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1. Woodman SE, Davies MA: Targeting KIT in melanoma: a paradigm of molecular medicine and targeted therapeutics. Biochem Pharmacol; 2010 Sep 1;80(5):568-74
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  • [Title] Targeting KIT in melanoma: a paradigm of molecular medicine and targeted therapeutics.
  • Despite multiple clinical trials utilizing a spectrum of therapeutic modalities, melanoma remains a disease with dismal outcomes in patients with advanced disease.
  • However, it is now clear that melanoma is not a single entity, but can be molecularly divided into subtypes that generally correspond to the anatomical location of the primary melanoma.
  • Melanomas from acral lentiginous, mucosal, and chronic sun-damaged sites frequently harbor activating mutations and/or increased copy number in the KIT tyrosine kinase receptor gene, which are very rare in the more common cutaneous tumors.
  • Multiple case reports and early observations from clinical trials suggest that targeting mutant KIT with tyrosine kinase inhibitors is efficacious in KIT mutant melanoma.
  • This review recounts what is known about the role of KIT in melanocyte maturation, our current understanding of KIT genetic aberrations in melanoma, and how this knowledge is being translated into clinical oncology.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20457136.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2968
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K12 CA088084; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA093459; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA93459
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
  • [Number-of-references] 43
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS224261; NLM/ PMC3935736
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2. Kim KB, Eton O, Davis DW, Frazier ML, McConkey DJ, Diwan AH, Papadopoulos NE, Bedikian AY, Camacho LH, Ross MI, Cormier JN, Gershenwald JE, Lee JE, Mansfield PF, Billings LA, Ng CS, Charnsangavej C, Bar-Eli M, Johnson MM, Murgo AJ, Prieto VG: Phase II trial of imatinib mesylate in patients with metastatic melanoma. Br J Cancer; 2008 Sep 2;99(5):734-40
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  • [Title] Phase II trial of imatinib mesylate in patients with metastatic melanoma.
  • Metastatic melanoma cells express a number of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) that are considered to be targets for imatinib.
  • We conducted a phase II trial of imatinib in patients with metastatic melanoma expressing at least one of these PTKs.
  • One patient with metastatic acral lentiginous melanoma, containing the highest c-kit expression among all patients, had dramatic improvement on positron emission tomographic scan at 6 weeks and had a partial response lasting 12.8 months.
  • Imatinib at the studied dose had minimal clinical efficacy as a single-agent therapy for metastatic melanoma.
  • However, based on the characteristics of the responding tumour in our study, clinical activity of imatinib, specifically in patients with melanoma with certain c-kit aberrations, should be examined.

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  • (PMID = 18728664.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA16672; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CM / N01 CM-17003
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2528157
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3. Villalón G, Martín JM, Pinazo MI, Calduch L, Alonso V, Jordá E: Focal acral hyperpigmentation in a patient undergoing chemotherapy with capecitabine. Am J Clin Dermatol; 2009;10(4):261-3
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  • [Title] Focal acral hyperpigmentation in a patient undergoing chemotherapy with capecitabine.
  • A 58-year-old woman undergoing chemotherapy with capecitabine presented with multiple pigmented macules on the skin and tongue, and generalized hyperpigmentation, which finally faded after the drug was discontinued.
  • Capecitabine may induce the growth of normal and dysplastic melanocytic nevi, and lentiginous melanocytic hyperplasia.
  • Careful follow-up is mandatory, since the risk of developing melanoma in these cases remains uncertain.
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Capecitabine. Dermoscopy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Tongue Diseases / chemically induced. Tongue Diseases / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19489659.001).
  • [ISSN] 1175-0561
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Clin Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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4. Neynaber S, Wolff H, Plewig G, Wienecke R: [Longitudinal melanonychia induced by hydroxyurea therapy]. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges; 2004 Jul;2(7):588-91
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  • BACKGROUND: Pigmentation of finger- and toenails presents a wide range of differential diagnostic considerations.
  • All four patients were Fitzpatrick skin types II.
  • CONCLUSIONS: When melanonychia is identified in hematology-oncology patients, a careful medical history should be obtained.
  • A list of medications is crucial, since hydroxycarbamide causes nail pigmentation.
  • In each case of nail pigmentation, an acral lentiginous melanoma must be excluded.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Leukemia, Myeloid / complications. Leukemia, Myeloid / drug therapy. Longitudinal Studies. Male. Myeloproliferative Disorders / complications. Myeloproliferative Disorders / drug therapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16281621.001).
  • [ISSN] 1610-0379
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft = Journal of the German Society of Dermatology : JDDG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dtsch Dermatol Ges
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] X6Q56QN5QC / Hydroxyurea
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6. Puzanov I, Flaherty KT: Targeted molecular therapy in melanoma. Semin Cutan Med Surg; 2010 Sep;29(3):196-201
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Targeted molecular therapy in melanoma.
  • Immunotherapy and chemotherapy benefit few patients with metastatic melanoma, and even fewer experience durable survival benefit.
  • These poor results may come from treating all melanomas as though they are biologically homogeneous.
  • Recently, it has been shown that targeting specific activated tyrosine kinases (oncogenes) can have striking clinical benefits in patients with melanoma.
  • In 2002, a V600E mutation of the BRAF serine/threonine kinase was described as present in more than 50% of all melanomas.
  • The mutation appeared to confer a dependency by the melanoma cancer cell on activated signaling through mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.
  • The frequency and focality of this mutation (>95% of all BRAF mutations being at V600 position) suggested its importance in melanoma pathophysiology and potential as a target for therapy.
  • Mucosal and acral-lentiginous melanomas, comprising 3% of all melanomas, frequently harbor activating mutations of c-kit and drugs targeting this mutation seem to confer similar benefits for these types of tumors.
  • Here we provide an overview of the targeted therapy development in melanoma with emphasis on BRAF inhibition because of its prevalence and possibility of transforming the care of many melanoma patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Melanoma / drug therapy. Molecular Targeted Therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy


7. Lang PG: Current concepts in the management of patients with melanoma. Am J Clin Dermatol; 2002;3(6):401-26
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  • [Title] Current concepts in the management of patients with melanoma.
  • Melanoma is a significant health problem.
  • Despite public education and free cancer screenings, the incidence and mortality of melanoma continues to rise; however, many currently diagnosed melanomas are thin lesions, suggesting that education and awareness is having an impact.
  • Although large congenital nevi may be precursors of melanoma, small and medium congenital nevi have an insignificant risk for melanoma development.
  • Large congenital nevi, which are axial in location, appear to be more likely to develop melanoma and are associated with melanocytosis and melanoma of the CNS, both of which portend a poor prognosis.
  • Lymphoscintigraphy and sentinel node biopsy have replaced elective node dissections, thus decreasing the morbidity associated with the surgical management of melanoma.
  • Although most melanomas are managed by routine surgical excision, other modalities are sometimes employed.
  • For example, cryosurgery or radiation therapy may be indicated in the frail, elderly individual with a large facial lentigo maligna.
  • Mohs surgery is the treatment of choice for head and neck melanomas and those located in areas where maximum preservation of tissue is required and for desmoplastic and acral lentiginous melanomas.
  • Dacarbazine remains the drug of choice in disseminated melanoma, but remissions are usually short lived.
  • Although high dose interferon increases disease-free and overall survival in some patients, it remains a controversial drug which is not easily tolerated.
  • In the new staging system for melanoma, ulceration is second only to Breslow's thickness.
  • Except for lesions <1mm thick, the Clark's level of invasion has been de-emphasized.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma. Skin Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Incidence. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / therapy. Prognosis. Recombinant Proteins. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 12113649.001).
  • [ISSN] 1175-0561
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Clin Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 99210-65-8 / interferon alfa-2b
  • [Number-of-references] 285
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