotropinoma cells.
  • Moreover, RT-PCR showed that expression of GHS-R isoforms is accompanied by that of ghrelin in all seven corticotrope adenomas examined.
  • Importantly, double immunogold electron microscopy revealed that ghrelin is costored within ACTH secretory vesicles in densely granulated adenomatous corticotropes.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These results constitute the first demonstration that ghrelin acts directly on corticotrope tumor cells derived from patients with Cushing's disease.
  • The presence of ghrelin and GHS-R suggests that pituitary ghrelin may play an autocrine/paracrine role in regulating ACTH release in Cushing's disease.
  • Our findings provide a plausible cellular basis for the exaggerated ACTH response to ghrelin in Cushing's disease and suggest novel research strategies to develop medical treatments for this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / secretion. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / secretion. Peptide Hormones / physiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion

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  • (PMID = 16551736.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ghrelin; 0 / Peptide Hormones; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / Receptors, Ghrelin; 66796-54-1 / Pro-Opiomelanocortin; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; SY7Q814VUP / Calcium
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40. Candrina R, Sleiman I, Zorzi F: ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma within an ovarian teratoma. Eur J Intern Med; 2005 Sep;16(5):359-60

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma within an ovarian teratoma.
  • The differential diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome is one of the most difficult tasks in medicine, and it is especially problematic in cases with "occult" ectopic ACTH syndrome.
  • We describe the case of a 26-year-old woman who was found to suffer from ectopic ACTH syndrome due to pituitary microadenoma, localized within a mature ovarian teratoma.
  • Cushing's syndrome caused by ovarian neoplasia is unusual, but when it occurs, it is most often due to excessive cortisol production by the ovary.
  • Only rarely has ectopic ACTH syndrome in association with an ovarian tumor been described.

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  • (PMID = 16137552.001).
  • [ISSN] 0953-6205
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of internal medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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41. De Menis E, Roncaroli F, Calvari V, Chiarini V, Pauletto P, Camerino G, Cremonini N: Corticotroph adenoma of the pituitary in a patient with X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita due to a novel mutation of the DAX-1 gene. Eur J Endocrinol; 2005 Aug;153(2):211-5
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Corticotropin .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Corticotroph adenoma of the pituitary in a patient with X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita due to a novel mutation of the DAX-1 gene.
  • We report the occurrence of an ACTH-secreting adenoma in a patient with X-linked congenital adrenal hypoplasia.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: Detailed clinical, radiological and pathological investigation of the pituitary adenoma.
  • ACTH was 24 980 pg/ml and nuclear magnetic resonance disclosed a huge pituitary adenoma.
  • Three transsphenoidal operations and radiotherapy were necessary to remove the tumor mass and control ACTH secretion.
  • Histologically, the adenoma was composed of chromophobic and basophilic neoplastic cells with positive immunostaining for ACTH.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This case suggests that in adrenal hypoplasia congenita the development of a pituitary adenoma should be considered when a sudden rise of ACTH occurs despite adequate steroid substitution.

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  • (PMID = 16061826.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] Italy / Telethon / / B.38
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DAX-1 Orphan Nuclear Receptor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / NR0B1 protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Retinoic Acid; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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42. Trapani F, Del Basso De Caro ML, Insabato L, Papparella S, Paciello O: Type II muscle fibers atrophy associated with silent corticotroph adenoma in a dog. Folia Histochem Cytobiol; 2010 Sep 30;48(3):403-6
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Corticotropin .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Type II muscle fibers atrophy associated with silent corticotroph adenoma in a dog.
  • The Silent Corticotroph Adenoma (SCA) is a pituitary adenoma variant characterized by the immunoreactivity for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and related peptides, without the clinical signs of Cushing's disease.
  • SCA has been postulated to either secrete structurally abnormal ACTH that is inactive but detectable by immunohistochemistry or radioimmunoassay, or to secrete ACTH intermittently or at low levels continuously.
  • Excess of ACTH has been associated to type II muscle atrophy.
  • We describe a case of type II muscle fibers atrophy associated with silent corticotroph adenoma in a dog.
  • The tumour showed a trabecular growth pattern and immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated the presence of cytoplasmic immunoreactivity for ACTH.
  • The muscle atrophy was considered to be related to an excess of inactive ACTH.

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  • (PMID = 21071346.001).
  • [ISSN] 1897-5631
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia histochemica et cytobiologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Histochem. Cytobiol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; EC 1.14.99.1 / Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases; EC 1.3.99.1 / Succinate Dehydrogenase; EC 1.6.- / NADH Tetrazolium Reductase
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43. Karavitaki N, Ansorge O, Wass JA: Silent corticotroph adenomas. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2007 Nov;51(8):1314-8
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  • [Title] Silent corticotroph adenomas.
  • Silent corticotroph pituitary adenomas (SCA) are defined as pituitary adenomas showing positive staining for adrenocorticotrophic hormone in immunohistochemical studies, but not associated with perioperative clinical or laboratory features of hypercortisolaemia.
  • They account for 1.1-6% of surgically removed pituitary adenomas.
  • The lack of manifestations of cortisol excess has not been conclusively explained.
  • In surgical series, most tumours are macroadenomas with suprasellar extension present in 87-100% of the cases; this is in contrast to Cushing's disease, which is mostly attributed to microadenomas.
  • Attempts to identify predictors of recurrence have not been successful.
  • The development of florid pituitary Cushing's syndrome and local recurrence followed by metastatic disease (occasionally outside the central nervous system) have been rarely reported.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18209869.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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44. Kim K, Yamada S, Usui M, Sano T: Co-localization of honeycomb golgi and ACTH granules in a giant ACTH-producing pituitary adenoma. Endocr Pathol; 2005;16(3):239-44
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Co-localization of honeycomb golgi and ACTH granules in a giant ACTH-producing pituitary adenoma.
  • We document the co-localization of honeycomb golgi and ACTH-immunopositive granules in giant ACTH-producing pituitary adenoma cells.
  • A 42-yr-old woman presented with Cushing's disease and a giant adenoma that invaded the sphenoid and cavernous sinus.
  • Some of the adenoma cells were ACTH-positive and upon electron-microscopic (EM) study most were found to contain sparse granules and no type-I filaments.
  • Immunohistochemical study of mirror sections of portions containing cells with honeycomb golgi revealed that the cells with honeycomb golgi showed ACTH-immunopositivity.
  • Honeycomb golgi, which was formerly considered a morphological marker of gonadotroph adenomas in females, has previously been identified in large ACTH-producing pituitary adenomas but there has been no direct evidence that individual cells with honeycomb golgi are cells that produce ACTH.
  • Our immunohistochemical documentation of ACTH-immunoreactivity in individual adenoma cells containing honeycomb golgi clearly confirms that honeycomb golgi is not confined only to gonadotroph adenomas in females.
  • Rather, the existence of honeycomb golgi in cells of other adenoma types may be due to their low hormone production and/or to disturbances in the regulation of the exocytotic pathway.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / ultrastructure. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / secretion. Golgi Apparatus / ultrastructure. Pituitary Neoplasms / ultrastructure. Secretory Vesicles / ultrastructure

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  • (PMID = 16299407.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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45. Utz A, Biller BM: The role of bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling in the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2007 Nov;51(8):1329-38
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The role of bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling in the diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome.
  • Adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH)-dependent Cushing's syndrome is most often due to a pituitary corticotroph adenoma, with ectopic ACTH-secreting tumors representing approximately 15% of cases.
  • BIPSS is an interventional radiology procedure in which ACTH levels obtained from venous drainage very near the pituitary gland are compared to peripheral blood levels before and after corticotropin hormone (CRH) stimulation.
  • A gradient between these two locations indicates pituitary Cushing's, whereas the absence of a gradient suggests ectopic Cushing's.
  • Accurate BIPSS results require hypercortisolemia to suppress normal corticotroph ACTH production and hypercortisolemia at the time of the BIPSS to assure excessive ACTH secretion.
  • In some cases, intrapituitary gradients from side-to-side can be helpful to localize small corticotroph adenomas within the sella.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic / diagnosis. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Petrosal Sinus Sampling
  • [MeSH-minor] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / blood. ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / diagnosis. ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / secretion. Adenoma / blood. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / secretion. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Pituitary Neoplasms / blood. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18209871.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-2730
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 37
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46. Iino K, Oki Y, Matsushita F, Yamashita M, Hayashi C, Miura K, Nishizawa S, Nakamura H: Immunohistochemical properties of silent corticotroph adenoma and Cushing's disease. Pituitary; 2007;10(1):35-45
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunohistochemical properties of silent corticotroph adenoma and Cushing's disease.
  • Proopiomelanocortin processing in corticotroph cells is known to be operated by prohormone convertase (PC) 1/3 which is activating several pro-proteins and prohormones by intracellular limited proteolysis processing.
  • In this study, we hypothesized that PC1/3 expression differs between Cushing's disease (CD) and silent corticotroph adenoma (SCA), and investigated whether PC1/3 expression is involved in the adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) silence of SCA.
  • We performed immunohistochemical analysis of pituitary adenoma specimens for six adenohypophysial hormones, PC1/3 and chromogranin A (CgA).
  • Subjects for this study consisted of 12 anterior pituitary adenomas of CD (1 male, 11 female; 14-70 years old) and 31 non-functioning adenomas (23 male, 8 female; 32-71 years old).ACTH immunoreactivity was observed in all of CD and three of 31 non-functioning adenomas.
  • Cushing's adenomas and SCAs were all positive for PC1/3.
  • PC1/3-positive cells did not always colocalize with ACTH but some of them colocalized with CgA in SCAs.
  • Even if PC1/3 is not present in corticotroph cells, PC1/3 immunoreactivity in SCA may originate from CgA-positive cells.
  • We conclude that immunohistochemistry for PC1/3 is not helpful for differential diagnosis between CD and SCA in clinical practice, though the regulation of PC1/3 expression is likely to be an important etiological factor in ACTH silence of SCA.
  • The diversity of immunohistochemical properties of SCA leads us to speculate that it is not a single entity and may be a general diagnostic term for adenomas of varying etiology.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / metabolism. Adult. Aged. Chromogranin A / blood. Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone. Female. Follicle Stimulating Hormone / metabolism. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone. Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone. Human Growth Hormone / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Proprotein Convertases / blood. Thyrotropin

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  • (PMID = 17410413.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-341X
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromogranin A; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; 9015-71-8 / Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone; 9034-39-3 / Growth Hormone-Releasing Hormone; EC 3.4.- / Proprotein Convertases
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47. Castillo VA, Gallelli MF: Corticotroph adenoma in the dog: pathogenesis and new therapeutic possibilities. Res Vet Sci; 2010 Feb;88(1):26-32
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Corticotroph adenoma in the dog: pathogenesis and new therapeutic possibilities.
  • The corticotrophinoma, causing pituitary dependent hypercortisolism, represents the highest percentage of pituitary tumours in the dog.
  • It is not clear either what factors are involved in the tumour genesis; nevertheless, firm candidates are the Rb1 gene, proteins p27, p21 and p16, as are also defects in the glucocorticoid receptor and Nur77/Nurr1.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / veterinary. Adenoma / veterinary. Dog Diseases / etiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19733374.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-2661
  • [Journal-full-title] Research in veterinary science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Res. Vet. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 95
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48. van der Klaauw AA, Kienitz T, Strasburger CJ, Smit JW, Romijn JA: Malignant pituitary corticotroph adenomas: report of two cases and a comprehensive review of the literature. Pituitary; 2009;12(1):57-69

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant pituitary corticotroph adenomas: report of two cases and a comprehensive review of the literature.
  • Corticotroph pituitary carcinomas are tumors, defined by the presence of distant metastases that determine their poor prognosis.
  • The diagnosis and therapy of malignant corticotroph adenomas remains a clinical challenge.
  • The molecular mechanisms of malignant transformation of pituitary adenomas are unclear, although they are believed to arise in an adenoma-to-carcinoma sequence.
  • We describe two cases of malignant Cushing's disease with metastases in liver and bone, respectively.
  • The primary pituitary tumors were treated by a combination of radiotherapy and transsphenoidal surgery, but recurred several times in both patients.
  • The time interval between the diagnosis of Cushing's disease and the discovery of metastases was 32 and 17 years, respectively.
  • In the first case the patient died within 6 months after diagnosis of metastasis, whereas the second patient is alive at a follow-up of 2 years after the discovery of the metastasis.
  • Furthermore, we reviewed all available cases of corticotroph pituitary carcinomas reported in the literature and analyzed their clinical features and therapeutical management.
  • In conclusion, frequent relapses of Cushing's disease, aggressive growth of macroadenoma, Nelson's syndrome after adrenalectomy or persistently high ACTH levels should prompt the clinician to consider the possibility of pituitary corticotroph carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / diagnosis. ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / pathology. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / complications

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  • (PMID = 18176844.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7403
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 62
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49. Giorgi RR, Correa-Giannella ML, Casarini AP, Machado MC, Bronstein MD, Cescato VA, Giannella-Neto D: Metallothionein isoform 3 gene is differentially expressed in corticotropin-producing pituitary adenomas. Neuroendocrinology; 2005;82(3-4):208-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Metallothionein isoform 3 gene is differentially expressed in corticotropin-producing pituitary adenomas.
  • In order to search for candidate genes related to pituitary adenoma aggressiveness, the present investigation was intended to compare the mRNA expression profile from a pool of four nonfunctional pituitary adenomas (NFPA) with a spinal cord metastasis of a nonfunctional pituitary carcinoma (MNFPC).
  • The metallothionein isoform 3 (MT3) gene was differentially expressed in nonfunctional adenomas in comparison to the metastasis of nonfunctional carcinoma.
  • A microarray dataset comprising 19,881 probes was employed for comparing expression profiles of a spinal cord metastasis of a nonfunctional pituitary carcinoma with a pool of four nonfunctional pituitary adenomas.
  • RT-qPCR confirmed the microarray findings and was used to investigate MT3 mRNA gene expression in tumor samples of a series of 52 different pituitary adenoma subtypes comprising 10 corticotropin (ACTH)-producing, 18 growth hormone (GH)-producing, 8 prolactin (PRL)-producing, and 16 nonfunctional adenomas.
  • MT3 mRNA expression was statistically significantly higher in ACTH-producing pituitary adenomas and in nonfunctional pituitary adenomas in comparison to the other pituitary adenoma subtypes.
  • The more abundant expression of this gene in ACTH-producing pituitary adenomas suggests that MT3 could be related to distinct pituitary cell lineage regulating the activity of some transcription factor of importance in hormone production and/or secretion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / metabolism. Nerve Tissue Proteins / biosynthesis. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16601360.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroendocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroendocrinology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / growth inhibitory factor; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
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50. Azevedo MF, Xekouki P, Keil MF, Lange E, Patronas N, Stratakis CA: An unusual presentation of pediatric Cushing disease: recurrent corticotropinoma of the posterior pituitary lobe. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Jun;23(6):607-12

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] An unusual presentation of pediatric Cushing disease: recurrent corticotropinoma of the posterior pituitary lobe.
  • Cushing's syndrome (CS) is rare in childhood and adolescence and its diagnosis and work up are often challenging.
  • We report the case of a 15-year-old girl with a recurrent corticotrophin (ACTH)-secreting adenoma, located in the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
  • At the age of 11, she presented with classic CS symptoms; biochemical investigation was compatible with ACTH-dependent Cushing disease, although pituitary gland imaging did not show any tumor.
  • Following transsphenoidal surgery (TSS), histopathological analysis identified an ACTH-secreting pituitary microadenoma arising from the posterior gland.
  • The patient went into remission but 4 years later she presented with recurrent CS; this time, pituitary gland imaging showed a microadenoma located in the posterior lobe, which was resected after TSS.
  • Posterior lobe pituitary adenomas are very rare and often hard to diagnose and treat; this is the first case of such a tumor causing recurrent Cushing's disease in a child.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / pathology. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 20662335.001).
  • [ISSN] 0334-018X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / ZIA HD000642-12
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS752367; NLM/ PMC4727444
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51. Timmers HJ, van Ginneken EM, Wesseling P, Sweep CG, Hermus AR: A patient with recurrent hypercortisolism after removal of an ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma due to an adrenal macronodule. J Endocrinol Invest; 2006 Nov;29(10):934-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A patient with recurrent hypercortisolism after removal of an ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma due to an adrenal macronodule.
  • A 41-yr-old female was referred for signs and symptoms of Cushing's syndrome.
  • Cortisol was not suppressed by 1 mg dexamethasone (0.41 micromol/l).
  • Midnight cortisol and ACTH were 0.44 micromol/l and 18 pmol/l, respectively.
  • A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a pituitary lesion of 7 mm.
  • ACTH and cortisol levels were unaltered by administration of human CRH and high-dose dexamethasone.
  • Inferior sinus petrosus sampling showed CRH-stimulated ACTH levels of 128.4 (left sinus) vs a peripheral level of 19.2 pmol/l, indicating Cushing's disease.
  • After 4 months of pre-treatment with metyrapone and dexamethasone, endoscopic transsphenoidal resection of an ACTH-positive pituitary adenoma was performed.
  • ACTH levels decreased to 2.6 pmol/l and fasting cortisol was 0.35 micromol/l.
  • Despite clinical regression of Cushing's syndrome and normalization of urinary cortisol, cortisol was not suppressed by 1 mg dexamethasone (0.30 micromol/l).
  • Ten months post-operatively, signs and symptoms of Cushing's syndrome reoccurred.
  • A high dose dexamethasone test according to Liddle resulted in undetectable ACTH, but no suppression of cortisol levels, pointing towards adrenal-dependent Cushing's syndrome.
  • This case illustrates, that longstanding ACTH stimulation by a pituitary adenoma can induce unilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia with autonomous cortisol production.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / surgery. Adenoma / surgery. Adrenal Glands / metabolism. Adrenal Glands / pathology. Cushing Syndrome / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Adult. Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Hyperplasia / complications. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Hyperplasia / metabolism. Hyperplasia / pathology. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / complications. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / metabolism. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / pathology. Recurrence

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  • (PMID = 17185905.001).
  • [ISSN] 1720-8386
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endocrinological investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endocrinol. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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52. Hashiba T, Saitoh Y, Asanuma N, Kouhara H, Maruo T, Fujinaka T, Kasayama S, Yoshimine T: Reduction of a pancreatic tumor after total removal of an ACTH secreting pituitary tumor: differential diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome. Endocr J; 2006 Apr;53(2):203-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Reduction of a pancreatic tumor after total removal of an ACTH secreting pituitary tumor: differential diagnosis of Cushing's syndrome.
  • Endocrinologic tests sometimes fail to distinguish adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenoma from ectopic ACTH-secreting tumor.
  • The authors experienced a case of Cushing's disease associated with a pancreatic tumor.
  • Venous sampling contributed to the final diagnosis of Cushing's disease in this complex case, while endocrinologic tests showed paradoxical results.
  • A 54-year-old woman presented with Cushing's syndrome and pancreatic tumor.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) failed to reveal a pituitary tumor, but a gadolinium-enhanced tumor with cystic components was seen in the pancreatic tail.
  • Results of conventional endocrinologic tests suggested ectopic ACTH syndrome, but venous sampling including cavernous sinus sampling indicated an ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma.
  • Transsphenoidal surgery revealed a pituitary microadenoma, and total removal of the tumor was achieved.
  • Postoperative abdominal MRI revealed that the pancreatic tumor diminished gradually without treatment.
  • Selective cavernous sinus sampling was useful for distinguishing ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma from ectopic ACTH syndrome in this complex case.
  • This was a rare case in which the pancreatic tumor diminished after total removal of the ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / secretion. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] ACTH Syndrome, Ectopic / diagnosis. Adenoma / secretion. Adenoma / surgery. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / diagnosis. Positron-Emission Tomography


53. Hofland LJ: Somatostatin and somatostatin receptors in Cushing's disease. Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2008 May 14;286(1-2):199-205
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Somatostatin and somatostatin receptors in Cushing's disease.
  • Cushing's disease is caused by an ACTH secreting pituitary adenoma.
  • Somatostatin (SS) receptors (sst) are expressed on normal and tumoral corticotroph cells.
  • However, the role of somatostatin and in particular the current clinically available sst(2)-preferring SS analogs in the regulation of normal ACTH secretion, as well as in lowering ACTH and cortisol hypersecretion in patients with Cushing's disease, has been shown to be limited.
  • Recent studies have provided renewed insights into the expression of sst subtypes, as well as into the functional role of SS-analogs in the regulation of ACTH secretion by corticotroph tumors.
  • Sst(2) and sst(5) seem the predominantly expressed sst in corticotroph adenoma cells and targeting both these receptors with a new generation of multiligand SS analogs showed promising effects in terms of lowering ACTH release and urinary free cortisol (UFC) levels in patients with Cushing's disease.
  • In this review an overview of the current insights into the role of SS and sst in the regulation of normal and pathological ACTH secretion is provided.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / drug therapy. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Receptors, Somatostatin / metabolism. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Somatostatin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18221833.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-8057
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Hormone Antagonists; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
  • [Number-of-references] 69
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54. Sahli R, Christ ER, Seiler R, Kappeler A, Vajtai I: Clinicopathologic correlations of silent corticotroph adenomas of the pituitary: report of four cases and literature review. Pathol Res Pract; 2006;202(6):457-64
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinicopathologic correlations of silent corticotroph adenomas of the pituitary: report of four cases and literature review.
  • Silent corticotroph adenomas (SCA) are rare pituitary tumors with histologic hallmarks of corticotroph differentiation, including ACTH immunoreactivity, but lacking clinical evidence of Cushing's syndrome.
  • We report on four female patients, aged 19-66 years, each presenting with a nonfunctional macroadenoma.
  • Three patients had marked obesity; none of them presented constitutional signs of Cushing's syndrome.
  • MRI scans revealed intratumoral hemorrhage and/or cystic change in three cases, as well as tumor-related occlusive hydrocephalus in one.
  • Histologically, all four lesions were diagnosed as SCA subtype I displaying intense immunoreactivity for ACTH.
  • In addition, Crooke's hyaline change was noted in a significant number of tumor cells and in residual non-neoplastic corticotrophs in one case each.
  • With MIB-1 labeling indices of 1-3%, none of the tumors qualified as atypical adenoma.
  • Subtle morphologic evidence of corticotroph suppression in residual pituitary adjacent to tumor lends further support to literature data indicating minimal or intermittent functional activity in this tumor type.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / metabolism. Pituitary Gland, Anterior / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / blood. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16497445.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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55. Choe JH, Lee KS, Jeun SS, Cho JH, Hong YK: Endocrine outcome of endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery in functioning pituitary adenomas. J Korean Neurosurg Soc; 2008 Sep;44(3):151-5
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  • [Title] Endocrine outcome of endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery in functioning pituitary adenomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: Microscopic and endoscopic transsphenoidal approach (TSA) are major surgical techniques in the treatment of pituitary adenoma.
  • Endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach (EETSA) has been increasingly used for pituitary adenomas, however, its surgical outcome particularly in functioning pituitary adenoma has been debated.
  • Here, we investigated the endocrine outcome of the patients with growth hormone (GH) and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secreting pituitary adenoma treated by EETSA.
  • METHODS: We treated 80 patients with pituitary adenoma by EETSA since 2004, of which 12 patients were affected by functioning pituitary adenomas (9 GH, 3 ACTH, 0 PRL; 9 macro, 3 micro).
  • Surgical outcome of those patients treated by EETSA was compared with that of the 11 functioning pituitary adenoma patients (8 GH, 3 ACTH; 8 macro, 3 micro) who underwent sublabial microscopic TSA between 1997 and 2003.
  • CONCLUSION: EETSA appears to be an effective and safe method for the treatment of functioning pituitary adenomas.

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  • (PMID = 19096666.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-3711
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Korean Neurosurg Soc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2588303
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma / Endoscopy / GH-secreting pituitary adenoma / Transsphenoidal approach
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56. Pawlikowski M: Immunohistochemical detection of dopamine D2 receptors in human pituitary adenomas. Folia Histochem Cytobiol; 2010 Sep 30;48(3):394-7
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical detection of dopamine D2 receptors in human pituitary adenomas.
  • Thirty one pituitary adenomas and 3 samples of peritumoral anterior pituitary tissue were immunostained with an antibody raised against dopamine D2 receptor protein.
  • The positive reactions were found in cell cytoplasm, a subpopulation of cell nuclei and the intratumoral blood vessels walls.
  • As expected, the positive immunostaining was shown in cytoplasm and/or cell nuclei of all examined prolactinomas (7/7).
  • In acromegaly the positive D2 staining occurred in 5/7 samples, in gonadotropinomas in 6/8 and in plurihormonal adenomas 2/4.
  • The lowest expression was observed in corticotropinomas (1/5).
  • Moreover, the presence of D2 receptors in intratumoral blood vessels walls constitutes the possibility of the anti-angiogenic action of D2 agonists in pituitary adenomas.

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  • (PMID = 21071344.001).
  • [ISSN] 1897-5631
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia histochemica et cytobiologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Histochem. Cytobiol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Dopamine D2
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57. Hofland LJ, van der Hoek J, Feelders R, van Aken MO, van Koetsveld PM, Waaijers M, Sprij-Mooij D, Bruns C, Weckbecker G, de Herder WW, Beckers A, Lamberts SW: The multi-ligand somatostatin analogue SOM230 inhibits ACTH secretion by cultured human corticotroph adenomas via somatostatin receptor type 5. Eur J Endocrinol; 2005 Apr;152(4):645-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The multi-ligand somatostatin analogue SOM230 inhibits ACTH secretion by cultured human corticotroph adenomas via somatostatin receptor type 5.
  • OBJECTIVE: Currently, there is no effective medical treatment for patients with pituitary-dependent Cushing's disease.
  • We compared the in vitro effects of the sst(2)-preferring SS analogue octreotide (OCT) and the multi-ligand SOM230 on ACTH release by human and mouse corticotroph tumour cells.
  • METHODS: By quantitative RT-PCR the sst subtype expression level was determined in human corticotroph adenomas.
  • In vitro, the inhibitory effect of OCT and SOM230 on ACTH release by dispersed human corticotroph adenoma cells and mouse AtT20 corticotroph adenoma cells was determined.
  • RESULTS: Corticotroph adenomas expressed predominantly sst(5) mRNA (six out of six adenomas), whereas sst(2) mRNA expression was detected at significantly lower levels.
  • In a 72 h incubation with 10 nmol/l SOM230, ACTH release was inhibited in three out of five cultures (range -30 to -40%).
  • Ten nmol/l OCT slightly inhibited ACTH release in only one of five cultures (- 28%).
  • In AtT20 cells, expressing sst(2), sst(3) and sst(5), SOM230 inhibited ACTH secretion with high potency (IC(50) 0.2 nmol/l).
  • Dexamethasone (10 nmol/l) pre-treatment did not influence the sensitivity of the cells to the inhibitory effect of SOM230, suggesting that sst(5) is relatively resistant to negative control by glucocorticoids.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The selective expression of sst(5) receptors in corticotroph adenomas and the preferential inhibition of ACTH release by human corticotroph adenoma cells by SOM230 in vitro, suggest that SOM230 may have potential in the treatment of patients with pituitary-dependent Cushing's disease.


58. Brito J, Sáez L, Lemp M, Liberman C, Michelsen H, Araya AV: [Immunohistochemistry for pituitary hormones and Ki-67 in growth hormone producing pituitary adenomas]. Rev Med Chil; 2008 Jul;136(7):831-6
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  • [Title] [Immunohistochemistry for pituitary hormones and Ki-67 in growth hormone producing pituitary adenomas].
  • [Transliterated title] Evaluación por inmunohistoquímica de la expresión de hormonas hipofisiarias y del marcador de proliferación celular Ki-67 en tejido de adenomas causantes de acromegalia.
  • BACKGROUND: Growth hormone (GH) producing adenomas, frequently express several hormones.
  • AIM: To measure the immunohistochemical hormone expression in pituitary adenomas, excised from patients with acromegaly.
  • To determine if the plurihormonal condition of these adenomas is associated with a higher proliferative capacity, assessed through the expression of Ki-67.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty one paraffin embedded surgical samples of pituitary adenomas from patients with acromegalia were studied.
  • Immunohistochemistry for GH, prolactin (PRL), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and for the expression of Ki-67 was carried out.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Half of GH producing pituitary adenomas are plurihormonal.
  • There are no differences in the expression of Ki-67 between mono and plurihormonal adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / metabolism. Human Growth Hormone / metabolism. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Acromegaly / physiopathology. Acromegaly / surgery. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / analysis. Adult. Aged. Female. Follicle Stimulating Hormone / analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Prolactin / analysis. Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen / analysis. Statistics, Nonparametric. Thyrotropin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 18949157.001).
  • [ISSN] 0034-9887
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista médica de Chile
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Med Chil
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Chile
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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59. Lad SP, Patil CG, Laws ER Jr, Katznelson L: The role of inferior petrosal sinus sampling in the diagnostic localization of Cushing's disease. Neurosurg Focus; 2007;23(3):E2
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  • [Title] The role of inferior petrosal sinus sampling in the diagnostic localization of Cushing's disease.
  • Cushing's syndrome can present a complex problem of differential diagnosis.
  • Of cases in which hypercortisolemia results from an adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent process, approximately 80% are due to a pituitary adenoma (Cushing's disease [CD]), 10% are due to adrenal lesions, and the remaining 10% are secondary to ectopic ACTH secretion.
  • For patients with CD, surgical removal of the pituitary adenoma is the treatment of choice.
  • Thus, localization of the source of ACTH secretion is critical in guiding timely treatment decisions.
  • Inferior petrosal sinus sampling (IPSS) is considered to be the gold standard for confirming the origin of ACTH secretion in patients with Cushing's syndrome.
  • A number of other techniques are discussed including sampling from the cavernous sinus, the jugular vein, and multiple sites to aid the diagnosis and lateralization of ACTH-producing pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Petrosal Sinus Sampling / methods. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17961020.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical focus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Focus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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60. Pawlikowski M, Kunert-Radek J, Radek M: "Silent"corticotropinoma. Neuro Endocrinol Lett; 2008 Jun;29(3):347-50
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  • [Title] "Silent"corticotropinoma.
  • OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate the ACTH-immunopositive pituitary adenomas, especially those without manifestation of Cushing's disease MATERIAL AND METHODS: 148 pituitary adenomas removed surgically in years 1994--2007 were studied.
  • The paraffin sections were immunostained with antibodies against the pituitary hormones.
  • In 79 adenomas the immunostaining with anti-ACTH antibody was performed Additionally, 23 tumors were also immunostained with anti-Ki-67 (MIB-1) antibody.
  • RESULTS: ACTH immunopositivity was found in 34 cases (23%).
  • Fourteen ACTH-immunopositive tumors manifested themselves as Cushing's disease (including 1 case of Nelson's syndrome).
  • In the remaining 20 cases in spite of the positive immunostaining for ACTH of the tumor cells, no features of hypercortisolism were observed (in several cases even hypocortisolism was found).
  • Thus, those tumors represented so-called "silent" corticotropinomas.
  • Over one third (37%) of "clinically" nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas, when immunostained with anti-ACTH antibody, showed ACTH immunopositivity.
  • Three adenomas in patients with Cushing's disease (21.4%) and 7 "silent" corticotropinomas (35%) were recurrent tumors.
  • In contrast, the recurrence rate in the group of ACTH-immunonegative clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas was 14.7%.
  • The "silent" corticotropinomas exhibited a tendency towards the higher expression of a proliferation marker, Ki-67 antigen as compared to the "active" corticotropinomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: (i) "Silent" corticotropinomas are rather frequent. (ii) This adenoma type should be considered as aggressive. (iii) It is hypothetized that--like in Nelson's syndrome--the lack of hypercortisolism or even presence of hypocortisolism favorizes the exaggerated growth of tumoral corticotrophs.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cushing Syndrome / blood. Cushing Syndrome / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / blood. Male. Nelson Syndrome / blood. Paraffin Embedding. Pituitary Hormones / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18580839.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-780X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro endocrinology letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro Endocrinol. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Pituitary Hormones; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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61. Rudnik A, Zawadzki T, Gałuszka-Ignasiak B, Bazowski P, Duda I, Wojtacha M, Rudnik AI, Krawczyk I: Endoscopic transsphenoidal treatment in recurrent and residual pituitary adenomas--first experience. Minim Invasive Neurosurg; 2006 Feb;49(1):10-4
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  • [Title] Endoscopic transsphenoidal treatment in recurrent and residual pituitary adenomas--first experience.
  • AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of the study has been the assessment of the endoscopic method in the surgical management of recurrent and residual pituitary adenomas, as concerns treatment efficiency, substantial complications, and its possible advantages for the operating surgeon and patient.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: In Department of Neurosurgery, Silesian University School of Medicine in Katowice, between October 2001 and June 2004, 125 patients underwent endoscopic surgery due to pituitary adenoma.
  • The analysis comprised 20 patients, who were operated on due to recurrent adenomas or residual tumour not completely removed during the first surgical procedure.
  • The analysed group had 14 non-functioning adenomas, 4 GH-secreting adenomas, 1 PRL-secreting adenoma and 1 ACTH-secreting adenoma.
  • 11 of the 20 adenomas infiltrated the cavernous sinuses.
  • In the group of 11 patients with adenomas not infiltrating the cavernous sinuses, recovery was reported for 8 of them, that is 73%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The endoscopic method is a safe, hardly invasive and efficient surgical technique in the treatment of recurrent and residual pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neuroendoscopy. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Sphenoid Sinus / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm, Residual. Reoperation. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16547875.001).
  • [ISSN] 0946-7211
  • [Journal-full-title] Minimally invasive neurosurgery : MIN
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minim Invasive Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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62. Cho HY, Cho SW, Kim SW, Shin CS, Park KS, Kim SY: Silent corticotroph adenomas have unique recurrence characteristics compared with other nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2010 May;72(5):648-53
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  • [Title] Silent corticotroph adenomas have unique recurrence characteristics compared with other nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of silent corticotroph adenomas (SCAs) is not rare among nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs); however, it is unknown whether the clinical significance of SCAs differs from that of NFPAs without ACTH immunoreactivity (non-SCAs).
  • MEASUREMENTS: We analysed whether clinical manifestations at diagnosis, postoperative recurrence rate and recurrence characteristics differed between SCA and non-SCA patients.
  • The mean age at the time of diagnosis was 44 years (range, 13-67 years) in the SCA group and 50 years (18-79 years) in the non-SCA group (P = 0.026), with respective follow-up periods of 5.2 (range, 1.0-16.0 years) and 4.2 years (0.5-16.1 years) (P = 0.255).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / analysis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19650787.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2265
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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63. Swords FM, Monson JP, Besser GM, Chew SL, Drake WM, Grossman AB, Plowman PN: Gamma knife radiosurgery: a safe and effective salvage treatment for pituitary tumours not controlled despite conventional radiotherapy. Eur J Endocrinol; 2009 Dec;161(6):819-28
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Gamma knife radiosurgery: a safe and effective salvage treatment for pituitary tumours not controlled despite conventional radiotherapy.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report the use of 'gamma knife' (GK) radiosurgery in 25 patients with pituitary adenomas not cured despite conventional therapy, including external beam radiotherapy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients had previously received conventional radiotherapy for a mean of 11.8 years prior to receiving GK; 23 out of 25 had also undergone pituitary surgery on at least one occasion.
  • Seventeen had hyperfunctioning adenomas that still required medical therapy without an adequate biochemical control--ten somatotroph adenomas, six corticotroph adenomas and one prolactinoma, while eight patients had non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs).
  • A total of 75% NFPAs showed disease stabilisation or shrinkage post GK.
  • The results in corticotroph adenomas were variable.
  • Prior to GK, 72% of the patients were panhypopituitary, and 42% of the remainder have developed new anterior pituitary hormone deficiencies to date.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that GK is a safe and effective adjunctive treatment for patients with NFPAs and acromegaly not satisfactorily controlled with surgery and radiotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 19773368.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-683X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
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64. Cooper O, Ben-Shlomo A, Bonert V, Bannykh S, Mirocha J, Melmed S: Silent corticogonadotroph adenomas: clinical and cellular characteristics and long-term outcomes. Horm Cancer; 2010 Apr;1(2):80-92

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Silent corticogonadotroph adenomas: clinical and cellular characteristics and long-term outcomes.
  • Silent corticotrophins adenomas (SCAs) are clinically silent and non-secreting but immunostain positively for ACTH.
  • We hypothesize that SCAs comprise both corticotroph and gonadotroph characteristics.
  • We compared preoperative and postoperative clinical results and tumor cytogenesis in 25 SCAs and 84 nonfunctioning adenomas in 109 consecutive patients diagnosed pre-operatively with nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas.
  • Pathologic outcomes were expression of relevant pituitary hormones, tissue-specific transcription factors, and electron microscopy features.
  • Preoperative SCA presentation was similar to that observed for nonfunctioning adenomas.
  • However, SCAs recurred postoperatively at a median of 3 years vs. 8 years for nonfunctioning adenomas (p<0.0001).
  • Fifty-four percent of patients with SCAs had new onset postoperative hypopituitarism vs. 17% of nonfunctioning adenomas (p<0.025).
  • SCAs (n=18) were immunopositive for ACTH, cytoplasmic and nuclear SF-1, NeuroD1, DAX-1, and alpha-gonadotropin subunit, but Tpit negative, and co-expression of tumor ACTH with either SF-1 or LH was detected.
  • In contrast, functional corticotroph adenomas (n=11) were immunopositive for ACTH, nuclear SF-1, NeuroD1, and Tpit, but negative for DAX-1, a gonadotroph cell transcription factor.
  • Gonadotroph adenomas (n=23) were immunonegative for ACTH and Tpit but positive for nuclear SF-1, NeuroD1, and DAX-1.
  • SCA electron microscopy demonstrated ultrastructural features consistent with corticotroph and gonadotroph cells.
  • As SCAs exhibit features consistent with both corticotroph and gonadotroph cytologic origin, we propose a pathologic and clinically distinct classification of SCAs as silent corticogonadotroph adenomas.

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  • (PMID = 20717480.001).
  • [ISSN] 1868-8500
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormones & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / T32 DK007770-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA075979-08; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / T32 DK007770; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / T32 DK07770; United States / NIDDK NIH HHS / DK / DK007770-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 075979; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA075979; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA075979-08
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Gonadotropins
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Corticotroph adenoma / Gonadotroph adenoma / Nonfunctioning adenoma / Pituitary adenoma
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65. Pawlikowski M, Gruszka A, Kurnatowska I, Winczyk K, Kunert-Radek J, Radek A: Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression in pituitary adenomas: relationship to the endocrine phenotype of adenoma. Folia Histochem Cytobiol; 2006;44(1):37-41
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  • [Title] Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression in pituitary adenomas: relationship to the endocrine phenotype of adenoma.
  • The expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) correlates to cell proliferation and for this reason it is commonly considered as one of proliferation markers.
  • Since proliferation rate is an important factor determining the tumor aggressiveness, the evaluation of PCNA index (the percentage of PCNA-immunopositive nuclei in the investigated tumor sample) is suggested as useful in predicting pituitary adenoma outcome.
  • Seventy three unselected, surgically removed pituitary adenomas were immunostained with antibodies against the pituitary hormones or their subunits and against the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA).
  • The highest PCNA index was found in ACTH-immunopositive tumors without the manifestation of the Cushing's disease ("silent" corticotropinomas).
  • This value was significantly different in comparison to other adenoma subtypes including corticotropinomas manifesting themselves by Cushing's disease.
  • The lowest PCNA index was noticed in monohormonal GH-secreting tumors.
  • The adenomas which express more than one hormone (plurihormonal adenomas) seem to have a higher PCNA indices than monohormonal ones; the difference was significant in the case of mono- and plurihormonal prolactinomas.
  • These findings suggest that the proliferative potential of pituitary adenomas is related to the tumor recurrence and hormone expression.

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  • (PMID = 16584090.001).
  • [ISSN] 0239-8508
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia histochemica et cytobiologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Histochem. Cytobiol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone, Human; 0 / Gonadotropins; 0 / Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone
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66. Raitila A, Georgitsi M, Karhu A, Tuppurainen K, Mäkinen MJ, Birkenkamp-Demtröder K, Salmenkivi K, Orntoft TF, Arola J, Launonen V, Vahteristo P, Aaltonen LA: No evidence of somatic aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein mutations in sporadic endocrine neoplasia. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2007 Sep;14(3):901-6
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  • Germline mutations in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein (AIP) gene were recently observed in patients with pituitary adenoma predisposition (PAP).
  • Though AIP mutation-positive individuals with prolactin-, mixed growth hormone/prolactin-, and ACTH-producing pituitary adenomas as well as non-secreting pituitary adenomas have been reported, most mutation-positive patients have had growth hormone-producing adenomas diagnosed at relatively young age.
  • Pituitary adenomas are also component tumors of some familial endocrine neoplasia syndromes such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and Carney complex (CNC).
  • Genes underlying MEN1 and CNC are rarely mutated in sporadic pituitary adenomas, but more often in other lesions contributing to these two syndromes.
  • Thus far, the occurrence of somatic AIP mutations has not been studied in endocrine tumors other than pituitary adenomas.
  • Here, we have analyzed 32 pituitary adenomas and 79 other tumors of the endocrine system for somatic AIP mutations by direct sequencing.
  • However, two out of nine patients with prolactin-producing adenoma were shown to harbor a Finnish founder mutation (Q14X) with a complete loss of the wild-type allele in the tumors.
  • These results are in agreement with previous studies in that prolactin-producing adenomas are component tumors in PAP.
  • The data also support the previous finding that somatic AIP mutations are not common in pituitary adenomas and suggest that such mutations are rare in other endocrine tumors as well.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Carcinoma / genetics. Endocrine Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Mutation. Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17914118.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Proteins; 0 / aryl hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein
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67. Batista DL, Zhang X, Gejman R, Ansell PJ, Zhou Y, Johnson SA, Swearingen B, Hedley-Whyte ET, Stratakis CA, Klibanski A: The effects of SOM230 on cell proliferation and adrenocorticotropin secretion in human corticotroph pituitary adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Nov;91(11):4482-8
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  • [Title] The effects of SOM230 on cell proliferation and adrenocorticotropin secretion in human corticotroph pituitary adenomas.
  • CONTEXT: There is no tumor-directed medical therapy available for Cushing's disease.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective was to determine the in vitro effect of the somatostatin analog pasireotide (SOM230) on cell proliferation in human corticotroph tumors.
  • DESIGN/METHODS: Expression of somatostatin receptors (SSTR 1-5) was determined by quantitative RT-PCR in 13 human corticotroph tumors and by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 12 of the 13 tumors.
  • SOM230 effects on cell proliferation and ACTH release were evaluated in vitro using primary cultures of six of the 13 human corticotroph adenomas.
  • RESULTS: In our series, we found expression of SSTR subtypes 1, 2, 4, and 5 in human corticotroph tumors by quantitative RT-PCR.
  • Significant suppression of cell proliferation was observed in all tumors cultured (percent suppression range: 10-70%; P = 0.045-0.001).
  • SOM230 inhibited ACTH secretion in five of the six tumors cultured (percent suppression range: 23-56%; P = 0.042-0.001).
  • CONCLUSION: Corticotroph tumors express multiple SSTR subtypes.
  • SOM230 significantly suppressed cell proliferation and ACTH secretion in primary cultures of human corticotroph tumors.
  • These in vitro results support the hypothesis that SOM230 may have a role in the medical therapy of corticotroph tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / drug therapy. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / secretion. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Child. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Vitro Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / drug therapy. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Receptors, Somatostatin / metabolism. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 16940446.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 98H1T17066 / pasireotide
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68. Labeur M, Paez-Pereda M, Arzt E, Stalla GK: Potential of retinoic acid derivatives for the treatment of corticotroph pituitary adenomas. Rev Endocr Metab Disord; 2009 Jun;10(2):103-9
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  • [Title] Potential of retinoic acid derivatives for the treatment of corticotroph pituitary adenomas.
  • Cushing's disease is a severe clinical condition caused by hypersecretion of corticosteroids due to excessive ACTH secretion from a pituitary adenoma.
  • This complex endocrine disorder still represents a major challenge for the physician in terms of efficient treatment.
  • In the last years there was only little progress in elucidating the molecular mechanisms responsible for the constitutive and autonomous ACTH secretion of pituitary corticotrophinomas.
  • As a consequence, no effective drug therapy is currently available, particularly if surgical excision is not successful.
  • In the present article we examine recent studies that have investigated the therapeutic potential of retinoic acid receptors as nuclear receptor targets for the treatment of Cushing's disease.
  • Retinoic acid is an efficient drug used for the treatment of different types of cancers and it proved to act in animal models of Cushing's disease.
  • The efficiency of this treatment in patients with this disorder still needs to be tested in clinical trials.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tretinoin / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Humans. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / drug therapy. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18604646.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-2606
  • [Journal-full-title] Reviews in endocrine & metabolic disorders
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Endocr Metab Disord
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
  • [Number-of-references] 62
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69. Iino K, Oki Y, Yamashita M, Matsushita F, Hayashi C, Yogo K, Nishizawa S, Yamada S, Maekawa M, Sasano H, Nakamura H: Possible relevance between prohormone convertase 2 expression and tumor growth in human adrenocorticotropin-producing pituitary adenoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Aug;95(8):4003-11
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  • [Title] Possible relevance between prohormone convertase 2 expression and tumor growth in human adrenocorticotropin-producing pituitary adenoma.
  • CONTEXT: Methods for preoperative diagnosis of prohormone convertase 2 (PC2)-positive ACTH-producing pituitary adenomas (APPAs) have not been established.
  • Also, their characteristics are not evident.
  • OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to understand the meaning of plasma alphaMSH levels and the role of cell proliferation-signaling molecules in PC2-positive APPAs.
  • RESULTS: Nine adenomas (47.4%) were immunopositive for PC2 and were large and invasive in nature.
  • Eight adenomas (42.1%) were immunopositive for both PC2 and p-Akt, and seven others (36.8%) were immunonegative for both, suggesting significant coexpression of PC2 and p-Akt in tumors.
  • Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that PC2 expression is associated with phosphorylation of Akt but not with its gene expression.
  • Most APPAs expressed receptor tyrosine kinases, but membrane-bound receptors could not be identified.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that PC2 expression and Akt phosphorylation are related at the molecular level, resulting in a change in cell cycle and an increase in pituitary adenoma size.
  • An elevation of plasma alphaMSH could conjecture the activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3/Akt cascade in PC2-positive APPAs and may become a valuable clinical marker of tumor growth in Cushing's disease.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / metabolism. Proprotein Convertase 2 / metabolism. alpha-MSH / blood

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  • (PMID = 20501680.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 581-05-5 / alpha-MSH; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3; EC 3.4.21.94 / Proprotein Convertase 2
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70. Domino JP, Chionh SB, Lomanto D, Katara AN, Rauff A, Cheah WK: Laparoscopic partial adrenalectomy for bilateral cortisol-secreting adenomas. Asian J Surg; 2007 Apr;30(2):154-7
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  • [Title] Laparoscopic partial adrenalectomy for bilateral cortisol-secreting adenomas.
  • Bilateral cortisol-secreting adenomas are a rare cause of Cushing's syndrome.
  • We report a case of a 35-year-old woman who presented with ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome and bilateral adrenal adenomas.
  • Adrenal venous sampling confirmed both adenomas to be hyper-secreting cortisol.

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  • (PMID = 17475590.001).
  • [ISSN] 1015-9584
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian J Surg
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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71. Dehdashti AR, Gentili F: Current state of the art in the diagnosis and surgical treatment of Cushing disease: early experience with a purely endoscopic endonasal technique. Neurosurg Focus; 2007;23(3):E9
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  • [Title] Current state of the art in the diagnosis and surgical treatment of Cushing disease: early experience with a purely endoscopic endonasal technique.
  • OBJECT: Transsphenoidal pituitary surgery is the primary therapy for Cushing disease because of its potential to produce lasting remission without the need for long-term drug or hormone replacement therapy.
  • The authors evaluated the current role of pure endoscopic endonasal pituitary surgery in the treatment of Cushing disease.
  • METHODS: Twenty-five patients underwent pure endoscopic surgery for confirmed Cushing disease.
  • Final histological results were consistent with adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH)-secreting adenoma in 20 patients.
  • Three patients presented with new anterior pituitary deficiency, but no one had permanent diabetes insipidus.
  • Treatment failure was attributable to involvement of the cavernous sinus in two patients, incomplete tumor removal in one, negative exploration in one, and nodular corticotroph hyperplasia of the pituitary gland in one.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Early results indicated that endoscopic endonasal surgery is a safe and effective treatment for ACTH-producing adenomas.
  • Further studies with a larger number of patients and longer follow-ups are required to determine whether this more minimally invasive pure endoscopic approach should become the standard of care for the surgical treatment of Cushing disease.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / surgery. Adenoma / surgery. Endoscopy. Paranasal Sinuses / surgery. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / diagnosis. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17961027.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgical focus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurg Focus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Kamenicky P, Houdoin L, Ferlicot S, Salenave S, Brailly S, Droupy S, Meduri G, Sasano H, Suzuki T, Young J, Chanson P: Benign cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas produce small amounts of androgens. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf); 2007 Jun;66(6):778-88
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  • [Title] Benign cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas produce small amounts of androgens.
  • BACKGROUND: Serum androgen levels are below normal in patients with benign cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas, owing to ACTH suppression.
  • The objective of the study was to analyse the androgen-producing ability of cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas.
  • METHODS: Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), Delta4androstenedione and testosterone concentrations were measured before and after adrenalectomy and then at 6-month intervals in 20 women (eight cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas, six subclinical cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas, and six nonfunctional adenomas).
  • RESULTS: Before adrenalectomy, serum androgen concentrations were measurable in all women with clinically apparent and subclinical cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas.
  • Postoperatively, during adrenocortical insufficiency, DHEAS, Delta4androstenedione and testosterone concentrations fell to near the detection limit in all patients with cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas (P = 0.008 for each marker) and showed a similar tendency to fall in all patients with subclinical cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas.
  • Pre- and post-treatment androgen concentrations did not differ in patients with nonfunctional adenomas.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed CYP17, HSD3B2, SULT2A1 and CYB5 expression by all cortisol-producing tumours.
  • The intensity of CYP17 and SULT2A1 expression was stronger in cortisol-secreting adenomas than in their adjacent normal adrenal tissue.
  • CONCLUSION: Both clinically apparent and subclinical cortisol-secreting adrenocortical adenomas appear to show moderate autonomous androgen production.
  • Thus, weak androgen secretion in patients with adrenocortical tumours should not necessarily be considered as a sign of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / secretion. Adrenal Cortex Neoplasms / secretion. Androgens / secretion. Hydrocortisone / secretion
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adrenalectomy. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Androstenedione / blood. Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate / blood. Estrogens / blood. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Gonadotropins, Pituitary / blood. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Menstrual Cycle. Middle Aged. Postoperative Period. Retrospective Studies. Statistics, Nonparametric. Testosterone / blood

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  • (PMID = 17408424.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-0664
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Estrogens; 0 / Gonadotropins, Pituitary; 3XMK78S47O / Testosterone; 409J2J96VR / Androstenedione; 57B09Q7FJR / Dehydroepiandrosterone Sulfate; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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73. Santoro A, Minniti G, Ruggeri A, Esposito V, Jaffrain-Rea ML, Delfini R: Biochemical remission and recurrence rate of secreting pituitary adenomas after transsphenoidal adenomectomy: long-term endocrinologic follow-up results. Surg Neurol; 2007 Nov;68(5):513-8; discussion 518
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  • [Title] Biochemical remission and recurrence rate of secreting pituitary adenomas after transsphenoidal adenomectomy: long-term endocrinologic follow-up results.
  • BACKGROUND: Transsphenoidal surgery is safe and effective in patients with secreting pituitary adenomas; however, variable outcomes have been reported according to the different criteria used to define the biochemical remission of hormone hypersecretion.
  • We report the long-term endocrinologic follow-up results of a large cohort of patients who underwent TSS for secreting pituitary adenomas according to the most recent stringent criteria of cure.
  • METHODS: Two hundred ten consecutive patients were operated on by TSS between 1995 and 2004 for a secreting pituitary adenoma (65 PRL-, 109 GH-, and 36 ACTH-secreting adenomas) and were considered for the study.
  • RESULTS: The overall remission rate was 65% for the whole series, being 64%, 61%, and 75% for PRL-, GH-, and ACTH-secreting adenomas, respectively.
  • Remission rates were significantly higher in GH- and ACTH-secreting pituitary macroadenomas than in macroprolactinomas.
  • At a median follow-up of 56 months, tumor recurrence was 0%, 11%, and 14% for GH-, ACTH-, and PRL-secreting tumors.
  • Tumor size, cavernous sinus invasion, and high hormone levels were negatively correlated to the outcome.
  • CONCLUSION: Transsphenoidal surgery remains an effective treatment for secreting pituitary tumors according to the most recent criteria of cure.
  • Patients with PRL- or ACTH-secreting adenomas may recur after apparently successful surgery, thereby justifying long-term careful endocrinologic follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Hyperpituitarism / prevention & control. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary Hormones, Anterior / blood. Pituitary Hormones, Anterior / secretion. Recurrence. Remission Induction. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17961741.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Pituitary Hormones, Anterior
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74. de Bruin C, Meij BP, Kooistra HS, Hanson JM, Lamberts SW, Hofland LJ: Cushing's disease in dogs and humans. Horm Res; 2009 Jan;71 Suppl 1:140-3

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cushing's disease in dogs and humans.
  • BACKGROUND: Cushing's disease (CD) is a common endocrinological disorder in dogs with an estimated incidence of 1 to 2 cases/1,000 dogs/year.
  • Canine CD may therefore serve as an animal model for human CD, especially since therapeutic canine hypophysectomy can generate substantial amounts of primary corticotroph adenoma tissue for in vitro research purposes.
  • In a recent study, we found that dopamine (DA) D(2) and somatostatin (SS) receptor subtypes are well expressed in canine corticotroph adenomas, but there are some distinct differences compared with the expression profile observed in human CD.
  • CASE REPORT: This case involves an 8-year-old female dog that developed signs of exercise intolerance, muscle weakness and polyuria/polydipsia due to an adrenocorticotropic hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Dog Diseases / radiography. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / radiography. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / veterinary

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19153526.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0046
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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75. Siddiqui AA, Bashir SH: Giant pituitary macroadenoma at the age of 4 months: case report and review of the literature. Childs Nerv Syst; 2006 Mar;22(3):290-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Giant pituitary macroadenoma at the age of 4 months: case report and review of the literature.
  • CASE REPORT: Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary adenoma is extremely rare.
  • We report the youngest patient of Cushing's disease due to ACTH-secreting pituitary macroadenoma at the age of 4 months.
  • Serum cortisol level was 97 microg/dl, with increased secretion of urinary free cortisol; plasma ACTH level was 353 pg/ml.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed a large contrast-enhancing solid mass sitting in the sellar region, with suprasellar and lateral extension.
  • Surgical resection was done, and immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of ACTH-secreting pituitary adenoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Cushing's disease due to ACTH-secreting pituitary macroadenoma is a possible diagnosis in early infancy.
  • This surgical morbidity is possibly attributed to difficult peroperative hemostasis due to vasculopathy in Cushing's disease, which leads to excessive blood loss, adverse hemodynamic changes, myocardial dysfunction and disseminated intravascular coagulopathy.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / surgery. Adenoma / surgery. Cushing Syndrome / surgery. Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation / etiology. Postoperative Complications / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16047217.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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76. Eljamel MS, Leese G, Moseley H: Intraoperative optical identification of pituitary adenomas. J Neurooncol; 2009 May;92(3):417-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intraoperative optical identification of pituitary adenomas.
  • INTRODUCTION: The main goals of transsphenoidal pituitary surgery are total removal of pituitary adenomas (PAs) and preservation of normal pituitary functions.
  • Achieving these goals is dependent upon the precise localisation of PAs during surgery, particularly secreting microadenomas.
  • After the dura of the floor of the sella was incised a laser probe was inserted into the pituitary gland to identify the ALA-induced protoporphyrin IX spectroscopy at 632 nm, using an optical biopsy system (OBS).
  • Once the adenoma was identified by the OBS it was exposed and examined by the PD system to detect fluorescence.
  • PATIENTS: Thirty consecutive patients were studied: 14 were non-functioning macroadenomas (NFA), 12 were secreting PAs and 4 pituitary cysts.
  • The secreting PAs were GH (2), ACTH (3), prolactin (2) and gonadotrophins (5).
  • Six were microadenomas (3 ACTH, 1 GH, 2 prolactin) and 20 were macroadenomas, of which 12 were invading macroadenomas.
  • CONCLUSION: Intraoperative optical identification of pituitary adenomas is a feasible and reliable way to localize pituitary adenomas during transsphenoidal surgery and it may lead to improved cure rate and preservation of normal pituitary functions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19357967.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Photosensitizing Agents; 88755TAZ87 / Aminolevulinic Acid
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77. Castinetti F, Brue T: [Radiotherapy and radiosurgery of pituitary adenomas]. Presse Med; 2009 Jan;38(1):133-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Radiotherapy and radiosurgery of pituitary adenomas].
  • There are two principal types of treatment for pituitary adenomas: fractionated conventional radiation therapy, based on biological selectivity, and radiosurgery, which is delivered in a single dose, based on anatomic selectivity and indicated preferentially for small tumors sufficiently distant from the optic chiasm.
  • Maximum antisecretory efficacy is not reached immediately: this delay is longer for conventional radiation therapy (5-10 years) than for radiosurgery (2-3 years).
  • Radiation therapy and radiosurgery make it possible to stabilize or diminish tumor volume in 70-100% of cases.
  • This is especially useful in the case of an active residue after surgery for non-secreting adenoma, but the long-term side effects of radiation must be borne in mind.
  • The principal side effect is the onset of a pituitary deficiency (in more than 50% of cases after radiation therapy, 20% after radiosurgery).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / radiotherapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiosurgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Acromegaly / therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Decision Trees. Dose Fractionation. Humans. Hypopituitarism / etiology. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / therapy. Pituitary Gland / radiation effects. Pituitary Gland / secretion. Postoperative Complications. Prolactinoma / radiotherapy. Prolactinoma / secretion. Prolactinoma / surgery. Radiation Injuries / etiology. Risk Factors. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18954960.001).
  • [ISSN] 2213-0276
  • [Journal-full-title] Presse medicale (Paris, France : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Presse Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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78. Korbonits M, Carlsen E: Recent clinical and pathophysiological advances in non-functioning pituitary adenomas. Horm Res; 2009 Apr;71 Suppl 2:123-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Recent clinical and pathophysiological advances in non-functioning pituitary adenomas.
  • Pituitary adenomas are being recognized and diagnosed with increasing frequency.
  • One of the most common forms of pituitary lesion is the clinically non-functioning pituitary adenoma (NFPA), which is often diagnosed incidentally.
  • The vast majority of pituitary adenomas are sporadic, but familial adenomas can occur in the multiple pituitary adenoma type 1 syndrome, in Carney complex or in familial isolated pituitary adenoma.
  • Most often these are silent gonadotroph adenomas, with silent corticotroph or somatotroph adenomas occurring less frequently.
  • It is unclear why these silent adenomas do not release hormones at a clinically recognizable level, although it is probable that there is a continuum between fully functional and completely silent adenomas.
  • Temozolomide has been successfully used for the treatment of a few aggressive pituitary adenomas, and the response to this drug could be influenced by the expression of the DNA repair enzyme O-6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase.
  • The early diagnosis, prediction of long-term outcome and treatment of NFPAs remain a challenge for endocrinologists.
  • [MeSH-major] Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma. Prolactinoma
  • [MeSH-minor] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / diagnosis. ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / metabolism. ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / pathology. ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / therapy. Female. Humans. Male

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19407508.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0046
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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79. Mezosi E, Nemes O: [Treatment of pituitary adenomas]. Orv Hetil; 2009 Sep 27;150(39):1803-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Treatment of pituitary adenomas].
  • According to epidemiological studies, the prevalence of pituitary adenomas is 16.5% and the majority of them are "incidentalomas".
  • The symptoms of pituitary disorders are often non-specific; disturbances of pituitary function, compression symptoms, hypophysis apoplexy or accidental findings may help the diagnosis.
  • The hormonal evaluation of pituitary adenomas is different from the algorithm used in the disorders of peripheral endocrine organs.
  • The first-line therapy of prolactinomas are the dopamine agonists, and the aims of the treatment are to normalize the prolactin level, restore fertility in child-bearing age, decrease tumor mass, save or improve the residual pituitary function and inhibit the relapse of the disease.
  • In case of tumors with good therapeutic response, medical therapy can be withdrawn after 3-5 years; hyperprolactinemia will not recur in 2/3 of these patients.
  • Neurosurgery is the primary therapy of GH-, ACTH-, TSH-producing and inactive adenomas.
  • The medical therapy of Cushing's disease is still based on the inhibition of steroid production.
  • The rare TSH-producing tumor can respond to both dopamine agonist and somatostatin analog therapy.
  • Further studies are needed to elucidate the exact role of radiosurgery and fractionated stereotaxic irradiation in the treatment of pituitary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / therapy. Pituitary Hormones / blood. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / therapy. Acromegaly / drug therapy. Acromegaly / etiology. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / blood. Aminoquinolines / therapeutic use. Bromocriptine / therapeutic use. Cushing Syndrome / drug therapy. Cushing Syndrome / etiology. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Female. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / therapy. Human Growth Hormone / analogs & derivatives. Human Growth Hormone / blood. Human Growth Hormone / therapeutic use. Humans. Hypophysectomy. Incidental Findings. Male. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / therapy. Prolactinoma / therapy. Radiosurgery. Receptors, Somatotropin / antagonists & inhibitors. Somatostatin / analogs & derivatives. Somatostatin / therapeutic use. Thyrotropin / blood

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  • (PMID = 19758960.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6002
  • [Journal-full-title] Orvosi hetilap
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Orv Hetil
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Aminoquinolines; 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Pituitary Hormones; 0 / Receptors, Somatotropin; 0 / pegvisomant; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 3A64E3G5ZO / Bromocriptine; 51110-01-1 / Somatostatin; 80Q9QWN15M / quinagolide; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; 98H1T17066 / pasireotide
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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80. Gordon BM: Pharmacological management of secreting pituitary tumors. J Neurosci Nurs; 2007 Feb;39(1):52-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pharmacological management of secreting pituitary tumors.
  • Because pituitary adenomas can present in many ways, nurses need to be aware of the signs and symptoms of different hormone-secreting tumors and their related pharmacologic treatment.
  • Although long-term medical management of secreting tumors and their hormonal complications is usually carried out on an outpatient basis, diagnosis often occurs during inpatient care.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / drug therapy. ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / nursing. Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / nursing. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / nursing
  • [MeSH-minor] Education, Nursing, Continuing. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / drug therapy. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / nursing. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17396539.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-0395
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of neuroscience nursing : journal of the American Association of Neuroscience Nurses
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neurosci Nurs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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81. Jankowska A, Wasko R, Waligorska-Stachura J, Andrusiewicz M, Jaskula M, Liebert W, Sowinski J: Survivin products in pituitary tumors. Neuro Endocrinol Lett; 2008 Dec;29(6):1033-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Survivin products in pituitary tumors.
  • Still very little is known about survivin expression in pituitary tumors.
  • In spite of the fact that pituitary tumors in histological examination are usually benign, in the clinical process a certain number of pituitary adenomas is capable of aggressive growth, recurrence and invasion of the surrounding structures.
  • The aim of the present study was to assess the presence of survivin transcripts and protein in different types of pituitary tumors and to evaluate survivin expression levels in invasive and non-invasive pituitary tumors.
  • DESIGN AND METHODS: The analyzed material consisted of tumor tissue samples obtained during standard neurosurgical removal of the tumor from 23 patients in whom acromegaly (n=14), non-functioning pituitary tumor (n=6), prolactinoma (n=2) and corticotropinoma (n=1) were diagnosed.
  • As a control of the study normal pituitary tissue obtained at autopsy was used.
  • RESULTS: Our study demonstrated the presence of survivin mRNA in all 23 analyzed pituitary tumors.
  • Survivin expression was also observed in normal pituitary, but the level of its expression was 6-fold lower than in tumors tissue when studied by real time RT-PCR.
  • The difference between the levels of survivin expression in invasive and non-invasive tumors was not statistically significant.
  • Immunohistochemical analyses revealed the presence of the protein in both normal and tumor tissue of pituitary.
  • Immunostaining of tumor tissue was not uniform.
  • The presence of the protein in normal pituitary was restricted to small population of cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed that overexpression of survivin is characteristic for pituitary tumors.
  • Further analysis of this protein expression profile should demonstrate whether survivin might be use as a prognostic marker in diagnosis and therapy of pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins / metabolism. Microtubule-Associated Proteins / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / metabolism. Adult. Female. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / metabolism. Humans. Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins. Male. Middle Aged. Prolactinoma / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / analysis

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  • (PMID = 19112393.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-780X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro endocrinology letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro Endocrinol. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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82. Giorgi RR, Chile T, Bello AR, Reyes R, Fortes MA, Machado MC, Cescato VA, Musolino NR, Bronstein MD, Giannella-Neto D, Corrêa-Giannella ML: Expression of neurotensin and its receptors in pituitary adenomas. J Neuroendocrinol; 2008 Sep;20(9):1052-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of neurotensin and its receptors in pituitary adenomas.
  • The neurotensin (NT) produced in the hypothalamus and in pituitary gonadotrophs and thyrotrophs participates in neuroendocrine regulation.
  • Recently, the involvement of this peptide in normal and neoplastic cell proliferation has been postulated.
  • In the present study, we evaluated the expression of NT and its receptors (NTR1, 2 and 3) in a series of 50 pituitary adenomas [11 growth hormone (GH)-, eight prolactin (PRL)-, four adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)- and 27 nonfunctioning adenomas].
  • NT mRNA expression was significantly higher in functioning compared to nonfunctioning adenomas and with normal pituitary.
  • Nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas showed lower expression of NT mRNA than normal pituitary.
  • In the immunohistochemical study of functioning adenomas, NT was colocalised with GH, PRL and ACTH secreting cells.
  • In nonfunctioning adenomas, the NT immunoreactivity intensity was variable among the samples.
  • NTR3 mRNA expression was observed in all examined samples and was higher in the adenomas, both functioning and nonfunctioning, compared to normal pituitary.
  • By contrast, NTR1 and NTR2 mRNA were not detected in either pituitary adenomas or normal tissue.
  • The higher expression of NTR3, as well as the expression of NT by tumoural corticotrophs, lactotrophs and somatotrophs, which are cells types that do not express this peptide in the normal pituitary, suggests that NT autocrine and/or paracrine stimulation mediated by NTR3 may be a mechanism associated with the tumourigenesis of functioning adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Neurotensin / genetics. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics. Receptors, Neurotensin / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Autocrine Communication / genetics. Autocrine Communication / physiology. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Paracrine Communication / genetics. Paracrine Communication / physiology. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18624930.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2826
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuroendocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neuroendocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Neurotensin; 39379-15-2 / Neurotensin
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83. Katavetin P, Cheunsuchon P, Swearingen B, Hedley-Whyte ET, Misra M, Levitsky LL: Review: Pituitary adenomas in children and adolescents. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2010 May;23(5):427-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Review: Pituitary adenomas in children and adolescents.
  • Clinical manifestations and outcomes of pituitary adenomas in children are not clearly defined.
  • We retrospectively reviewed cases of pituitary adenomas in children 0-18 years treated at MassGeneral Hospital for Children over 15 years.
  • Seventeen had prolactinomas, 3 had somatotropinomas, and 15 had Cushing disease.
  • Two somatotropinoma patients presented with visual disturbances; the third was an incidental finding.
  • Thirteen Cushing disease patients were initially cured by TSS; six recurred after 3-6 years.
  • Patients with or without recurrence did not differ for age, tumor-size and hormone levels.
  • The high recurrence rate of Cushing disease in our series (46%) compared with adults treated surgically at this institution (7%) emphasizes the need for long-term follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / pathology. Humans. Male. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / pathology. Prolactinoma / pathology. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 20662340.001).
  • [ISSN] 0334-018X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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84. Raappana A, Koivukangas J, Ebeling T, Pirilä T: Incidence of pituitary adenomas in Northern Finland in 1992-2007. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2010 Sep;95(9):4268-75
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Incidence of pituitary adenomas in Northern Finland in 1992-2007.
  • CONTEXT: Data on the incidence of pituitary adenomas (PAs) are scant and outdated.
  • OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to describe the age- and sex-specific incidence of all PA subgroups, with data on incidentally found PAs, pituitary apoplexies, and time trends.
  • The incidence rates of the Oulu University Hospital regional district were used as a reference to assess the applicability of our case finding over the rest of NFi.
  • Prolactinomas had the highest SIR: 2.2 per 100,000, followed by clinically nonfunctioning PAs (1.0) and GH-secreting (0.34), ACTH-secreting (0.17), and TSH-secreting (0.03) PAs.
  • Pituitary apoplexy occurred as a presenting symptom in 11% of clinically nonfunctioning PA patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / epidemiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Finland / epidemiology. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary Apoplexy / epidemiology. Prolactinoma / epidemiology. Retrospective Studies. Sex Factors. Time Factors. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20534753.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7197
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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85. Jin L, Riss D, Ruebel K, Kajita S, Scheithauer BW, Horvath E, Kovacs K, Lloyd RV: Galectin-3 Expression in Functioning and Silent ACTH-Producing Adenomas. Endocr Pathol; 2005;16(2):107-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Galectin-3 Expression in Functioning and Silent ACTH-Producing Adenomas.
  • Galectin-3 (Gal-3), a beta galactoside-binding protein, has been implicated in a variety of biological functions including cell growth, differentiation, tumor cell adhesion, angiogenesis, tumor progression, and metastasis.
  • We recently reported that Gal-3 was expressed in a subset of normal pituitary cells and tumors including PRL, ACTH, and in folliculo-stellate (FS) cells and tumors and that Gal-3 had an important regulatory role in pituitary cell proliferation.
  • We further investigated the expression of Gal-3 protein in ACTH- and PRL-producing tumors and the expression of various galectin mRNAs by RT-PCR in pituitary adenomas and normal pituitary.
  • Most silent ACTH subtypes 1 and 2 adenomas were negative or only focally positive for Gal-3 expression compared to functioning ACTH tumors from patients with Cushing's disease and Nelson's syndrome.
  • In the normal pituitary, Gal-3 was expressed in less than 1% of the basophil-invading cells (ACTH cells present in the posterior pituitary) and in a subset of the anterior lobe ACTH-positive cells.
  • RT-PCR analyses showed that many members of the galectin family including galectins 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9 were expressed in normal pituitary and in functioning ACTH- and PRL-producing tumors.
  • These results indicate that Gal-3 is associated with functioning ACTH and PRL tumors and is expressed infrequently in silent ACTH adenomas, suggesting that Gal-3 protein and/or gene is altered in non-functioning ACTH tumors.
  • The use of ACTH and Gal-3 immunostaining should help in the diagnosis of silent ACTH adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / metabolism. Adenoma / metabolism. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / secretion. Galectin 3 / biosynthesis. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16199895.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA90249
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
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86. Horiguchi K, Yamada M, Umezawa R, Satoh T, Hashimoto K, Tosaka M, Yamada S, Mori M: Somatostatin receptor subtypes mRNA in TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas: a case showing a dramatic reduction in tumor size during short octreotide treatment. Endocr J; 2007 Jun;54(3):371-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Somatostatin receptor subtypes mRNA in TSH-secreting pituitary adenomas: a case showing a dramatic reduction in tumor size during short octreotide treatment.
  • TSH-secreting adenoma is a rare pituitary adenoma, and the expression levels of the specific subtypes of somatostatin receptors (sstr) mRNAs have remained obscure.
  • To determine the quantitative expression of the sstr1-5 mRNAs in TSH-secreting adenomas that may be related to the efficacy of treatment with a somatostatin analogue, expression of the sstr1-5 mRNAs was examined and compared in TSH-secreting adenomas and other pituitary adenomas.
  • The pituitary adenomas were obtained at transsphenoidal surgery from 4 cases of TSH-secreting adenoma, including 1 patient showing a significant shrinkage of the tumor size after only 10 days of octreotide treatment, 2 patients without tumor size reduction and 1 patient without treatment, and 5 GH-secreting adenomas, 6 prolactinomas, 5 nonfunctioning adenomas, 4 ACTH-secreting adenomas and normal pituitaries at autopsy from 4 normal subjects.
  • In comparison to the normal pituitary, sstr2A>sstr1>sstr5>sstr3 mRNAs were expressed in the TSH-secreting adenomas examined.
  • The expression level of sstr2 mRNA was significantly higher than those in normal pituitary, prolactinomas, ACTH-secreting and nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas.
  • The patient with marked shrinkage of the tumor showed the highest expression of both sstr2 and sstr5 mRNAs among all the cases of pituitary adenoma.
  • A TSH-secreting tumor without shrinkage showed a similar expression level of sstr2 mRNA.
  • These findings demonstrated that TSH-secreting adenomas express sstr1, 2A, 3 and 5 mRNAs, predominantly sstr2A, and in addition to the expression of sstr2 mRNA, the expression level of sstr5 mRNA may be a factor affecting the tumor shrinkage by somatostatin analogues against TSH-secreting adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / drug therapy. Adenoma / genetics. Octreotide / therapeutic use. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics. Receptors, Somatostatin / genetics. Thyrotrophs / pathology. Tumor Burden / drug effects

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  • (PMID = 17420609.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-8959
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Protein Isoforms; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; RWM8CCW8GP / Octreotide
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87. Er U, Gürses L, Saka C, Belen D, Yiğitkanli K, Simşek S, Akin I, Bavbek M: Sublabial transseptal approach to pituitary adenomas with special emphasis on rhinological complications. Turk Neurosurg; 2008 Oct;18(4):425-30
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  • [Title] Sublabial transseptal approach to pituitary adenomas with special emphasis on rhinological complications.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this presentation is to show that the sublabial transseptal transsphenoidal approach to pituitary adenomas is the least invasive anatomic route with the lowest postoperative complication rates.
  • PATIENTS AND METHOD: This study was based on a retrospective analysis of 276 patients with a diagnosis of pituitary adenoma who were surgically treated via the sublabial transsphenoidal route.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Nose Diseases / epidemiology. Nose Diseases / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Postoperative Complications / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Diabetes Insipidus / epidemiology. Diabetes Insipidus / etiology. Female. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / surgery. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Nasal Mucosa / injuries. Nasal Mucosa / pathology. Nasal Septum / injuries. Nasal Septum / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Prolactinoma / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Thyrotropin / metabolism. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Water-Electrolyte Imbalance / epidemiology. Water-Electrolyte Imbalance / etiology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19107694.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-5149
  • [Journal-full-title] Turkish neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Turk Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin
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88. Daly AF, Jaffrain-Rea ML, Ciccarelli A, Valdes-Socin H, Rohmer V, Tamburrano G, Borson-Chazot C, Estour B, Ciccarelli E, Brue T, Ferolla P, Emy P, Colao A, De Menis E, Lecomte P, Penfornis F, Delemer B, Bertherat J, Wémeau JL, De Herder W, Archambeaud F, Stevenaert A, Calender A, Murat A, Cavagnini F, Beckers A: Clinical characterization of familial isolated pituitary adenomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2006 Sep;91(9):3316-23
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  • [Title] Clinical characterization of familial isolated pituitary adenomas.
  • CONTEXT: Familial pituitary adenomas occur rarely in the absence of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) and Carney complex (CNC).
  • OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to characterize the clinical and genealogical features of non-MEN1/CNC familial isolated pituitary adenomas (FIPA).
  • RESULTS: Sixty-four FIPA families including 138 affected individuals were identified [55 prolactinomas, 47 somatotropinomas, 28 nonsecreting adenomas (NS), and eight ACTH-secreting tumors].
  • A single tumor phenotype occurred in 30 families (homogeneous), and heterogeneous phenotypes occurred in 34 families.
  • FIPA cases were younger at diagnosis than sporadic cases (P = 0.015); tumors were diagnosed earlier in the first vs. the second generation of multigenerational families.
  • Somatotropinomas occurred as isolated familial somatotropinoma cases and within heterogeneous FIPA families; isolated familial somatotropinoma cases represented 18% of FIPA cases and were younger at diagnosis than patients with sporadic somatotropinomas.
  • Familial NS cases were younger at diagnosis (P = 0.03) and had more frequently invasive tumors (P = 0.024) than sporadic cases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Homogeneous and heterogeneous expression of prolactinomas, somatotropinomas, NS, and Cushing's disease can occur within families in the absence of MEN1/CNC.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / genetics. Adenoma / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / genetics. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / secretion. Adult. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit. Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases / genetics. Female. Gonadotropins, Pituitary / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Pedigree. Pituitary Hormones, Anterior / metabolism. Prolactinoma / genetics. Prolactinoma / pathology. Retrospective Studies. Sequence Analysis, DNA

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  • (PMID = 16787992.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit; 0 / Gonadotropins, Pituitary; 0 / PRKAR1A protein, human; 0 / Pituitary Hormones, Anterior; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; EC 2.7.11.11 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases
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89. La Rosa S, Uccella S, Dainese L, Marchet S, Placidi C, Vigetti D, Capella C: Characterization of c-kit (CD117) expression in human normal pituitary cells and pituitary adenomas. Endocr Pathol; 2008;19(2):104-11
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  • [Title] Characterization of c-kit (CD117) expression in human normal pituitary cells and pituitary adenomas.
  • In experimental animal models, c-kit has been detected in the pars intermedia of the normal pituitary gland and in alpha-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-positive adenomas and it has been suggested that it plays a role in regulating adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secretion.
  • To the best of our knowledge, the expression of c-kit in normal human pituitary cells and in pituitary adenomas has never been reported, so the possible biological role of this receptor in the control of pituitary hormone secretion remains unclear.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of c-kit in normal human pituitary glands and in a series of 62 well-characterized pituitary adenomas.
  • Double label immunostaining procedures showed that the c-kit-IR cells corresponded to ACTH cells.
  • Out of 62 adenomas, 15 (24%) were c-kit-IR, including 7/16 (44%) ACTH cell, 3/7 (42%) null cell, 4/11 (36%) alpha-subunit cell, and 1/11 (10%) follicle-stimulating hormone-luteinizing hormone cell adenomas.
  • By contrast, all ten prolactin cell and seven growth hormone cell adenomas were c-kit negative.
  • These data suggest that, in normal conditions, c-kit may be involved in the pituitary-adrenal axis regulation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / metabolism. ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / pathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Blotting, Western. Child. Female. Follicle Stimulating Hormone / blood. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / metabolism. Growth Hormone-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Luteinizing Hormone / blood. Male. Middle Aged. Paraffin Embedding. Prolactinoma / metabolism. Prolactinoma / pathology. Tissue Fixation

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  • (PMID = 18568298.001).
  • [ISSN] 1046-3976
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
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90. Ma Y, Xia XW, Su CB, Kong YG: [Distribution and expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma in human pituitary adenomas]. Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao; 2006 Jun;28(3):375-7
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  • [Title] [Distribution and expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma in human pituitary adenomas].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the distribution and expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma) in human pituitary adenomas.
  • METHODS: Thirty eight consecutive surgically resected pituitary adenomas and 5 normal pituitary tissues were enrolled in the study.
  • RESULTS: PPAR-gamma immunoreactivity was located in the nucleoli of pituitary adenoma cells.
  • PPAR-gamma was expressed in all human pituitary adenomas and normal pituitary tissues.
  • Its expression in pituitary adenomas was significantly higher than in normal pituitary tissues (P < 0.01), and its expression in ACTH-secreting adenomas was significantly higher than in any other type of pituitary adenomas (P < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: PPAR-gamma may play an important role in the generation, growth, and invasion of human pituitary adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / metabolism. PPAR gamma / biosynthesis. Pituitary Gland / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16900637.001).
  • [ISSN] 1000-503X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo yi xue ke xue yuan xue bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / PPAR gamma
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91. de Bruin C, Feelders RA, Lamberts SW, Hofland LJ: Somatostatin and dopamine receptors as targets for medical treatment of Cushing's Syndrome. Rev Endocr Metab Disord; 2009 Jun;10(2):91-102
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  • [Title] Somatostatin and dopamine receptors as targets for medical treatment of Cushing's Syndrome.
  • Somatostatin (SS) and dopamine (DA) receptors are widely expressed in neuroendocrine tumours that cause Cushing's Syndrome (CS).
  • In Cushing's disease, corticotroph adenomas mainly express dopamine receptor subtype 2 (D(2)) and somatostatin receptor subtype 5 (sst(5)), whereas sst(2) is expressed at lower levels.
  • Activation of these receptors can inhibit ACTH-release in primary cultured corticotroph adenomas and compounds that target either sst(5) (pasireotide, or SOM230) or D(2) (cabergoline) have shown significant efficacy in subsets of patients in recent clinical studies.
  • In selected cases of Ectopic ACTH-producing Syndrome (EAS), the sst(2)-preferring compound octreotide is able to reduce cortisol levels effectively.
  • In both normal adrenal tissue as well as in adrenal adenomas and carcinomas that cause CS, sst and DA receptor expression has been demonstrated.
  • [MeSH-minor] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / drug therapy. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / metabolism. Animals. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18642088.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-2606
  • [Journal-full-title] Reviews in endocrine & metabolic disorders
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Endocr Metab Disord
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Receptors, Dopamine D2; 0 / Receptors, Somatostatin; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
  • [Number-of-references] 115
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92. van Aken MO, Feelders RA, van der Lely AJ, Romijn JA, Lamberts SW, de Herder WW: [Cushing's syndrome. II. New forms of treatment]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd; 2006 Oct 28;150(43):2365-9
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  • [Title] [Cushing's syndrome. II. New forms of treatment].
  • Several new therapeutic options both medicinal and surgical, have emerged for the treatment of Cushing's syndrome.
  • In Cushing's disease caused by an adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) secreting pituitary adenoma, the introduction ofendoscopic pituitary surgery offers better visualization of the sella than does the traditional explorative surgery.
  • These agents may also be effective for the medicinal treatment of ectopic ACTH-secretion.
  • The primary treatment for ACTH-independent Cushing's syndrome is laparoscopic adrenalectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / therapy. Adenoma / therapy. Cushing Syndrome / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adrenalectomy. Adrenergic Antagonists / therapeutic use. Humans. Pituitary Gland / surgery. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2006 Oct 28;150(43):2345-9 [17100122.001]
  • [CommentIn] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2007 Feb 3;151(5):330; author reply 331 [17326480.001]
  • (PMID = 17100127.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2162
  • [Journal-full-title] Nederlands tijdschrift voor geneeskunde
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd
  • [Language] dut
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adrenergic Antagonists
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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93. Marek J: [Pituitary adenomas--where is the treatment heading at the beginning of the 21st century?]. Vnitr Lek; 2010 Jul;56(7):690-4
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  • [Title] [Pituitary adenomas--where is the treatment heading at the beginning of the 21st century?].
  • To treat pituitary adenomas, three modes of treatment are usually combined: neurosurgery, radiation and pharmacological.
  • Patients with acromegaly are usually diagnosed late and thus many neurosurgeries fail to completely remove the adenoma.
  • The same surgical and Gamma Knife procedures are used in patients with the Cushing's disease and TSH-secreting adenomas.
  • Ketoconazole, metyrapone and cabergoline are used until the radiation effect in the Cushing's disease is complete, similarly, somatostatine analogues are used in TSH-secreting adenomas.
  • Nonfunctional adenomas are less responsive to pharmacological treatment.
  • Proautophagic cytostatic temozolamide has been used in aggressive pituitary adenomas and carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acromegaly / etiology. Humans. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / etiology. Prolactinoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 20842914.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-773X
  • [Journal-full-title] Vnitr̆ní lékar̆ství
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vnitr Lek
  • [Language] cze
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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94. Johnson MD, Fan X, Bourne P, Walters D: Neuronal differentiation and expression of neural epitopes in pituitary adenomas. J Histochem Cytochem; 2007 Dec;55(12):1265-71
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  • [Title] Neuronal differentiation and expression of neural epitopes in pituitary adenomas.
  • Neural transdifferentiation is increasingly recognized in neural crest and neural stem cell tumors.
  • Neuronal differentiation has been anecdotally described primarily in somatotroph cell adenomas associated with acromegaly, but its prevalence in adenomas and relationship to adenoma type has not been completely established.
  • In this study we performed a retrospective morphological and immunohistochemical analysis of neurofilament, phosphoneurofilament, Neu-N, class III tubulin, and Hu in WHO grade I pituitary adenomas.
  • Limited numbers of cells with neuronal features and neuron-associated epitopes may be more common in pituitary adenomas than previously recognized.
  • These may occur in many forms of adenomas including somatotroph, lactotroph, mixed somatotroph and lactotroph, null cell/gonadotroph cell and, rarely, corticotroph cell adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Epitopes. Neurons / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / metabolism. ACTH-Secreting Pituitary Adenoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antibodies. Cell Differentiation. Female. Gonadotrophs / metabolism. Gonadotrophs / pathology. Human Growth Hormone / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prolactin / metabolism. Prolactinoma / metabolism. Prolactinoma / pathology. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17875653.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-1554
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of histochemistry and cytochemistry : official journal of the Histochemistry Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Histochem. Cytochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Epitopes; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
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95. Batista D, Courkoutsakis NA, Oldfield EH, Griffin KJ, Keil M, Patronas NJ, Stratakis CA: Detection of adrenocorticotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas by magnetic resonance imaging in children and adolescents with cushing disease. J Clin Endocrinol Metab; 2005 Sep;90(9):5134-40
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  • [Title] Detection of adrenocorticotropin-secreting pituitary adenomas by magnetic resonance imaging in children and adolescents with cushing disease.
  • CONTEXT: We recently showed that pre- and postcontrast spoiled gradient-recalled acquisition in the steady-state (SPGR) was superior to conventional pre- and postcontrast T-1 weighted spin echo (SE) acquisition magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the diagnostic evaluation of pituitary tumors in adult patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: The present investigation assessed the use of SPGR vs. SE-MRI in the diagnostic evaluation of ACTH-secreting tumors in children and adolescents with Cushing disease.
  • PATIENTS: Thirty children with Cushing disease (13 females and 17 males with a mean age of 12 +/- 3 yr) were studied.
  • Postcontrast SPGR-MRI identified the location of the tumor in 18 of 28 patients, whereas postcontrast SE-MRI identified the location and accurately estimated the size of the tumor in only five patients (P < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that conventional MRI, even with contrast enhancement, mostly failed to identify ACTH-secreting microadenomas in children and adolescents with Cushing disease.
  • Postcontrast SPGR-MRI was superior to SE-MRI and should be used in addition to conventional SE-MRI in the pituitary evaluation of children and adolescents with suspected Cushing disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / secretion. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / secretion. Cushing Syndrome / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion

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  • (PMID = 15941871.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-972X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone
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96. Portocarrero-Ortiz L, Bonifacio-Delgadillo D, Sotomayor-González A, Garcia-Marquez A, Lopez-Serna R: A modified protocol using half-dose gadolinium in dynamic 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging for detection of ACTH-secreting pituitary tumors. Pituitary; 2010 Sep;13(3):230-5
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  • [Title] A modified protocol using half-dose gadolinium in dynamic 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging for detection of ACTH-secreting pituitary tumors.
  • ACTH-secreting tumors represent 10% of functioning pituitary adenomas, and most of them are microadenomas.
  • The objective of the paper is to report a method for detecting suspected ACTH-secreting pituitary tumors undetectable by conventional dynamic MRI using dynamic 3-Tesla MRI (3T MRI) and half-dose gadopentetate dimeglumine (0.05 mmol/Kg).
  • Each of them had a confirmed diagnosis of Cushing disease and a negative dynamic MRI for microadenoma using full-dose gadopentetate dimeglumine.
  • CONCLUSION: A half dose of dynamic resonance imaging contrast material increases the sensitivity of MRI detection of ACTH-secreting pituitary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / secretion. Gadolinium. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / secretion

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  • (PMID = 20182808.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7403
  • [Journal-full-title] Pituitary
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pituitary
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; AU0V1LM3JT / Gadolinium
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97. Saeger W: [Effects of irradiation therapy and inhibiting drugs on the pituitary and its adenomas]. Pathologe; 2006 Feb;27(1):57-60
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  • [Title] [Effects of irradiation therapy and inhibiting drugs on the pituitary and its adenomas].
  • Radiation therapies of pituitary adenomas induce an increase in fibroses and nuclear pleomorphism.
  • Most growth hormone (GH) secreting pituitary adenomas react to somatostatin analogues by a distinct decrease of GH secretion.
  • Some cases show a shrinkage of adenomas that correlates with fibrosis of the tumor.
  • With these drugs, thyroid stimulating hormone secreting adenomas can also be treated.
  • Prolactin secreting adenomas are mostly treated primarily with dopamine agonists.
  • Up to 90% of cases show a strong decrease in hormone secretion and a distinct shrinkage of the adenomas based on strong decrease in adenoma cell volume.
  • Long-term medication with high doses of glucocorticoids induces Crooke's cells in the anterior pituitary.
  • These are suppressed ACTH cells and characterized by increased numbers of large lysosomes and dense bundles of cytofilaments.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Pituitary Gland / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / drug therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Radiotherapy / adverse effects

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  • (PMID = 16362259.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-8113
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Glucocorticoids
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98. Mayberg M, Vermeulen S: Advances in stereotactic radiosurgery in the treatment of pituitary adenomas. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes; 2007 Aug;14(4):296-300
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Pituitary Tumors.

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  • [Title] Advances in stereotactic radiosurgery in the treatment of pituitary adenomas.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Stereotactic radiosurgery has become the preferred radiation treatment modality for secreting and nonsecreting pituitary adenomas, although randomized studies comparing delivery systems, fractionation and dose have not been performed.
  • With a reduction in acute and chronic side effects, the total dose to abnormal tissue can be increased allowing for greater tumor control.
  • SUMMARY: The radiobiology, control rates and normal tissue tolerances of stereotactic radiosurgery in the treatment of pituitary adenomas is reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / surgery. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Radiosurgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Acromegaly / radiotherapy. Acromegaly / surgery. Humans. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / radiotherapy. Pituitary ACTH Hypersecretion / surgery. Prolactinoma / surgery. Prolactinoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17940455.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-2978
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in endocrinology, diabetes, and obesity
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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99. Morris DG, Musat M, Czirják S, Hanzély Z, Lillington DM, Korbonits M, Grossman AB: Differential gene expression in pituitary adenomas by oligonucleotide array analysis. Eur J Endocrinol; 2005 Jul;153(1):143-51
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  • [Title] Differential gene expression in pituitary adenomas by oligonucleotide array analysis.
  • We sought to do this in pituitary adenomas, the most common intracranial neoplasm.
  • METHODS: Affymetrix GeneChip HG-U133A oligonucleotide arrays covering 14 500 well-characterised genes from the human genome were used to study pooled RNA for each of the four major pituitary adenoma subtypes.
  • Individual gene-expression levels in the tumours were compared relative to the expression profile in normal pooled pituitary RNA.
  • Three differentially expressed genes with potential importance in tumourigenesis were chosen for validation by real-time quantitative PCR on the original tumours and on an additional 26 adenomas.
  • RESULTS: Bioinformatic analysis showed that 3906 genes and 351 expressed sequence tags were differentially expressed among all pituitary tumour subtypes.
  • Lysosomal-associated protein transmembrane- 4-beta (LAPTM4B), a novel gene upregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma, was significantly over-expressed in adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH)-secreting adenomas and non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs).
  • Bcl-2-associated athanogene (BAG1), an anti-apoptotic protein found at high levels in a number of human cancers, was significantly over-expressed in growth hormone-secreting and prolactin-secreting adenomas and NFPAs.
  • The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p18, in which murine gene deletion has been shown to produce pituitary ACTH cell hyperplasia and adenomas, was significantly under-expressed in ACTH-secreting adenomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Expression array analysis of pituitary adenomas using the Affymetrix GeneChip HG-U133A arrays appears to be a valid method of identifying genes that may be important in tumour pathogenesis.

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. Corticotropin .
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  • (PMID = 15994756.001).
  • [ISSN] 0804-4643
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BCL2-associated athanogene 1 protein; 0 / CDKN2C protein, human; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p18; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / LAPTM4B protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
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100. Maïza JC, Caron P: [Pituitary carcinomas and aggressive adenomas: an overview and new therapeutic options]. Ann Endocrinol (Paris); 2009 Sep;70 Suppl 1:S12-9
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  • [Title] [Pituitary carcinomas and aggressive adenomas: an overview and new therapeutic options].
  • Pituitary carcinomas are a rare disease with an estimated prevalence around 0.2 % of the pituitary tumours.
  • They are defined by the presence of intra or extra-cranial metastases but initially they can share the same features as aggressive pituitary adenomas.
  • Indeed there are some indicators that help to differentiate adenomas and carcinomas such as histological findings and immunohistochemical characteristics.
  • The majority of carcinomas are prolactin or ACTH-secreting tumors.
  • Dopamine and somatostatin-receptor agonists are not as effective as for the treatment of adenomas.
  • Carcinomas require often repeated surgery and radiotherapy fail to control the tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / therapy. Pituitary Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19878763.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-4266
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales d'endocrinologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Endocrinol. (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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