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1. Al Baghli A, Reddy SS, Reddy MA: Malignant nodular hidradenoma of the eyelid: a rare sweat gland tumor. Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol; 2010 Oct;17(4):374-6
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  • [Title] Malignant nodular hidradenoma of the eyelid: a rare sweat gland tumor.
  • We report a case of malignant nodular hidradenoma in a middle-aged man, who presented with a nodular swelling in the eyelid.
  • The tumor was similar to its benign counterpart but had additional features such as surface ulceration, numerous mitiotic figures, and an infiltrative growth pattern.
  • Malignant forms of hidradenomas are unusual and the possibility this variant should be considered in the differential diagnosis of eyelid tumors.

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  • (PMID = 21180442.001).
  • [ISSN] 0975-1599
  • [Journal-full-title] Middle East African journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Middle East Afr J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2991459
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Eccrine Glands / Nodular Hidradenoma / Sweat Gland Tumor
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2. Kazakov DV, Ivan D, Kutzner H, Spagnolo DV, Grossmann P, Vanecek T, Sima R, Kacerovska D, Shelekhova KV, Denisjuk N, Hillen U, Kuroda N, Mukensnabl P, Danis D, Michal M: Cutaneous hidradenocarcinoma: a clinicopathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular biologic study of 14 cases, including Her2/neu gene expression/amplification, TP53 gene mutation analysis, and t(11;19) translocation. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 May;31(3):236-47
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  • [Title] Cutaneous hidradenocarcinoma: a clinicopathological, immunohistochemical, and molecular biologic study of 14 cases, including Her2/neu gene expression/amplification, TP53 gene mutation analysis, and t(11;19) translocation.
  • We present a series of 14 cases of cutaneous hidradenocarcinomas.
  • The patients included 6 women and 8 men ranging in age at diagnosis from 34 to 93 years.
  • All but 1 patient presented with a solitary nodule.
  • There was no predilection site.
  • One patient presented with multiple lesions representing metastatic nodules.
  • Of 12 patients with available follow-up, 2 died of disease, whereas the remaining 10 patients were alive but 3 of them experienced a local recurrence in the course of the disease.
  • Grossly, the tumors ranged in size from 1.2 to 6 cm.
  • Microscopically, of the 14 primary tumors, 9 showed low-grade cytomorphology, whereas the remaining 5 neoplasms were high-grade lesions.
  • The residuum of a hidradenoma was present in 5 of the 14 primaries.
  • The mitotic rate was highly variable, ranging from 2 to 64 mitoses per 10 high-power field.
  • The cellular composition of the tumors varied slightly, with clear cells, epidermoid cells, and transitional forms being present in each case.
  • In 1 case, there was metaplastic transformation into sarcomatoid carcinoma.
  • Glandular differentiation varied from case to case and appeared most commonly as simple round glands or as cells with intracytoplasmic lumens.
  • Necrosis en masse was detected in 8 specimens.
  • One specimen represented a reexcision and was unusual as it showed a well-demarcated intradermal proliferation of relatively bland clear cells accompanied by an overlying intraepidermal growth of clear cells resembling hidradenoacanthoma simplex.
  • Despite the bland appearance, the tumor metastasized to a lymph node.
  • Immunohistochemically, 5 of the 8 specimens studied for Her2/neu expression were negative, whereas 3 specimens from 2 cases yielded score +2, but all the 3 specimens with score 2+ subsequently proved negative for Her2/neu gene amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization.
  • Of 10 primaries studied, 4 tumors showed positive p53 immunoreaction in more than 25% of the cells comprising the malignant portion of the lesions, in 2 cases, a minority of the neoplastic cells (10%-20%) demonstrated nuclear staining, whereas the remaining 4 cases were negative.
  • Of 9 specimens of hidradenocarcinoma studied for TP53 mutations, 2 harbored mutations, whereas the remaining 7 specimens showed the wild-type sequence.
  • Of 11 specimens studied for translocation t(11;19), 2 cases harbored the translocation.
  • It is concluded that cutaneous hidradenocarcinomas show some microscopic heterogeneity and comprise both low- and high-grade lesions that cytologically are similar to their benign counterpart, the hidradenoma.
  • Within the spectrum of low-grade lesions, there seem to exist tumors almost indistinguishable from hidradenomas but still being capable of regional or distant metastasis.
  • Similar to hidradenomas, hidradenocarcinomas show a t(11;19) translocation, but it is a significantly rarer event.
  • Even rarer is the amplification of the Her2/neu gene.
  • Of note is the relatively low frequency of TP53 mutations despite a high rate of p53 protein expression at the immunohistochemical level.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19. Gene Amplification. Mutation. Receptor, ErbB-2 / genetics. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Translocation, Genetic. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Cell Differentiation. Cell Proliferation. DNA Mutational Analysis. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Middle Aged. Necrosis

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  • (PMID = 19384064.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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3. Minami S, Sadanobu N, Ito T, Natsuaki M, Yamanishi K: Non-anogenital (ectopic) hidradenoma papilliferum with sebaceous differentiation: a case report and review of reported cases. J Dermatol; 2006 Apr;33(4):256-9
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  • [Title] Non-anogenital (ectopic) hidradenoma papilliferum with sebaceous differentiation: a case report and review of reported cases.
  • Hidradenoma papilliferum is a benign tumor that usually occurs in the female anogenital region.
  • We present a 52-year-old male with a non-anogenital (ectopic) hidradenoma papilliferum on his face.
  • He had had a subcutaneous tumor on his right eyebrow for 30 years.
  • The histological findings included variously shaped cystic and tubular structures in the tumor.
  • The lumina were surrounded by a double layer of cells and showed active decapitation secretion.
  • The lesion contained sebaceous differentiation, which has not been previously documented in the histopathology of hidradenoma papilliferum.
  • We review the published work of non-anogenital (ectopic) hidradenoma papilliferum tumors on the head and neck.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Facial Neoplasms / pathology. Sebaceous Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16674789.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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4. Volmar KE, Cummings TJ, Wang WH, Creager AJ, Tyler DS, Xie HB: Clear cell hidradenoma: a mimic of metastatic clear cell tumors. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2005 May;129(5):e113-6
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  • [Title] Clear cell hidradenoma: a mimic of metastatic clear cell tumors.
  • Clear cell hidradenoma is a benign skin appendage tumor that may mimic conventional-type renal cell carcinoma.
  • Histologically, clear cell hidradenoma contains small ductular lumens, focal apocrine and squamoid change, and a less prominent vascular pattern than renal cell carcinoma.
  • Furthermore, immunohistochemical studies can aid in distinguishing the 2 tumors.
  • Knowing the cytologic features of primary skin adnexal neoplasms helps distinguish them from cutaneous metastases, which are more commonly referred for fine-needle aspiration biopsy evaluation.
  • Detailed clinical history, physical findings, and ancillary studies are essential for correct diagnosis and categorization of these tumors.
  • We report the rare case of a patient with renal cell carcinoma who underwent excision of an axillary clear cell hidradenoma, which was clinically suggestive of cutaneous metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Axilla. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymph Nodes / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Mitotic Index. Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 15859654.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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5. O'Neill ID: t(11;19) translocation and CRTC1-MAML2 fusion oncogene in mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Oral Oncol; 2009 Jan;45(1):2-9
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  • [Title] t(11;19) translocation and CRTC1-MAML2 fusion oncogene in mucoepidermoid carcinoma.
  • Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is a relatively uncommon carcinoma of variable histology that can involve many tissue types, most commonly major and minor salivary glands and the tracheo-bronchial tree.
  • In a significant number of cases a recurring t(11;19) translocation with an associated novel fusion oncogene (CRTC1-MAML2) is present.
  • This translocation is also found in Warthin's tumour and clear cell hidradenoma of the skin.
  • The CRTC1-MAML2 oncogene acts as a transcription factor on Notch and CREB regulatory pathways, disrupting normal cell-cycle and differentiation, contributing to tumour development.
  • Data suggest that in MEC, the presence of CRTC1-MAML2 may have some prognostic value.
  • An understanding of these mechanisms extends our knowledge of the role of fusion oncogenes in epithelial malignancy.
  • A review of CRTC1-MAML2 in MEC is presented.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / genetics. Lung Neoplasms / genetics. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Translocation, Genetic / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenolymphoma / genetics. Cell Cycle / genetics. Cell Line, Tumor. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19 / genetics. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Transcription Factors / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18486532.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0593
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CRTC1 protein, human; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / MAML2 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / Transcription Factors
  • [Number-of-references] 77
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6. Baumhoer D, Pförtner R, Mohr C, Jundt G: Tubulopapillary hidradenoma-like tumor of the mandible. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 2009 Aug;38(8):903-7
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  • [Title] Tubulopapillary hidradenoma-like tumor of the mandible.
  • Tubulopapillary hidradenomas are uncommon benign tumors of the dermis, most commonly occurring in the skin of the head or of the extremities.
  • Complete excision is generally curative and recurrences are rare.
  • The authors describe an unusual case of an intraosseous tubulopapillary hidradenoma of the mandible that recurred 1 year after initial curettage and required en-bloc resection.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / diagnosis. Mandibular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Curettage. Diagnosis, Differential. Epithelial Cells / pathology. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Jaw Cysts / diagnosis. Male. Mandible / surgery. Mandibular Diseases / diagnosis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Osteolysis / diagnosis. Osteotomy

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  • (PMID = 19375892.001).
  • [ISSN] 1399-0020
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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7. Canedo T, de Almeida MP, Cuzzi T, Ramos-e-Silva M: Immunophenotypic aspects of cylindroma and nodular hidradenoma. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2010 Feb;24(2):178-85
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Acrospiroma / immunology. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / immunology. Immunophenotyping

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  • (PMID = 19796089.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-3083
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD15; 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins
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8. Veeranna S, Vijaya: Solitary nodule over the labia majora. Hidradenoma papilliferum. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol; 2009 May-Jun;75(3):327-8
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  • [MeSH-major] Acrospiroma / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vulva / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19439903.001).
  • [ISSN] 0973-3922
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of dermatology, venereology and leprology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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9. Dubb M, Michelow P: Cytologic features of hidradenoma in fine needle aspiration biopsies. Acta Cytol; 2009 Mar-Apr;53(2):179-82
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  • [Title] Cytologic features of hidradenoma in fine needle aspiration biopsies.
  • OBJECTIVE: To review the cytologic features of hidradenoma to describe criteria that may aid in identification of these tumors at the time of aspiration and allow for a more specific diagnosis than the umbrella term of benign skin adnexal tumor.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Three patients aged 10-23 years presented with mass lesions in the region of the head.
  • Fine needle aspiration (FNA) of these lesions showed the presence of benign skin adnexal tumors.
  • Subsequent histology showed the presence of hidradenomas.
  • A retrospective analysis of the cytology was performed.
  • RESULTS: The following cytomorphologic findings are consistent with the diagnosis of hidradenoma: a cystic component to the aspirate as represented by amorphous background material with or without foam cells and epithelial duct-like cells and tubular structures.
  • In addition, a biphasic cytoplasmic staining pattern with both eosinophilic and clear to basophilic cells may be seen with the Papanicolaou stain in hidradenomas.
  • CONCLUSION: Knowledge of the cytologic features of hidradenoma will allow for correct management of the patient and prevent misdiagnosis as a malignant tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Child. Female. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 19365971.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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10. Nair PS: A clinicopathologic study of skin appendageal tumors. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol; 2008 Sep-Oct;74(5):550
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A clinicopathologic study of skin appendageal tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Appendageal skin tumors belong to a heterogenous group of tumors with specific histopathology.
  • The aim of this study is to determine the pattern of appendageal tumors in skin biopsies done in our department.
  • METHODS: This is a 3-year retrospective descriptive study of all patients who were diagnosed to have skin appendageal tumors in our department, and the diagnoses were confirmed by histopathology.
  • The tumors were classified as eccrine, hair, sebaceous, and apocrine after a detailed examination of routine hematoxylin and eosin sections.
  • RESULTS: The total number of cases in the study was 33-10 males and 23 females.
  • Tumors with eccrine differentiation constituted the maximum, 17 cases (51.5%); followed by tumors with hair differentiation, 12 cases (36.36%); tumors with sebaceous differentiation, 2 cases (6.06%); and apocrine tumors, 2 cases (6.06%).
  • Syringoma constituted the commonest eccrine tumor, 14 cases (42.42%); while trichoepithelioma was the commonest hair tumor, 9 cases (27.27%).
  • The other eccrine tumors were eccrine spiradenoma, 2 cases (6.06%); and nodular hidradenoma, 1 (3.03%).
  • The other hair tumors were pilar cyst, 2 (6.06%); and pilomatricoma, 1 (3.03%).
  • The sebaceous tumors constituted 2 cases (6.06%) of nevus sebaceous.
  • Syringocystadenoma papilliferum, 1 (3.03%); and cylindroma, 1 (3.03%), constituted the apocrine tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Appendageal skin tumors are relatively uncommon.
  • Histopathology is mandatory for the diagnosis.
  • No tumor showed malignant change in this study.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19086136.001).
  • [ISSN] 0973-3922
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of dermatology, venereology and leprology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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11. Rammeh-Rommani S, Ben Ghanem A, Laatiri N, Jenhani F, Fezaa B, Kammoun MR, Baltagi Ben Jilani S, Zermani R: [Study of the ploidy and cellular cycle of hidradenomas and hidradenocarcinomas: a series of 13 cases]. Tunis Med; 2007 May;85(5):409-12
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  • [Title] [Study of the ploidy and cellular cycle of hidradenomas and hidradenocarcinomas: a series of 13 cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Etude de la ploïdie et du cycle cellulaire des hidradenomes et des hidradenocarcinomes: a propos d'une série de 13 cas.
  • AIMS: To study by flow cytometry (FCM) the ploidy and the cellular cycle of nodular hidradenoma (NH) and hidradenocarcinoma (HC) and to assess the prognostic utility of this technique in such tumors.
  • METHODS: We studied retrospectively 2 HC and 11 NH one of which was considered as an atypical NH.
  • Monoparametric study by FCM was realized on paraffin-embedded material.
  • The extracted cells were marked by Propidium's lodure and cellular cycle was analyzed by the software Mod-Fit LT.
  • RESULTS: Our study showed eleven 100% diploid profiles, 10 of which had low S-phase varying between 2 and 12%.
  • All of these 11 tumors were NH.
  • S-phase was high (23.79%) in a single case that corresponded to the atypical NH.
  • Two tumors showed aneuploid profiles; these corresponded to the 2 HC.
  • CONCLUSION: The results of the cytometric study suit perfectly to those of the histopathologic examination.
  • FCM could so help to establish the prognosis of these tumors.
  • But further studies are necessary to determine the value of this technique.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Cell Cycle. Ploidies. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aneuploidy. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Diploidy. Female. Flow Cytometry. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / genetics. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. S Phase

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  • (PMID = 17657929.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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12. Gouiaa N, Abbes K, Fakhfekh I, Ayadi L, Bahri I, Chaari C, Ellouze S, Chtourou I, Makni S, Sellami-Boudawara T: [Hidradenocarcinoma arising from pre-existing hidradenoma]. Ann Dermatol Venereol; 2008 Oct;135(10):714-5
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  • [Title] [Hidradenocarcinoma arising from pre-existing hidradenoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Hidradénocarcinome développé sur un hidradénome préexistant.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18929928.001).
  • [ISSN] 0151-9638
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de dermatologie et de vénéréologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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13. Khurshid A, Yaqoob N, Devan HA, Pervez S: 'Nuclear grooves' in nodular hidradenoma: frequency and significance of an unrecognized histopatological feature. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Nov;34(11):871-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] 'Nuclear grooves' in nodular hidradenoma: frequency and significance of an unrecognized histopatological feature.
  • BACKGROUND: Nodular hidradenoma is a distinctive sweat gland neoplasm.
  • In addition to the well-known histological and cytological features, we hereby describe for the first time nuclear grooving as a useful morphological feature to aid in its diagnosis.
  • METHODS: All cases were analyzed for anatomic location, size, age, sex and histology, with attention focused mainly on the nuclear features.
  • A semiquantitative method was used to estimate the percentage of nuclear grooves in five consecutive high-power fields (x40), with confirmation on x100.
  • Electron microscopy was also performed to confirm light microscopic observation.
  • RESULTS: Totally, 34 cases of nodular hidradenoma were studied.
  • All the tumors showed two types of cells.
  • One type of cell contained clear cytoplasm with small, round nuclei.
  • The second type of cell, which was the predominant type, had elongated nuclei.
  • In 30 (88%) of the 34 cases, about 30% of these cells at x40 and x100 magnification showed nuclear grooving.
  • Electron microscopy on these samples confirmed nuclear grooves.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we reviewed 34 cases of nodular hidradenoma.
  • In addition to the classical features, both histologically and cytologically, we describe for the first time the nuclear grooves as a frequent finding in these neoplasms.
  • This finding was also confirmed by electron microscopy.
  • We believe that this newly described histological feature will aid the practicing pathologist to make this important diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / ultrastructure. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / ultrastructure
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Female. Humans. Male. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17944729.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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14. Erickson LA, Jin L, Nakamura N, Bridges AG, Markovic SN, Lloyd RV: Clinicopathologic features and BRAF(V600E) mutation analysis in cutaneous metastases from well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas. Cancer; 2007 May 15;109(10):1965-71
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  • [Title] Clinicopathologic features and BRAF(V600E) mutation analysis in cutaneous metastases from well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Cutaneous metastases from well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas are rare and are usually identified in patients with widely disseminated disease.
  • Occasionally, thyroid carcinomas can present as cutaneous metastases for which the primary site needs to be determined.
  • Papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs) commonly have BRAF(V600E) mutation.
  • A series of 16 cutaneous metastases were analyzed from well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas to learn more about the clinicopathologic features and BRAF(V600E) mutation status.
  • METHODS: Eleven cases of PTC and 5 of follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) metastatic to the skin were evaluated.
  • All cutaneous metastases were studied histologically and with thyroglobulin and thyroid transcription factor immunostains.
  • All tumor samples were analyzed for mutations at nucleotide 1799 in exon 15 of the BRAF gene.
  • RESULTS: Two patients with FTC presented with cutaneous metastases.
  • Fourteen of 16 patients died of disease and 2 were alive with disease at follow-up.
  • The histologic features of the cutaneous metastases were generally characteristic of the primary tumor; however, 2 of the 11 PTC metastases demonstrated cytoplasmic clearing not typical of classic PTC.
  • BRAF(V600E) mutation (T1799A) was detected in 5 of 11 cases of PTC and in none of the 5 FTCs.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Cutaneous metastases from PTC may show prominent clear cell change requiring differentiation from clear cell hidradenoma, clear cell dermatofibroma, malignant melanoma with prominent clear cell change, and cutaneous metastasis from renal cell carcinoma.
  • BRAF(V600E) mutation is identified in a subset of cutaneous metastases from PTC.
  • Cutaneous metastases from PTC and FTC are associated with a very poor prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / genetics. Adenocarcinoma, Follicular / secondary. Carcinoma, Papillary / genetics. Carcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Mutation. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Thyroid Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 American Cancer Society
  • (PMID = 17387744.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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15. Wahl CE, Todd DH, Binder SW, Cassarino DS: Apocrine hidradenocarcinoma showing Paget's disease and mucinous metaplasia. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 May;36(5):582-5
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  • [Title] Apocrine hidradenocarcinoma showing Paget's disease and mucinous metaplasia.
  • A 54-year-old man presented with a solitary, erythematous, rapidly growing 1-cm nodule on his scalp that had arisen over the previous 3 months.
  • He had no history of skin cancer.
  • An excisional biopsy of the lesion showed a fairly well-circumscribed but focally invasive tumor consisting of areas of typical-appearing clear cell hidradenoma as well as areas with mucinous goblet-type cells and cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm and decapitation-type secretion.
  • There was marked cellular atypia, numerous atypical mitotic figures and focal necrosis.
  • The tumor cells focally involved the overlying epidermis (Paget's disease).
  • Large areas of mucin were identified throughout the lesion.
  • The tumor cells stained with markers for cytokeratin 7 and focally for EMA and CEA, confirming ductal differentiation.
  • The goblet cells and mucinous areas stained with mucicarmine and PASD.
  • The patient was diagnosed with hidradenocarcinoma with mucinous differentiation.
  • Associated Paget's disease has only rarely been reported, and mucinous metaplasia is a previously unreported feature in hidradenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / pathology. Carcinoma, Skin Appendage / pathology. Mucins / metabolism. Paget Disease, Extramammary / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoembryonic Antigen / metabolism. Gastroesophageal Reflux / complications. Heart Diseases / complications. Humans. Keratin-7 / metabolism. Laryngitis / etiology. Male. Metaplasia. Middle Aged. Mucin-1 / metabolism. Scalp / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19476529.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Mucins
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16. Rosmaninho AD, de Almeida MT, Costa V, Sanches MM, Lopes C, Selores Gomes Meirinhos MM: Ectopic hidradenoma papilliferum. Dermatol Res Pract; 2010;2010:709371
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  • [Title] Ectopic hidradenoma papilliferum.
  • Hidradenoma papilliferum is a rare tumor that occurs almost exclusively in females on the anogenital area.
  • Rare cases of ectopic (nongenital) hidradenoma papilliferum have been described.
  • The lesions usually present as an asymptomatic slow-growing, red, firm, mobile, well-delimitated nodule that grows for a long time before resection.
  • We describe a case of an 26-year-old man that presented with an enlarging nodule on his right eyelid.
  • The histological findings revealed a hidradenoma papilliferum.
  • So far, among the very few reports of ectopic hidradenoma papilliferum, only a very small number were localized to the eyelid.

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  • (PMID = 21197082.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-6113
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Res Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3004393
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17. Docimo S Jr, Shon W, Elkowitz DE: Bartholin's abscess arising within hidradenoma papilliferum of the vulva: a case report. Cases J; 2008;1(1):282
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  • [Title] Bartholin's abscess arising within hidradenoma papilliferum of the vulva: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Hidradenoma papilliferum is an uncommon, benign, cystic, papillary tumor that occurs almost exclusively in the female anogenital region.
  • Bartholin's abscess is also an anogenital cystic lesion caused by obstruction of Bartholin's duct with an overlying infection.
  • Concomitant presentation of Bartholin's abscess and Hidradenoma papilliferum is unique.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: A 43-year-old African American woman presented with a painful cystic mass on the left labia majora.
  • A preoperative diagnosis of Bartholin's abscess was made.
  • During excision and draining, an additional tan-brown dermal nodule was removed which demonstrated histological features of Hidradenoma papilliferum.
  • CONCLUSION: We present what we believe to be the first case of Bartholin's abscess arising in hidradenoma papilliferum and its clinical significance.

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  • (PMID = 18959791.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2584079
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18. Kazakov DV, Vanecek T, Belousova IE, Mukensnabl P, Kollertova D, Michal M: Skin-type hidradenoma of the breast parenchyma with t(11;19) translocation: hidradenoma of the breast. Am J Dermatopathol; 2007 Oct;29(5):457-61
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  • [Title] Skin-type hidradenoma of the breast parenchyma with t(11;19) translocation: hidradenoma of the breast.
  • Skin adnexal type tumors situated in the parenchyma of the breast are very rare.
  • We report herein a case of solid-cystic hidradenoma of the breast.
  • The tumor was situated in the parenchyma of the breast of a 55-year-old female and showed no connection to the overlying skin on ultrasound and radiology investigations, grossly and microscopically.
  • Histologically, the tumor was identical to its cutaneous counterpart and was surrounded by breast tissue.
  • The neoplasm was composed of solid and cystic areas.
  • The cystic component, which predominated in the lesion, was filled with homogeneous eosinophilic material.
  • The solid component consisted of several nodules with vague lobulated architecture protruding into the cystic spaces.
  • The nodules were composed of cuboidal monomorphous cells that were continuous with larger polygonal cells and rare, large mucinous cells with basophilic granular cytoplasm.
  • Several mammary ducts in close proximity to the tumor showed features of columnar cell hyperplasia.
  • A 120-bp METC1/MAML2 fusion transcript was identified by RT-PCR and subsequent sequencing technique.
  • This t(11;19) translocation has been reported in approximately 50% of hidradenomas of the skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19. Translocation, Genetic / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast / metabolism. Breast / pathology. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Middle Aged. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17890914.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MECT1-MAML2 fusion protein, human; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion
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19. Behboudi A, Winnes M, Gorunova L, van den Oord JJ, Mertens F, Enlund F, Stenman G: Clear cell hidradenoma of the skin-a third tumor type with a t(11;19)--associated TORC1-MAML2 gene fusion. Genes Chromosomes Cancer; 2005 Jun;43(2):202-5
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  • [Title] Clear cell hidradenoma of the skin-a third tumor type with a t(11;19)--associated TORC1-MAML2 gene fusion.
  • Recent studies have shown that the t(11;19)(q21;p13) translocation in mucoepidermoid carcinomas and benign Warthin's tumors results in a fusion of the N-terminal CREB-binding domain of the cAMP coactivator TORC1 (a.k.a.
  • MECT1 and WAMTP1) to the Notch coactivator MAML2.
  • Here we show that a third tumor type, clear cell hidradenoma of the skin, also expresses this gene fusion.
  • RT-PCR analysis of a clear cell hidradenoma with a t(11;19)(q21;p13) translocation revealed expression of a TORC1-MAML2 fusion transcript consisting of exon 1 of TORC1 fused to exons 2-5 of MAML2.
  • Because the fusion was only detected in a single case, the frequency of this aberration in clear cell hidradenomas remains unknown.
  • These results demonstrate that the t(11;19) in mucoepidermoid carcinoma, Warthin's tumor, and clear cell hidradenoma targets the same genes and results in identical gene fusions, indicating that at least subgroups of these glandular tumors evolve through activation of the same molecular pathways.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 19. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / genetics. Transcription Factors / genetics. Translocation, Genetic
  • [MeSH-minor] Artificial Gene Fusion. Base Sequence. DNA Primers. DNA-Binding Proteins. Humans

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15729701.001).
  • [ISSN] 1045-2257
  • [Journal-full-title] Genes, chromosomes & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genes Chromosomes Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CRTC1 protein, human; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / MAML2 protein, human; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors
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20. Moon JW, Na CH, Kim HR, Shin BS: Giant ectopic hidradenoma papilliferum on the scalp. J Dermatol; 2009 Oct;36(10):545-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Acrospiroma / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Scalp / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19785709.001).
  • [ISSN] 1346-8138
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
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21. van Hout NM, Hazebroek EJ, de Rooij PD: A giant atypical hidradenoma on the neck. Dermatol Surg; 2008 Oct;34(10):1411-3
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  • [Title] A giant atypical hidradenoma on the neck.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans. Neck. Skin Transplantation

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  • (PMID = 18637811.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4725
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Perna AG, Smith MJ, Krishnan B, Reed JA: CD10 is expressed in cutaneous clear cell lesions of different histogenesis. J Cutan Pathol; 2005 May;32(5):348-51
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  • [Title] CD10 is expressed in cutaneous clear cell lesions of different histogenesis.
  • BACKGROUND: CD10, the Common Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Antigen, is a neutral endopeptidase commonly used as a marker of early B-cell differentiation in the classification of lymphomas.
  • Neoplasms of other histogenesis may express CD10, including renal cell carcinoma.
  • Renal cell carcinoma metastatic to the skin (MRCC) can simulate other more common clear cell lesions in which expression of CD10 has not been described.
  • METHODS: Fifty-two cutaneous clear cell lesions including xanthomas (CX), xanthelasmas (XA), xanthogranulomas (XG), balloon cell nevi (BCN), nodular/clear cell hidradenomas (CCH), and MRCC were examined by immunohistochemistry for the expression of CD10, noting frequency and pattern of labeling.
  • RESULTS: CD10 was expressed in 32/35 of the xanthomatous lesions (CX, XA, and XG), 3/3 MRCC, but only 2/8 BCN and 2/6 CCH.
  • BCN and CCH expressed CD10 in fewer than 10% of the clear cells, whereas all MRCC and most xanthomatous lesions had labeling in greater than 10% (p < 0.001).
  • Xanthomatous lesions exhibited a predominantly membranous pattern of labeling compared to the cytoplasmic pattern of MRCC (p < 0.025).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Cutaneous clear cell lesions of different histogenesis express CD10, limiting its use as a specific diagnostic marker for MRCC.
  • Among other clear cell lesions, however, BCN and CCH have a lower frequency of labeling than does MRCC, and xanthomatous lesions show a membranous pattern compared to the cytoplasmic pattern of MRCC, BCN, and CCH.
  • This latter observation may be indicative of altered protein function or trafficking.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / metabolism. Neprilysin / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Tissue Distribution

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  • (PMID = 15811119.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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23. Kim S, Lim B, Kim J: EWS-Oct-4B, an alternative EWS-Oct-4 fusion gene, is a potent oncogene linked to human epithelial tumours. Br J Cancer; 2010 Jan 19;102(2):436-46
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  • [MeSH-minor] Acrospiroma / genetics. Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / genetics. Humans. Oncogenes

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  • (PMID = 20051954.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Octamer Transcription Factor-3; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / POU5F1 protein, human; 0 / RNA-Binding Protein EWS
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2816667
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24. Gangane N, Joshi D, Sharma SM: Cytomorphological diagnosis of malignant eccrine tumors: report of two cases. Diagn Cytopathol; 2008 Nov;36(11):801-4
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  • Histological examination revealed the presence of malignant eccrine acrospiroma in case number 1 and papillary digital adenocarcinoma in case number 2.

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  • (PMID = 18831018.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. Garcia-Bonafe MM, Campins MM, Redecilla PH: Malignant nodular hidradenoma on the scalp: report of a case with fine needle aspiration cytology features and histologic correlation. Acta Cytol; 2009 Sep-Oct;53(5):576-80
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  • [Title] Malignant nodular hidradenoma on the scalp: report of a case with fine needle aspiration cytology features and histologic correlation.
  • BACKGROUND: Malignant nodular hidradenoma (MNH) is a malignant adnexal tumor of the eccrine sweat glands.
  • The histology is similar to that of benign nodular hidradenoma, but MNH shows an infiltrative and invasive pattern, necrosis and angiolymphatic invasion.
  • CASE: A 60-year-old woman, diagnosed with rectal adenocarcinoma 6 months before, underwent fine needle aspiration (FNA) of a nodule on the scalp.
  • The aspirate smears showed (1) necrotic debris;.
  • (2) cohesive cell clusters and tissue fragments;.
  • (3) tubular formations;.
  • (4) globoid or cylindrical clear cells;.
  • (5) cells showing dense cytoplasm and a basaloid appearance;.
  • (6) cell sheets with anaplasia and squamous differentiation; and (7) multinucleated giant cells.
  • The histology showed a lobulated pattern with necrosis and cyst formation.
  • The clear cells that were seen on cytology occupied the periphery of the lobules, whereas the anaplastic cells were located in the central portion.
  • Squamous differentiation and tubular formations were observed.
  • CONCLUSION: Rapid, accurate diagnosis of these tumors is important, particularly when they develop at sites where a metastatic process must be ruled out.
  • Cytology of FNA material provides this capability.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Scalp / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Anaplasia. Cell Differentiation. Female. Giant Cells / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Necrosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 19798887.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Winnes M, Mölne L, Suurküla M, Andrén Y, Persson F, Enlund F, Stenman G: Frequent fusion of the CRTC1 and MAML2 genes in clear cell variants of cutaneous hidradenomas. Genes Chromosomes Cancer; 2007 Jun;46(6):559-63
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  • [Title] Frequent fusion of the CRTC1 and MAML2 genes in clear cell variants of cutaneous hidradenomas.
  • Fusion of the CREB regulated transcription coactivator CRTC1 (a.k.a.
  • MECT1, TORC1, or WAMTP1) to the Notch coactivator MAML2 is a characteristic feature of low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinomas of salivary and bronchial glands.
  • The CRTC1-MAML2 fusion protein acts by inducing transcription of cAMP/CREB target genes, and this activity is crucial for the transforming properties of the protein.
  • Here we show that the CRTC1-MAML2 gene fusion is also frequent in benign hidradenomas of the skin.
  • FISH and RT-PCR analyses revealed that hidradenomas are genetically heterogeneous, and that 10 of the 20 tumors analyzed (50%) contained the CRTC1-MAML2 gene fusion and expressed the resulting fusion transcript.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated expression of the fusion protein in the majority of tumor cells, including clear cells, poroid cells, and cells with epidermoid and ductal differentiation.
  • In addition, we could show that all fusion-positive tumors were morphologically distinguished by the presence of more or less abundant areas of clear cells whereas all fusion-negative tumors lacked clear cells.
  • Our findings thus demonstrate that the CRTC1-MAML2 gene fusion is frequent in hidradenomas and is associated with clear cell variants of this tumor.
  • Taken together, the present and previous observations indicate that the CRTC1-MAML2 fusion is etiologically linked to benign and low-grade malignant tumors originating from diverse exocrine glands rather than being linked to a separate tumor entity.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / genetics. Adenoma, Sweat Gland / metabolism. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / metabolism. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Middle Aged. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17334997.001).
  • [ISSN] 1045-2257
  • [Journal-full-title] Genes, chromosomes & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genes Chromosomes Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MECT1-MAML2 fusion protein, human; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion
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27. Kazakov DV, Mikyskova I, Kutzner H, Simpson RH, Hes O, Mukensnabl P, Bouda J, Zamecnik M, Kinkor Z, Michal M: Hidradenoma papilliferum with oxyphilic metaplasia: a clinicopathological study of 18 cases, including detection of human papillomavirus. Am J Dermatopathol; 2005 Apr;27(2):102-10
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  • [Title] Hidradenoma papilliferum with oxyphilic metaplasia: a clinicopathological study of 18 cases, including detection of human papillomavirus.
  • Reported here are 18 cases of hidradenoma papilliferum with oxyphilic metaplasia.
  • All patients were women ranging in age from 29 to 74 years.
  • Each presented clinically with a small, solitary tumor in the anogenital region.
  • Microscopically, in addition to classic histopathological features, in every case there was oxyphilic metaplasia of the constituent epithelial cells.
  • This finding could be likened to apocrine metaplasia, a term used in breast pathology.
  • Other histopathological findings observed in this series, analogous to benign breast disease, included sclerosing adenosis-like changes, atypical apocrine adenosis-like changes, changes corresponding to usual ductal epithelial hyperplasia, epitheliomatosis with a streaming growth pattern, lamprocyte-like changes, clear cell change of the myoepithelium, foamy histiocyte reaction, and stromal fibrosis.
  • Immunohistochemistry inferred that in the majority of cases oxyphilic metaplasia resulted from more lysosomes, whereas numerous mitochondria were detected in only 3 cases.
  • Using 2 different PCR methods we identified HPV in 4 of 15 cases of hidradenoma with oxyphilic metaplasia.
  • In addition, HPV was detected in 3 of 16 conventional papillary hidradenomas used as a control group.
  • The following HPV types were identified: 16, 31, 33, 53, and 56.
  • The last type was found in 5 cases.
  • More than one HPV type from a single lesion was seen in 5 cases.
  • Our observations are consistent with previous publications noting similarities between tumors of the breast and sweat glands.
  • Oxyphilic metaplasia, areas with solid growth, and changes simulating atypical apocrine adenosis are rare and poorly recognized in hidradenoma papilliferum and may cause diagnostic difficulties; in our cases several submitting pathologists suspected malignancy.
  • A causal role for HPV in hidradenoma papilliferum cannot be confirmed from our results, as the detection rate is too low.
  • The exact role of the HPV in etiology and pathogenesis of this neoplasm has yet to be determined.
  • [MeSH-major] Adnexal Diseases / pathology. Metaplasia / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Adult. Aged. Animals. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Papillomaviridae. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 15798433.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Lee EJ, Shin MK, Haw CR, Lee MH: Two cases of hidradenoma papilliferum of the nose. Acta Derm Venereol; 2010 May;90(3):322-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Acrospiroma / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20526565.001).
  • [ISSN] 1651-2057
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta dermato-venereologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Derm. Venereol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
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29. Fullen DR, Garrisi AJ, Sanders D, Thomas D: Expression of S100A6 protein in a broad spectrum of cutaneous tumors using tissue microarrays. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Nov;35 Suppl 2:28-34
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  • [Title] Expression of S100A6 protein in a broad spectrum of cutaneous tumors using tissue microarrays.
  • BACKGROUND: S100A6, a calcium-binding protein in the S100 family, has been observed in melanocytic nevi, neural tumors, fibrohistiocytic tumors and is overexpressed in melanoma.
  • Previous studies reported S100A6 expression in atypical fibroxanthomas (AFX) but not in a small number of desmoplastic melanomas (DM).
  • Limited data on S100A6 expression in cutaneous epithelial tumors exists in the literature.
  • The goal of this study was to determine the specificity and sensitivity of S100A6 protein in a spectrum of cutaneous mesenchymal or epithelial tumors.
  • METHODS: Tissue microarrays of cutaneous epithelial neoplasms, mesenchymal neoplasms, DM and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) were stained with S100A6 antibody.
  • RESULTS: Eleven basal cell carcinomas (BCC) failed to express S100A6, whereas all 10 squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) expressed S100A6.
  • Four of seven microcystic adnexal carcinomas (MAC) stained for S100A6.
  • Tumors with duct differentiation variously expressed S100A6 protein, with two hidradenomas showing the strongest staining.
  • Malignant spindle cell tumors, with the exception of 13 of 30 MPNST, had a high incidence of S100A6 positivity.
  • CONCLUSIONS: S100A6 expression may distinguish SCC from BCC, MAC from BCC and hidradenoma from other adnexal tumors.
  • S100A6 expression favors DM over MPNST but overlap limits its diagnostic use.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cell Cycle Proteins / biosynthesis. S100 Proteins / biosynthesis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Melanoma / diagnosis. Melanoma / metabolism. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / metabolism. Nerve Sheath Neoplasms / diagnosis. Nerve Sheath Neoplasms / metabolism. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18201235.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / S100 Proteins; 105504-00-5 / S100A6 protein, human
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30. Chiu HH, Lan CC, Wu CS, Chen GS, Tsai KB, Chen PH: A single lesion showing features of pigmented eccrine poroma and poroid hidradenoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Sep;35(9):861-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Acrospiroma / pathology. Pigmentation Disorders / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18422687.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Melanins
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31. Yu G, Goodloe S Jr, D'Angelis CA, McGrath BE, Chen F: Giant clear cell hidradenoma of the knee. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Sep;37(9):e37-41
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Acrospiroma / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19615032.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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32. Möller E, Stenman G, Mandahl N, Hamberg H, Mölne L, van den Oord JJ, Brosjö O, Mertens F, Panagopoulos I: POU5F1, encoding a key regulator of stem cell pluripotency, is fused to EWSR1 in hidradenoma of the skin and mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary glands. J Pathol; 2008 May;215(1):78-86
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  • [Title] POU5F1, encoding a key regulator of stem cell pluripotency, is fused to EWSR1 in hidradenoma of the skin and mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary glands.
  • The EWSR1 gene is known to play a crucial role in the development of a number of different bone and soft tissue tumours, notably Ewing's sarcoma.
  • POU5F1 is expressed during early development to maintain the totipotent status of embryonic stem and germ cells.
  • In the present study, we report the fusion of EWSR1 and POU5F1 in two types of epithelial tumours: hidradenoma of the skin and mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the salivary glands.
  • This finding not only broadens considerably the spectrum of neoplasms associated with EWSR1 fusion genes but also strengthens the evidence for shared pathogenetic mechanisms in the development of adnexal and salivary gland tumours.
  • Reminiscent of the previously reported fusion genes involving EWSR1, the identified transcript is predicted to encode a chimeric protein consisting of the EWSR1 amino-terminal domain and the POU5F1 carboxy-terminal domain.
  • We assessed the transcriptional activation potential of the chimera compared to the wild-type proteins, as well as activation of transcription through the oct/sox composite element known to bind POU5F1.
  • Among other POU5F1 target genes, this element is present in the promoter of NANOG and in the distal enhancer of POU5F1 itself.
  • Our results show that although the chimera is capable of significant transcriptional activation, it may in fact convey a negative regulatory effect on target genes.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / metabolism. Calmodulin-Binding Proteins / genetics. Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / metabolism. Octamer Transcription Factor-3 / genetics. RNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Salivary Glands / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chromosome Mapping. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 22. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 6. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Middle Aged. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / analysis. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics. Pregnancy. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Transfection / methods. Translocation, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 18338330.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3417
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calmodulin-Binding Proteins; 0 / EWSR1 protein, human; 0 / Octamer Transcription Factor-3; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / POU5F1 protein, human; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins
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33. Gatti A, di Meo N, Trevisan G: Dermoscopy of eccrine acrospiroma masquerading as nodular malignant melanoma. Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Pannonica Adriat; 2010 Dec;19(4):23-5
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  • [Title] Dermoscopy of eccrine acrospiroma masquerading as nodular malignant melanoma.
  • Eccrine acrospiroma, better known as eccrine poroma, is a benign adnexal neoplasm of the skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Acrospiroma / pathology. Dermoscopy. Melanoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology


34. Ueno T, Mitsuishi T, Kawana S: Poroid hidradenoma: a case report with review of Japanese published work. J Dermatol; 2007 Jul;34(7):495-7
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  • [Title] Poroid hidradenoma: a case report with review of Japanese published work.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Leg / pathology. Male

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  • (PMID = 17584332.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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35. Singhal V, Sharma SC, Anil J, Sachan PK, Harsh M, Singhal S, Raghuvanshi S: Giant benign nodular hidradenoma of the shoulder: A rare tumor in orthopedic practice. Int J Shoulder Surg; 2010 Oct;4(4):93-6
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  • [Title] Giant benign nodular hidradenoma of the shoulder: A rare tumor in orthopedic practice.
  • A clear cell hidradenoma is a rare dermal tumor, which is believed to originate from the apical portion of the sweat glands.
  • The usual size reported is 5-30 mm.
  • It is generally found in the head, face, and upper extremity regions.
  • This lesion has not been reported to be large enough to impinge a joint range of motion.
  • Hence, its description in the orthopedic literature is extremely rare.
  • We present a giant benign nodular hidradenoma presenting as painful restriction of the right shoulder joint in a 35-year-old male.

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  • [Cites] Korean J Radiol. 2010 Jul-Aug;11(4):490-2 [20592936.001]
  • [Cites] AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1990 Dec;155(6):1251-5 [2122675.001]
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  • (PMID = 21655004.001).
  • [ISSN] 0973-6042
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of shoulder surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Shoulder Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] South Africa
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3100814
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Axillary mass / nodular hidradenoma
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36. Vazmitel M, Spagnolo DV, Nemcova J, Michal M, Kazakov DV: Hidradenoma papilliferum with a ductal carcinoma in situ component: case report and review of the literature. Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Aug;30(4):392-4
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  • [Title] Hidradenoma papilliferum with a ductal carcinoma in situ component: case report and review of the literature.
  • Hidradenoma papilliferum (HP) is a benign cutaneous adnexal neoplasm occurring mainly in the anogenital region of adult women and has features analogous to intraductal papilloma of the breast.
  • Malignant change in HP is extremely rare.
  • Only a single case of ductal carcinoma in situ arising in HP has been previously reported.
  • We present a new case of HP which, in addition to the typical appearance of HP, contained a focus of ductal carcinoma in situ that appeared as enlarged pleomorphic epithelial cells having a "blastic" appearance, exhibiting atypical mitotic figures and surrounded by myoepithelial cells.
  • Molecular biological study identified human papillomavirus (HPV)-16, which, it may be argued, may have played a role in the development of the carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Human papillomavirus 16. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Papillomavirus Infections / complications. Papillomavirus Infections / metabolism. Papillomavirus Infections / pathology. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 18645314.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. Singh A, Sharma S, Verma S, Khanna A: Malignant nodular hidradenoma with angiolymphatic invasion: a case report. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2007 Jul;50(3):548-9
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  • [Title] Malignant nodular hidradenoma with angiolymphatic invasion: a case report.
  • Malignant nodular hidradenomas are rare variants of sweat gland carcinomas characterized by aggressive clinical behaviour.
  • We report a case of 42-year-old female with 3 x 2 x 1 cm nodule on her foot followed by cutaneous and regional lymph node metastasis.
  • Flow cytometry showed S-phase fraction of 72.6% and 15.8% of aneuploid cells corroborating with its aggressive nature.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aneuploidy. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Skin Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17883130.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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38. Kazakov DV, Nemcova J, Mikyskova I, Belousova IE, Vazmitel M, Michal M: Human papillomavirus in lesions of anogenital mammary-like glands. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2007 Oct;26(4):475-80
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  • [Title] Human papillomavirus in lesions of anogenital mammary-like glands.
  • Long considered as ectopic breast tissue, anogenital mammary-like glands (MLGs) have recently been suggested to represent distinctive structures located in the anogenital area.
  • We studied 16 neoplasms of anogenital MLG for human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA using INNO-line probe assay (LiPA) HPV Genotyping kit, GP5+/6+, CP(SGB), and FAP 6085-6319 primer sets.
  • The lesions included 3 fibroadenomas, 2 adenosis tumors, 1 invasive ductal carcinoma, 1 tubulolobular carcinoma, 2 hidradenoma papilliferum with prominent cystic change rendering a cystadenoma appearance and oxyphilic metaplasia, and 7 cases of extramammary Paget disease.
  • All 3 fibroadenomas, both adenosis tumors, both hidradenoma papilliferum, and the tubulolobular carcinoma proved negative for HPV DNA.
  • HPV-31 was detected by LiPA in the case of invasive ductal carcinoma.
  • In 2 of the 7 patients with extramammary Paget disease, there was HPV DNA present in the lesional tissue, typed as HPV-6 (LiPA) and a type which was closely related to HPV-21 and HPV-24 (FAP 6085-6319), whereas the remaining 5 cases tested negative.
  • These results coupled with those obtained from literature review suggest that HPV plays no causative role in lesions of anogenital MLG.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / virology. Exocrine Glands / pathology. Genital Neoplasms, Female / virology. Papillomavirus Infections / epidemiology. Tumor Virus Infections / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Papillomaviridae / isolation & purification. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 17885501.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. Battistella M, Langbein L, Peltre B, Cribier B: From hidroacanthoma simplex to poroid hidradenoma: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemic study of poroid neoplasms and reappraisal of their histogenesis. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Jul;32(5):459-68
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  • [MeSH-major] Acanthoma / pathology. Acrospiroma / pathology. Keratinocytes / pathology. Keratins / metabolism. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20571345.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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40. Piris A, Scopsi L, Clemente C, Cetti Serbelloni F, Mihm MC Jr, Hoang MP: Epidermal growth factor receptor gene status by fluorescence in situ hybridization in malignant, atypical, and benign hidradenomas. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Aug;32(6):586-92
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  • [MeSH-major] Acrospiroma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / genetics. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / genetics. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20534988.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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41. Ozawa T, Fujiwara M, Nose K, Muraoka M: Clear-cell hidradenoma of the forearm in a young boy. Pediatr Dermatol; 2005 Sep-Oct;22(5):450-2
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  • [Title] Clear-cell hidradenoma of the forearm in a young boy.
  • We treated a 5-year-old boy with clear-cell hidradenoma of the forearm.
  • Our literature search found only one previous report of this disease occurring during the first decade of life, and the present patient is the first with involvement of the limbs.
  • This presentation demonstrates that clear-cell hidradenoma needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis of cutaneous tumors even in young children, which is of interest because malignant transformation can occur.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Child, Preschool. Forearm. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 16191000.001).
  • [ISSN] 0736-8046
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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42. Nazarian RM, Kapur P, Rakheja D, Piris A, Duncan LM, Mihm MC Jr, Hoang MP: Atypical and malignant hidradenomas: a histological and immunohistochemical study. Mod Pathol; 2009 Apr;22(4):600-10
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  • [Title] Atypical and malignant hidradenomas: a histological and immunohistochemical study.
  • The histological features of atypical hidradenoma are worrisome for increased risk of recurrence and possible malignant potential; however, earlier studies with immunohistochemistry or patient follow-up have not been reported.
  • In addition, immunohistochemical analysis of hidradenocarcinoma exists in the literature mainly as case reports and as a single series of six cases.
  • We compare the histological features and Ki-67, phosphorylated histone H3, epidermal growth factor receptor, and Her2/neu expression profiles of 15 atypical and 15 malignant hidradenomas with those of benign hidradenoma and metastasizing adnexal carcinomas.
  • Infiltrative growth pattern, deep extension, necrosis, nuclear pleomorphism, and > or =4 mitoses per 10 high-power fields are specific features of hidradenocarcinomas.
  • Significant difference in mean Ki-67% was observed between benign and malignant hidradenomas (P<0.001), benign and metastasizing adnexal carcinomas (0.002), atypical and malignant hidradenomas (P<0.001), and between atypical hidradenomas and metastasizing adnexal carcinomas (0.002).
  • Significant difference in mean phosphorylated histone H3% was observed between benign and malignant hidradenomas (P<0.001), benign and metastasizing adnexal carcinomas (0.003), atypical and malignant hidradenomas (P<0.001), and between atypical hidradenomas and metastasizing adnexal carcinomas (P<0.001).
  • Mean epidermal growth factor receptor total score was significantly different in benign and atypical hidradenoma when compared with that in metastasizing adnexal carcinoma (P=0.014 and 0.019, respectively).
  • Equivocal or 2+ Her2/neu positivity was observed in one hidradenocarcinoma and in two metastasizing adnexal carcinomas.
  • Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for Ki-67 and phosphorylated histone H3% positivity reveals statistically significant criterion values of >11.425 and >0.7, respectively, for distinguishing malignant hidradenomas from atypical hidradenomas.
  • Despite the presence of some worrisome histological features, the significantly different immunoprofile from the malignant counterpart suggests that atypical hidradenomas are likely to recur but are unlikely to metastasize.
  • A tumor with Ki-67>11% and/or phosphorylated histone H3>0.7% would likely be a malignant rather than an atypical hidradenoma.
  • The infrequent Her2/neu overexpression in hidradenocarcinoma suggests its limited therapeutic role.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / metabolism. Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Histones / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Middle Aged. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19252473.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Histones; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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43. Nemoto N, Suzukawa K, Shimizu S, Shinagawa A, Takei N, Taki T, Hayashi Y, Kojima H, Kawakami Y, Nagasawa T: Identification of a novel fusion gene MLL-MAML2 in secondary acute myelogenous leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome with inv(11)(q21q23). Genes Chromosomes Cancer; 2007 Sep;46(9):813-9
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  • [Title] Identification of a novel fusion gene MLL-MAML2 in secondary acute myelogenous leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome with inv(11)(q21q23).
  • We have identified a novel fusion partner of MLL, namely the mastermind like 2 (MAML2 gene), in secondary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with inv(11)(q21q23).
  • RT-PCR and sequencing revealed that exon 7 of MLL was fused to exon 2 of MAML2 in the AML and MDS cells.
  • The inv(11)(q21q23) results in the creation of a chimeric RNA encoding a putative fusion protein containing 1,408 amino acids from the NH2-terminal part of MLL and 952 amino acids from the COOH-terminal part of MAML2.
  • The NH2-terminal part of MAML2, a basic domain including a binding site of the intracellular domain of NOTCH, was deleted in MLL-MAML2.
  • MLL-MAML2 in secondary AML/MDS and MECT1-MAML2 in mucoepithelioid carcinoma, benign Wartin's tumor, and clear cell hidradenoma consist of the same COOH-terminal part of MAML2.
  • A luciferase assay revealed that MLL-MAML2 suppressed HES1 promoter activation by the NOTCH1 intracellular domain.
  • MAML2 involving a chimeric gene might contribute to carcinogenesis in multiple neoplasms by the disruption of NOTCH signaling.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, Pair 11 / genetics. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute / genetics. Myelodysplastic Syndromes / genetics. Myeloid-Lymphoid Leukemia Protein / genetics. Nuclear Proteins / genetics. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics. Transcription Factors / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Exons. Female. Histone-Lysine N-Methyltransferase. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Protein Structure, Tertiary


44. Agarwal S, Agarwal K, Kathuria P, Jain M, Chauhan DS, Prakash O: Cytomorphological features of nodular hidradenoma highlighting eccrine differentiation: a case report. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2006 Jul;49(3):411-3
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  • [MeSH-major] Acrospiroma / pathology. Eyelids / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17001903.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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45. Alkatan HM: Nodular hidradenoma of the lower eyelid. Can J Ophthalmol; 2007 Feb;42(1):149-50
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  • [Title] Nodular hidradenoma of the lower eyelid.

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  • (PMID = 17361265.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-4182
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian journal of ophthalmology. Journal canadien d'ophtalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
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46. Cho KE, Son EJ, Kim JA, Youk JH, Kim EK, Kwak JY, Jeong J: Clear cell hidradenoma of the axilla: a case report with literature review. Korean J Radiol; 2010 Jul-Aug;11(4):490-2
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  • [Title] Clear cell hidradenoma of the axilla: a case report with literature review.
  • Clear cell hidradenoma is an uncommon benign skin appendageal tumor that typically involves the dermal layer of the head, face, and extremities.
  • The breast is a rare site for this lesion, with only two documented cases, which were determined based on mammogram and sonogram findings.
  • We present a case of clear cell hidradenoma of the axillary tail with radiological findings and a literature review.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / radiography. Adenoma, Sweat Gland / ultrasonography. Axilla. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / radiography. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Mammography. Middle Aged. Ultrasonography, Doppler

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  • [Cites] Br J Radiol. 2007 Jan;80(949):e27-9 [17267467.001]
  • [Cites] Breast Cancer. 2007;14(3):307-11 [17690510.001]
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  • (PMID = 20592936.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-8330
  • [Journal-full-title] Korean journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2893323
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Axilla mass / Hidradenoma / Ultrasonography
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47. Sakuma T, Ohashi H, Kawano K: Nodular hidradenoma masquerading an epidermal cyst. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2008 Jul;22(7):900-1
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  • [Title] Nodular hidradenoma masquerading an epidermal cyst.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / diagnosis. Epidermal Cyst / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 18070023.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-3083
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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48. Biedrzycki OJ, Rufford B, Wilcox M, Barton DP, Jameson C: Malignant clear cell hidradenoma of the vulva: report of a unique case and review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Jan;27(1):142-6
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  • [Title] Malignant clear cell hidradenoma of the vulva: report of a unique case and review of the literature.
  • Clear cell hidradenoma (CCH) is a rare tumor derived from eccrine sweat glands with a predilection for the head, face, and upper extremities.
  • Its biologic behavior is unpredictable, although frank malignant transformation is reportedly rare (prevalence rate, 6.7% in a review).
  • Malignant CCH (MCCH) exists only as case reports or very small series in the literature.
  • We present a unique case of MCCH of the vulva with completely bland cytological features.
  • A previously healthy 39-year-old woman underwent marsupialization of a presumed left-side vulval Bartholin gland cyst.
  • Microscopy revealed a tumor with the features of CCH; no atypia, necrosis, or mitoses were observed.
  • Ten months later, she developed enlarging left groin nodes, one of which contained a metastatic clear cell tumor.
  • Radiological examination did not reveal any other primary source, and the diagnosis of MCCH was confirmed through an expert review.
  • A reexcision of the vulval primary site, which contained residual tumor, was performed.
  • The patient is currently free of any further recurrence 10 months after the excision of the lymph node metastasis.
  • The case highlights the difficulty in predicting the behavior of CCH on the basis of histological examination alone.
  • It also highlights the importance of considering MCCH in the differential diagnosis of a lymph node containing a metastatic clear cell tumor or an apparent metastatic clear cell lesion in the skin.
  • We review the current literature on MCCH and discuss the problems in the differential diagnosis and treatment of this rare tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bartholin's Glands / pathology. Cysts / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18156989.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Burduk PK, Seredyka-Burduk M, Olejarz E: [Giant tumor of the orbit--a case of hidradenoma]. Otolaryngol Pol; 2007;61(6):1017-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Giant tumor of the orbit--a case of hidradenoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Olbrzymi guz oczodołu--przypadek gruczolaka potowego o rzadkiej lokalizacji.
  • Orbital tumors are very differential group of lesions.
  • The most common symptoms are ophthalmology dysfunction as: exophthalmus, eye movement dysfunction and visual loss.
  • More often a benign lesions is found than malignant.
  • They are originated mostly from lacrimal glands.
  • We present a case of 62 years old man with large expansion of benign tumor of the orbit with exophthalmus, eye movement disability and complete blindness.
  • The authors performed radical surgery with removing of the orbit content.
  • Histopathology described a very rare tumor of the orbit-hidradenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / diagnosis. Orbital Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18546956.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-6657
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngologia polska = The Polish otolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Pol
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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50. Mullaney PJ, Becker E, Graham B, Ghazarian D, Riddell RH, Salonen DC: Benign hidradenoma: magnetic resonance and ultrasound features of two cases. Skeletal Radiol; 2007 Dec;36(12):1185-90
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  • [Title] Benign hidradenoma: magnetic resonance and ultrasound features of two cases.
  • Tumors of sweat gland origin are rare in the hand but should be considered in the differential diagnosis when certain imaging features are present.
  • We present a case of nodular hidradenoma of the hand, with previously unreported magnetic resonance imaging features, and a further case in the thigh, both with ultrasound and histopathological correlation.
  • The imaging literature of this tumor is reviewed, and its significance is discussed with respect to the current understanding of its malignant potential.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / diagnosis. Fingers. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Ultrasonography

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  • [Cites] Arch Dermatol. 1968 Jun;97(6):651-61 [4297448.001]
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  • (PMID = 17624528.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2348
  • [Journal-full-title] Skeletal radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skeletal Radiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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51. Ohi Y, Umekita Y, Rai Y, Kukita T, Sagara Y, Sagara Y, Takahama T, Andou M, Sagara Y, Yoshida A, Yoshida H: Clear cell hidradenoma of the breast: a case report with review of the literature. Breast Cancer; 2007;14(3):307-11
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  • [Title] Clear cell hidradenoma of the breast: a case report with review of the literature.
  • Clear cell hidradenoma of the breast is rare.
  • A 55-year-old woman demonstrated a left breast tumor during follow-up examination of the right breast.
  • Focal asymmetric density was shown on mammogram, and ultrasonography showed an intracystic tumor.
  • Since the diagnosis was not clear on aspiration cytology, excisional biopsy was performed.
  • The lesion was an intracystic tumor macroscopically.
  • Histological examination demonstrated characteristic histological features of clear cell hidradenoma, such as proliferation of uniform epithelial cells, clear or slightly eosinophilic cytoplasm, and cuboidal cell-lined ductal structures.
  • Immunohistochemically, these proliferating epithelial cells were negative for myoepithelial markers, such as alpha-smooth muscle actin, CD10 and anti-muscle actin, but positive for p63.
  • These features were consistent with clear cell hidradenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mammography. Middle Aged

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  • The Weizmann Institute of Science GeneCards and MalaCards databases. gene/protein/disease-specific - MalaCards for clear cell hidradenoma .
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  • (PMID = 17690510.001).
  • [ISSN] 1340-6868
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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52. Monteagudo B, Antón-Badiola IM, Muñoz MJ, Paredes-Suárez C, Vázquez-Blanco M: [Pigmented apocrine hidradenoma]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2005 Jan-Feb;96(1):50-1
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  • [Title] [Pigmented apocrine hidradenoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Hidroadenoma apocrino pigmentado.
  • Apocrine hidradenoma is a benign adnexal neoplasm.
  • It has no specific site predilection, and usually affects middle-aged people.
  • The same as other tumors of the sweat glands, there is a pigmented variety.
  • We present the case of a 92-year-old male who consulted his physician for a slow-growing asymptomatic lesion in the right groin which had been developing for 2 years.
  • After the histopathological study, the diagnosis was established as pigmented apocrine hidradenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Hyperpigmentation / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Groin. Humans. Male

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  • (PMID = 16476334.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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53. Mote DG, Ramamurti T, Naveen Babu B: Nodular hidradenoma of the breast: A case report with literature review. Indian J Surg; 2009 Feb;71(1):43-5
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  • [Title] Nodular hidradenoma of the breast: A case report with literature review.
  • Nodular hidradenoma or clear cell hidradenoma is a rare skin adenexal tumor which arises from eccrine sweat glands.
  • Skin adenexal tumors situated in the breast parenchyma are still very rare and is one of the differential diagnoses of breast tumors.
  • Failure to identify its morphologic features may lead to a mistaken diagnosis and over treatment.
  • We report a case of breast lump, in a 40-year-old lady, which was diagnosed clinically as a malignant breast lump.
  • Final diagnosis of nodular hidradenoma was made only after excision biopsy as fi ne needle aspiration cytology was inconclusive.

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  • [Cites] J Surg Oncol. 1986 Mar;31(3):191-8 [3014220.001]
  • [Cites] Diagn Cytopathol. 1996 Jul;15(1):70-2 [8807256.001]
  • [Cites] Pathol Int. 1998 Nov;48(11):907-11 [9832062.001]
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  • [Cites] Am J Dermatopathol. 2007 Oct;29(5):457-61 [17890914.001]
  • (PMID = 23133109.001).
  • [ISSN] 0972-2068
  • [Journal-full-title] The Indian journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3452564
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adenexal tumor / Carcinoma breast / Nodular hidradenoma
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54. Nash JW, Barrett TL, Kies M, Ross MI, Sneige N, Diwan AH, Lazar AJ: Metastatic hidradenocarcinoma with demonstration of Her-2/neu gene amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization: potential treatment implications. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Jan;34(1):49-54
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  • [Title] Metastatic hidradenocarcinoma with demonstration of Her-2/neu gene amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization: potential treatment implications.
  • A 44-year-old man was referred for a right chest nodule of 3 months duration.
  • A 'benign' nodule had been excised from this location 8 years prior.
  • On examination, palpable nodes were noted in the right axilla.
  • Radiographic studies were significant only for right axillary lymphadenopathy.
  • Histologically, a nodular dermal proliferation composed of poorly differentiated epithelioid cells in nests and focally forming ducts with pseudopapillary architecture comprised the primary tumor.
  • Features of a clear cell hidradenoma were noted focally.
  • Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis revealed reactivity for HMW cytokeratins, CK5 and CK7, p53, p63, CEA (focal), androgen receptor, EGFR, estrogen receptor (ER), MUC5AC, and strong/diffuse membranous staining for Her-2/neu.
  • Negative stains included villin, TTF-1, CDX2, S-100 protein, vimentin, gross cystic disease fluid protein 15 (GCDFP-15), mammoglobulin, and MUC2.
  • A wide local excision and axillary node dissection was performed.
  • Metastatic tumor involved nine of 28 nodes.
  • Interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) demonstrated chromosomal amplification of the Her-2/neu locus within the tumor and a nodal metastasis.
  • The patient has completed adjuvant and radiotherapy, including trastuzumab, and is asymptomatic.
  • We believe this to be the first demonstration of Her-2/neu amplification in a malignant skin adnexal tumor.
  • In analogy to breast carcinoma, these findings suggest the applicability of trastuzumab for patients with metastatic adnexal carcinomas demonstrating Her-2/neu amplification.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / genetics. Gene Amplification. Genes, erbB-2. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Lymphatic Metastasis / genetics. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Axilla. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Thoracic Wall. Trastuzumab


55. Uke MS, Kulkarni MB, Ajit D, Gujral S: Diagnosis of hidradenoma papilliferum of the vulva on cytologic smears: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2010 Sep-Oct;54(5 Suppl):907-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Acrospiroma / diagnosis. Cytological Techniques. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis. Vulva / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21053567.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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56. Angulo J, Jaqueti G, Kutzner H, Requena L: Squamous cell apocrine hidradenoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Oct;34(10):801-3
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  • [Title] Squamous cell apocrine hidradenoma.
  • Apocrine hidradenoma is a benign adnexal neoplasm with apocrine differentiation.
  • The neoplasm is composed of four different types of epithelial cells, including pale or clear cells, polygonal cells, mucinous cells and squamous cells, with variable proportions of them from case to case.
  • In most examples of this neoplasm, clear or the polygonal cells are predominant, whereas the other types of neoplastic cells are less abundant.
  • We report two cases of apocrine hidradenoma mostly composed of squamous cells.
  • Histopathologic examination showed that the neoplasms were composed of both solid and cystic areas.
  • The solid aggregations of neoplastic cells were composed of a peripheral layer of basaloid polygonal cells, whereas squamous cells forming the bulk of the aggregations.
  • These squamous cells showed large eosinophilic cytoplasm and vesicular nuclei with prominent nucleoli.
  • In one case, small foci of mucinous cells could also be seen in some aggregations of neoplastic cells, mostly around ductal structures.
  • In both the cases, some of the tubular structures lined by epithelial cells showed evidence of decapitation secretion in their luminal border.
  • The neoplastic stroma consisted of sclerotic collagen bundles when compared with adjacent normal dermis, and artefactual clefts separated the neoplasms from the surrounding tissue.
  • The rare cases described in this report are exceptional because most of the neoplastic cells showed squamous appearance and for that reason we think that squamous cell apocrine hidradenoma is the most appropriate name for these neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Neoplasms, Squamous Cell / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17880588.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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57. El Demellawy D, Daya D, Alowami S: Clear cell hidradenoma: an unusual vulvar tumor. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Jul;27(3):457-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clear cell hidradenoma: an unusual vulvar tumor.
  • Clear cell hidradenoma (CCH) is a benign skin appendageal tumor.
  • Most cases occur in the skin of the head and face.
  • The tumor usually presents as a solitary firm dermal nodule.
  • Histologically, it is a well-circumscribed, nonencapsulated tumor formed of 2 cell types, one with clear cytoplasm and the other with dark eosinophilic cytoplasm.
  • Although most cases are benign, occasional cases with malignant transformation have been reported.
  • We report a case of CCH in a very unusual location.
  • To the best of our knowledge, CCH has not been previously described in this site, in the English literature.
  • Although rare, inclusion of CCH should be included in the differential diagnosis of benign solid and clear cell tumors of the vulvar skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 18580328.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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58. Yoshida Y, Nakashima K, Yamamoto O: Dermoscopic features of clear cell hidradenoma. Dermatology; 2008;217(3):250-1
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Dermoscopic features of clear cell hidradenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Dermoscopy. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18663309.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9832
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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59. Gilaberte Y, Grasa MP, Carapeto FJ: Clear cell hidradenoma. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2006 May;54(5 Suppl):248-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Acrospiroma / pathology. Leg. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentOn] J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000 Apr;42(4):693-5 [10727324.001]
  • (PMID = 16631962.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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60. Toulemonde A, Croue A, Rodien P, Verret JL: [Malignant nodular hidradenoma and multiple nodular hidradenomas in a hypogonadic patient]. Ann Dermatol Venereol; 2006 Dec;133(12):1005-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Malignant nodular hidradenoma and multiple nodular hidradenomas in a hypogonadic patient].
  • [Transliterated title] Hidradénome nodulaire malin et hidradénomes nodulaires multiples chez un malade hypogonadique.
  • BACKGROUND: We report a case of multiple benign nodular hidradenomas associated with malignant nodular hidradenoma in a hypogonadic patient.
  • CASE-REPORT: A 49 year-old man presented 11 benign nodular hidradenomas in the pectoral region.
  • A malignant nodular hidradenoma had recently appeared in this region some distance from the pre-existing benign modular hidradenomas.
  • This patient had peripheral hypogonadism associated with congenital bilateral cryptorchidia responsible for gynecomastia due to "relative hyperestrogenism".
  • Large numbers of estrogen receptors were demonstrated in each of the benign nodular hidradenomas.
  • The malignant nodular hidradenoma mass was unavailable and screening for these receptors was not possible.
  • DISCUSSION: Cases of multiple nodular hidradenoma are extremely rare: we have seen only two.
  • To the best of our knowledge, there have been no reports to date of combined malignant nodular hidradenoma and multiple benign nodular hidradenoma.
  • However, there is histological evidence of transition forms.
  • The coexistence of endocrine anomalies associated with this type of tumour has never been reported.
  • However, the presence of estrogen receptors has occasionally been demonstrated in benign nodular hidradenomas.
  • Our patient's endocrine disease may have played a role in the presentation of multiple hidradenomas, but this cannot be demonstrated.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / complications. Hypogonadism / complications. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Cryptorchidism / complications. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17185934.001).
  • [ISSN] 0151-9638
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de dermatologie et de vénéréologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen
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61. Gupta R, Singh S, Gupta K, Kudesia M: Clear-cell hidradenoma in a child: a diagnostic dilemma for the cytopathologist. Diagn Cytopathol; 2009 Jul;37(7):531-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clear-cell hidradenoma in a child: a diagnostic dilemma for the cytopathologist.
  • Primary cutaneous tumors are infrequently subjected to fine needle aspiration cytology.
  • As a result, the cytological reports of skin adnexal tumors like hidradenoma are scarce in the available literature.
  • A young boy with a painless nodule on forehead underwent fine needle aspiration.
  • The smears showed clusters of epithelial cells containing blue cytoplasm, some of which had vacuolated cytoplasm with mild nuclear pleomorphism and occasional larger hyperchromatic nucleus.
  • The cytological features, in conjunction with the clinical examination, suggested a skin appendageal tumor.
  • Though nuclear pleomorphism and occasional larger nucleus posed a cytological diagnostic challenge, a diagnosis of benign appendageal tumor was suggested, considering the young age of the patient.
  • This was later confirmed as a clear-cell hidradenoma on excision biopsy.
  • The cytopathologist should consider skin appendageal tumors during evaluation of cutaneous nodules.
  • An accurate diagnosis requires a close clinico-pathologic correlation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Child. Cytoplasm / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male

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  • [Copyright] 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19459171.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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62. Goh SG, Carr R, Dayrit JF, Calonje E: Mucinous hidradenoma: a report of three cases. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Jun;34(6):497-502
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mucinous hidradenoma: a report of three cases.
  • Mucinous cutaneous adnexal tumors are an uncommon occurrence.
  • We describe three cases of mucinous hidradenoma characterized by diffuse and prominent mucinous cell proliferation and discuss the relevant literature.
  • The patients (two men and one woman) ranged in age from 32 to 72 years.
  • The lesions were completely excised, and all patients were alive without evidence of disease (follow-up interval 3-4 years).
  • Case 1 presented as a 1.3-cm eyelid nodule and histology showed a mucinous apocrine hidradenoma with a proliferation of mucinous cells and apocrine glands.
  • Case 2, from the shoulder of a 40-year-old man, was a 2.5-cm well-circumscribed nodule composed of hyperplastic villoglandular proliferation of mucinous cells with focal squamous whorls and focal columnar glandular cells showing decapitation secretion.
  • The tumor was also interpretated as a mucinous hidradenoma, most likely of follicular-apocrine origin.
  • Case 3 was a 3.0-cm scalp nodule.
  • The histology showed a mucinous clear-cell hidradenoma composed of numerous mucinous glands amidst small squamous cells with clear cytoplasm and a hyalinized fibrovascular stroma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Cystadenoma, Mucinous / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Disease-Free Survival. Eyelids / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Scalp / pathology. Shoulder / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17518780.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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63. Al-Faky YH, Al-Mosallam AR, Al-Sohaibani MO: Periocular hidradenoma papilliferum. Saudi J Ophthalmol; 2009 Oct;23(3-4):211-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Periocular hidradenoma papilliferum.
  • Hidradenoma is a benign adnexal neoplasm originating from the apocrine sweat gland, and is almost exclusively detectable in the skin of the anogenital area of middle-aged white females after puberty.
  • Ectopic hidradenoma papilliferum, which involves the skin away from the anogenital region, is exceedingly rare, and can also affect males.
  • We report a female patient with a lesion (dating back to childhood) close to the medial end of the left eyebrow and overriding the anterior medial part of superior orbital rim.
  • The lesion was completely excised and had not reoccurred during over four years of follow-up.

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  • (PMID = 23960862.001).
  • [ISSN] 1319-4534
  • [Journal-full-title] Saudi journal of ophthalmology : official journal of the Saudi Ophthalmological Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Saudi J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Saudi Arabia
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3729807
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Childhood / Ectopic / Hidradenoma papilliferum
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64. Yavel R, Hinshaw M, Rao V, Hartig GK, Harari PM, Stewart D, Snow SN: Hidradenomas and a hidradenocarcinoma of the scalp managed using Mohs micrographic surgery and a multidisciplinary approach: case reports and review of the literature. Dermatol Surg; 2009 Feb;35(2):273-81
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  • [Title] Hidradenomas and a hidradenocarcinoma of the scalp managed using Mohs micrographic surgery and a multidisciplinary approach: case reports and review of the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Adenoma, Sweat Gland / surgery. Head and Neck Neoplasms / pathology. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Scalp / surgery. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mohs Surgery

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  • (PMID = 19215270.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4725
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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66. Doganavsargil B, Akalin T, Ylmaz M, Kandiloglu G: Perianal fibroadenoma, case report. Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Feb;30(1):81-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Perianal fibroadenoma, case report.
  • Extramammary fibroadenomas, occurring in the anogenital region, are rare lesions thought to be arising from "mammary-like anogenital sweet glands" described by van der Putte.
  • We present a 42-year-old woman with a slow-growing, 4-cm, well-circumscribed but nonencapsulated mass in perianal region.
  • The cut surface of the lesion was bulging, gray-white, and slightly lobulated.
  • Microscopically, it was identical to mammary fibroadenoma and composed of concurrent glandular and stromal elements.
  • Low columnar or cuboidal cells with focal, apical cytoplasmic snouts lined the glands, whereas the underlying layer had myoepithelial cell features, expressing smooth muscle actin and S-100.
  • Epithelial component was immunoreactive for human milk fat globulin I.
  • Progesterone receptor positivity was 80%, whereas the estrogen receptor expression was 60%.
  • Gross cystic disease fluid protein and human milk fat globulin II were negative.
  • The case is presented to increase the awareness on mammary-like glands of anogenital region, which may give rise to not only fibroadenomas but also fibrocystic disease, phyllodes tumor, carcinoma in situ, invasive carcinoma and lactating adenoma, hidrocystoma, hidradenoma papilliferum, intraductal papilloma, and sclerosing adenosis, although very rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Fibroadenoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 18212553.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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67. Scurry J, van der Putte SC, Pyman J, Chetty N, Szabo R: Mammary-like gland adenoma of the vulva: review of 46 cases. Pathology; 2009;41(4):372-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mammary-like gland adenoma of the vulva: review of 46 cases.
  • AIMS: Hidradenoma papilliferum (HP) of the anogenital region, which was previously thought to be an apocrine tumour, is now believed to be derived from anogenital mammary-like glands (MLG) and is more accurately termed MLG adenoma.
  • We sought to explore any ramifications that may have resulted from the perceived change in histogenesis of this tumour.
  • METHODS: We performed a clinicopathological audit of 46 cases.
  • RESULTS: The mean age was 52 years and the range 31-90 years.
  • Symptoms occurred in 23%, comprising nodules of increasing size 9%, pruritus 9% and bleeding 6%.
  • Tumours occurred in the known distribution of mammary-like glands.
  • The labia minora accounted for 50%, labia majora 40%, fourchette 7% and clitoris 3%.
  • Tumours were described clinically as cystic in 42%, ulcerated 33% and solid 25%.
  • Histologically, adjacent normal MLG were often present.
  • There was striking diversity in histology.
  • Tubular, papillary, cystic and solid areas were seen in various combinations.
  • Two cell types, epithelial and myoepithelial, were present.
  • The most common epithelial cell, the ductal cell, was seen alone in 43% or associated with apocrine metaplasia (57%) and/or foam cells (13%) and/or squamous cells (13%).
  • Myoepithelial cells were usually flattened, but were prominent and clear cell in type in 11%.
  • Stroma was variable in amount and either desmoplastic or sclerotic.
  • Inflammatory cells were particularly associated with tumours involving the surface.
  • Unusual architectural patterns resembled breast lesions such as erosive adenomatosis, sclerosing adenosis and ductal adenoma.
  • No recurrence or association with malignancy was recorded.
  • CONCLUSIONS: MLG adenomas demonstrate a marked diversity in histological pattern and cell morphology.
  • The ductal cell and a site compatible with and/or the presence of adjacent normal MLG are the most characteristic features.
  • Unusual vulvar tumours, which have been previously reported as erosive adenomatosis, sclerosing adenosis, papillary adenofibroma, syringocystadenoma papilliferans, etc., are variants of MLG adenomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Mammary Glands, Human / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19404851.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3931
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 46
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68. Obaidat NA, Awamleh AA, Ghazarian DM: Adenocarcinoma in situ arising in a tubulopapillary apocrine hidradenoma of the peri-anal region. Eur J Dermatol; 2006 Sep-Oct;16(5):576-8
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  • [Title] Adenocarcinoma in situ arising in a tubulopapillary apocrine hidradenoma of the peri-anal region.
  • We report the case of a 67-year-old woman who presented with a peri-anal skin tag.
  • Histologically, the excised lesion showed features of tubulopapillary apocrine hidradenoma, with an area showing features of carcinoma in situ.
  • The lesion also had papillary and cribriform growth patterns, reminiscent of breast lesions.
  • Similar to vulvar lesions, peri-anal apocrine tumours are believed to arise in mammary like glands (MLGs).
  • To the best of our knowledge, this is the first description of a peri-anal adenocarcinoma in situ arising in a tubulopapillary apocrine hidradenoma.
  • The relationship to MLGs is also discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17101482.001).
  • [ISSN] 1167-1122
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of dermatology : EJD
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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69. Mahalingam M, Srivastava A, Hoang MP: Expression of stem-cell markers (cytokeratin 15 and nestin) in primary adnexal neoplasms-clues to etiopathogenesis. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Dec;32(8):774-9
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  • [Title] Expression of stem-cell markers (cytokeratin 15 and nestin) in primary adnexal neoplasms-clues to etiopathogenesis.
  • BACKGROUND: The overlap in histopathologic features and immunoprofile of eccrine and apocrine neoplasms confounds basic issues relating to lineage of these entities.
  • METHODS: We evaluated expression of follicular stem-cell markers, cytokeratin (CK) 15 and nestin, in 78 benign and 23 malignant adnexal neoplasms.
  • RESULTS: CK15 and nestin expression were noted in 39 of 78 (50%) and 36 of 78 (46%) cases in the benign group, respectively (8 cutaneous mixed tumor, 10 hidradenoma papilliferum, 9 apocrine cystadenoma, 11 cylindroma and/or spiradenoma, and 9 poroma/dermal duct tumor).
  • CK15 and nestin expression were noted in 11 of 23 (48%) and 7 of 23 (30%) cases in the malignant group, respectively (6 microcystic adnexal carcinoma, 7 porocarcinoma, and 9 eccrine carcinoma).
  • Except 1, both markers were negative in 4 syringocystadenoma papilliferum, 10 hidradenoma, 1 syringofibroadenoma, 10 syringoma, 1 eccrine adenoma, 8 poroma/dermal duct tumor, 5 eccrine hidrocystoma, and 1 apocrine carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Given that follicular germinative cells give rise to the folliculosebaceous apocrine unit, expression of CK15 and nestin in the majority of cutaneous mixed tumor, hidradenoma papilliferum, apocrine cystadenoma, and cylindroma/spiradenoma is suggestive of an apocrine origin/differentiation of these neoplasms.
  • Reinforcing this and a novel finding of our study is the preferential expression of nestin in myoepithelial cells of these lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Apocrine Glands / chemistry. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Eccrine Glands / chemistry. Intermediate Filament Proteins / analysis. Keratin-15 / analysis. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / chemistry. Neoplastic Stem Cells / chemistry. Nerve Tissue Proteins / analysis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Boston. Cell Lineage. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Nestin. Predictive Value of Tests

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  • (PMID = 20700038.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / KRT15 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-15; 0 / NES protein, human; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Nestin
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70. Gauerke S, Driscoll JJ: Hidradenocarcinomas: a brief review and future directions. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2010 May;134(5):781-5
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  • [Title] Hidradenocarcinomas: a brief review and future directions.
  • Hidradenocarcinomas are rare, aggressive skin adnexal tumors of sweat gland origin that demonstrate a high potential for local recurrence, metastasis, and poor outcome.
  • These neoplasms can derive from preexisting clear cell hidradenomas but more commonly appear de novo, with the molecular events responsible for the pathogenesis currently unknown.
  • Historically, diagnosis has been difficult because of the few cases, inconsistent nomenclature, variable morphology of cells that compose the neoplasm, and confusion with other visceral metastatic tumors.
  • Presentation is generally benign with an indolent clinical course that typically includes local and multiple recurrences.
  • Despite wide-excision surgery, disease at regional lymph nodes and metastatic sites is common and linked to decreased survival.
  • Currently, molecular markers of pathogenesis as well as effective forms of adjuvant chemotherapy are lacking.
  • Future studies are required to identify the histopathologic and immunohistochemical features, which may facilitate diagnosis and foster development of molecularly targeted forms of adjuvant therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20441512.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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71. Sington J, Chandrapala R, Manek S, Hollowood K: Mitotic count is not predictive of clinical behavior in hidradenoma papilliferum of the vulva: a clinicopathologic study of 19 cases. Am J Dermatopathol; 2006 Aug;28(4):322-6
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  • [Title] Mitotic count is not predictive of clinical behavior in hidradenoma papilliferum of the vulva: a clinicopathologic study of 19 cases.
  • Although it is generally recognized that some benign sweat gland neoplasms may show appreciable mitotic activity, there are few reports of its quantitative analysis in specific tumor types or of its correlation with clinical behavior.
  • The presence of a large number of mitoses in a sweat gland tumor for which the histologic criteria of malignancy are not well defined, particularly in association with nuclear abnormalities, may produce a considerable diagnostic challenge.
  • We recently encountered such a problem in a putative case of hidradenoma papilliferum.
  • Therefore, we have undertaken a retrospective clinicopathologic study of 19 cases originally diagnosed as hidradenoma papilliferum or probable hidradenoma papilliferum, with a particular emphasis on the relationship of the mitotic index to clinical behavior.
  • The age range of the cases was 41 to 92 years (mean 56.8 years).
  • In all cases in which the margins could be evaluated, the tumors were well circumscribed (15/15), but in 4 cases circumscription could not be assessed because the specimen was fragmented.
  • All showed focal mild nuclear pleomorphism.
  • Mitoses were present in both epithelial and myoepithelial cells.
  • The mitotic index varied from 0 to 5.3 mitoses/mm2 (0 to 13 mitoses per 10 high power fields (hpf); 1 hpf=0.246 mm2), with a mean of 2.4/mm2 (6/10 hpf) and a median of 0.8/mm2 (2/10 hpf).
  • No atypical mitoses were identified.
  • The proliferative fraction (MIB-1 index) correlated with the mitotic index (correlation coefficient 0.94; P<0.0001) and varied from 1% to 10.5% (mean 3.9%, median 3.0%).
  • There were no recurrences or metastases over a mean period of 8 years.
  • Consequently, we have shown that the mitotic index in these lesions can be variable and often high, but it does not predict a more aggressive outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Mitosis. Vulvar Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16871035.001).
  • [ISSN] 0193-1091
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Shah SS, Adelson M, Mazur MT: Adenocarcinoma in situ arising in vulvar papillary hidradenoma: report of 2 cases. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Jul;27(3):453-6
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  • [Title] Adenocarcinoma in situ arising in vulvar papillary hidradenoma: report of 2 cases.
  • Adenocarcinoma in situ rarely occurs in vulvar papillary hidradenoma.
  • We encountered 2 cases of adenocarcinoma in situ arising in a papillary hidradenoma of the vulva.
  • Both patients were asymptomatic women, aged 83 and 92 years, who presented with nodules (1.0 and 2.0 cm) on the vulva.
  • Macroscopically, the lesions seemed tan-pink, fleshy, and well circumscribed.
  • One tumor ulcerated the overlying epidermis.
  • On microscopic examination, the tumors showed focal features of benign hidradenoma at the periphery with transitions into areas of increasing cytologic atypia that fulfilled criteria for adenocarcinoma in situ similar to that seen in the breast.
  • One tumor showed a predominant cribriform pattern with moderate atypia and many mitoses; the other showed a mixture of cribriform and micropapillary patterns, mild atypia, and fewer mitotic figures.
  • There was no evidence of destructive invasion or desmoplasia in either tumor.
  • Both lesions show areas strongly immunoreactive for mammaglobin and gross cystic disease fluid protein 15 as well as estrogen and progesterone receptor protein in 1 case.
  • There was no evidence of benign ectopic breast tissue within or adjacent to the neoplasms.
  • Both patients underwent local excision with no evidence of tumor recurrence at 15 and 32 months of follow-up.
  • The fact that these tumors displayed morphologic and immunohistochemical features that resembled ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast demonstrates the close homology between papillary hidradenoma and breast epithelium.
  • In the absence of invasion, our experience suggests that these tumors can be cured by local excision.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Disease Progression. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18580327.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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73. Daniel F, Mahmoudi A, de Parades V, Fléjou JF, Atienza P: An uncommon perianal nodule: hidradenoma papilliferum. Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2007 Feb;31(2):166-8
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  • [Title] An uncommon perianal nodule: hidradenoma papilliferum.
  • Hidradenoma papilliferum is a rare, benign, cystic, papillary apocrine gland tumor that occurs almost exclusively in women in the skin of the anogenital region.
  • We present the case of a 66 year old woman who presented with a progressively enlarging perianal nodule.
  • We provide a review of the literature emphasizing the clinico-pathological characteristics and differential diagnosis.
  • Local excision is necessary for identification and cure.
  • No recurrence was observed after one year follow-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Anus Neoplasms / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17347625.001).
  • [ISSN] 0399-8320
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroentérologie clinique et biologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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74. Vazmitel M, Pavlovsky M, Kacerovska D, Michal M, Kazakov DV: Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia in a complex neoplastic lesion involving anogenital mammary-like glands. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Oct;36(10):1117-20
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  • [Title] Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia in a complex neoplastic lesion involving anogenital mammary-like glands.
  • Anogenital mammary-like glands (AMLG) may give rise to various pathologic lesions identical to those known in mammary pathology.
  • Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia (PASH), a relatively frequent hormonal change associated with different benign and malignant processes in the breast, was only once mentioned in the literature concerning the pathology of AMLG.
  • We present here a new case of PASH in a lesion of AMLG.
  • The present case of PASH is remarkable because of its occurrence within a complex lesion evidencing the changes identical to or reminiscent of blunt duct adenosis, fibroadenoma and hidradenoma papilliferum.
  • [MeSH-major] Mammary Glands, Human / pathology. Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed / pathology. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Adult. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Fibroadenoma / pathology. Humans. Hyperplasia. Immunohistochemistry

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  • [Copyright] 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
  • (PMID = 19508499.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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75. Okuyama R, Shimada R, Kameoka J, Harigae H, Aiba S: Occurrence of poroid hidradenomas after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2009 Sep;23(9):1109-11
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  • [Title] Occurrence of poroid hidradenomas after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / etiology. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation / adverse effects. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Lymphoma, B-Cell / surgery. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 19175480.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-3083
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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76. Liapakis IE, Korkolis DP, Koutsoumbi A, Fida A, Kokkalis G, Vassilopoulos PP: Malignant hidradenoma: a report of two cases and review of the literature. Anticancer Res; 2006 May-Jun;26(3B):2217-20
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  • [Title] Malignant hidradenoma: a report of two cases and review of the literature.
  • INTRODUCTION: Malignant tumors of the sweat glands are very rare.
  • Clear cell hidradenoma is a lesion with histopathological features resembling those of eccrine poroma and eccrine spiradenoma.
  • The biological behavior of the tumor is aggressive, with local recurrences reported in more than 50% of the surgically-treated cases.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two patients are presented, the first with tumor in the right axillary region, the second with a recurrent tumor of the abdominal wall.
  • The first patient underwent wide excision with clear margins and axillary lymph node dissection and the second patient underwent wide excision of the primary lesion and bilateral inguinal node dissection due to palpable nodes.
  • RESULTS: The patients had uneventful postoperative courses.
  • No additional treatment was administered.
  • However, sixteen months after surgery, patient 2 developed extensive and massive recurrence involving almost the whole abdominal wall.
  • Although he had received several chemotherapeutic agents, the disease had a relentless course and the patient succumbed two and a half years following surgery.
  • CONCLUSION: Malignant tumors of the sweat glands are very rare neoplasms with no discrete clinical characteristics.
  • It is necessary to suspect any lesion which shows evidence of enlargement and to verify its status by histological evaluation.
  • Additional resection is generally required, with at least 2-cm clear margins, since surgery is the only effective treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16821590.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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77. Plaza JA, Ortega PF, Stockman DL, Suster S: Value of p63 and podoplanin (D2-40) immunoreactivity in the distinction between primary cutaneous tumors and adenocarcinomas metastatic to the skin: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 79 cases. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Apr;37(4):403-10
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  • [Title] Value of p63 and podoplanin (D2-40) immunoreactivity in the distinction between primary cutaneous tumors and adenocarcinomas metastatic to the skin: a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 79 cases.
  • The distinction of metastatic carcinomas to the skin from poorly differentiated primary cutaneous carcinomas and sometimes primary benign adnexal tumors can pose a significant diagnostic challenge.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of p63 and podoplanin (D2-40) immunoreactivity for separating primary skin tumors vs. cutaneous metastases of carcinomas from internal organs.
  • Thirty seven primary tumors and 42 cutaneous metastatic adenocarcinomas were evaluated.
  • The 37 primary cutaneous tumors included 14 cases of benign adnexal tumors, 9 malignant skin adnexal neoplasms, and 14 primary squamous and basal cell carcinomas.
  • The 42 metastatic adenocarcinomas all corresponded to metastases from patients with a well-documented history of a primary tumor at another location.
  • We found variable positivity with podoplanin in all primary cutaneous neoplasms including spiradenoma (6/6), hidradenoma (2/4), cylindroma (3/3), desmoplastic trichilemmoma (1/1), poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (4/4), sebaceous carcinoma (1/1), basal cell carcinoma (4/10), trichilemmal carcinoma (2/2), eccrine carcinoma (3/3), microcystic adnexal carcinoma (1/1), adnexal carcinoma NOS (1/1), and porocarcinoma (1/1).
  • In contrast, all metastatic carcinomas were negative (0/42) for podoplanin.
  • In regards to p63, all cases of primary cutaneous tumors were positive for p63 (37/37); in contrast, all cutaneous metastatic carcinomas were negative (0/42).
  • Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of podoplanin and p63 immunoreactivity to separate primary skin neoplasms from metastatic carcinomas were 78.4, 100.0, 100.0 and 84.0% for podoplanin, respectively, and 100.0, 100.0, 100.0 and 100.0% for p63, respectively.
  • The differences in p63 and podoplanin immunohistochemical expression between primary skin tumors and metastatic carcinomas to the skin were statistically significant (p < 0, 0001).
  • The results of our study suggest that the combined expression of p63 and podoplanin are a useful adjunct for the diagnosis of skin tumors in the clinical setting of a questionable metastasis and may be relatively specific for distinguishing primary skin tumors from metastatic carcinomas to the skin.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Skin / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 20377670.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / PDPN protein, human
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78. Souvatzidis P, Sbano P, Mandato F, Fimiani M, Castelli A: Malignant nodular hidradenoma of the skin: report of seven cases. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2008 May;22(5):549-54
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  • [Title] Malignant nodular hidradenoma of the skin: report of seven cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Malignant nodular hidradenoma (MNH) is an infrequent, highly malignant, primary skin tumour derived from eccrine sweat glands.
  • Most tumours occur in elderly individuals.
  • MNH has very poor prognosis, high recurrence and a high rate of metastases.
  • The best method of treatment is still unclear: radical surgical excision is widely used, and selective lymph node dissection is also suggested.
  • The value of the adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy has not been confirmed.
  • PATIENTS AND TREATMENT: Seven MNH patients (4 men, 3 women, age 60-87 years) were treated between 1991 and 2007 in the Dermatology Unit of San Donato Hospital of Arezzo and in the Section of Dermatology of University of Siena, Italy.
  • Tumours varied from 0.8 to 4.4 cm in size.
  • All patients underwent local excision; five also had lymph node dissection.
  • One patient underwent adjuvant radiotherapy, and three received chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: Six of seven patients died, with survival varying from 15 to 45 months.
  • Distant metastases occurred in two patients.
  • Survival time was inversely proportional to the size of the tumour.
  • CONCLUSIONS: MNH is an aggressive tumour and should be diagnosed and excised as early as possible.
  • Histological parameters are paramount, but correct diagnosis also calls for attention to clinical presentation and any history of recurrence or recent enlargement of long-standing lesions.
  • In our experience, radiotherapy and chemotherapy do not seem to prolong survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Skin / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18410617.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-3083
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 29
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79. Liu HN, Chang YT, Chen CC, Huang CH: Histopathological and immunohistochemical studies of poroid hidradenoma. Arch Dermatol Res; 2006 Jan;297(7):319-23
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Histopathological and immunohistochemical studies of poroid hidradenoma.
  • Poroid hidradenoma (PH), a less common subtype of poroid neoplasm (PN) than eccrine poroma (EP), has not been immunohistochemically studied before.
  • Six cases of PH (four solitary PH and two PH coexisted with other types of PN) were included in the study.
  • Fifteen cases of EP were also included for comparison.
  • Hematoxylin and eosin, Masson-Zimmerman silver stain, and a variety of immunohistochemical stains were used.
  • Microscopically, PH is not connected to the epidermis.
  • All six PH contained small poroid cells and larger, paler cuticular cells.
  • Some PH showed separate or clusters of sebocytes (2/6), horn cysts (1/6), juxtaposed lymphoid follicles in the stroma (1/6) and foci of keratohyaline granules (2/6), none of which was seen in the 15 EP.
  • Immunohistochemically, the keratin distribution of PH was very similar to that of EP.
  • PH has a very small number of Langerhans cells (significantly lower than the overlying epidermis, P=0.045), and a sparse deposition of melanin.
  • We conclude that except the location, the histopathological and immunochemical differences between PH and EP were small.
  • Sebaceous differentiation in two PH lesions suggested the possibility of an apocrine origin.
  • The deeper parts of eccrine apparatus other than basaloid cells may have been more actively involved in the histogenesis of PH.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / chemistry. Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Keratins / analysis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / chemistry. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Eccrine Glands / pathology. Epidermis / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Melanins / analysis. Middle Aged. Skin Neoplasms / chemistry. Skin Neoplasms / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16283345.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-3696
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatological research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Dermatol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Melanins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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80. Lin D, Perri AJ 3rd, Weaver JM, Colome MI, Raimer SS: What is your diagnosis? Benign acrospiroma. Cutis; 2009 Jan;83(1):12, 21-2
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  • [Title] What is your diagnosis? Benign acrospiroma.
  • [MeSH-major] Acrospiroma / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19271564.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-4162
  • [Journal-full-title] Cutis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cutis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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81. Thamboo TP, Tan LH, Tan SY: Expression of Bcl-x in normal skin and benign cutaneous adnexal tumors. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Jan;33(1):27-32
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  • [Title] Expression of Bcl-x in normal skin and benign cutaneous adnexal tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Bcl-x appears to have an antiapoptotic role in the epidermis.
  • Little is known about the expression of Bcl-x in cutaneous adnexal structures and benign cutaneous adnexal tumors.
  • METHODS: Tissues from 31 cases of benign cutaneous adnexal tumors (five trichofolliculomas, five trichoepitheliomas, two sebaceous adenomas, five apocrine hidradenomas, five eccrine poromas, five eccrine spiradenomas, and four syringomas) were immunostained for Bcl-x.
  • RESULTS: Strong staining for Bcl-x was seen in cells of the epidermal granular layer and inner root sheath of hair follicles.
  • Sebaceous gland cells showed strong staining.
  • Apocrine gland cells showed weak to moderate staining.
  • No staining was seen in eccrine gland cells.
  • The basaloid cells of trichofolliculomas and trichoepitheliomas showed no staining.
  • In sebaceous adenomas, the sebaceous cells showed strong staining while the basaloid cells were negative.
  • The cells of apocrine hidradenomas showed patchy weak staining.
  • No staining was seen in eccrine poromas, eccrine spiradenomas, and syringomas.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The degree of Bcl-x expression in cutaneous adnexal glandular structures appears to be related to their mode of secretion, being strongest in cells with apoptotic degradation of the entire cell (sebocytes).
  • This pattern is recapitulated in the corresponding benign cutaneous adnexal tumors.
  • Bcl-x may be useful in identifying cells with sebaceous differentiation in poorly differentiated adnexal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Adnexal and Skin Appendage / metabolism. Skin / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism. bcl-X Protein / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Epidermis / metabolism. Epidermis / pathology. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Sebaceous Glands / metabolism. Sebaceous Glands / pathology. Sweat Glands / metabolism. Sweat Glands / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16441408.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / bcl-X Protein
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82. Ishida M, Kojima F, Kushima R, Kakutani A, Okabe H: [Case of clear cell hidradenoma with mucinous metaplasia in the forehead--immunohistochemical analysis of the mucin]. Rinsho Byori; 2006 Aug;54(8):781-4
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  • [Title] [Case of clear cell hidradenoma with mucinous metaplasia in the forehead--immunohistochemical analysis of the mucin].
  • Mucinous metaplasia rarely develops in the non-neoplastic skin or its appendages, and almost exclusively confined to the genitalia, palms and soles.
  • Similarly, mucinous metaplasia is quite uncommon in the cutaneous neoplasms and only few cases of clear cell hidradenomas and squamous cell carcinomas with mucinous metaplasia have been reported in the literature.
  • Here we report a new case of clear cell hidradenoma with mucinous metaplasia in the forehead.
  • Our immunohistochemical analysis revealed MUC5AC in the mucinous metaplastic cells of this tumor as in the extramammary Paget's disease, and expression of this gastric foveolar epithelial mucin core protein in these two neoplastic conditions seem to related to their common apocrine origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / metabolism. Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Forehead. Mucins / analysis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / metabolism. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Metaplasia. Middle Aged. Mucin 5AC

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  • (PMID = 16989395.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1860
  • [Journal-full-title] Rinsho byori. The Japanese journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rinsho Byori
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MUC5AC protein, human; 0 / Mucin 5AC; 0 / Mucins
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83. Knoedler D, Susnik B, Gonyo MB, Osipov V: Giant apocrine hidradenoma of the breast. Breast J; 2007 Jan-Feb;13(1):91-3
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  • [Title] Giant apocrine hidradenoma of the breast.
  • We report a case of a 26-year-old woman with an 8.0-cm tumor of the left breast.
  • The tumor was clinically and radiologically suspicious for malignancy.
  • The pathologic evaluation of the core biopsy and the subsequent excision specimen revealed a benign sclerosing, cystic, and papillary adnexal tumor with apocrine and clear cell morphology.
  • The immunohistochemical staining for p63 was positive.
  • Estrogen, progesterone, and Her-2 receptor immunohistochemical stains were negative.
  • The cytogenetic analysis revealed 46, XX t(11:19) (q21;q13.1) balanced translocation.
  • The final diagnosis was apocrine hidradenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / diagnosis. Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17214802.001).
  • [ISSN] 1075-122X
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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84. Gonul M, Cakmak SK, Gul U, Han O, Karagece U: A skin tumor in a young girl. Diagnosis: Clear cell hidradenoma. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol; 2010 Jul-Aug;76(4):445-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Acrospiroma / pathology. Skin / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20657141.001).
  • [ISSN] 0973-3922
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of dermatology, venereology and leprology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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85. Zhou HM, Lang JH, Zhu L, Guo LN: [Clinical and pathological analysis of rare nonepithelial vulvar tumors]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2008 Jul;43(7):490-2
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  • [Title] [Clinical and pathological analysis of rare nonepithelial vulvar tumors].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical presentation and pathological features of rare nonepithelial vulvar tumors.
  • METHODS: The clinical data of 42 patients with nonepithelial vulvar tumors who were operated on during 1986 to 2007 in Peking Union Medical College Hospital were analyzed.
  • RESULTS: The average age of 42 patients was 44.1 years.
  • There were 32 cases (76%) with a vulvar mass.
  • Twenty one of these 42 patients (50%) complained of associated symptoms of itch and pain.
  • Surgical treatment was the chief treatment of nonepithelial vulvar tumors, which included local excision (40, 95%), simple vulvectomy (1, 2%) and radical vulvectomy (1, 2%).
  • Among the pathological diagnoses after operation, the most common benign histological subtypes were hidradenoma and haemangioma, while the most common malignant histological subtypes were leiomyosarcoma and aggressive angiomyxoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Most of the nonepithelial vulvar tumors are mesenchymal tumors.
  • The clinical presentation has no special characteristics.
  • Diagnosis of nonepithelial vulvar tumors can be made based on histological inspection.
  • Surgical treatment is the treatment of choice.
  • [MeSH-major] Hemangioma / pathology. Leiomyosarcoma / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Colposcopy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Retrospective Studies. Syringoma / diagnosis. Syringoma / pathology. Syringoma / surgery. Vulva / pathology. Vulva / surgery. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19080509.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-567X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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86. Bollée G, Patey N, Cazajous G, Robert C, Goujon JM, Fakhouri F, Bruneval P, Noël LH, Knebelmann B: Thrombotic microangiopathy secondary to VEGF pathway inhibition by sunitinib. Nephrol Dial Transplant; 2009 Feb;24(2):682-5
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  • [Title] Thrombotic microangiopathy secondary to VEGF pathway inhibition by sunitinib.
  • BACKGROUND: Drugs targeting the VEGF pathway are associated with renal adverse events, including proteinuria, hypertension and thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA).
  • Most cases of TMA are reported secondary to bevacizumab.
  • It was shown recently that sunitinib, a small molecule inhibiting several tyrosine kinase receptors, including VEGF receptors, can also induce proteinuria, hypertension and biological features of TMA. Case.
  • A 44-year-old woman with a history of malignant skin hidradenoma was started on sunitinib for refractory disease.
  • She developed hypertension after 2 weeks and low-grade proteinuria after 4 weeks.
  • Renal function remained normal, and biological signs of TMA were absent.
  • A renal biopsy was performed 6 months later as proteinuria persisted, demonstrating typical features of TMA.
  • The patient was given irbesartan, and sunitinib was continued for 3 months after diagnosis.
  • Over this period, blood pressure and renal function remained stable and proteinuria became undetectable.
  • CONCLUSION: We report on the first case of histologically documented TMA secondary to sunitinib and provide detailed description of renal histological involvement.
  • This suggests that all anti-VEGF drugs may share a common risk for developing renal adverse events, including TMA.
  • Our case highlights the possible discrepancy between mild clinical manifestation on one hand and severe TMA features on renal biopsy on the other hand and pleads for large indication of renal biopsy in this setting.
  • The renin-angiotensin system blockers may be considered in patients with mild clinical manifestations and in the absence of therapeutic alternative to anti-VEGF drugs.
  • [MeSH-major] Indoles / adverse effects. Kidney / blood supply. Kidney / drug effects. Pyrroles / adverse effects. Thrombosis / chemically induced. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / antagonists & inhibitors
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / drug therapy. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Female. Humans. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / adverse effects. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • [CommentIn] Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2009 Jun;24(6):2002-3 [19332867.001]
  • (PMID = 19054798.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2385
  • [Journal-full-title] Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Indoles; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrroles; 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / sunitinib
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87. Sierra Montenegro E, Sierra Luzuriaga G, Leone Stay G, Salazar Menéndez V, Quiñonez Auria C: Perianal nodular hidradenocarcinoma. Case report. Cir Cir; 2010 Mar-Apr;78(2):173-6
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  • Definitive pathology report was malignant eccrine acrospiroma.

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  • (PMID = 20478121.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-7411
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía y cirujanos
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Cir
  • [Language] eng; spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
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88. Rongioletti F, Baldari M, Carli C, Fiocca R: Squamomelanocytic tumor: a new case of a unique biphenotypic neoplasm of uncertain biological potential. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Apr;36(4):477-81
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  • [Title] Squamomelanocytic tumor: a new case of a unique biphenotypic neoplasm of uncertain biological potential.
  • Squamomelanocytic tumor is an uncommon cutaneous neoplasm composed of an admixture of melanocytic and squamous cellular phenotypes.
  • We describe a case of this tumor in a 94-year-old man who presented with a nodule on the back.
  • Histologically, a well-demarcated expansive dermal nodule was composed of anastomosing epithelial strands with focal formation of squamous pearls and ductal structures commixed with elongated spindle cells with clear cytoplasm grouped in nests.
  • The two cell types were diffusely admixed or clustered in groups within the nodule.
  • Immunohistochemical studies showed that the spindle cells grouped in nests expressed S-100 and HMB-45 antigens, and the squamoid cells expressed cytokeratins and carcinoembrionic antigen (CEA) protein only in the inner layer of the ducts and the cystic space.
  • Atypical features and high mitotic activity was observed in the melanocytic cells but slight atypia, mild dyskeratosis and mitotic figures were observed also in the squamoid component.
  • This tumor represents a proliferation of two phenotypic cells that are distinctive for their intimate admixture and singular immunohistochemical profile.
  • The authors discuss the histogenesis of this tumor, suggesting that it could represent an atypical solid-cystic hidradenoma colonized by a melanocytic malignant component.
  • The biological behavior of this neoplasm remains currently uncertain.
  • [MeSH-major] Epithelium / pathology. Melanocytes / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Back / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male

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  • (PMID = 19278436.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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89. Novak NP, Kaić G, Tomasović-Loncarić C, Zic R, Skoro M, Ostović KT: Fine-needle aspiration cytology of apocrine hidradenoma. Coll Antropol; 2010 Jun;34(2):671-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Acrospiroma / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20698151.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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90. Yildiz B, Ozdemir F, Cobanoglu U, Kavgaci H, Fidan E, Aydin F: Clear cell hidradenoma of the gluteal region: a case report. Acta Dermatovenerol Croat; 2009;17(2):144-6
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  • [Title] Clear cell hidradenoma of the gluteal region: a case report.
  • Clear cell hidradenoma is a rare skin appendage tumor.
  • A 41-year-old female presented with right gluteal mass.
  • Excisional biopsy of the mass was performed.
  • Under the epidermis, an eosinophilic-cytoplasm, uniform-appearance, oval-round-nucleus, benign tumor with cystic and solid components was detected.
  • These results were consistent with clear cell hidradenoma.
  • The patient had not been given postoperative adjuvant treatment and has been under follow up free from disease for 2 years.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Buttocks / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 19595274.001).
  • [ISSN] 1330-027X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta dermatovenerologica Croatica : ADC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Dermatovenerol Croat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
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96. Tolland JP, Brenn T, Guldbakke KK, Schanbacher CF: Mohs micrographic surgery, sentinel lymph node mapping, and estrogen receptor analysis for the treatment of malignant nodular hidradenoma. Dermatol Surg; 2006 Oct;32(10):1294-301
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  • [Title] Mohs micrographic surgery, sentinel lymph node mapping, and estrogen receptor analysis for the treatment of malignant nodular hidradenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland. Mohs Surgery / methods. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Sweat Gland Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Foot. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

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  • (PMID = 17034384.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen
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97. Samaila MO: Adnexal skin tumors in Zaria, Nigeria. Ann Afr Med; 2008 Mar;7(1):6-10
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  • Tumours of the sweat gland were the commonest--41 (78.8%); they comprised predominantly eccrine acrospiroma (17), characterized histologically by solid nests of round to polygonal cells with clear to eosinophilic cytoplasm, forming tubules in areas.

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  • (PMID = 18702242.001).
  • [ISSN] 1596-3519
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of African medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Afr Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
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98. Durairaj VD, Bartlett HM, Said S: Malignant hidradenoma of the medial canthus with orbital and intracranial extension. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg; 2006 May-Jun;22(3):229-32
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  • [Title] Malignant hidradenoma of the medial canthus with orbital and intracranial extension.
  • A 70-year-old woman presented with signs and symptoms consistent with nasolacrimal duct obstruction.
  • MRI revealed a medial canthal mass with orbital and intracranial extension.
  • The patient was treated with wide surgical excision, chemotherapy, and radiation.
  • A diagnosis of malignant hidradenoma of the medial canthus was confirmed by histopathology.
  • Despite aggressive therapy, the patient developed metastatic disease and died within 1 year.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma, Sweat Gland / pathology. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Eyelid Neoplasms / pathology. Orbital Neoplasms / secondary. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Craniotomy. Ethmoid Bone / surgery. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 16714943.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-9303
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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99. Chen CC, Chang YT, Liu HN: Clinical and histological characteristics of poroid neoplasms: a study of 25 cases in Taiwan. Int J Dermatol; 2006 Jun;45(6):722-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical and histological characteristics of poroid neoplasms: a study of 25 cases in Taiwan.
  • BACKGROUND: Eccrine poroma (EP) are relatively common benign eccrine neoplasms.
  • Other poroid neoplasms (PNs), namely hidroacanthoma simplex (HS), dermal duct tumor (DDT), and poroid hidradenoma (PH), are seldom reported.
  • METHODS: Among 18 653 biopsy specimens received from January 1988 to October 2003, we found 25 PNs (0.134%).
  • We conducted retrospective analysis and obtained clinical and histopathological information.
  • RESULTS: There were 16 EP, 3 HS, 4 PH, and 2 PH coexisting with either HS or EP.
  • No DDT was found.
  • More than half of PNs presented as red-color neoplasms, but none were diagnosed correctly on clinical grounds alone.
  • The most common preoperative diagnoses were pyogenic granuloma or soft fibromas.
  • Most EPs were located on hair-bearing regions of the limbs (37.5%) and trunk (25%), instead of soles (18.8%) and palms (6.3%).
  • Three HS showed no cuticular cell, but had monomorphic poroid cells.
  • Most EPs (10/16) were composed of both poroid and cuticular cells.
  • All PH were composed of cuticular and poroid cells.
  • Horn cysts were found in three cases (12%).
  • Most PNs (16/25) contained clear cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: PNs are sudoriferous tumors that may vary considerably in clinical expression.
  • EP, about 64% (16/25) of PNs in our series, was the most common.
  • PH incidence is probably underestimated in the literature.
  • We found six PHs in 25 PNs.
  • Histopathologically, it is not justified to exclude PN diagnosis by noticing horn cysts.
  • It was uncommon for two or three subtypes of PN to occur in a single lesion.
  • [MeSH-major] Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Sweat Gland Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Eyelid Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Necrosis. Taiwan

  • MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Skin Cancer.
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  • (PMID = 16796636.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-9059
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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100. Piana S, Tagliavini E: Papillary poroid hidradenoma. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Feb;32(1):101-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Papillary poroid hidradenoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Poroma / pathology. Sweat Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Humans. Keratins / metabolism. Male. Thigh

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  • (PMID = 19730081.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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