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5. Saldanha G, Potter L, Daforno P, Pringle JH: Cutaneous melanoma subtypes show different BRAF and NRAS mutation frequencies. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Aug 1;12(15):4499-505
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cutaneous melanoma subtypes show different BRAF and NRAS mutation frequencies.
  • PURPOSE: BRAF mutations are present in two thirds of cutaneous melanomas and many of the rest have NRAS mutations.
  • However, cutaneous melanoma is a heterogeneous disease with many clinicopathologic subtypes.
  • Of these, the majority fits into four categories: superficial spreading, nodular, lentigo maligna, and acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM).
  • Thus far, there is very limited data combining BRAF and NRAS mutation analysis to explore differences between cutaneous melanoma subtypes.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The frequency of BRAF and NRAS hotspot mutations, in exons 15 and 2, respectively, was assessed in 59 cutaneous melanomas comprising superficial spreading, nodular, lentigo maligna, and ALM using single-strand conformational polymorphism and RFLP-PCR analysis.
  • RESULTS: Only 2 of 21 (9.5%) ALM showed BRAF exon 15 mutation compared with 9 of 14 (64.3%) superficial spreading malignant melanomas, 4 of 11 (36.4%) nodular melanomas, and 7 of 13 (53.4%) lentigo maligna melanomas (P < 0.01).
  • In particular, 9 of 19 (47.4%) ALM without BRAF exon 15 mutation had an NRAS exon 2 mutation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We show that the overall BRAF/NRAS frequency in mutation hotspots is not significantly different among cutaneous melanoma subtypes.
  • These data show that mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway activation may be important in all major subtypes of cutaneous melanoma, although the mechanism by which this is achieved varies.
  • [MeSH-major] Genes, ras / genetics. Melanoma / classification. Melanoma / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf / genetics. Skin Neoplasms / classification. Skin Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16899595.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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6. Muchemwa FC, Ma D, Inoue Y, Curtin JA, Bastian BC, Ihn H, Kageshita T: Constitutive activation of the phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase signalling pathway in acral lentiginous melanoma. Br J Dermatol; 2008 Feb;158(2):411-3
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  • [Title] Constitutive activation of the phosphatidyl inositol 3 kinase signalling pathway in acral lentiginous melanoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / metabolism. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism. Skin Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17999703.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
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7. Pereyra-Rodríguez JJ, Pulpillo A, Zulueta-Dorado T, Conejo-Mir J: [Acral lentiginous melanoma mimicking pyogenic granuloma]. Med Clin (Barc); 2010 Jul 3;135(4):193
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  • [Title] [Acral lentiginous melanoma mimicking pyogenic granuloma].
  • [Transliterated title] Melanoma acral que simula un granuloma piógeno.
  • [MeSH-major] Fingers. Granuloma, Pyogenic / pathology. Melanoma / pathology. Skin Diseases / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged


8. Bae JM, Kim HO, Park YM: Progression from Acral Lentiginous Melanoma in situ to Invasive Acral Lentiginous Melanoma. Ann Dermatol; 2009 May;21(2):185-8
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  • [Title] Progression from Acral Lentiginous Melanoma in situ to Invasive Acral Lentiginous Melanoma.
  • Acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) is the most common type of cutaneous melanoma in Asians.
  • The very early stage of ALM demonstrates only a proliferation of a few atypical melanocytes within the epidermis, and has been termed ALM in situ.
  • This time however, rebiopsy of the lesion confirmed a diagnosis of ALM, stage IIIB.
  • It could be inferred that the lesion had slowly progressed from ALM in situ to invasive ALM over a period of 12 years.
  • Herein we report a case of ALM in situ which progressed to invasive ALM over a long period of time.
  • We expect this report may assist physicians in early recognition and proper management of future cases of ALM in situ.

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  • [Cites] Clin Exp Dermatol. 1991 Nov;16(6):451-4 [1806322.001]
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  • (PMID = 20523783.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-3894
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2861213
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Acral lentiginous melanoma in situ
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70. Kramkimel N, Maubec E, Boitier F, Cavalcanti A, Beldi M, Mamelle G, Kolb F, Duvillard P, Avril MF: [Tumour regression is not predictive for higher risk of sentinel node involvement in thin melanomas (Breslow thickness &lt; or = 1 mm)]. Ann Dermatol Venereol; 2010 Apr;137(4):276-80
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  • [Title] [Tumour regression is not predictive for higher risk of sentinel node involvement in thin melanomas (Breslow thickness < or = 1 mm)].
  • [Transliterated title] La régression tumorale n'est pas un facteur de risque d'atteinte du ganglion sentinelle dans les mélanomes fins (indice de Breslow < or = 1 mm).
  • BACKGROUND: Thin melanomas (Breslow thickness < or = 1 mm) are considered highly curable.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between histological tumour regression and sentinel lymph node (SLN) involvement in thin melanomas.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective single-centre study of 34 patients with thin melanomas undergoing SLN biopsy between April 1998 and January 2005.
  • Melanomas were located on the neck (n=3), soles (n=4), trunk (n=13) and extremities (n=14).
  • Pathological examination showed 25 SSM, four acral lentiginous melanomas, three in situ melanomas, one nodular melanoma and one unclassified melanoma with a mean Breslow thickness of 0.57 mm.
  • CONCLUSION: The results of the present study and the analysis of the literature show that histological regression of the primary tumour does not seem predictive of higher risk of SLN involvement in thin melanomas.
  • This suggests that screening for SLN is not indicated in thin melanomas, even those with histological regression.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphatic Metastasis. Melanoma / secondary. Melanoma / ultrastructure. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Skin Neoplasms / ultrastructure

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20417360.001).
  • [ISSN] 0151-9638
  • [Journal-full-title] Annales de dermatologie et de vénéréologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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71. Tejera-Vaquerizo A, Mendiola-Fernández M, Fernández-Orland A, Herrera-Ceballos E: Thick melanoma: the problem continues. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2008 May;22(5):575-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Thick melanoma: the problem continues.
  • BACKGROUND: The incidence of melanoma and its associated mortality has stabilized over the recent years, due in part to efforts directed at better prevention and detection of these lesions.
  • We analysed the trends in the distribution of melanomas, mainly according to their thickness.
  • METHODS: Data from the Dermatology Service of 'Virgen de la Victoria' University Hospital in Malaga (Spain) showed a total of 459 cases of melanoma between 1990 and 2005, both inclusive.
  • The lesions were stratified according to year of diagnosis (1990-96 and 1997-2005), sex, age (0-49, > or = 50), thickness (0-0.99, 1.00-1.99, and > or = 2 mm) and the histological subtype [lentigo maligna melanoma (LMM), superficial spreading melanoma (SSM), nodular melanoma (NM) and acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM)].
  • However, the number of new cases of thick melanoma remained almost constant over the two periods, being associated with persons over 50 years of age (65.1% vs. 64.3%), with men having half the cases (48.4% vs. 47%).
  • The proportion of nodular melanomas within the group of thick melanomas was high in both periods (36.5% and 39.3%, respectively).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that despite the large increase in new melanomas, the diagnosis of thick melanomas has remained constant, mainly in persons over the age 50 years, with a relative increase in men.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 18081751.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-3083
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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72. Forman SB, Ferringer TC, Peckham SJ, Dalton SR, Sasaki GT, Libow LF, Elston DM: Is superficial spreading melanoma still the most common form of malignant melanoma? J Am Acad Dermatol; 2008 Jun;58(6):1013-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Is superficial spreading melanoma still the most common form of malignant melanoma?
  • BACKGROUND: Most epidemiological studies suggest that superficial spreading melanoma is the most common histological subtype of malignant melanoma, but past data may not reflect current patterns of sun exposure or other risk factors.
  • OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the prevalence of melanoma subtypes among recent specimens in a South Texas dermatopathology practice.
  • RESULTS: Lentigo maligna was the most common subtype of melanoma among the cases studied.
  • Of 771 cases of melanoma reviewed, lentigo maligna and lentigo maligna melanoma accounted for 429 (56%).
  • There were 220 cases of pagetoid (superficial spreading) melanoma (29%).
  • Nodular melanoma with no apparent radial growth phase accounted for 27 cases (4%), and there were 23 cases of acral lentiginous melanoma (3%).
  • The remaining 72 specimens (9%) included cutaneous metastases, spitzoid melanoma, melanoma in situ arising within a nevus, nevoid melanoma, desmoplastic melanoma, and patterns that could not be classified.
  • We were not able to perform subgroup analysis based on ethnicity or skin type as such data were not typically submitted with the specimens.
  • CONCLUSION: Our results challenge the notion that pagetoid (superficial spreading) melanoma is the most common subtype of malignant melanoma, at least in patients with extensive sun exposure.
  • Changing patterns of sun exposure or environmental factors may contribute to the changing epidemiology of malignant melanoma.
  • The current prevalence of subtypes of melanoma should be studied in other populations.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / epidemiology. Melanoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] J Am Acad Dermatol. 2008 Jun;58(6):1059-60 [18485988.001]
  • [CommentIn] J Am Acad Dermatol. 2009 May;60(5):876 [19389532.001]
  • [ErratumIn] J Am Acad Dermatol. 2009 Sep;61(3):507
  • (PMID = 18485983.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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73. Hutcheson AC, McGowan JW 4th, Maize JC Jr, Cook J: Multiple primary acral melanomas in African-Americans: a case series and review of the literature. Dermatol Surg; 2007 Jan;33(1):1-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Multiple primary acral melanomas in African-Americans: a case series and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Although melanoma accounts for only 4% to 5% of all skin cancers in the United States, it causes most skin cancer-related deaths.
  • We describe a unique group of African-American patients with multiple primary acral lentiginous melanomas (ALMs).
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to review the case histories and management of a cohort of patients in the Mohs practice of our dermatologic surgeon with multiple primary ALM.
  • METHODS: This is a case series of patients with multiple ALM identified by chart review from 2000 to 2005.
  • RESULTS: Four patients, all African-American, were identified with multiple ALM.
  • None of the patients with ALM had melanomas at nonacral sites or other types of skin cancer.
  • Several had acral melanosis.
  • Information in the literature on patients with multiple primary acral melanomas was insufficient.
  • CONCLUSION: Patients with multiple acral melanomas have not, to our knowledge, been reported thus far.
  • It can be extrapolated from current literature, however, that appropriate management of these patients, including staging work and surgical intervention, is to be determined by the individual characteristics of the melanoma and the patient's concomitant risk factors, if any.
  • [MeSH-major] African Americans. Foot Diseases / ethnology. Foot Diseases / pathology. Melanoma / ethnology. Melanoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / ethnology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology


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4. Burd A: Sun and melanoma: What about acral lentiginous melanoma? BMJ; 2008;337:a1133
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sun and melanoma: What about acral lentiginous melanoma?
  • [MeSH-major] Hutchinson's Melanotic Freckle / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / etiology. Sunlight / adverse effects

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  • [CommentOn] BMJ. 2008;337:a764 [18647766.001]
  • [CommentOn] BMJ. 2008;337:a763 [18647765.001]
  • (PMID = 18684760.001).
  • [ISSN] 1756-1833
  • [Journal-full-title] BMJ (Clinical research ed.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMJ
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
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75. Lens M: Current clinical overview of cutaneous melanoma. Br J Nurs; 2008 Mar 13-26;17(5):300-5
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  • [Title] Current clinical overview of cutaneous melanoma.
  • This article reviews current evidence on epidemiology, diagnosis and management of cutaneous melanoma.
  • Incidence of cutaneous melanoma is rising in all Caucasian populations across the world; thus, melanoma represents a significant public health burden.
  • Although, incidence of melanoma is in continuous increase, a decrease of mortality and improved survival has been observed in most western European populations.
  • Clinical characteristics of four major types of melanoma (superficial spreading, nodular, lentigo maligna melanoma and acral lentiginous melanoma) have been described.
  • Surgical removal of melanoma remains the standard care in all primary melanomas.
  • Wider margins may be necessary in patients with thicker melanomas with higher risk for local recurrence.
  • Currently there is no standard adjuvant therapy for melanoma although interferon-alpha has been the most widely used treatment in the adjuvant setting.
  • Chemotherapeutic agents have a limited activity in patients with metastatic melanoma with response rates up to 25%.
  • Although different vaccines have been tested in melanoma patients their role still remain to be established in phase III trials.
  • Progresses in molecular biology and genetics of melanoma may lead to the development of novel melanoma therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma. Skin Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Cancer Vaccines. Causality. Diagnosis, Differential. Early Diagnosis. Europe / epidemiology. European Continental Ancestry Group / statistics & numerical data. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Mohs Surgery. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18414292.001).
  • [ISSN] 0966-0461
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of nursing (Mark Allen Publishing)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Nurs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cancer Vaccines
  • [Number-of-references] 47
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