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1. Nsubuga MM, Biggar RJ, Combs S, Marshall V, Mbisa G, Kambugu F, Mehta M, Biryahwaho B, Rabkin CS, Whitby D, Mbulaiteye SM: Human herpesvirus 8 load and progression of AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma lesions. Cancer Lett; 2008 May 18;263(2):182-8
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

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  • [Title] Human herpesvirus 8 load and progression of AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma lesions.
  • INTRODUCTION: Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) is necessary for Kaposi sarcoma (KS) to develop, but whether peripheral blood viral load is a marker of KS burden (total number of KS lesions), KS progression (the rate of eruption of new KS lesions), or both is unclear.
  • We investigated these relationships in persons with AIDS.
  • METHODS: Newly diagnosed patients with AIDS-related KS attending Mulago Hospital, in Kampala, Uganda, were assessed for KS burden and progression by questionnaire and medical examination.
  • Associations were examined with odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) from logistic regression models and with t-tests.
  • Median virus load was 3.8 logs10/10(6) peripheral blood cells (IQR 3.4-5.0) and was higher in men than women (4.4 vs. 3.8 logs; p=0.04), in patients with faster (>20 lesions per year) than slower rate of KS lesion eruption (4.5 vs. 3.6 logs; p<0.001), and higher, but not significantly, among patients with more (>median 20 KS lesions) than fewer KS lesions (4.4 vs. 4.0 logs; p=0.16).
  • CONCLUSIONS: We show significant association of HHV8 load in peripheral blood with rate of eruption of KS lesions, but not with total lesion count.
  • Our results suggest that viral load increases concurrently with development of new KS lesions.

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  • (PMID = 18234418.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / N01CO12400; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 CP010150-08; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z01 CP010176-07; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / / Z99 CA999999
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS49037; NLM/ PMC2440724
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2. Little RF, Pluda JM, Wyvill KM, Rodriguez-Chavez IR, Tosato G, Catanzaro AT, Steinberg SM, Yarchoan R: Activity of subcutaneous interleukin-12 in AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma. Blood; 2006 Jun 15;107(12):4650-7
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

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  • [Title] Activity of subcutaneous interleukin-12 in AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma.
  • Interleukin-12 (IL-12) enhances Th1-type T-cell responses and exerts antiangiogenic effects.
  • We initiated a phase 1 pilot study of IL-12 in 32 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related Kaposi sarcoma (KS) whose KS was progressing while on antiretroviral therapy.
  • Fifteen patients had poor prognosis T(1)S(1) disease.
  • These results provide preliminary evidence that IL-12 has substantial activity against AIDS-related KS with acceptable toxicity and warrants further investigation for this indication.

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  • (PMID = 16507779.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / SC / Z01 SC006737-14; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Retroviral Agents; 0 / CXCL10 protein, human; 0 / Chemokine CXCL10; 0 / Chemokines, CXC; 187348-17-0 / Interleukin-12; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma; EC 2.6.1.- / Transaminases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1475826
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3. Little RF, Aleman K, Kumar P, Wyvill KM, Pluda JM, Read-Connole E, Wang V, Pittaluga S, Catanzaro AT, Steinberg SM, Yarchoan R: Phase 2 study of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in combination with interleukin-12 for AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma. Blood; 2007 Dec 15;110(13):4165-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Phase 2 study of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in combination with interleukin-12 for AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma.
  • Thirty-six patients with AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma (KS) requiring chemotherapy were treated for six 3-week cycles of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (20 mg/m(2)) plus interleukin-12 (IL-12; 300 ng/kg subcutaneously twice weekly), followed by 500 ng/kg subcutaneous IL-12 twice weekly for up to 3 years.
  • Twenty-two had poor-prognosis KS (T(1)S(1)).
  • Of 27 patients with residual disease when starting maintenance IL-12, 15 had a new major response compared with this new baseline.
  • The regimen of IL-12 plus liposomal doxorubicin yielded rapid tumor responses and a high response rate in patients with AIDS-KS receiving HAART, and responses were sustained on IL-12 maintenance therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Doxorubicin / analogs & derivatives. Interleukin-12 / administration & dosage. Polyethylene Glycols / administration & dosage. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / drug therapy. Adult. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Chemokine CXCL10 / blood. Drug Therapy, Combination. Humans. Interferon-gamma / blood. Middle Aged. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17846226.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-4971
  • [Journal-full-title] Blood
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Blood
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ClinicalTrials.gov/ NCT00020449
  • [Grant] United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CXCL10 protein, human; 0 / Chemokine CXCL10; 0 / liposomal doxorubicin; 187348-17-0 / Interleukin-12; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2234790
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4. Hiatt KM, Nelson AM, Lichy JH, Fanburg-Smith JC: Classic Kaposi Sarcoma in the United States over the last two decades: a clinicopathologic and molecular study of 438 non-HIV-related Kaposi Sarcoma patients with comparison to HIV-related Kaposi Sarcoma. Mod Pathol; 2008 May;21(5):572-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Classic Kaposi Sarcoma in the United States over the last two decades: a clinicopathologic and molecular study of 438 non-HIV-related Kaposi Sarcoma patients with comparison to HIV-related Kaposi Sarcoma.
  • Classic Kaposi sarcoma is rare and occurs predominantly in Mediterranean and Middle Eastern men.
  • Since the emergence of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related Kaposi sarcoma, the incidence, clinicopathologic features, and molecular human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) association of American Classic Kaposi Sarcoma has not been fully explored.
  • This study compares Classic Kaposi Sarcoma to AIDS-related Kaposi Sarcoma over the same two decade time period.
  • There were 438 histologically and clinically confirmed Classic Kaposi Sarcoma patients.
  • Classic Kaposi Sarcoma was more common in men, 7:1, with a mean age of 74 years.
  • A second, non-Classic Kaposi Sarcoma, malignancy was present in 42% (n=45) of the 108 Classic Kaposi Sarcoma patients with complete clinical information, 73% (33 patients) with a higher incidence over the general population.
  • Follow-up of <1-19 years (mean=4.8 years) revealed that 24% of patients died of second malignancy, 22% died of other medical conditions, 2% died of treatment-related complications, and 2% patients died of widespread disease.
  • Thirty-five percent are alive with no evidence of disease and 15% with persistent disease.
  • Human immunodeficiency virus-related Kaposi Sarcoma was observed in 354 cases.
  • There was a male predominance and more aggressive behavior, with higher rates of visceral and disseminated disease.
  • While Classic Kaposi Sarcoma in the United States is an indolent disease and rarely accounts for patient demise, predominantly affecting Caucasian/American males on the lower extremity in the nodular phase, it more importantly may denote an underlying other malignancy.
  • Current PCR probes detect HHV-8 in 98% of Classic Kaposi Sarcoma cases.
  • In comparison, AIDS-related Kaposi Sarcoma is predominately multicentric, visceral, and disseminated, with more aggressive behavior.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology


5. Nguyen HQ, Magaret AS, Kitahata MM, Van Rompaey SE, Wald A, Casper C: Persistent Kaposi sarcoma in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: characterizing the predictors of clinical response. AIDS; 2008 May 11;22(8):937-45
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

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  • [Title] Persistent Kaposi sarcoma in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: characterizing the predictors of clinical response.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the role of highly active antiretroviral therapy and chemotherapy on tumor response among persons with AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma and identify factors associated with response in a clinic setting.
  • METHODS: One hundred and fourteen patients from two HIV clinics with a diagnosis of Kaposi sarcoma were identified via a clinical database.
  • Records were reviewed to confirm Kaposi sarcoma diagnosis and abstract clinical and chemotherapy information.
  • Cox's proportional hazards models identified predictors of Kaposi sarcoma improvement and resolution.
  • RESULTS: Thirty-six months following Kaposi sarcoma diagnosis, the rate of improvement among 64 patients with confirmed Kaposi sarcoma was 77% and that of complete resolution was 51%.
  • In univariate analyses, recent chemotherapy was associated with Kaposi sarcoma improvement, and recent HIV viral load and highly active antiretroviral therapy were associated with both improvement and resolution.
  • No measured baseline characteristics (tumor stage, diagnosis year, CD4 T-cell count, HIV viral load, or prior highly active antiretroviral therapy history) or recent CD4 T-cell counts predicted improvement or resolution.
  • In multivariate analyses, recent chemotherapy (hazard ratio 5.5, 95% confidence interval: 2.7-11.2, P < 0.001) and highly active antiretroviral therapy (hazard ratio 4.1, 95% confidence interval: 1.4-12.6, P = 0.01) were predictors of improvement; only recent highly active antiretroviral therapy was associated with resolution (hazard ratio 6.2, 95% confidence interval: 1.5-26.4, P = 0.01).
  • Response was not associated with type of highly active antiretroviral therapy regimen (non nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor based, protease inhibitor based, or ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor based).
  • CONCLUSION: Highly active antiretroviral therapy and chemotherapy are important in clinical Kaposi sarcoma response.
  • Despite widespread availability of these therapies, Kaposi sarcoma continues to be a clinical problem; only half the patients achieved complete resolution of disease.

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  • (PMID = 18453853.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5571
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K23 AI054162-02; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K23 AI054162-01; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K23 AI054162-05; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / NIH K23AI54162; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI054162-04; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K23 AI054162; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI054162-01; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / P30 AI027757; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI054162-03; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K24 AI071113; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K23 AI054162-04; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / K23 AI054162-03; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI054162-02; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI054162-05
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS120257; NLM/ PMC2730951
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6. Stebbing J, Mazhar D, Lewis R, Palmieri C, Hatzimichael E, Nelson M, Gazzard B, Bower M: The presentation and survival of patients with non-cutaneous AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma. Ann Oncol; 2006 Mar;17(3):503-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The presentation and survival of patients with non-cutaneous AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Acquired immune deficiency syndrome related Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality.
  • We describe for the first time a proportion of patients with AIDS-KS who presented with no evidence of cutaneous disease.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: From our cohort of 5932 individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) treated in the HAART era, 319 were identified with KS.
  • Of these, 11 patients (5.4%) were diagnosed with KS without the presence of any cutaneous disease.
  • We compared their survival, clinical, immunological and virological characteristics to other individuals with KS.
  • RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences in survival, CD4 count or HIV viral load at KS presentation.
  • We observed that tumour-associated oedema (P = 0.046) and non-oral gastrointestinal KS (P = 0.042) were significantly more common in patients with non-cutaneous KS.
  • Only one case of non-cutaneous KS was observed prior to the era of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Non-cutaneous KS is a recognisable condition; patients should be treated with the standard of care as their prognosis is not inferior.
  • This is likely to reflect a strong immune response, in the era of HAART.

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  • (PMID = 16311274.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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7. Meditz AL, Borok M, MaWhinney S, Gudza I, Ndemera B, Gwanzura L, Campbell TB: Gender differences in AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma in Harare, Zimbabwe. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr; 2007 Mar 1;44(3):306-8
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  • [Title] Gender differences in AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma in Harare, Zimbabwe.
  • Reasons for gender-related differences in the risk of AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma (AIDS-KS) are unknown.
  • Four hundred thirty-eight male and 166 female AIDS-KS patients were evaluated in Harare, Zimbabwe.
  • Female patients were younger than male patients in this study (median of 33 vs. 38 years; P < 0.001), mirroring the epidemiology of AIDS in Zimbabwe.
  • These findings suggest an increased severity of KS or other unidentified infections among women with AIDS-KS in Zimbabwe.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / physiopathology. HIV Infections / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / physiopathology. Sex Characteristics

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  • (PMID = 17146369.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-4135
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI 054907; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 79389; United States / FIC NIH HHS / TW / TW 0123
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Bahl S, Theis B, Nishri D, Marrett LD: Changing incidence of AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Ontario, Canada. Cancer Causes Control; 2008 Dec;19(10):1251-8
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  • [Title] Changing incidence of AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Ontario, Canada.
  • OBJECTIVE: To examine the influence of the AIDS epidemic on the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in Ontario.
  • METHODS: Age-standardized incidence rates for KS and NHL from 1981 to 2000 were calculated from the population-based Ontario Cancer Registry.
  • AIDS cases were extracted from Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care reports.
  • HIV death data were obtained from the Ontario Cancer Registry.
  • RESULTS: KS was a rare cancer before the 1980s; however, incidence increased sharply between 1985 and 1995 by 13.8% per year.
  • NHL and KS cases represented one-third of HIV deaths.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The AIDS epidemic, the introduction of antiretroviral therapies, and the decrease in HIV infection rates explain the rise and decline of KS incidence in Ontario.
  • NHL incidence trends are more complex, although the AIDS epidemic explains the trends observed in younger men (in whom AIDS is more common), and for the AIDS-related subtypes.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / epidemiology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / epidemiology. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / epidemiology. Population Surveillance. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology


9. Borok M, Fiorillo S, Gudza I, Putnam B, Ndemera B, White IE, Gwanzura L, Schooley RT, Campbell TB: Evaluation of plasma human herpesvirus 8 DNA as a marker of clinical outcomes during antiretroviral therapy for AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma in Zimbabwe. Clin Infect Dis; 2010 Aug 1;51(3):342-9
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  • [Title] Evaluation of plasma human herpesvirus 8 DNA as a marker of clinical outcomes during antiretroviral therapy for AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma in Zimbabwe.
  • BACKGROUND: The usefulness of plasma human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) DNA as a marker of response to treatment for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated Kaposi sarcoma (AIDS-KS) in an African setting is unknown.
  • METHODS: We conducted a prospective pilot study at the Parirenyatwa Hospital Kaposi Sarcoma Clinic (Harare, Zimbabwe) to investigate the hypothesis that the clinical response of AIDS-KS is associated with suppression of HHV-8 DNA.
  • Clinical response was defined as survival to week 96 with either complete or partial resolution of KS disease.
  • RESULTS: Ninety ART-naive participants (62 men and 28 women) aged >18 years who had human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and biopsy-confirmed KS were studied; 82% had stage T1 disease.
  • The median CD4(+) lymphocyte count increased from 124 cells/microL at baseline to 281 cells/microL, the plasma HIV-1 RNA level decreased from 4.69 to <2.60 log(10) copies/mL, the plasma HHV-8 DNA level decreased from 660 to <25 copies/mL, and HHV-8 DNA level in peripheral blood mononuclear cells decreased from 2790 to 37 copies/10(6) cells (P < .001 for each comparison).
  • Clinical response of KS occurred in 17 participants (19%).
  • Pretreatment plasma HHV-8 DNA levels of <660 copies/mL were associated with greater survival (odds ratio, 2.83; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-7.53; P = .04) and a better clinical response (odds ratio, 6.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.68-24.19; P = .006).
  • CONCLUSIONS: AIDS-KS tumor responses after ART initiation were limited.
  • Pretreatment plasma HHV-8 DNA level may be a surrogate for KS disease that is in need of intensive clinical management.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. DNA, Viral / blood. Drug Monitoring / methods. Herpesvirus 8, Human / genetics. Plasma / virology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 20572760.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-6591
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAAA NIH HHS / AA / AA054907
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / DNA, Viral
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10. da Silva Filho FP, Marchiori E, Valiante PM, Escuissato DL, Gasparetto TD: AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma of the lung presenting with a "crazy-paving" pattern on high-resolution CT: imaging and pathologic findings. J Thorac Imaging; 2008 May;23(2):135-7
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  • [Title] AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma of the lung presenting with a "crazy-paving" pattern on high-resolution CT: imaging and pathologic findings.
  • Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a fulminate and disseminated form of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining neoplasm, usually presenting pulmonary involvement.
  • We report a 40-year-old woman with AIDS and biopsy-proven KS showing unusual high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings.
  • The authors suggest the inclusion of KS in the differential diagnosis of lung diseases in patients with AIDS presenting with crazy-paving pattern on the HRCT.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Lung / radiography. Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Kaposi / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Dyspnea / etiology. Female. Hemorrhage / etiology. Humans. Pulmonary Edema / etiology


11. Vanni T, Sprinz E, Machado MW, Santana Rde C, Fonseca BA, Schwartsmann G: Systemic treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma: current status and perspectives. Cancer Treat Rev; 2006 Oct;32(6):445-55
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Systemic treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma: current status and perspectives.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the most frequent type of cancer in patients with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS).
  • In contrast, the incidence of KS has been steadily climbing in parallel with the AIDS epidemic in Africa over the past 10-15 years, being the most common cancer in adult men in countries like Uganda and Zimbabwe.
  • AIDS-KS can be diagnosed at any stage of HIV infection, although it more commonly occurs in the setting of severe immune suppression, especially with an elevated viral load.
  • Up to now, AIDS-KS is still an incurable disease.
  • Its clinical course is variable, ranging from very indolent cases, requiring no or minimal therapy, to a rapidly progressive disease.
  • Various local therapies are available to control small and asymptomatic lesions, while cytotoxic, immunological and biological therapies can be considered for more aggressive disease.
  • Optimal anti-retroviral therapy is a key component of AIDS-KS management.
  • There are still many questions to be answered in the management of patients with AIDS-KS, such as (1) What are the therapeutic agents that should be used in this disease, and in which sequence?
  • The aim of this review is to discuss the systemic management of AIDS-KS, with special focus on the above mentioned questions.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology

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  • (PMID = 16860939.001).
  • [ISSN] 0305-7372
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer treatment reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Treat. Rev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anthracyclines; 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Liposomes; 9008-11-1 / Interferons; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
  • [Number-of-references] 78
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12. Potthoff A, Brockmeyer NH: HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma: pathogenesis and therapy. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges; 2007 Dec;5(12):1091-4
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  • [Title] HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma: pathogenesis and therapy.
  • While classical Kaposi sarcoma is a slowly progressing tumor, AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma is much more aggressive.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / etiology. Skin Neoplasms / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Herpesvirus 8, Human / pathogenicity. Humans. Risk Factors. Virulence

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  • (PMID = 17944950.001).
  • [ISSN] 1610-0387
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft = Journal of the German Society of Dermatology : JDDG
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Dtsch Dermatol Ges
  • [Language] eng; ger
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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13. Joerger M, Huitema AD, Meenhorst PL, Schellens JH, Beijnen JH: Pharmacokinetics of low-dose doxorubicin and metabolites in patients with AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol; 2005 May;55(5):488-96
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  • [Title] Pharmacokinetics of low-dose doxorubicin and metabolites in patients with AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma.
  • PURPOSE: Systemic chemotherapy is the treatment of choice for AIDS-related advanced Kaposi sarcoma.
  • We analysed the plasma concentrations of low-dose doxorubicin (Dx) and its metabolites doxorubicinol, 7-deoxydoxorubicinone, doxorubicinone, doxorubicinolone, and 7-deoxydoxorubicinolone in AIDS-patients to define patient-group and dose-specific pharmacokinetic parameters.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: A previously described high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method and a population approach with non-linear mixed effects modelling (NONMEM) were used for analysis and subsequent modelling of the time-concentration data of low-dose Dx and metabolites in seven patients with AIDS-related advanced Kaposi sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / metabolism. Doxorubicin / pharmacokinetics. Sarcoma, Kaposi / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15726371.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-5704
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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14. Mbulaiteye SM, Sternberg LR, Nsubuga MM, Anver MR, Mehta M, Biryahwaho B, Kambugu F, Rabkin CS, Biggar RJ: Absence of Y-chromosome sequences in tumors from African women with AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma. Cancer Lett; 2007 Apr 18;248(2):229-33
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  • [Title] Absence of Y-chromosome sequences in tumors from African women with AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma.
  • Kaposi sarcoma (KS) occurs with relatively high frequency in immunosuppressed transplant recipients and in patients with AIDS.
  • Recently, Italian investigators reported transplant-related KS tumors bearing donor-derived antigens, suggesting possible parenteral transmission of KS as whole cells, i.e., chimeric tumors.
  • To investigate the hypothesis that KS whole cells may also be transmitted into immunocompromised persons via heterosexual acts, we tested nodular KS lesions and matched normal tissue obtained from female patients with AIDS for the presence of the Y-chromosome specific sex determining sequence (SRY).
  • While our results do not exclude sexual cellular transmission of whole KS cells, they suggest that if it occurs, it is rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Disease Transmission, Infectious. Sarcoma, Kaposi / genetics. Sex-Determining Region Y Protein / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16934394.001).
  • [ISSN] 0304-3835
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CO / N01 CO12400; United States / Intramural NIH HHS / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / Sex-Determining Region Y Protein
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15. Krown SE, Lee JY, Lin L, Fischl MA, Ambinder R, Von Roenn JH: Interferon-alpha2b with protease inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy in patients with AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma: an AIDS malignancy consortium phase I trial. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr; 2006 Feb 1;41(2):149-53
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  • [Title] Interferon-alpha2b with protease inhibitor-based antiretroviral therapy in patients with AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma: an AIDS malignancy consortium phase I trial.
  • We evaluated the safety and maximum tolerated dose of interferon (IFN)-alpha2b in combination with protease inhibitor-based highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in a phase 1 study in 14 patients with AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma (KS).
  • In 6 patients with paired baseline and on-study values, the median HIV RNA level decreased from 20,179 copies/mL to a minimum on-study value of 309 copies/mL.
  • Of 13 patients whose KS response could be evaluated, 5 showed objective tumor regression.
  • Five patients, including 2 responders, 2 with stable KS, and 1 with progression, had serial measurements of Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) load.
  • None of these patients, irrespective of treatment arm or KS response, showed durable clearance of KSHV from plasma or peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
  • This study establishes a safe dose of IFN that can be used with HAART and, potentially, with other inhibitors of KS in future clinical trials.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / drug therapy. Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. HIV Protease Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Herpesvirus 8, Human. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16394845.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-4135
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of acquired immune deficiency syndromes (1999)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / UO1-CA70081; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / UO1-CA71375; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / UO1CA70019; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / UO1CA70047; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / UO1CA70054; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / UO1CA70062; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / UO1CA70068; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / UO1CA70080
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / HIV Protease Inhibitors; 0 / Interferon-alpha; 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 99210-65-8 / interferon alfa-2b
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16. Marquart KH: Electron microscopy reveals fungal cells within tumor tissue from two African patients with AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma. Ultrastruct Pathol; 2006 May-Jun;30(3):187-92
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  • [Title] Electron microscopy reveals fungal cells within tumor tissue from two African patients with AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma.
  • Electron microscopic investigation of biopsy materials from Kaposi sarcoma (KS) skin lesions of 2 African AIDS patients occasionally revealed fungal cells within the tumor tissue.
  • The presence of Candida albicans in the KS tissue specimens seems to represent an early and asymptomatic stage of cutaneous candidiasis in the 2 severely immunocompromised AIDS patients.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / microbiology. Candida albicans / isolation & purification. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission / methods. Sarcoma, Kaposi / microbiology. Skin Neoplasms / microbiology

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  • (PMID = 16825120.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-0758
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrastructural pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrastruct Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Di Lorenzo G, Konstantinopoulos PA, Pantanowitz L, Di Trolio R, De Placido S, Dezube BJ: Management of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. Lancet Oncol; 2007 Feb;8(2):167-76
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has lead to a substantial reduction in the prevalence, morbidity, and mortality associated with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Similarly, concomitant advances in chemotherapy and supportive-care protocols have allowed for Kaposi's sarcoma to be managed more effectively in comparison with the pre-HAART era.
  • Furthermore, developments in our understanding of the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma have identified several molecular targets that can potentially provide new therapeutic strategies.
  • This Review discusses the role of conventional chemotherapeutic and immunomodulatory agents in the treatment of Kaposi's sarcoma and summarises the current status and future prospects of novel molecularly targeted agents in the treatment of this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy


18. Koon HB, Bubley GJ, Pantanowitz L, Masiello D, Smith B, Crosby K, Proper J, Weeden W, Miller TE, Chatis P, Egorin MJ, Tahan SR, Dezube BJ: Imatinib-induced regression of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. J Clin Oncol; 2005 Feb 10;23(5):982-9
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. IMATINIB MESYLATE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Imatinib-induced regression of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • PURPOSE: Activation of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and c-kit receptors has been proposed as important in mediating the growth of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (KS).
  • We investigated the response of KS to the PDGF receptor (PDGFR)/c-kit inhibitor, imatinib mesylate, and investigated the effect of this therapy on critical signal transduction intermediates.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ten male patients with AIDS-related cutaneous KS, which progressed despite chemotherapy and/or highly active antiretroviral therapy, received imatinib mesylate administered orally, 300 mg twice daily.
  • CONCLUSION: Imatinib mesylate administered orally twice daily for AIDS-related KS results in clinical and histologic regression of cutaneous KS lesions within 4 weeks.
  • These promising results demonstrate that inhibition of the c-kit and/or PDGF receptors may represent an effective strategy for treating KS.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / drug therapy. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Piperazines / therapeutic use. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Pyrimidines / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15572730.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K12CA077846-03
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrimidines; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate; EC 2.7.10.1 / Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor
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19. Chu K, Misinde D, Massaquoi M, Pasulani O, Mwagomba B, Ford N, Zachariah R: Risk factors for mortality in AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma in a primary care antiretroviral treatment program in Malawi. Int Health; 2010 Jun;2(2):99-102

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Risk factors for mortality in AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma in a primary care antiretroviral treatment program in Malawi.
  • AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma (AIDS-KS) is the most common HIV-related malignancy.
  • This retrospective cohort study describes characteristics of patients with AIDS-KS and factors associated with mortality in an antiretroviral treatment (ART) program in rural Malawi.
  • Of 11 122 patients enrolled on ART, 830 (7%) had AIDS-KS.
  • Patients with AIDS-KS were more likely to be lost to follow-up (22% versus 14%, P < 0.001) and showed a higher mortality (22% versus 10%, P < 0.001) compared to patients without AIDS-KS.
  • A CD4 count ≤150 cells/μl, advanced stage AIDS-KS, and absence of bleomycin chemotherapy were associated with increased mortality.
  • Earlier diagnosis and improved treatment of AIDS-KS are urgently needed in order to reduce mortality.

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  • (PMID = 24037469.001).
  • [ISSN] 1876-3413
  • [Journal-full-title] International health
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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20. Kanmogne GD: Noninfectious pulmonary complications of HIV/AIDS. Curr Opin Pulm Med; 2005 May;11(3):208-12
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Noninfectious pulmonary complications of HIV/AIDS.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article reviews recent findings on noninfectious pulmonary complications of HIV/AIDS, with a focus on HIV/AIDS-related lung malignancies and pulmonary hypertension, and discusses their incidence in the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Noninfectious pulmonary complications of HIV/AIDS are now recognized as important contributors to morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected patients.
  • This is especially the case for HIV-related lung cancer and other non-AIDS-defining malignancies, which are now being diagnosed with increased frequency in HIV-infected patients.
  • The incidence of Kaposi sarcoma and AIDS-related lymphoma has decreased in the HAART era, but compared with the general population, the risk of these malignancies and pulmonary hypertension is still very high in HIV-infected patients.
  • Concurrent use of HAART and chemotherapy improves prognosis and survival of patients with AIDS-related lymphoma.
  • For patients with HIV-related pulmonary hypertension, some studies show no beneficial effect of HAART whereas other reports show that HAART improves patient survival and response to antihypertensive treatment.
  • SUMMARY: The beneficial effect of HAART and improved immune response on the treatment of Kaposi sarcoma and AIDS-related lymphoma suggests that HIV or viral-induced immunosuppression plays an important role in the development of these malignancies.
  • Evidence from current studies suggests that HAART does not protect against HIV-related lung cancer.
  • The full impact of HAART on HIV pulmonary hypertension remains to be determined.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / epidemiology. Hypertension, Pulmonary / epidemiology. Lung Neoplasms / epidemiology. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Comorbidity. Female. HIV Infections / diagnosis. HIV Infections / drug therapy. HIV Infections / epidemiology. Humans. Incidence. Male. Prognosis. Severity of Illness Index. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 15818181.001).
  • [ISSN] 1070-5287
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in pulmonary medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Pulm Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIMH NIH HHS / MH / 1KO1MH068214-1
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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21. Venkatarajan S, Glaich AS, Ostler DA, Hsu S: A case of Kaposi sarcoma mimicking nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. Dermatol Online J; 2009;15(12):6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A case of Kaposi sarcoma mimicking nephrogenic systemic fibrosis.
  • Kaposi sarcoma is a neoplasm commonly seen in HIV patients.
  • In AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma, small red papules or nodules initially present on the face, especially on the nose, and the trunk, that then rapidly spread to other areas.
  • We present an unusual case of AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma mimicking nephrogenic systemic fibrosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Nephrogenic Fibrosing Dermopathy / pathology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male

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  • [CommentIn] Dermatol Online J. 2010;16(3):13 [20233570.001]
  • (PMID = 20040256.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Vanni T, Fonseca BA, Polanczyk CA: Cost-effectiveness analysis comparing chemotherapy regimens in the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma in Brazil. HIV Clin Trials; 2006 Jul-Aug;7(4):194-202
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  • [Title] Cost-effectiveness analysis comparing chemotherapy regimens in the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma in Brazil.
  • BACKGROUND: Economic analyses of agents used in the treatment of AIDS and opportunistic diseases are particularly important in developing countries.
  • PURPOSE: To analyze the cost-effectiveness of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS) chemotherapy regimens in Brazil.
  • CONCLUSION: ABV seems to be the most reasonable treatment option for AIDS-KS patients in resource-limited countries like Brazil.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / drug therapy. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / economics. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / economics. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / economics. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / economics

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  • (PMID = 17065031.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-4336
  • [Journal-full-title] HIV clinical trials
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HIV Clin Trials
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibiotics, Antineoplastic; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 0 / Liposomes; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; ZS7284E0ZP / Daunorubicin
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23. Petersen B, Jemec GB: Alitretinoin--its use in intractable hand eczema and other potential indications. Drug Des Devel Ther; 2009;3:51-7

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  • In addition, alitretinoin appears to have some potential in the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma.

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  • (PMID = 19920921.001).
  • [ISSN] 1177-8881
  • [Journal-full-title] Drug design, development and therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Drug Des Devel Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2769244
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; alitretinoin / dermatitis / eczema / hand
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24. Jinno S, Goshima C: Progression of Kaposi sarcoma associated with iatrogenic Cushing syndrome in a person with HIV/AIDS. AIDS Read; 2008 Feb;18(2):100-4
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  • [Title] Progression of Kaposi sarcoma associated with iatrogenic Cushing syndrome in a person with HIV/AIDS.
  • This case report describes an exacerbation of AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma (KS) in the setting of iatrogenic Cushing syndrome caused by an interaction between ritonavir-boosted atazanavir and fluticasone.
  • Discontinuation of fluticasone resulted in resolution of the cutaneous KS.
  • Inhaled corticosteroids should be used cautiously in persons with HIV/AIDS who have a history of KS and are being treated with a boosted atazanavir regimen because this can potentially exacerbate KS.
  • [MeSH-major] Androstadienes / adverse effects. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / adverse effects. Cushing Syndrome. HIV Infections. HIV Protease Inhibitors / adverse effects. Sarcoma, Kaposi / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Atazanavir Sulfate. Drug Interactions. Fluticasone. Humans. Iatrogenic Disease. Male. Middle Aged. Oligopeptides / adverse effects. Pyridines / adverse effects. Ritonavir / adverse effects


25. Udhrain A, Skubitz KM, Northfelt DW: Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. Int J Nanomedicine; 2007;2(3):345-52
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin in the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma is a vascular tumor of skin and viscera first described in 1872.
  • Prior to the 1980s, this disease was rarely seen in the Western world, but was quite prevalent in Sub-Saharan African countries.
  • Since the onset of the HIV pandemic in the 1980s, the incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma has increased markedly in Africa and continues to be a significant problem in association with AIDS in Western countries.
  • Many therapies have been demonstrated to be effective in the treatment of HIV-related Kaposi's sarcoma, including alitretinoin gel, interferon alpha, and various forms of cytotoxic chemotherapy.
  • However, as reviewed in this report, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin has been established as the treatment of choice for patients with AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in Western countries.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy. Drug Carriers / chemistry. Herpesvirus 8, Human / drug effects. Liposomes / chemistry. Nanostructures / administration & dosage. Polyethylene Glycols / chemistry. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18019833.001).
  • [ISSN] 1176-9114
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of nanomedicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Nanomedicine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Carriers; 0 / Liposomes; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols
  • [Number-of-references] 35
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2676669
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26. Mayor AM, Gómez MA, Ríos-Olivares E, Hunter-Mellado RF: AIDS-defining neoplasm prevalence in a cohort of HIV-infected patients, before and after highly active antiretroviral therapy. Ethn Dis; 2008;18(2 Suppl 2):S2-189-94
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  • [Title] AIDS-defining neoplasm prevalence in a cohort of HIV-infected patients, before and after highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • INTRODUCTION: Malignant disorders have been linked to the HIV epidemic from its onset.
  • Implementation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has resulted in a dramatic reduction in the HIV/AIDS morbidity and mortality.
  • The present study evaluates the neoplasm prevalence before and after the implementation of HAART.
  • METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 171 HIV-infected adults who were followed in Puerto Rico from May 1992 through December 2005.
  • Neoplasm prevalence was measured, and the difference in AIDS- and non-AIDS-defining neoplasms was analyzed before and after the HAART era.
  • RESULTS: Malignant neoplasms were detected in 171 patients (4.8%).
  • Of these, 51.5% were AIDS-defining neoplasms, and 68% were established before HAART.
  • AIDS-defining neoplasms accounted for 62.4% of those detected before the availability of HAART and 25.9% of those detected after HAART.
  • Except for cervical carcinoma, the prevalence of AIDS-defining neoplasms decreased after HAART.
  • Non-AIDS lymphomas and prostate neoplasms were more frequent after HAART.
  • DISCUSSION: Our study found a significant reduction of Kaposi sarcoma and AIDS-related lymphoma in the HAART era of the AIDS epidemic.
  • A higher prevalence of non-AIDS-defining lymphomas, prostate carcinoma, and cervical carcinoma was seen in the HAART era.
  • Preventive strategies that include screening tests, vaccination, and lifestyle modification should be routinely applied in HIV-infected patients.

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  • (PMID = 18646347.001).
  • [ISSN] 1049-510X
  • [Journal-full-title] Ethnicity & disease
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ethn Dis
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIMHD NIH HHS / MD / G12 MD007583; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / U54 RR019507; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / G12RR03035; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / 1U54RR01950701; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / G12 RR003035
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS425729; NLM/ PMC3546505
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27. Kalpidis CD, Lysitsa SN, Lombardi T, Kolokotronis AE, Antoniades DZ, Samson J: Gingival involvement in a case series of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related Kaposi sarcoma. J Periodontol; 2006 Mar;77(3):523-33
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  • [Title] Gingival involvement in a case series of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related Kaposi sarcoma.
  • BACKGROUND: This case series presents the polymorphic clinical characteristics of gingival acquired immunodeficieny syndrome (AIDS)-related Kaposi sarcoma (KS), a malignancy that is gradually becoming uncommon in developed nations.
  • An up-to-date overview of the related epidemiology, etiopathogenesis, histopathology, and treatment is provided, along with a pictorial guide to ease clinical diagnosis.
  • Thirty-two cases diagnosed with oral AIDS-related KS were retrieved between 1991 and 2004.
  • KS diagnosis was established histologically by incisional biopsies from intraoral lesions.
  • RESULTS: Thirteen patients (12 males and one female) presented with KS gingival involvement (40.6%).
  • The mean age of the patients at the time of intraoral KS diagnosis was 42.1 years, and the mean CD4 cell count was 103 (0 to 481).
  • Gingival epidemic KS presented with various degrees of pigmentation and a wide range of clinical patterns, from relatively flat macules (early stage) to tumors with variable nodular morphology (advanced disease).
  • Solitary or multiple gingival involvement may appear concomitantly with palatal and/or cutaneous lesions.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Even though the incidence of intraoral KS had fallen precipitously in developed countries after the mid-1990s, gingival KS should be considered in the differential diagnosis of every pigmented gingival lesion.
  • Periodontists are in a unique position to identify gingival involvement of intraoral KS and facilitate early diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / pathology. Gingival Neoplasms / pathology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Africa / epidemiology. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Herpesvirus 8, Human. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mouth Mucosa / pathology. Palatal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Palatal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Palatal Neoplasms / pathology. Palatal Neoplasms / virology. Retrospective Studies. United States / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 16512768.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3492
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of periodontology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Periodontol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Stebbing J, Sanitt A, Teague A, Powles T, Nelson M, Gazzard B, Bower M: Prognostic significance of immune subset measurement in individuals with AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma. J Clin Oncol; 2007 Jun 1;25(16):2230-5
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  • [Title] Prognostic significance of immune subset measurement in individuals with AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • PURPOSE: A prognostic index for AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) diagnosed in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was based on routine clinical and laboratory characteristics.
  • Because immune subset measurement is often performed in HIV-positive individuals, we examined whether these were predictive of mortality independently of the prognostic index, or could predict time to progression of KS.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We performed univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses on a data set of 326 individuals with AIDS-associated KS to identify immune subset covariates predictive of overall survival and time to progression.
  • Adaptive (CD8 T cell and CD19 B cell) and innate (CD16/56 natural-killer cell) immune parameters were studied by flow cytometry.
  • RESULTS: In univariate analyses, all three immune subsets had significant effects on overall survival (P < .025).
  • Patients who were already on HAART at the time of KS diagnosis did not have a shorter time to progression than those who were antiretroviral naïve at KS diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSION: The CD8 count appears to provide independent prognostic information in individuals with AIDS-associated KS.
  • Measurement of the CD8 count is clinically useful in patients with KS.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / mortality

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  • (PMID = 17470847.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD19; 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / FCGR3B protein, human; 0 / GPI-Linked Proteins; 0 / Receptors, IgG
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29. Cooley T, Henry D, Tonda M, Sun S, O'Connell M, Rackoff W: A randomized, double-blind study of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin for the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. Oncologist; 2007 Jan;12(1):114-23
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  • [Title] A randomized, double-blind study of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin for the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Despite a decreased incidence of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) due to the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy, approximately 15% of AIDS patients still develop AIDS-related KS.
  • This study evaluated the clinical benefit, tumor response, and safety of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin for the treatment of AIDS-related KS.
  • METHODS: This was a double-blind, multicenter study that randomized patients with AIDS-related KS to six cycles of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (20 mg/m2; n = 60) or liposomal daunorubicin (40 mg/m2; n = 19) every 2 weeks.
  • Clinical benefit was assessed using patient questionnaires and monitoring of KS-associated symptoms.
  • Adverse events associated with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin were neutropenia (30%), nausea (28.3%), and asthenia (16.7%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin is safe and effective for the treatment of AIDS-related KS, with most patients experiencing clinical benefit, tumor response, or both.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Doxorubicin / analogs & derivatives. Polyethylene Glycols / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy


30. Lim ST, Tupule A, Espina BM, Levine AM: Weekly docetaxel is safe and effective in the treatment of advanced-stage acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related Kaposi sarcoma. Cancer; 2005 Jan 15;103(2):417-21
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  • [Title] Weekly docetaxel is safe and effective in the treatment of advanced-stage acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related Kaposi sarcoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Intravenous paclitaxel, 100 mg/m(2), given over 3 hours every 2 weeks is associated with a response rate of 59% in patients with recurrent or refractory acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related Kaposi sarcoma (KS).
  • However, this regimen is associated with significant myelosuppression, and the inconvenience of a 3-hour infusion.
  • A Phase II trial was conducted with weekly docetaxel in patients with advanced-stage KS to assess safety and antitumor activity.
  • Thereafter, if the patient experienced stable disease or better response, treatment doses were given every other week until complete disease remission, disease progression, or unacceptable toxicity occurred.
  • Treatment was well tolerated, with no Grade 4 toxicity of any type.
  • The median time to disease progression was 26 months (range, 5-53 months).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Weekly docetaxel is safe, with reasonable antitumor activity in patients with advanced-stage, recurrent, or refractory AIDS-related KS.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Taxoids / administration & dosage
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Risk Assessment. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome


31. Aversa SM, Cattelan AM, Salvagno L, Crivellari G, Banna G, Trevenzoli M, Chiarion-Sileni V, Monfardini S: Treatments of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol; 2005 Mar;53(3):253-65
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  • [Title] Treatments of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Although Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) has decreased in countries where the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen is available, however it remains, after non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, the most common malignancy in HIV+ patients.
  • Advances in the treatment of AIDS-KS have been achieved, even though a gold standard therapy has not been yet defined.
  • With the availability of HAART, a dramatic KS clinical response has been documented, making HAART essential in all patients.
  • In case of aggressive and/or life threatening KS, more complex therapeutic schedules have to be taken into account, including chemotherapy and/or immunotherapy.
  • Finally, the identification of the HHV-8 as a causative agent and new metalloproteinase inhibitors may offer promising targets for the KS treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Disease Management. Humans

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  • (PMID = 15718150.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8428
  • [Journal-full-title] Critical reviews in oncology/hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antiviral Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 136
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32. Dezube BJ, Sullivan R, Koon HB: Emerging targets and novel strategies in the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma: bidirectional translational science. J Cell Physiol; 2006 Dec;209(3):659-62
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  • [Title] Emerging targets and novel strategies in the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma: bidirectional translational science.
  • This mini-review focuses on the signal transduction pathways of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and on how the knowledge of such pathways has led to the rational development of molecularly targeted pathogenesis-driven therapies.
  • Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) related-KS results from co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus and KS herpesvirus/human herpesvirus-8 (KSHV/HHV8), which leads to the development of an angiogenic-inflammatory state that is critical in the pathogenesis of KS.
  • KS is driven by KSHV/HHV8-specific pathways, which include viral G protein-coupled receptor (vGPCR), viral interleukin-6 (vIL-6), and viral chemokine homologues.
  • As a very tangible example of how translational research has led to a marked improvement in patient outcome, the signal transduction inhibitor imatinib (a tyrosine kinase inhibitor of c-kit and PDGF) was administered to patients with KS whose tumors were serially biopsied.
  • Recent and future clinical trials of molecularly targeted therapy for the treatment of KS are a prelude to a shift in the paradigm of how KS is managed.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / therapy. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Protein Biosynthesis. Sarcoma, Kaposi
  • [MeSH-minor] Clinical Trials as Topic. Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. HIV-1. Herpesvirus 8, Human / genetics. Herpesvirus 8, Human / metabolism. Herpesvirus 8, Human / pathogenicity. Humans. Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / metabolism. Interleukin-6 / immunology. Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors. Matrix Metalloproteinases / metabolism. Neovascularization, Pathologic. Receptors, Chemokine / genetics. Receptors, Chemokine / immunology. Receptors, Chemokine / metabolism. Viral Proteins / genetics. Viral Proteins / immunology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17001705.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9541
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cellular physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cell. Physiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / G protein-coupled receptor, Human herpesvirus 8; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Interleukin-6; 0 / Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors; 0 / Receptors, Chemokine; 0 / Viral Proteins; EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinases
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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33. Nascimento MC, Wilder N, Pannuti CS, Weiss HA, Mayaud P: Molecular characterization of Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) from patients with AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in Sao Paulo, Brazil. J Clin Virol; 2005 May;33(1):52-9
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  • [Title] Molecular characterization of Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV) from patients with AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in Sao Paulo, Brazil.
  • BACKGROUND: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is caused by Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV/HHV-8), the eighth Herpesvirus found to infect humans.
  • The molecular epidemiology of KSHV is related closely to ethnicity and geographical location of studied populations.
  • OBJECTIVES: To characterize KSHV strains isolated from AIDS patients with Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS) in Sao Paulo, Brazil, and to examine associations between KSHV subtypes, ethnicity and HIV risk categories.
  • METHODS: AIDS-KS patients were recruited consecutively at the largest AIDS reference hospital in Sao Paulo.
  • Sexual orientation was associated with subtype: 12/14 (86%) patients with subtype A were male homo/bisexual, compared with 3/8 (38%) among patients infected with subtype C (P = 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This first detailed report of KSHV subtypes among AIDS-KS patients in Brazil reports the first isolation of KSHV subtype A5 in this country, and suggests KSHV strain transmission between different ethnic groups, and association of specific strains with sexual orientation.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / epidemiology. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / virology. Herpesvirus 8, Human / classification. Herpesvirus 8, Human / genetics. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology

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  • (PMID = 15797365.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-6532
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical virology : the official publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] GENBANK/ AY377992/ AY377993/ AY377994/ AY377995/ AY377996/ AY377997/ AY377998/ AY377999/ AY378000/ AY378001/ AY378002/ AY378003/ AY378004/ AY378005/ AY378006/ AY378007/ AY378008/ AY378009/ AY378010/ AY378011/ AY378012/ AY378013/ AY378014/ AY378015/ AY378016/ AY378017/ AY378018/ AY378019/ AY378020/ AY378021/ AY378022/ AY378023/ AY378024
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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34. Stebbing J, Sanitt A, Nelson M, Powles T, Gazzard B, Bower M: A prognostic index for AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Lancet; 2006 May 6;367(9521):1495-502
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  • [Title] A prognostic index for AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • BACKGROUND: AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma remains common in individuals with HIV-1 infection in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).
  • We developed a simple model for predicting mortality on the basis of clinical characteristics present at the time of diagnosis of Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • METHODS: Of 5873 individuals with HIV-1 infection, 326 (6%) developed Kaposi's sarcoma; for 262 (80%) this was their first AIDS-defining illness.
  • We did univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses to identify covariates predictive of overall survival and validated our model with an independent data set of 446 patients with Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Having Kaposi's sarcoma as the AIDS-defining illness (-3 points) and increasing CD4 count (-1 point for every complete 100 cells per mm3) improved prognosis; age of 50 years or older (2 points) and having another AIDS-associated illness at the same time (3 points) conveyed a poorer prognosis.
  • INTERPRETATION: We identified four prognostic factors that can be used to obtain an accurate prognostic index at diagnosis of AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. HIV-1. Sarcoma, Kaposi


35. Duprez R, Kassa-Kelembho E, Plancoulaine S, Brière J, Fossi M, Kobangue L, Minsart P, Huerre M, Gessain A: Human herpesvirus 8 serological markers and viral load in patients with AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in Central African Republic. J Clin Microbiol; 2005 Sep;43(9):4840-3
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  • [Title] Human herpesvirus 8 serological markers and viral load in patients with AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in Central African Republic.
  • Epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is one of the most frequent types of cancer in several African countries; however, very few data are available on human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) markers in KS patients from Central Africa.
  • In a series of 36 AIDS-KS cases from Central African Republic, we showed, using a real-time PCR quantitative assay, the high frequency (82%) of detectable HHV-8 DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs).
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / virology. Antibodies, Viral / blood. DNA, Viral / blood. Herpesvirus 8, Human / isolation & purification. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology. Skin Neoplasms / virology. Viral Load
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antigens, Viral / immunology. Central African Republic. Child. Female. HIV Infections. Humans. Leukocytes, Mononuclear / virology. Male. Middle Aged. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Skin / virology

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  • (PMID = 16145154.001).
  • [ISSN] 0095-1137
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Microbiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Viral; 0 / Antigens, Viral; 0 / DNA, Viral
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1234088
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36. Chu KM, Mahlangeni G, Swannet S, Ford NP, Boulle A, Van Cutsem G: AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma is linked to advanced disease and high mortality in a primary care HIV programme in South Africa. J Int AIDS Soc; 2010;13:23
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma is linked to advanced disease and high mortality in a primary care HIV programme in South Africa.
  • BACKGROUND: AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma is an important, life-threatening opportunistic infection among people living with HIV/AIDS in resource-limited settings.
  • In western countries, the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and new chemotherapeutic agents has resulted in decreased incidence and improved prognosis of AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • In this study, we describe disease characteristics and risk factors for mortality in a public sector HIV programme in South Africa.
  • METHODS: We analysed data from an observational cohort study of HIV-infected adults with AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma, enrolled between May 2001 and January 2007 in three primary care clinics.
  • Paper records from primary care and tertiary hospital oncology clinics were reviewed to determine the site of Kaposi's sarcoma lesions, immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome stage, and treatment.
  • RESULTS: Of 6292 patients, 215 (3.4%) had AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Advanced T stage (adjusted HR, AHR = 5.3, p < 0.001), advanced S stage (AHR = 5.1, p = 0.008), and absence of chemotherapy (AHR = 2.4, p = 0.012) were associated with mortality.
  • Patients with AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma presented with advanced disease and high rates of mortality and loss to follow up.
  • Risk factors for mortality included advanced Kaposi's sarcoma disease and lack of chemotherapy use.
  • Contributing factors to the high mortality for patients with AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma likely included late diagnosis of HIV disease, late accessibility to cART, and sub-optimal treatment of advanced Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirm the importance of early access to both cART and chemotherapy for patients with AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Early diagnosis and improved treatment protocols in resource-poor settings are essential.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / mortality. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / mortality


37. Bower M, Weir J, Francis N, Newsom-Davis T, Powles S, Crook T, Boffito M, Gazzard B, Nelson M: The effect of HAART in 254 consecutive patients with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. AIDS; 2009 Aug 24;23(13):1701-6
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] The effect of HAART in 254 consecutive patients with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: A prospective cohort study was performed to evaluate the clinical outcomes of patients with histologically confirmed AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma diagnosed since the introduction of HAART.
  • METHODS: Two hundred and fifty-four consecutive patients (96% men) diagnosed with Kaposi's sarcoma between 1996 and 2008 are included.
  • RESULTS: The mean age at Kaposi's sarcoma diagnosis was 39 years and average duration of known HIV seropositivity was 4 years.
  • At Kaposi's sarcoma diagnosis, only 19% patients were on HAART and only 7% patients had an undetectable plasma HIV viral load.
  • Seventy-nine (31%) patients had AIDS clinical Trial Group stage T1 disease at Kaposi's sarcoma diagnosis and 122 (48%) had AIDS clinical Trial Group stage I1 disease (CD4 cell count < 150 cells/microl).
  • Nodular grade Kaposi's sarcoma represented 28% of the tumours and was significantly associated with black African ethnicity and AIDS clinical Trial Group T1 stage disease.
  • One hundred and sixty-three patients were treated with HAART alone for T0 stage Kaposi's sarcoma; only one died of Kaposi's sarcoma and only 37 (22%) required chemotherapy, giving a systemic treatment-free survival at 5 years of 74% (95% confidence interval 67-82) and the overall survival at 5 years is 91% (95% confidence interval 87-95).
  • CONCLUSION: The high success rate of HAART in a large cohort of AIDS-Kaposi's sarcoma patients over a prolonged period of follow-up will reassure patients and clinicians that this is a well tolerated and effective approach to stage T0 Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Epidemiologic Methods. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome. Viral Load. Young Adult


38. Agaba PA, Sule HM, Ojoh RO, Hassan Z, Apena L, Mu'azu MA, Badung B, Agbaji OO, Idoko JA, Kanki P: Presentation and survival of patients with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma in Jos, Nigeria. Int J STD AIDS; 2009 Jun;20(6):410-3
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  • [Title] Presentation and survival of patients with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma in Jos, Nigeria.
  • AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS) remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality.
  • We identified 48 HIV-positive patients with AIDS-KS and matched them for age and sex with an equal number of HIV-positive patients without AIDS-KS.
  • They were similar in age and body mass index profile but patients with AIDS-KS had more tuberculosis co-infection (P, 0.02), lower median CD4 count (P, 0.003) and higher mortality (P, 0.002).
  • Surprisingly, patients with AIDS-KS had lower levels of median viral load (29,347 copies/mL) compared with controls (80,533 copies/mL).
  • We recommend specific AIDS-KS therapy in addition to highly active antiretroviral therapy in order to improve survival.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / mortality. HIV Infections / complications. HIV Infections / mortality. Sarcoma, Kaposi / mortality


39. Vogel A, Dasgeb B, Hassan M, Amyot F, Chernomordik V, Tao Y, Demos SG, Wyvill K, Aleman K, Little R, Yarchoan R, Gandjbakhche AH: Using quantitative imaging techniques to assess vascularity in AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc; 2006;1:232-5
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  • [Title] Using quantitative imaging techniques to assess vascularity in AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Three quantitative and non-invasive techniques were used to monitor angiogenesis in Kaposi's sarcoma patients: thermography, laser Doppler imaging (LDI), and near-infrared spectroscopy.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / diagnosis. Laser-Doppler Flowmetry / methods. Neovascularization, Pathologic / diagnosis. Sarcoma, Kaposi / diagnosis. Spectrophotometry, Infrared / methods. Thermography / methods

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  • (PMID = 17946806.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-170X
  • [Journal-full-title] Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual Conference
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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40. Cattelan AM, Calabrò ML, De Rossi A, Aversa SM, Barbierato M, Trevenzoli M, Gasperini P, Zanchetta M, Cadrobbi P, Monfardini S, Chieco-Bianchi L: Long-term clinical outcome of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma during highly active antiretroviral therapy. Int J Oncol; 2005 Sep;27(3):779-85
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  • [Title] Long-term clinical outcome of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma during highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • The long-term impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in AIDS patients with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) was evaluated in 22 consecutive, HAART-naïve KS patients attending a single Italian referral centre for HIV/AIDS.
  • Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-associated human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) load was also evaluated by real-time PCR in 13 patients with durable clinical KS complete response (CR).
  • In a median follow-up of 40 months (range 17-78), the KS overall clinical response rate was 91%: 18 complete and 2 partial responses were achieved, and two patients experienced disease progression.
  • CR persisted in all 18 patients, including the 5 poor-risk KS patients in whom CR lasted for > 60 months, and was significantly linked to an increase in CD4+ cell counts and a drop in HIV-1-RNA copies.
  • In this monocentric study, AIDS-KS patients treated with HAART showed high clinical response rate.
  • These findings highlight that HAART deeply modifies the natural history of this tumour in AIDS patients, and that this long-lasting approach may be considered a first-line treatment for the majority of HIV-1-infected patients developing KS.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / drug therapy. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. DNA, Viral / blood. Follow-Up Studies. HIV-1 / drug effects. HIV-1 / genetics. Herpesvirus 8, Human / drug effects. Herpesvirus 8, Human / genetics. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. RNA, Viral / blood. Time Factors. Treatment Outcome


41. Konstantinopoulos PA, Sullivan RJ, Karamouzis MV, Dezube BJ: Investigational agents for treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. Expert Opin Investig Drugs; 2007 Apr;16(4):495-504
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  • [Title] Investigational agents for treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a neoplasm that results from the co-infection of HIV and KS herpesvirus/human herpesvirus-8 (KSHV/HHV8).
  • Targeting HIV with highly active antiretroviral therapy has attenuated the natural history of this disease.
  • Recent discoveries have elucidated the role of multiple signaling pathways in the pathogenesis of AIDS-related KS.
  • In addition, KSHV/HHV8 can modulate cellular growth and angiogenic pathways to augment malignant transformation and potentiate growth.
  • This article discusses the main signaling pathways that are implicated in the pathogenesis of AIDS-related KS, reviews recently completed clinical trials and anticipates the future direction of molecularly targeted agents in this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy. Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use. Drugs, Investigational / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy


42. Peer FI, Pui MH, Rae WI, Mosam A: 99mTc-MIBI imaging of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma in the lungs. Nucl Med Commun; 2008 Sep;29(9):786-90
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  • [Title] 99mTc-MIBI imaging of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma in the lungs.
  • OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) occurs in more than 10% of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and has a high mortality rate.
  • Prompt detection, diagnosis, and treatment reduce patient morbidity and mortality.
  • The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of 99mTc-hexakis-2-methoxy isobutyl isonitrile (99mTc-MIBI) imaging in detecting pulmonary AIDS-related KS.
  • METHODS: 99mTc-MIBI imaging was performed on 72 human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive patients with bronchoscopic diagnosis of pulmonary KS (36 patients), pneumonia (22), normal tracheo-bronchial tree (11), lymphoma (2), and bronchogenic carcinoma (1).
  • Lung uptake and lymph node detection in KS were compared on planar and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scans.
  • RESULTS: The lung/myocardium ratios on the 1-h planar images were significantly higher in KS and normal lungs than opportunistic infection.
  • Using the lung/myocardium ratio of 1 as cutoff, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the 1-h planar images for detecting pulmonary KS were 75, 57.58, and 66.67%, respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: Planar 99mTc-MIBI imaging has moderate sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for detecting pulmonary KS.
  • 99mTc-MIBI SPECT followed by planar imaging at 40-60 min can be useful in assessing pulmonary KS.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Lung Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Sarcoma, Kaposi / radionuclide imaging. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / diagnosis. Lymphatic Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Myocardium / metabolism. Reproducibility of Results. Time Factors. Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon / methods


43. Brambilla L, Romanelli A, Bellinvia M, Ferrucci S, Vinci M, Boneschi V, Miedico A, Tedeschi L: Weekly paclitaxel for advanced aggressive classic Kaposi sarcoma: experience in 17 cases. Br J Dermatol; 2008 Jun;158(6):1339-44
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  • [Title] Weekly paclitaxel for advanced aggressive classic Kaposi sarcoma: experience in 17 cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Paclitaxel has proved to be highly effective in the treatment of severe AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma (KS), for which it is now considered as a second-line monotherapy.
  • Taxanes were recently shown to be active also in classic, endemic and post-transplantation KS.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the clinical efficacy and tolerability of standardized paclitaxel treatment (100 mg weekly, intravenously) in a homogeneous group of 17 patients with advanced aggressive and refractory classic KS (cKS).
  • One patient had progression of disease despite initial improvement.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that low-dose paclitaxel proved to be effective and well tolerated in patients with aggressive refractory cKS, controlling the aggressiveness of the disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Vascular Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18363766.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2133
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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44. Dezube BJ, Krown SE, Lee JY, Bauer KS, Aboulafia DM: Randomized phase II trial of matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor COL-3 in AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma: an AIDS Malignancy Consortium Study. J Clin Oncol; 2006 Mar 20;24(9):1389-94
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  • [Title] Randomized phase II trial of matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor COL-3 in AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma: an AIDS Malignancy Consortium Study.
  • PURPOSE: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in tumor metastasis and are overexpressed in Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) cells.
  • In a phase I trial of the MMP inhibitor COL-3 in patients with AIDS-related KS, the drug was well tolerated, KS regression was observed, and MMP-2 levels decreased significantly in responders compared with nonresponders.
  • COL-3 was administered orally once daily at one of two doses (group A received 50 mg and group B received 100 mg) to patients with AIDS-related KS.
  • Study end points were progressive KS and recurrent dose-limiting toxicity.
  • Fifty-seven patients (76%) had received prior KS therapy.
  • Thirty-three patients (44%) had more than 50 KS lesions.
  • CONCLUSION: COL-3, when administered as 50 mg/d, is both active and well tolerated in the treatment of AIDS-related KS.
  • COL-3 is a promising agent for the treatment of this opportunistic neoplasm of AIDS.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Tetracyclines / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Adult. Aged. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Male. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / blood. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 / blood. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16549833.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA070019; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA070047; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA070054; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA070062; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA070072; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA070079; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA070080; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA071375; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA083038; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA083118; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA083216; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA70058; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA70081
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tetracyclines; 0 / tetracycline CMT-3; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2; EC 3.4.24.35 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 9
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45. Shamay M, Krithivas A, Zhang J, Hayward SD: Recruitment of the de novo DNA methyltransferase Dnmt3a by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus LANA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2006 Sep 26;103(39):14554-9
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  • [Title] Recruitment of the de novo DNA methyltransferase Dnmt3a by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus LANA.
  • The Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus LANA protein is expressed in all Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-infected cells, including the tumor cells of endemic and AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and Castleman disease.
  • Further, LANA associated with repressed cellular promoters, recruited Dnmt3a to DNA, and facilitated de novo promoter methylation of a down-regulated gene, cadherin 13 (H-cadherin).
  • The data provide an example of promoter-specific epigenetic DNA modification through viral protein recruitment of de novo Dnmt activity.

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  • (PMID = 16983096.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-8424
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA113239; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA096888; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1P50 CA 96888; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA 113239
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Viral; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / latency-associated nuclear antigen; EC 2.1.1.37 / DNA (Cytosine-5-)-Methyltransferase; EC 2.1.1.37 / DNA methyltransferase 3A
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1599998
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46. Mani D, Neil N, Israel R, Aboulafia DM: A retrospective analysis of AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in patients with undetectable HIV viral loads and CD4 counts greater than 300 cells/mm(3). J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care (Chic); 2009 Sep-Oct;8(5):279-85
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  • [Title] A retrospective analysis of AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in patients with undetectable HIV viral loads and CD4 counts greater than 300 cells/mm(3).
  • OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical course of patients with AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) with CD4 counts >300 cells/mm(3) and undetectable HIV viral loads (VLs) to patients with AIDS-KS with lesser CD4 counts and detectable HIV VLs.
  • METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed a cohort of 91 patients with AIDS-KS in a multispeciality clinic.
  • RESULTS: Twenty (22%) of the 91 patients had newly diagnosed, persistent or progressive KS despite CD4 counts >300 cells/mm(3) and undetectable HIV VLs.
  • Age, gender, ethnicity, mode and duration of HIV acquisition, type of antiretroviral therapy (ART), and KS therapy did not differ significantly (P < or = .005) between this group and the remaining 71 patients.
  • Although tumor stage and response to KS therapy were similar, there was a significantly greater risk of death among the patients with CD4 counts <300 cells/mm(3) and detectable HIV VLs (P = .048).
  • CONCLUSIONS: In the highly active antiretroviral (HAART) era, a substantial proportion of patients with KS had undetectable HIV VLs and CD4 counts greater than the level typically associated with opportunistic diseases.
  • They required systemic therapy to control their KS but were significantly less likely to die and demonstrated a trend toward better 15-year survival than patients having KS with lesser CD4 counts and detectable HIV VLs.
  • [MeSH-major] CD4 Lymphocyte Count. HIV Infections / blood. Sarcoma, Kaposi / mortality. Viral Load

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  • [CommentIn] J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care (Chic). 2010 Mar-Apr;9(2):73 [20484734.001]
  • (PMID = 19721098.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-1097
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the International Association of Physicians in AIDS Care (Chicago, Ill. : 2002)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care (Chic)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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47. Strother RM, Gregory KM, Pastakia SD, Were P, Tenge C, Busakhala N, Jakait B, Schellhase EM, Rosmarin AG, Loehrer PJ: Retrospective analysis of the efficacy of gemcitabine for previously treated AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in western Kenya. Oncology; 2010;78(1):5-11
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  • [Title] Retrospective analysis of the efficacy of gemcitabine for previously treated AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in western Kenya.
  • OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of outcomes in the use of single-agent gemcitabine for the treatment of AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in a western Kenyan cancer treatment program.
  • METHODS: Retrospective chart review of all patients with KS treated with single agent gemcitabine following failure of first-line Adriamycin, bleomycin, and vincristine (ABV).
  • RESULTS: Twenty-three patients with KS who had previously failed first-line therapy with ABV were evaluated.
  • Following treatment, 22 of the 23 patients responded positively to treatment with stable disease or better.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Treatment options in the resource-constrained setting are limited, both by financial constraints as well as the need to avoid myelotoxicity, which is associated with high morbidity in this treatment setting.
  • This work shows that gemcitabine has promising activity in KS, with both objective responses and clinical benefit observed in this care setting.
  • Gemcitabine as a single agent merits further investigation for AIDS-associated KS.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / therapeutic use. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Kenya. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Failure. Treatment Outcome. Vinblastine / therapeutic use

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20215784.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; VBA protocol
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48. Yarchoan R, Pluda JM, Wyvill KM, Aleman K, Rodriguez-Chavez IR, Tosato G, Catanzaro AT, Steinberg SM, Little RF: Treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma with interleukin-12: rationale and preliminary evidence of clinical activity. Crit Rev Immunol; 2007;27(5):401-14
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. DOXORUBICIN .

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  • [Title] Treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma with interleukin-12: rationale and preliminary evidence of clinical activity.
  • In this article, we review the preliminary evidence for the activity of interleukin-12 (IL-12) against Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and discuss these results in the context of the biology of IL-12 and KS.
  • IL-12 is a cytokine that enhances type 1 immunity, induces production of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma), and mediates antiangiogenic effects.
  • In addition, it can downregulate a constitutively active G protein coupled receptor that is encoded by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, the causative agent of KS.
  • These factors suggested that IL-12 might be worth exploring as a potential anti-KS agent.
  • In an initial phase I pilot study, IL-12 was found to have anti-KS activity when used alone in patients with AIDS-associated KS who were on a stable regimen of antiretroviral therapy.
  • In preliminary results from a subsequent study of the combination of IL-12 plus liposomal doxorubicin along with highly active antiretroviral therapy, remissions were obtained in a substantial percentage of patients with advanced AIDS-associated KS.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / drug therapy. HIV Infections / drug therapy. Interleukin-12 / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Anti-HIV Agents / administration & dosage. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Antibiotics, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Clinical Trials as Topic. Cytokines / immunology. Cytokines / metabolism. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / therapeutic use. HIV-1. Herpesviridae Infections / epidemiology. Herpesvirus 8, Human / physiology. Humans


49. Kagu MB, Nggada HA, Garandawa HI, Askira BH, Durosinmi MA: AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in Northeastern Nigeria. Singapore Med J; 2006 Dec;47(12):1069-74
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

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  • [Title] AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in Northeastern Nigeria.
  • INTRODUCTION: Kaposi's sarcoma is an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining illness, and with the size of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa, AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) are now being diagnosed more frequently, although the true incidence of HIV-associated KS is not known.
  • The clinical presentations of AIDS-related KS varied markedly across the African continent.
  • RESULTS: 20 cases of histologically-confirmed KS were prospectively studied.
  • Multiple lesions were a common presentation affecting sites such as lower limbs, trunk, conjunctiva, upper limbs and rectum as well as penis, lymph node, scrotum and oropharynx.
  • CONCLUSION: Contrary to other reports that KS is not associated with HIV infection, our study has demonstrated otherwise.
  • KS is also a late presentation of the HIV/AIDS disease spectrum in our environment and has varied clinical manifestations.
  • There is an urgent need to develop health education programmes to enhance the understanding of this disease and how it spreads, particularly among the young generation.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. HIV-1. HIV-2. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17139404.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-5675
  • [Journal-full-title] Singapore medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Singapore Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
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50. Ramdial PK, Sing Y, Hadley GP, Chotey NA, Mahlakwane MS, Singh B: Paediatric intussusception caused by acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated Kaposi sarcoma. Pediatr Surg Int; 2010 Aug;26(8):783-7
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  • [Title] Paediatric intussusception caused by acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated Kaposi sarcoma.
  • PURPOSE: To document the clinicopathological features of paediatric intussusception caused by acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated Kaposi sarcoma (KS).
  • METHODS: Clinicopathological features of six patients with AIDS-KS-associated intussusception were obtained retrospectively from departmental and hospital records.
  • RESULTS: Six debilitated male children, without cutaneous KS, were presented with abdominal pain and vomiting for >1 week.
  • Intussusception was the sentinel of HIV infection in five patients.
  • Five patients died, the immediate cause being massive hematochezia from anorectal KS and/or septic shock.
  • Pathologic examination confirmed intussusception due to KS.
  • CONCLUSION: AIDS-KS-associated intussusception occurred without cutaneous KS.
  • Resection of the infarcted segment may relieve the presenting obstruction, but recurrent intussusception may occur because every elevated KS is a potential lead point.
  • AIDS-KS-I is rare but fatal in children, unless timely surgical intervention, optimal histopathological diagnosis, and appropriate medical management, including HAART and chemotherapy, are facilitated.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Intussusception / etiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications

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  • (PMID = 20535484.001).
  • [ISSN] 1437-9813
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric surgery international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Surg. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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51. Dhillon T, Stebbing J, Bower M: Paclitaxel for AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2005 Apr;5(2):215-9
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  • [Title] Paclitaxel for AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Treatment options are limited for patients with advanced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS).
  • The management of early stage cutaneous AIDS-KS has been revolutionized by the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy and for most patients highly active antiretroviral therapy alone will control early stage AIDS-KS.
  • However, patients with advanced stage Kaposi's sarcoma with visceral disease, tumor-associated edema or extensive oral disease require systemic chemotherapy in addition to antiretrovirals.
  • For patients with refractory or recurrent AIDS-KS, treatment algorithms are less well defined.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Algorithms. Anti-Retroviral Agents / therapeutic use. Herpesviridae Infections / complications. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 15877519.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Retroviral Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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52. Lechowicz M, Dittmer DP, Lee JY, Krown SE, Wachsman W, Aboulafia D, Dezube BJ, Ratner L, Said J, Ambinder RF: Molecular and clinical assessment in the treatment of AIDS Kaposi sarcoma with valproic Acid. Clin Infect Dis; 2009 Dec 15;49(12):1946-9
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  • [Title] Molecular and clinical assessment in the treatment of AIDS Kaposi sarcoma with valproic Acid.
  • The AIDS Malignancy Consortium undertook a pilot trial of valproic acid among patients with AIDS-associated Kaposi sarcoma (KS).
  • Treatment was associated with low toxicity, but the KS clinical response and KS herpesvirus lytic induction rates were not sufficiently high to meet predefined criteria for efficacy.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Valproic Acid / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 19911999.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-6591
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical infectious diseases : an official publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Infect. Dis.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA070062; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA109232; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA163217; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA070047; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA070019-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA070019; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE018304; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE018304-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA083035; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA081400-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA113239; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA066535; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA083118; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA121947; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA071375; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE018304; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA083118; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA071375; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA70054; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA070047; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA070054; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA081400; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA070019; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01CA113239; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / UO1CA66535; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA109232; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA121947-016805; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE018304-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA070019-09; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA070062; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE018304-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01CA083035; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA121947
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Viral; 614OI1Z5WI / Valproic Acid
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS146832; NLM/ PMC2952388
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53. Mbah N, Abdulkareem IH, Panti A: AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in Sokoto, Nigeria. Niger J Clin Pract; 2008 Sep;11(3):181-4
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  • [Title] AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in Sokoto, Nigeria.
  • BACKGROUND: Since the advent of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is now seen in places not previously considered endemic for this disease.
  • In Nigeria, the African-endemic KS had been known to be prevalent in the southern parts of the country, particularly the southeast.
  • Until now, reports on the disease from northern Nigeria are few.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence ofKaposi's sarcoma in Sokoto, northwestern Nigeria.
  • METHOD: A retrospective review of 27 cases of histologically confirmed KS seen over an 11-year period (Jan.1994-Dec.2004) at the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital (UDUTH), Sokoto, Northwestern Nigeria.
  • RESULTS: The average hospital incidence of KS in this review was 2.5 cases per annum (27 cases in 11 years).
  • More cases of the disease were HIV-positive (59.3%).
  • CONCLUSION: Kaposi's sarcoma is still uncommon in the northwestern region of Nigeria.
  • The epidemic variant of the disease predominates among the few cases diagnosed.
  • The finding of nodular lesions and/or indurated leg swelling in any adult male in our environment must be considered to be KS until histologically investigated.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / etiology


54. Kagu MB, Khalil MI, Ahmed SG: Bone marrow macrophage iron stores in patients with HIV infection and AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma. Afr J Med Med Sci; 2007 Jun;36(2):125-8
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  • [Title] Bone marrow macrophage iron stores in patients with HIV infection and AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Several observations have been made suggesting that excess iron is harmful to patients with HIV/AIDS disease.
  • Bone marrow macrophage iron stores of 30 anaemic HIV infected patients (median age 32.7 years) and 20 anaemic AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma patients (median age 37 years) were studied at the haematology department of the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital.
  • Marrow iron stores was increased in 16 (80%) of the patients with Kaposi's sarcoma and normal in 4 (20%) patients.
  • Of the 30 patients with HIV infection, 22 (73.3%) had normal iron stores and 8 (26.7%) had decreased iron stores.
  • Iron deficiency anaemia can complicate anaemia of HIV infected patients.
  • In view of the documented risk associated with iron supplementation in anaemic patients with HIV/AIDS disease, little caution should be exercise as regards the use of haematinics and/or blood tonics in anaemic HIV-infected or AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma patients.
  • The fact that noninvasive evaluation for iron deficiency is compromised in many individuals due to the presence of chronic inflammatory process and/or malignancy, bone marrow evaluation for iron stores still remains an important tool often underutilized by many clinicians attending to patients living with HIV/AIDS.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Anemia, Iron-Deficiency / complications. HIV Infections / complications. Macrophages / chemistry. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / complications. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / pathology. Adult. Bone Marrow Cells / chemistry. Female. Hospitals, Teaching. Humans. Iron / analysis. Male. Middle Aged. Nigeria. Regression Analysis


55. Barillari G, Franzese O, Comandini A, Bonmassar E, Ensoli B: Spindle cells from AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma lesions express telomerase activity that is enhanced by Kaposi's sarcoma progression factors. Oncol Rep; 2010 Jul;24(1):219-23
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

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  • [Title] Spindle cells from AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma lesions express telomerase activity that is enhanced by Kaposi's sarcoma progression factors.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), the most frequent tumor in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients (AIDS-KS), arises as a disorder of new blood vessel formation (angiogenesis), but it may evolve into an aggressive cancer, characterized by the proliferation and invasion of spindle-shaped, endothelial-like cells (KS cells, KSC).
  • Here we report that primary KSC express low telomerase levels which are strongly enhanced by KS initiation and progression factors including the inflammatory mediators interleukin (IL)-1beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha and interferon (IFN)gamma, the angiogenic basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and the Tat protein of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-1.
  • These preliminary in vitro findings encourage measuring telomerase activity in AIDS-KS lesions in order to survey the clinical progression of the disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / pathology. Endothelial Cells / metabolism. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Telomerase / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cytokines / pharmacology. Disease Progression. Enzyme Activation / drug effects. Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 / pharmacology. Gene Products, tat / pharmacology. Humans. Inflammation Mediators / pharmacology. Interferon-gamma / pharmacology. Male. Risk Factors. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / pharmacology. Up-Regulation / drug effects. Up-Regulation / physiology

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  • (PMID = 20514465.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-2431
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Gene Products, tat; 0 / Inflammation Mediators; 0 / Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha; 103107-01-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 2; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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56. Hofheinz RD, Gnad-Vogt SU, Beyer U, Hochhaus A: Liposomal encapsulated anti-cancer drugs. Anticancer Drugs; 2005 Aug;16(7):691-707
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  • Several formulations of liposomal anthracyclines are approved, e.g. for the treatment of metastatic breast cancer (pegylated and non-pegylated liposomal doxorubicin) or AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (pegylated liposomal doxorubicin and liposomal daunorubicin).

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  • (PMID = 16027517.001).
  • [ISSN] 0959-4973
  • [Journal-full-title] Anti-cancer drugs
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Drugs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anthracyclines; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Liposomes; 0 / Platinum Compounds; 04079A1RDZ / Cytarabine; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
  • [Number-of-references] 125
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57. Krown SE: AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma: is there still a role for interferon alfa? Cytokine Growth Factor Rev; 2007 Oct-Dec;18(5-6):395-402
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  • [Title] AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma: is there still a role for interferon alfa?
  • Interferon alfa (IFNalpha) was one of the first agents to be used therapeutically in AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) more than 25 years ago, and induces tumor regression in a subset of patients.
  • Although much has been learned about the clinical role of IFNalpha in KS treatment, little is currently known about the mechanism(s) by which IFNalpha causes KS regression.
  • This is despite a growing understanding of both KS pathogenesis and relevant IFNalpha activities.
  • To a large extent other agents have supplanted IFNalpha as treatments for KS, but there may still remain a therapeutic role for IFNalpha, possibly in combination with other agents targeting angiogenesis and/or HHV-8-encoded human gene homologs that encode proteins involved in cell cycle regulation and signaling.

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  • (PMID = 17656146.001).
  • [ISSN] 1359-6101
  • [Journal-full-title] Cytokine & growth factor reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytokine Growth Factor Rev.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA070054-09; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA121947-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA121947-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA070054-09; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA121947
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiviral Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha
  • [Number-of-references] 74
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS30422; NLM/ PMC2041795
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58. de Souza VA, Pierrotti LC, Sumita LM, Freire WS, Segurado AA, Pannuti CS: Seroreactivity to Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus 8) latent nuclear antigen in AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma patients depends on CD4+ T-cell count. J Med Virol; 2007 Oct;79(10):1562-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Seroreactivity to Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (human herpesvirus 8) latent nuclear antigen in AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma patients depends on CD4+ T-cell count.
  • In AIDS/Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) patients, the sensitivity of immunofluorescence assays for detecting antibodies against latent nuclear antigen ranges from 52% to 93%.
  • However, in classic and African KS, sensitivities above 90% have been reported systematically.
  • This study evaluates whether CD4+ T-cell count affects seroreactivity to KSHV LANA and to lytic antigens in AIDS/KS patients.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) latent (IFA-LANA) and lytic (IFA-Lytic and ORF65/K8.1 EIA) antibodies were screened in 184 consecutive samples taken from 36 AIDS/KS patients grouped according to their CD4+ counts as follows: <100 (group A), 100-300 (group B), and >300 (group C) cells/mm(3).
  • In conclusion, LANA seroreactivity in AIDS/KS patients, as assessed by an immunofluorescence assay, depends on CD4+ T-cell count, rendering this evaluation important in the interpretation of seroepidemiological studies of KSHV infection in AIDS patients.
  • To evaluate future serological tests based on latency-associated antigens, the selection of sera from KS patients with CD4+ cell count >300 cells/mm(3) as a positive gold standard is recommended.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / blood. AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections / immunology. Antibodies, Viral / blood. HIV. Herpesvirus 8, Human / immunology. Nuclear Proteins / immunology. Phosphoproteins / immunology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / blood. Sarcoma, Kaposi / immunology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17705173.001).
  • [ISSN] 0146-6615
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Viral; 0 / Antigens, Viral; 0 / Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / K8 protein, Human herpesvirus 8; 0 / K8.1 protein, Human herpesvirus 8; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / ORF65 protein, human herpesvirus 8; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / Viral Proteins; 0 / latent nuclear antigen (LNA)
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59. Mosam A, Cassol E, Page T, Bodasing U, Cassol S, Dawood H, Friedland GH, Scadden DT, Aboobaker J, Jordaan JP, Lalloo UG, Esterhuizen TM, Coovadia HM: Generic antiretroviral efficacy in AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in sub-Saharan Africa. AIDS; 2005 Mar 4;19(4):441-3
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Generic antiretroviral efficacy in AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in sub-Saharan Africa.
  • We report on 50 patients with HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma treated with generic fixed-dose highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Drugs, Generic / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy


60. Dhrif AS, Kilani B, Ammari L, Kanoun F, Tiouri H, Ben Chaaben T: [AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma: 22 cases]. Tunis Med; 2007 Jun;85(6):494-9
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  • [Title] [AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma: 22 cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Maladie de Kaposi associee au SIDA: etude de 22 cas.
  • BACKGROUND: Kaposi's sarcoma is the most common acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated malignancy.
  • Our aim was to analyse the epidemiological, clinical, therapeutic findings in AIDS patients with Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • METHODS: This was a retrospective chart review of AIDS patients with Kaposi's sarcoma diagnosed between 1991 and 2005.
  • Epidemiological data, the stage of human immunodeficiency virus's (HIV) infection, clinical characteristics of Kaposi's sarcoma, treatment rendered and outcome were collected.
  • They were 17 men and 5 females (sex-ratio=3.4/ 1) with a mean age of 33.6 years at the diagnosis of HIV infection.
  • The Kaposi's sarcoma appeared after a period varying between 0 and 10 years.
  • The Kaposi's sarcoma uncovered the infection in 5 cases.
  • The mean rate of CD4 was 216 21/mm3 at the diagnosis of Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Mucocutaneous lesions were isolated in 12 cases and associated with visceral involvement in 10 cases; lung (10 cases), gastrointestinal tract (5 cases), lymphadenopathy (5 cases), liver (4 cases), spleen (2 cases).
  • CONCLUSION: AIDS associated Kaposi's sarcoma is a severe condition because of visceral localisations and the field of immunodeficiency.
  • It requires a precocious diagnosis and collaboration.
  • The identification of HHV8 in the aetiopathogenic mechanism of Kaposi's sarcoma can lead to the development new therapeutic approaches.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Skin Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Female. Gastrointestinal Neoplasms / epidemiology. HIV Infections / epidemiology. Homosexuality, Male / statistics & numerical data. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / epidemiology. Lung Neoplasms / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Splenic Neoplasms / epidemiology. Substance Abuse, Intravenous / epidemiology. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Tunisia / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 17644904.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents
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61. Reed M, Cosgrove JM, Cindrich R, Parithivel VS, Gad Y, Bangalore M, Uzor R, Kalim J, Segura R, Albu E: Ten years later: a single hospital experience with malignancy in HIV/AIDS. J Surg Oncol; 2010 Sep 1;102(3):282-6
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ten years later: a single hospital experience with malignancy in HIV/AIDS.
  • BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: We present our experience in the era of HAART with 5,112 patients having HIV infection or AIDS, treated between 2002 and 2006 in our hospital, 182 of whom had malignancies (3.56%).
  • A decrease in AIDS-defining cancers (ADC), from 63.6% to 37.3% and a higher incidence of non-AIDS-defining cancers (NADC), 62.7 as opposed to 37.9% was found.
  • CONCLUSIONS: HIV/AIDS patients on HAART are older, have lower rates of AIDS related Kaposi's sarcoma and a higher incidence of NADCs than did patients in the early HAART era.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. HIV Infections / complications. Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology


62. Autier J, Picard-Dahan C, Marinho E, Grossin M, Yeni P, Leport C, Vildé JL, Crickx B, Descamps V: Docetaxel in anthracycline-pretreated AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma: a retrospective study. Br J Dermatol; 2005 May;152(5):1026-9
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. DOCETAXEL .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Docetaxel in anthracycline-pretreated AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma: a retrospective study.
  • BACKGROUND: Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a potentially life-threatening multifocal neoplasm.
  • Despite the significant decline in the incidence of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related KS with the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), some patients, even those with a good immune restoration, still have aggressive disease.
  • OBJECTIVES: We studied the efficacy and tolerance of docetaxel in the treatment of AIDS-related KS after pretreatment with anthracycline.
  • Nine human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients were treated from 1997 to 2002 with docetaxel.
  • Tumour response was evaluated using the AIDS Clinical Trial Group (ACTG) staging criteria.
  • AIDS status with HIV viral load and CD4 T-cell count were measured at the beginning and at the end of the treatment.
  • RESULTS: A major (complete or partial) response and a stabilization of the disease were demonstrated in seven and two patients, respectively.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Docetaxel has a good and rapid efficacy in anthracycline-pretreated patients with severe AIDS-related KS.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Taxoids / therapeutic use


63. Olweny CL, Borok M, Gudza I, Clinch J, Cheang M, Kiire CF, Levy L, Otim-Oyet D, Nyamasve J, Schipper H: Treatment of AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in Zimbabwe: results of a randomized quality of life focused clinical trial. Int J Cancer; 2005 Feb 10;113(4):632-9
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. ETOPOSIDE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Treatment of AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in Zimbabwe: results of a randomized quality of life focused clinical trial.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma is currently the most common tumor in Zimbabwe.
  • In addition, our study was to determine whether a disease-specific module has greater sensitivity to group differences than a generic QOL questionnaire and to determine the most pragmatic approach to treating epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma (EKS) in Zimbabwe.
  • Histologically confirmed HIV-positive patients with Kaposi's sarcoma were randomized to receive supportive care only or supportive care plus either radiotherapy, oral Etoposide or a 3-drug combination consisting of actinomycin-D, vincristine and bleomycin.
  • The primary outcome was QOL measured by the functional living index-cancer (FLI-C) and supplemented by the Kaposi's sarcoma module (KSM).
  • The study underscores the value of undertaking studies in areas of disease prevalence and the necessity of selecting appropriate outcome measures.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / psychology. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / therapy. Quality of Life. Sarcoma, Kaposi / psychology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / therapy


64. Bihl F, Berger C, Chisholm JV 3rd, Henry LM, Bertisch B, Trojan A, Nadal D, Speck RF, Flepp M, Brander C, Mueller NJ, Swiss HIV Cohort Study: Cellular immune responses and disease control in acute AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma. AIDS; 2009 Sep 10;23(14):1918-22
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Cellular immune responses and disease control in acute AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) specific T cell responses and KSHV viremia were analyzed in seven HIV-infected patients with active Kaposi's sarcoma lesions who initiated highly active antiretroviral therapy, and were compared between patients with improved Kaposi's sarcoma and those with progressive Kaposi's sarcoma requiring further systemic chemotherapy.
  • Patients with controlled Kaposi's sarcoma disease demonstrated undetectable Kaposi's sarcoma viremia together with KSHV-specific CD8 T cells secreting interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, whereas progressors showed increasing viremia with weak or no T-cell responses.
  • These data point toward a potential role of KSHV-specific immunity in the control of AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acute Disease. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. CD4 Lymphocyte Count. Disease Progression. Humans. Immunity, Cellular. Treatment Outcome. Viral Load

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  • (PMID = 19609199.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5571
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Investigator] Battegay M; Bernasconi E; Böni J; Bucher HC; Bürgisser P; Calmy A; Cattacin S; Cavassini M; Dubs R; Egger M; Elzi L; Fischer M; Flepp M; Fontana A; Francioli P; Furrer H; Fux C; Gorgievski M; Günthard H; Hirsch H; Hirschel B; Hösli I; Kahlert Ch; Kaiser L; Karrer U; Kind C; Klimkait T; Ledergerber B; Martinetti G; Martinez B; Müller N; Nadal D; Paccaud F; Pantaleo G; Rauch A; Regenass S; Rickenbach M; Rudin C; Schmid P; Schultze D; Schüpbach J; Speck R; Taffé P; Telenti A; Trkola A; Vernazza P; Weber R; Yerly S
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65. Ares C, Allal AS: Long-term complete remission of laryngeal Kaposi's sarcoma after palliative radiotherapy. Nat Clin Pract Oncol; 2005 Sep;2(9):473-7; quiz 1 p following 477
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Long-term complete remission of laryngeal Kaposi's sarcoma after palliative radiotherapy.
  • DIAGNOSIS: Clinical stage 4 AIDS with stage T0 I1 S1 epidemic AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma of the laterocervical lymph nodes and, subsequently, the larynx.
  • [MeSH-major] Laryngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Adult. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Necrosis. Palliative Care. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16265016.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-4254
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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66. Sullivan R, Dezube BJ, Koon HB: Signal transduction targets in Kaposi's sarcoma. Curr Opin Oncol; 2006 Sep;18(5):456-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Signal transduction targets in Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma results from co-infection with HIV and Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus/human herpesvirus-8, which leads to the development of an angiogenic-inflammatory state that is critical in the pathogenesis of the condition.
  • Recent discoveries regarding Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus/human herpesvirus-8 infection and its activation of signal transduction have led to a greater understanding into Kaposi's sarcoma pathogenesis and have identified potential targets for therapy.
  • RECENT FINDINGS: Kaposi's sarcoma is driven by Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus/human herpesvirus-8-specific pathways, which include viral G protein-coupled receptor, viral IL-6, and viral chemokine homologues.
  • In addition, cellular growth/angiogenic pathways such as vascular endothelial growth factor, insulin growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, angiopoietin and matrix metalloproteinases are 'pirated' by Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus/human herpesvirus-8.
  • Recent findings show Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus/human herpesvirus-8 specific signaling pathways and pirated pathways to be important therapeutic targets.
  • SUMMARY: Numerous advances have been made recently that expand the understanding of Kaposi's sarcoma pathogenesis.
  • These findings and recent clinical trials of targeted therapy for treatment are a prelude to a shift in the paradigm of how AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma is managed.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Herpesvirus 8, Human / pathogenicity. Sarcoma, Kaposi / genetics. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology. Signal Transduction

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  • (PMID = 16894293.001).
  • [ISSN] 1040-8746
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 98
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67. van der Kuyl AC, van den Burg R, Zorgdrager F, Groot F, Berkhout B, Cornelissen M: Sialoadhesin (CD169) expression in CD14+ cells is upregulated early after HIV-1 infection and increases during disease progression. PLoS One; 2007;2(2):e257
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sialoadhesin (CD169) expression in CD14+ cells is upregulated early after HIV-1 infection and increases during disease progression.
  • CD169 is highly expressed by macrophages present in AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma lesions.
  • It is also increased on blood monocytes of HIV-1 infected patients with a high viral load despite antiretroviral treatment.
  • METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated expression of sialoadhesin in untreated HIV-1 and HHV-8 infected patients, by real-time PCR and FACS analysis to establish its expression in relation to infection and disease progression.
  • Patients analysed were either HIV-1 seroconverters (n = 7), in the chronic phase of HIV-1 infection (n = 21), or in the AIDS stage (n = 58).
  • Sialoadhesin mRNA was significantly elevated after HIV-1, but not HHV-8 infection, and a further increase was seen in AIDS patients.
  • Samples obtained around HIV-1 seroconversion indicated that sialoadhesin levels go up early in infection.
  • FACS analysis of PBMCs showed that sialoadhesin protein was expressed at high levels by approximately 90% of CD14(+) and CD14(+)CD16(+)cells of HIV-1(+) patients with a concomitant 10-fold increase in sialoadhesin protein/cell compared with uninfected controls.
  • CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We have shown that sialoadhesin is induced to high levels on CD14(+) cells early after HIV-1 infection in vivo.
  • The phenotype of the cells is maintained during disease progression, suggesting that it could serve as a marker for infection and probably contributes to the severe dysregulation of the immune system seen in AIDS.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD14 / analysis. HIV Infections / metabolism. Leukocytes, Mononuclear / metabolism. Macrophages / metabolism. Membrane Glycoproteins / biosynthesis. Receptors, Immunologic / biosynthesis. Sarcoma, Kaposi / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / genetics. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / immunology. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / metabolism. Anti-HIV Agents / therapeutic use. Biomarkers. Disease Progression. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. HIV-1. Herpesvirus 8, Human. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Male. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 1. Up-Regulation. Viral Load

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  • (PMID = 17330143.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents; 0 / Antigens, CD14; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Immunologic; 0 / SIGLEC1 protein, human; 0 / Sialic Acid Binding Ig-like Lectin 1
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1804103
  • [General-notes] NLM/ Original DateCompleted: 20070725
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68. Pantanowitz L, Dezube BJ, Hernandez-Barrantes S, Tahan SR, Dabbous MK: Matrix metalloproteinases in the progression and regression of Kaposi's sarcoma. J Cutan Pathol; 2006 Dec;33(12):793-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Matrix metalloproteinases in the progression and regression of Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are associated with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) tumorigenesis.
  • To date, only a few MMPs have been studied in KS lesions.
  • Their role in KS regression has not been investigated.
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of multiple MMPs in developing and pharmacologically regressed KS lesions.
  • METHODS: Nine samples of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related and classic cutaneous KS lesions at various histological stages were studied.
  • Regressing KS lesions from three patients treated with systemic therapy were procured after one and two cycles of chemotherapy.
  • RESULTS: KS lesional cells were immunoreactive for all MMPs, except MMP-14.
  • The MMP immunoprofile in residual KS lesional cells was unaltered in regressed lesions.
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data show that developing KS lesional cells express collagenases (MMP-1, MMP-13), gelatinases (MMP-2, MMP-9), stromelysin-1 (MMP-3), and matrilysin (MMP-7) but not the membrane-type MMP-14.
  • This MMP expression profile is retained by residual KS cells and also expressed by infiltrating macrophages in regressed KS lesions.
  • Matrix metalloproteinases in the progression and regression of Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Matrix Metalloproteinases / metabolism. Sarcoma, Kaposi / enzymology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Disease Progression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17177939.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinases
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69. Zhang JA, Anyarambhatla G, Ma L, Ugwu S, Xuan T, Sardone T, Ahmad I: Development and characterization of a novel Cremophor EL free liposome-based paclitaxel (LEP-ETU) formulation. Eur J Pharm Biopharm; 2005 Jan;59(1):177-87
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Development and characterization of a novel Cremophor EL free liposome-based paclitaxel (LEP-ETU) formulation.
  • Taxol is a marketed product for the treatment of ovarian, breast, non-small cell lung cancer and AIDS-related Kaposi's Sarcoma.
  • However, paclitaxel is only sparingly soluble in water and therefore, intravenous administration depends on the use of the non-ionic surfactant Cremophor EL (polyethoxylated castor oil) to achieve a clinically relevant concentrated solution.
  • Unfortunately, Cremophor EL increases toxicity and leads to hypersensitivity reactions in certain individuals.

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  • (PMID = 15567316.001).
  • [ISSN] 0939-6411
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics : official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Pharm Biopharm
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Liposomes; 0 / Pharmaceutical Vehicles; 0 / Solvents; 6D4M1DAL6O / cremophor EL; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; PDC6A3C0OX / Glycerol
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70. Klaskala W, Brayfield BP, Kankasa C, Bhat G, West JT, Mitchell CD, Wood C: Epidemiological characteristics of human herpesvirus-8 infection in a large population of antenatal women in Zambia. J Med Virol; 2005 Jan;75(1):93-100
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Comprehensive data describing epidemiological characteristics of the human herpesvirus-8 or Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (HHV-8 or KSHV) infection among pregnant women in a central sub-Saharan Africa are not available.
  • This study determined virus prevalence estimates and the risk factors associated with HHV-8 infection.
  • The HHV-8 positive women were more likely to be co-infected with HIV-1 than those who were HHV-8 negative (34% vs. 26%; P < 0.0001).
  • Of 154 variables evaluated by logistic regression analyses, only three risk factors, have emerged as independent predictors of HHV-8 positive serology: diagnosis of genital warts, HIV-1 co-infection and primary education.
  • The association of HHV-8 infection with genital warts and HIV-1 co-infection suggests heterosexual transmission of HHV-8.
  • HIV-1 infection may also act as a marker for particular behaviors, which could be sexual in nature, that are associated with both HIV-1 and HHV-8 transmission.
  • Since HHV-8 facilitates development of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), the results of this study could be utilized to identify specific population groups of pregnant women who are at increased risk for this disease.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antibodies, Viral / blood. Condylomata Acuminata / complications. Condylomata Acuminata / epidemiology. Cross-Sectional Studies. Female. HIV Antibodies / blood. HIV Infections / complications. HIV Infections / epidemiology. HIV-1 / isolation & purification. Herpesvirus 8, Human / immunology. Herpesvirus 8, Human / isolation & purification. Humans. Logistic Models. Pregnancy. Prevalence. Risk Factors. Seroepidemiologic Studies. Sexual Behavior. Socioeconomic Factors. Zambia / epidemiology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 15543582.001).
  • [ISSN] 0146-6615
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA75903; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA76958; United States / FIC NIH HHS / TW / D43 TW 00002; United States / FIC NIH HHS / TW / D43 TW01492; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR 15635
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Viral; 0 / HIV Antibodies
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71. Perret D, Rousseau F, Tran V, Gascan H: Reversal of some viral IL-6 electrostatic properties compared to IL-6 contributes to a loss of alpha receptor component recruitment. Proteins; 2005 Jul 1;60(1):14-26
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) has been associated with classical and AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (KS).
  • HHV-8 encodes viral IL-6 (vIL-6), a functional homolog of human interleukin-6, that promotes the growth of KS and of some lymphoma cells.

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  • (PMID = 15861391.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0134
  • [Journal-full-title] Proteins
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proteins
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Interleukin-6; 0 / Receptors, Interleukin-6; 0 / Viral Proteins; 133483-10-0 / Cytokine Receptor gp130
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72. Luzar B, Antony F, Ramdial PK, Calonje E: Intravascular Kaposi's sarcoma - a hitherto unrecognized phenomenon. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Nov;34(11):861-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intravascular Kaposi's sarcoma - a hitherto unrecognized phenomenon.
  • BACKGROUND: Based on the spectrum of histological features, Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is grouped into patch, plaque and nodular stages.
  • To date, intravascular KS is undocumented.
  • METHODS: A clinicopathological description of six cases of intravascular KS.
  • Four patients, who presented clinically with classic (sporadic) KS, developed solitary violaceous nodules on the extremities.
  • Two patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome-related KS had disseminated cutaneous KS lesions in all stages of evolution.
  • Six months to 3 years follow-up showed no evidence of systemic KS in any of the patients.
  • CONCLUSION: Intravascular KS is a peculiar hitherto unrecognized morphological variant of KS that does not seem to be associated with an increased risk of aggressive behaviour.
  • [MeSH-major] Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Vascular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17944727.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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73. Levine AM, Tulpule A, Quinn DI, Gorospe G 3rd, Smith DL, Hornor L, Boswell WD, Espina BM, Groshen SG, Masood R, Gill PS: Phase I study of antisense oligonucleotide against vascular endothelial growth factor: decrease in plasma vascular endothelial growth factor with potential clinical efficacy. J Clin Oncol; 2006 Apr 10;24(11):1712-9
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Clinical responses included complete remission in one patient with AIDS-Kaposi's sarcoma, a mixed but dramatic response in one patient with cutaneous T-cell lymphoma, and prolongation of progression-free survival compared with that obtained on the immediate prior regimen in six patients (12%) with renal cell, bronchoalveolar, small cell lung, thyroid, and ovarian carcinomas, and chondrosarcoma, respectively.

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  • (PMID = 16520466.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1R01 CA 79218
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase I; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C
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74. Kanno T, Sato Y, Nakamura T, Sakamoto K, Sata T, Katano H: Genotypic and clinicopathological characterization of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection in Japan. J Med Virol; 2010 Mar;82(3):400-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Genotypic and clinicopathological characterization of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection in Japan.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is related causally to Kaposi's sarcoma, primary effusion lymphoma, and a subset of cases of multicentric Castleman's disease.
  • As the numbers of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients have increased, KSHV-associated diseases have also increased in Japan.
  • Sporadic cases of classic Kaposi's sarcoma have also been reported in Japan.
  • In the present study, the clinicopathological characteristics of 75 samples, comprising 68 cases of Kaposi's sarcoma, 5 cases of primary effusion lymphoma, and 5 cases of multicentric Castleman's disease were investigated.
  • All fifty-two of the AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma cases were males, whereas 7 of the 13 non-AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma cases were females.
  • The mean age of patients with AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma or primary effusion lymphoma was 46 years, whereas the mean age of patients with non-AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma or primary effusion lymphoma was 71.8 and 97.5, respectively.
  • Genotypes A and C of KSHV were detected in both AIDS- and non-AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Genotype A was detected more frequently in AIDS-associated cases than non-AIDS-associated cases, suggesting that genotype C is broadly distributed in Japan, and genotype A spreads among AIDS patients.
  • Genotype D was detected only in non-AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • These data confirmed the difference between AIDS- and non-AIDS-associated KSHV diseases with regard to age of onset, gender, and genotypes in Japan. J. Med. Virol.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Lymph Node Hyperplasia / pathology. Herpesviridae Infections / pathology. Herpesvirus 8, Human / isolation & purification. Lymphoma, Primary Effusion / pathology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. DNA, Viral / analysis. DNA, Viral / genetics. Female. Genotype. HIV Infections / complications. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Japan / epidemiology. Male. Middle Aged. Molecular Epidemiology. Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Sex Factors. Viral Proteins / analysis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20087946.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9071
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Med. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Viral Proteins
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75. Kjaer C, Helleberg M: [Mastitis-like changes as debut symptom of Kaposi's sarcoma and AIDS]. Ugeskr Laeger; 2009 Oct 5;171(41):3008-9
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  • [Title] [Mastitis-like changes as debut symptom of Kaposi's sarcoma and AIDS].
  • [Transliterated title] Mastitislignende forandring som debutsymptom for Kaposis sarkom og aids.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma of the breast is rare but has been reported to imitate breast lumps or gynaecomastia, usually accompanied by Kaposi's sarcoma of the skin.
  • We report a case of a patient presenting with mastitis of the breast as the first symptom of Kaposi's sarcoma and AIDS.
  • Although uncommon, the diagnosis should be considered in patients with mastitis without other obvious causes.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. HIV Infections / pathology. Mastitis / pathology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / pathology. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / virology. Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gynecomastia / pathology. HIV Seropositivity / diagnosis. HIV Seropositivity / virology. Herpesvirus 8, Human / isolation & purification. Humans


76. Andreu Martínez FJ, Martínez Mateu JM: [The role of radiotherapy in the management of bucopharyngeal epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma]. Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp; 2005 Oct;56(8):368-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [The role of radiotherapy in the management of bucopharyngeal epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma].
  • [Transliterated title] Radioterapia en el tratamiento del sarcoma de Kaposi epidémico bucofaríngeo.
  • PURPOSE: This study is presented to help define the role of radiotherapy in the management of buccopharyngeal epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between January 1999 and December 2004, we treated 17 patients who had acquired inmunodeficiency syndrome related to mucous Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma lesions were in the oral cavity in 12 patients (70%), oropharynx in 3 patients (18%) and larynx in 2 patients (12%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that radiotherapy is an efficient treatment for mucous epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma; a dose of 15 Gy may be enough to shrink the tumour and obtain a good palliation of symptoms.
  • Prophylactic measures with antifungal treatment should be systematically associated with oropharyngeal irradiation in order to improve tolerance to the treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Mouth Mucosa / radiation effects. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Oropharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / radiotherapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Disease Outbreaks. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16285436.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6519
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta otorrinolaringológica española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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77. Sekiya N, Imamura A: [Doxil--pegylated liposomal doxorubicin]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2008 Aug;35(8):1439-43
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  • Pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil: PLD) is a liposome-encapsulated form of doxorubicin modified with polyethylene glycol that has been approved for the treatment of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • This does not mean, however, that PLD should be used in the treatment of all patients with Kaposi's sarcoma; in some cases with skin lesions only and local distribution highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) alone is effective.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Clinical Trials as Topic. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18701868.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / liposomal doxorubicin; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin
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78. Kehagias I, Karamanakos SN, Panagiotopoulos S, Giali S, Gogos CA, Kalfarentzos F: A rare case of intussusception leading to the diagnosis of acquired immune deficiency syndrome: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2009;3:61

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A rare case of intussusception leading to the diagnosis of acquired immune deficiency syndrome: a case report.
  • It has long been known that various acquired immune deficiency syndrome related conditions of the bowel such as lymphoma, lymphoid hyperplasia, cytomegalovirus colitis and Kaposi's sarcoma can lead to intussusception.
  • The diagnosis is particularly difficult in this population of patients due to the non-specific nature of the symptoms as well as the depressed immune response obscuring inflammation or ischemia.
  • Though the reported acquired immune deficiency syndrome associated cases of intussusception refer to patients with known human immunodeficiency virus infection, in our case we present an intestinal intussusception as the first manifestation of human immunodeficiency virus infection.
  • Due to the patients clean medical record as well as the radiologic diagnosis of intussusception, we promptly undertook further serologic tests for human immunodeficiency virus and eventually established the diagnosis of acquired immune deficiency syndrome.
  • The patient was operated 3 days later and this confirmed the diagnosis of small-bowel invagination due to a 4 cm polypoid growing intraluminal tumor, the pathologic examination of which revealed a diffuse high-grade B cell lymphoblastic lymphoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Human immunodeficiency virus infection may have a silent course and gastrointestinal manifestations of the disease leading to intussusception might be the first clinical sign.
  • Patients with intestinal intussusception, and the presence of risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus infection should be eligible for serologic tests for human immunodeficiency virus infection.

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  • (PMID = 19210783.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2650702
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79. Pak F, Pyakural P, Kokhaei P, Kaaya E, Pourfathollah AA, Selivanova G, Biberfeld P: HHV-8/KSHV during the development of Kaposi's sarcoma: evaluation by polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. J Cutan Pathol; 2005 Jan;32(1):21-7
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] HHV-8/KSHV during the development of Kaposi's sarcoma: evaluation by polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry.
  • The human gamma-herpes virus-8 (HHV-8) was first described in AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) tumour samples.
  • In this study, we report comparative studies on paraffin-embedded biopsies of AIDS-related KS (AKS) and endemic KS (EKS) with regard to HHV-8 content as evaluated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunohistochemistry.
  • Evaluation of HHV-8 DNA levels in tumour tissues, thus, indicates a correlation between virus load and KS stage.
  • Double immunostaining of spindle cells (SC) in KS biopsies for CD34 and HHV-8/latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) showed an increase in double-positive SC in the lesions of nodular AKS and EKS cases, compared to that in plaque and patch stages.
  • Our results indicate that PCR analysis is a simple and sensitive diagnostic method for HHV-8 evaluation in KS tissues, processed for conventional histopathology.
  • [MeSH-major] DNA, Viral / isolation & purification. Herpesvirus 8, Human / isolation & purification. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology. Skin Neoplasms / virology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Antigens, CD34 / analysis. Antigens, Viral / analysis. Cell Count. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Nuclear Proteins / analysis. Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 15660651.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Antigens, Viral; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / DNA, Viral; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / latency-associated nuclear antigen
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80. Martró E, Esteve A, Schulz TF, Sheldon J, Gambús G, Muñoz R, Whitby D, Casabona J, Euro-Shaks study group: Risk factors for human Herpesvirus 8 infection and AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma among men who have sex with men in a European multicentre study. Int J Cancer; 2007 Mar 1;120(5):1129-35
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Risk factors for human Herpesvirus 8 infection and AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma among men who have sex with men in a European multicentre study.
  • We aimed to identify risk factors for Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) among HIV-positive patients and behaviors associated with human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) infection, as well as to assess KS incidence and mortality rates longitudinally.
  • To fulfill the first objective, a European case-control study was designed in the early 1990s (each KS case was matched to 2 controls with another AIDS indicative disease).
  • After the discovery of HHV-8, serology testing enabled us to assess risk factors for KS development among HHV-8 and HIV-1 coinfected men who have sex with men (MSM), as well as risk factors for HHV-8 infection.
  • Assessment of risk factors for KS development and HHV-8 infection was performed using conditional and unconditional logistic regression models, respectively.
  • A low CD4 count was the only significant risk factor for KS.
  • HHV-8 infection was most strongly linked to the number of life-time sex partners, and multiple body fluids such as saliva and semen are quite likely involved in sexual transmission.
  • Longitudinal follow up showed a significant protective role for highly-active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) both on KS development and mortality of KS patients.
  • Although more conclusive data from cohort studies are needed to better define specific transmission mechanisms for HHV-8, our results contribute to explain why KS incidence is higher among MSM, and the decreasing KS incidence trend observed in countries with universal access to HAART.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Herpesvirus 8, Human / isolation & purification. Homosexuality, Male. Sarcoma, Kaposi / epidemiology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / virology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17154170.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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81. Pérez-Blázquez EE, Redondo M, García T: [AIDS and ophthalmology: a contemporary view]. An Sist Sanit Navar; 2008;31 Suppl 3:69-81
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Ophthalmic Manifestations of HIV .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [AIDS and ophthalmology: a contemporary view].
  • [Transliterated title] Sida y oftalmología: una visión actual.
  • The appearance of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) meant a revolution in medicine, which has also affected Ophthalmology: the routine presence of ophthalmological pathologies which until then had been exceptional, such as retinitis due to cytomegalovirus (CMV), and the appearance of other new pathologies such as progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN).
  • The generalised use of high activity antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the second half of the 1990s represented a turning point, since when the immunological improvement of patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) resulted in a fall in the cases with ophthalmological pathology associated to immunodepression (HIV retinopathy, retinitis due to CMV, PORN...), and the spontaneous improvement of symptoms which until then had had a torpid evolution (Kaposi's ocular sarcoma, Palpebral Molluscum...).
  • New ophthalmological alterations also appear that are related to HAART: uveitis due to immune recovery in patients with CMV retinitis in complete remission and the enophthalmos due to the atrophy of orbital fat in the context of lipodystrophy, associated with antiretrovirals.
  • If they also show HIV retinopathy, a monthly check up is advisable until immune recovery, given the greater risk of infection by CMV.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / epidemiology. Eye Diseases / epidemiology. Eye Diseases / virology

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  • (PMID = 19169296.001).
  • [ISSN] 1137-6627
  • [Journal-full-title] Anales del sistema sanitario de Navarra
  • [ISO-abbreviation] An Sist Sanit Navar
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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82. Sissolak G, Mayaud P: AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma: epidemiological, diagnostic, treatment and control aspects in sub-Saharan Africa. Trop Med Int Health; 2005 Oct;10(10):981-92
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Human Herpesvirus-8 .

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  • [Title] AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma: epidemiological, diagnostic, treatment and control aspects in sub-Saharan Africa.
  • Until the 1980s, little attention had been accorded to endemic Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), a neoplasm noted in several parts of Southern Europe and the African continent but with relatively slow progression, except in children and young adults.
  • Furthermore, therapeutic approaches based on surgery, radiation and topical treatment were of limited efficacy, mostly used to overcome the disabling and stigmatizing effects of the disease.
  • With the emergence of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and the profound impact of KS on AIDS-related mortality, the pathogenesis of KS has been better studied, and the realisation that a virus (KS-associated Herpesvirus or Human Herpesvirus 8, or KSHV/HHV-8), combined with immunosuppression and cytokine-induced growth, was responsible for the development of this disease has led to novel therapeutic approaches.
  • However, the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), which has led to a considerable decline in KS incidence in populations of industrialized countries, constitutes the best hope for the control of this stigmatizing and lethal disease in Africa.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / epidemiology. Xeroderma Pigmentosum / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / drug therapy. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / epidemiology. Adult. Africa South of the Sahara / epidemiology. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active / methods. Developing Countries / statistics & numerical data. Herpesviridae Infections / epidemiology. Herpesviridae Infections / etiology. Herpesviridae Infections / therapy. Herpesvirus 8, Human. Humans. Interferon-alpha / therapeutic use

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  • (PMID = 16185232.001).
  • [ISSN] 1360-2276
  • [Journal-full-title] Tropical medicine & international health : TM & IH
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Trop. Med. Int. Health
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Interferon-alpha
  • [Number-of-references] 95
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83. Lu CX, Li J, Sun YX, Qi X, Wang QJ, Xin XL, Geng MY: Sulfated polymannuroguluronate, a novel anti-AIDS drug candidate, inhibits HIV-1 Tat-induced angiogenesis in Kaposi's sarcoma cells. Biochem Pharmacol; 2007 Nov 1;74(9):1330-9
antibodies-online. View related products from antibodies-online.com (subscription/membership/fee required).

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sulfated polymannuroguluronate, a novel anti-AIDS drug candidate, inhibits HIV-1 Tat-induced angiogenesis in Kaposi's sarcoma cells.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), a neoplasm often associated with iatrogenic and acquired immunosuppression, is characterized by prominent angiogenesis.
  • Angiogenic factors released from KS and host cells and HIV viral products-the protein Tat are reported to be involved in angiogenesis.
  • Mounting evidence further suggests that multiple angiogenic activities of Tat contribute to AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS).
  • Herein, we report that sulfated polymannuroguluronate (SPMG), a novel anti-AIDS drug candidate now undergoing phase II clinical trial, significantly eliminated Tat-induced angiogenesis in SLK cells both in vitro and in vivo.
  • All these collectively favor an issue that SPMG functions as a promising therapeutic against Tat-induced angiogenesis and pathologic events relevant to AIDS-KS, which adds novel mechanistic profiling to the anti-AIDS action of SPMG.
  • [MeSH-major] Anti-HIV Agents / pharmacology. Gene Products, tat / pharmacology. HIV-1 / metabolism. Neovascularization, Pathologic / drug therapy. Polysaccharides / pharmacology. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / pharmacology. Sarcoma, Kaposi
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Adhesion / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Collagen. Disease Models, Animal. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Combinations. Escherichia coli / genetics. Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 / metabolism. Glutathione Transferase / metabolism. Humans. Laminin. Male. Mice. Proteoglycans. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17868650.001).
  • [ISSN] 0006-2952
  • [Journal-full-title] Biochemical pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biochem. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-HIV Agents; 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Gene Products, tat; 0 / Laminin; 0 / Polysaccharides; 0 / Proteoglycans; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 0 / VEGFA protein, human; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; 0 / sulfated polymannuroguluronate; 103107-01-3 / Fibroblast Growth Factor 2; 119978-18-6 / matrigel; 9007-34-5 / Collagen; EC 2.5.1.18 / Glutathione Transferase
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84. Biswas J, Sudharshan S: Anterior segment manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Indian J Ophthalmol; 2008 Sep-Oct;56(5):363-75
HIV InSite. treatment guidelines - Ophthalmic Manifestations of HIV .

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  • [Title] Anterior segment manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome.
  • Ocular complications are known to occur as a result of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease.
  • Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is the commonest ocular opportunistic infection seen in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).
  • Though posterior segment lesions can be more vision-threatening, there are varied anterior segment manifestations which can also lead to ocular morbidity and more so can affect the quality of life of a HIV-positive person.
  • Effective antiretroviral therapy and improved prophylaxis and treatment of opportunistic infections have led to an increase in the survival of an individual afflicted with AIDS.
  • Common lesions include relatively benign conditions such as blepharitis and dry eye, to infections such as herpes zoster ophthalmicus and molluscum contagiosum and malignancies such as squamous cell carcinoma and Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • With the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy, a new phenomenon known as immune recovery uveitis which presents with increased inflammation, has been noted to be on the rise.
  • Several drugs used in the management of AIDS such as nevirapine or indinavir can themselves lead to severe inflammation in the anterior segment and adnexa of the eye.
  • This article is a comprehensive update of the important anterior segment and adnexal manifestations in HIV-positive patients with special reference to their prevalence in the Indian population.
  • [MeSH-major] AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections. Anterior Eye Segment / virology. Uveitis, Anterior
  • [MeSH-minor] Anti-Retroviral Agents / therapeutic use. HIV. Humans. India / epidemiology. Morbidity / trends. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18711264.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-4738
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Retroviral Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 127
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2636142
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85. Kourí V, Martínez PA, Blanco O, Capó V, Rodríguez ME, Dovigny Mdel C, Cardellá L, Gala A, Jiménez NA, Correa C, Alemán Y, Pérez L, Alvarez A, Hengge U: Simultaneous quantification of human herpesvirus 8 DNA by real time PCR in different tissues of HIV infected cuban patients with Kaposi's sarcoma. Herpesviridae; 2010;1(1):3

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Simultaneous quantification of human herpesvirus 8 DNA by real time PCR in different tissues of HIV infected cuban patients with Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • In Cuba, previous reports have shown an increase of epidemic KS, reaching a total of 120 cases by the end of 2007, despite the use of HAART.
  • To evaluate and compare the role of human herpes virus 8 (HHV-8) viral loads in different compartments of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS) patients real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to determine the genome copy number of HHV-8 in plasma, saliva, tissue and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of 49 AIDS-KS patients.
  • Overall, 98% of AIDS-KS patients harbored detectable HHV-8.
  • HHV-8 could be detected in 91.6% of KS tissue lesions showing the highest viral load (median log = 3.14 copies/100 ng DNA) followed by saliva and PBMC which were positive in 78%, and 69.2%; respectively.
  • Men who had sex with men (MSM) were more likely to have three-times higher HHV-8 genome copies in KS lesions when compared with tissues from heterosexuals individuals (OR 3; 95% CI 1.1 to 12.5).

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  • (PMID = 21429238.001).
  • [ISSN] 2042-4280
  • [Journal-full-title] Herpesviridae
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Herpesviridae
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3050434
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86. Kourí V, Martínez PA, Blanco O, Capó V, Rodríguez ME, Dovigny Mdel C, Cardellá L, Gala A, Jiménez NA, Luzardo C, Correa C, Alemán Y, Pérez L, Alvarez A, Hengge U: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus load in asymptomatic contacts of Cuban epidemic KS patients. Arch Virol; 2010 Dec;155(12):1971-6

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus load in asymptomatic contacts of Cuban epidemic KS patients.
  • To evaluate the pathogenic mechanisms and transmission routes involved in KSHV infection in 22 Cuban individuals who maintained close contact with epidemic KS patients, real-time PCR was used to quantify KSHV-DNA in clinical samples of plasma, saliva and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC).
  • Two of three intra-domiciliary and two serodiscordant sexual contacts of AIDS-KS patients were infected with KSHV.
  • Even in the absence of disease, KSHV could cause an asymptomatic systemic infection in individuals who maintain close contact with AIDS-KS patients.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cuba. DNA, Viral / isolation & purification. Disease Transmission, Infectious. Female. Homosexuality, Male. Humans. Leukocytes, Mononuclear / virology. Male. Plasma / virology. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Saliva / virology

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  • (PMID = 20852904.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-8798
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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87. Martellotta F, Berretta M, Vaccher E, Schioppa O, Zanet E, Tirelli U: AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma: state of the art and therapeutic strategies. Curr HIV Res; 2009 Nov;7(6):634-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma: state of the art and therapeutic strategies.
  • In the HAART era Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) remains the second most frequent tumor in HIV-infected patients worldwide, and it has become the most common cancer in Sub-Saharan Africa.
  • In western countries the risk for KS in men having sex with men (MSM) is 5 to 10 times higher compared to other groups of individuals practicing other HIV-risk behaviors.
  • Patients with KS in Sub-Saharan Africa have very high tumor burdens and rapid disease progression with a diminished life expectancy of less than 6 months.
  • KS lesions are comprised of both distinctive spindle cells of endothelial origin and a variable inflammatory infiltrate, which suggests that KS may result from reactive hyperproliferation induced by chronic inflammation, and therefore it is not a true neoplasm.
  • KS has a variable clinical course ranging from very indolent forms, requiring no or minimal therapy, to a rapidly progressive disease.
  • Treatment decisions must take into consideration the extent and the rate of tumor growth, patient's symptoms, immune system conditions and concurrent HIV-related complications.
  • Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) including protease inhibitors (PI) may represent the first treatment step for slowly progressive disease; chemotherapy (CT) plus HAART is indicated for visceral and/or rapidly progressive disease, whereas maintenance (M)-HAART after systemic chemotherapy may be an effective anti-KS measure after debulking CT.
  • The angiogenic nature of KS makes it particularly suitable for therapies based on targeted agents such as metalloproteinase inhibitors, angiogenesis inhibitors and tyrosine kinase inhibitors.
  • The aim of this article is to provide an up-to-date review of the current status and perspectives of AIDS-related KS in the HAART era.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Africa South of the Sahara / epidemiology. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Disease Progression. Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Risk Factors


88. Cheung MC, Pantanowitz L, Dezube BJ: AIDS-related malignancies: emerging challenges in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Oncologist; 2005 Jun-Jul;10(6):412-26
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] AIDS-related malignancies: emerging challenges in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients are at increased risk of developing cancer, particularly in the later stages of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and AIDS-related non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (ARL) are the most common AIDS-defining malignancies.
  • AIDS-related KS varies from minimal to fulminant disease.
  • Treatment decisions for AIDS-related KS are guided largely by the presence and extent of symptomatic disease.
  • In addition to HAART, excellent treatments exist for both localized disease (topical gel, radiotherapy, and intralesional therapy) and advanced disease (liposomal anthracyclines, paclitaxel).
  • Novel therapies that have become available to treat AIDS-related KS include angiogenesis inhibitors and antiviral agents.
  • With the immune restoration afforded by HAART, standard-dose chemotherapies now can be safely administered to treat ARL with curative intent.
  • The role of analogous treatments used in HIV-negative patients, including monoclonal antibodies and autologous stem cell transplantation, requires further clarification in HIV-positive patients.
  • HIV-infected patients also appear to be at increased risk for developing certain non-AIDS-defining cancers, such as Hodgkin's lymphoma and multiple myeloma.
  • Although the optimal treatment of these neoplasms is at present uncertain, recent advances in chemotherapy, antiretroviral drugs, and supportive care protocols are allowing for more aggressive management of many of the AIDS-related cancers.
  • This article provides an up-to-date review of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, and treatment of various AIDS-related malignancies that are likely to be encountered by an oncologist practicing in the current HAART era.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. Hodgkin Disease / drug therapy. Lymphoma, AIDS-Related / drug therapy. Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin / drug therapy. Medical Oncology / trends. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy


89. Peer FI, Pui MH, Mosam A, Rae WI: 99mTc-MIBI imaging of cutaneous AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma. Int J Dermatol; 2007 Feb;46(2):166-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] 99mTc-MIBI imaging of cutaneous AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • BACKGROUND: Kapoksi's sarcoma (KS) is a common neoplasm complicating acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
  • Kaposi's sarcoma has been demonstrated by scintigraphy, and a (99m)Tc-hexakis-2-methoxy isobutyl isonitrile (MIBI) scan can demonstrate lymphoma and tumors of the brain, nasopharynx, thyroid, parathyroid, lung, breast and kidney.
  • It may also be useful for detecting and delineating the extent of KS.
  • The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of (99m)Tc-MIBI scanning to demonstrate cutaneous AIDS-associated KS, lymphedema and lymphadenopathy in the extremities.
  • METHODS: Whole body (99m)Tc-MIBI scans were obtained on 40 patients with AIDS-associated KS.
  • RESULTS: The (99m)Tc-MIBI uptake was noted in the cutaneous/subcutaneous KS of the extremities with a sensitivity of 73.53%, a specificity of 96.91% and an accuracy of 91.31%.
  • It may be useful as a predictive test or follow up of response of cutaneous KS to treatment.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Radiopharmaceuticals. Sarcoma, Kaposi / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / radionuclide imaging. Skin Neoplasms / complications. Skin Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Extremities. Female. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis / radionuclide imaging. Lymphedema / complications. Lymphedema / radionuclide imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Whole Body Imaging


90. Tardivo JP, Del Giglio A, Paschoal LH, Baptista MS: New photodynamic therapy protocol to treat AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. Photomed Laser Surg; 2006 Aug;24(4):528-31
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  • [Title] New photodynamic therapy protocol to treat AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of photodynamic therapy (PDT) with phenotiazinium compounds (methylene blue and toluidine blue) and excitation by a non-coherent light source (RL50) to treat AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (Sk-AIDS).
  • BACKGROUND DATA: Sk-AIDS is a malignant disease that is recurrent in AIDS patients.
  • Laser-based PDT protocols have been applied to treat Sk-AIDS with relative success.
  • METHODS: A single patient with multiple lesions who had undergone chemotherapy without success was treated with several applications of PDT, and the patient was closely evaluated.
  • CONCLUSION: This inexpensive PDT protocol, which is based on phenothiazinium compounds and RL50, is efficient to treat Sk-AIDS.
  • [MeSH-major] HIV Infections / complications. Photochemotherapy / methods. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16942436.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-5418
  • [Journal-full-title] Photomedicine and laser surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Photomed Laser Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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91. Marquart KH: Occurrence of tubuloreticular structures and intracisternal paracrystalline inclusions in endothelial cells of tissue from different epidemiological types of Kaposi's sarcoma. Ultrastruct Pathol; 2005 Mar-Apr;29(2):85-93
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  • [Title] Occurrence of tubuloreticular structures and intracisternal paracrystalline inclusions in endothelial cells of tissue from different epidemiological types of Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Biopsied tissue specimens from 40 cases of classic, atypical classic, endemic, and AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) were investigated by electron microscopy.
  • To search for ultrastructural differences between non-AIDS-associated KS and AIDS-associated KS, the occurrence of the following 2 ultrastructural abnormalities of the rough-surfaced endoplasmic reticulum in KS cells was evaluated semi-quantitatively: tubuloreticular structures (TRS) and intracisternal paracrystalline inclusions (IPI).
  • These peculiar structures were found in 23 of the 40 KS cases.
  • LTRS were observed in endothelial cells of tissue from all the different epidemiological types of KS.
  • CTRS were confined to AIDS-associated KS.
  • IPI were present in endothelial tumor cells of only 3 non-AIDS-associated KS cases.
  • The study shows that in cells of KS tissue only CTRS, but not LTRS, are an ultrastructural marker for AIDS-associated KS.
  • [MeSH-major] Endoplasmic Reticulum, Rough / ultrastructure. Endothelium, Vascular / ultrastructure. Inclusion Bodies / ultrastructure. Sarcoma, Kaposi / blood supply. Sarcoma, Kaposi / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / pathology. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 16028665.001).
  • [ISSN] 0191-3123
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrastructural pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrastruct Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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92. Mwakigonja AR, Pyakurel P, Kokhaei P, Pak F, Lema LK, Kaaya EE, Biberfeld P: Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) sero-detection and HIV association in Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), non-KS tumors and non-neoplastic conditions. Infect Agent Cancer; 2008;3:10

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) sero-detection and HIV association in Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), non-KS tumors and non-neoplastic conditions.
  • BACKGROUND: The association of the human herpesvirus-8/Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus (HHV-8/KSHV) serology with various malignancies in Tanzania is not currently well established while previous studies were based on either PCR or immunofluorescence assays [IFA] but not with a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).
  • Selected archival diagnostic biopsies (n = 184) and sera from indigenous patients with KS (n = 120), non-KS tumors (n = 24) and non-neoplastic lesions (n = 40) at Muhimbili National Hospital (MNH), Tanzania, were evaluated by diagnostic histopathology, immunohistology [anti-HHV-8 latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA)] and serology for HIV (ELISA) and HHV-8 (IFA and ELISA).
  • RESULTS: About 66.3% (n = 122) cases including AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma (AKS) (n = 93), reactive conditions (n = 28) and only one non-KS tumour were HIV positive.
  • Endemic KS (EKS) patients were mostly males (96.3%, 26/27) who were less (69.9%, 65/93) predominant in AIDS-associated (AKS).
  • A high (89%) percentage of patients with anti-HHV-8 antibodies was found in the cohort including the HIV positive (92%) cases, males (81.2%), KS patients (93%), non-KS tumors (92%), and reactive conditions (75%).
  • All HHV-8 seronegative KS cases were nodular stage whereas both sera and corresponding biopsies from early stage KS were HHV-8+.
  • CONCLUSION: HHV-8 seroprevalence at MNH appears high as expected among AKS cases and males but also in non-KS patients.
  • The apparent stage-dependent, inverted serum HHV-8 immunoreactivity supports a notion of viral immune-segregation during KS development.
  • Routine HHV-8 screening should be considered particularly in patients at risk of KS and for selection of blood/organ donations.

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  • (PMID = 18590556.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-9378
  • [Journal-full-title] Infectious agents and cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Infect. Agents Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2499990
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93. Tornesello ML, Biryahwaho B, Downing R, Hatzakis A, Alessi E, Cusini M, Ruocco V, Katongole-Mbidde E, Buonaguro L, Buonaguro FM: TP53 codon 72 polymorphism in classic, endemic and epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma in African and Caucasian patients. Oncology; 2009;77(5):328-34
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] TP53 codon 72 polymorphism in classic, endemic and epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma in African and Caucasian patients.
  • OBJECTIVES: Several studies have examined the association of codon 72 polymorphism of the TP53 gene, encoding either arginine or proline, in several tumor types but none have investigated its role in Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) development.
  • METHODS: In this prevalent case-control study, 67 cutaneous lesions of classic, iatrogenic, endemic as well as epidemic KS from African (n = 22) and Caucasian (n = 45) patients, and blood samples from 150 healthy controls (n = 57 African, n = 93 Caucasian) have been analyzed for arginine and proline allele distribution.
  • No significant differences in arginine and proline allele distribution were observed when the cases were stratified by HIV status/tumor type.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results obtained in this study suggest that p53 polymorphism at codon 72 does not represent a risk factor for the development of all forms of KS, either among African or among Caucasian populations.
  • [MeSH-major] African Continental Ancestry Group / genetics. Codon. European Continental Ancestry Group / genetics. Genes, p53. Polymorphism, Genetic. Sarcoma, Kaposi / ethnology. Sarcoma, Kaposi / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Genotype. Humans. Male. Middle Aged

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 19940524.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0232
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Codon
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94. Volkow P, Zinser JW, Correa-Rotter R: Molecularly targeted therapy for Kaposi's sarcoma in a kidney transplant patient: case report, "what worked and what did not". BMC Nephrol; 2007;8:6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Molecularly targeted therapy for Kaposi's sarcoma in a kidney transplant patient: case report, "what worked and what did not".
  • BACKGROUND: Imatinib is a tyrosine-kinase inhibitor; for which there is limited information regarding its effects on AIDS Kaposi's sarcoma and none in patients with transplant-associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Sirolimus, an immunosuppressive drug used for kidney transplant, exhibits antiangiogenic activity related to impaired production of VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor), clinical benefit has been reported in Kaposi's sarcoma associated with renal graft.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: Here we report a case of an 80 year old male, who developed Kaposi's Sarcoma nine months after receiving a living non-related donor kidney transplant at age 74.
  • Three years after treatment with different chemotherapeutic agents for progressive cutaneous Kaposi's Sarcoma with no visceral involvement, he was prescribed Imatinib (200 mg/day for two weeks followed by 400 mg/day) after four weeks of treatment he developed anasarca, further progression of KS and agranulocytosis.
  • One year later his immunosuppressive therapy was changed to Sirolimus and regression of the Kaposi's sarcoma occurred.
  • CONCLUSION: The lack of benefit and severe toxicity associated with the use of Imatinib in this patient should alert clinicians of potentially adverse consequence of its use in patients with transplant associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • On the other hand the positive response seen in this patient to Sirolimus even after a long evolution of Kaposi's sarcoma, multiple chemotherapy regimens and extensive cutaneous disease further suggest it therapeutical utility for transplant associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Kidney Transplantation / adverse effects. Piperazines / adverse effects. Pyrimidines / adverse effects. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Sirolimus / therapeutic use. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Benzamides. Biopsy, Needle. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Administration Schedule. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Imatinib Mesylate. Immunohistochemistry. Kidney Failure, Chronic / diagnosis. Kidney Failure, Chronic / surgery. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Retreatment. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17386117.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2369
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Nephrol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Piperazines; 0 / Pyrimidines; 8A1O1M485B / Imatinib Mesylate; W36ZG6FT64 / Sirolimus
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1852096
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95. Lynen L, Zolfo M, Huyst V, Louis F, Barnardt P, Van de Velde A, De Schacht C, Colebunders R: Management of Kaposi's sarcoma in resource-limited settings in the era of HAART. AIDS Rev; 2005 Jan-Mar;7(1):13-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Management of Kaposi's sarcoma in resource-limited settings in the era of HAART.
  • The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has changed the natural history of AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma (KS).
  • Although the use of HAART remains limited in low-resource settings, there are global initiatives to make these drugs available to several millions of HIV-infected persons.
  • While there are multiple reports of KS regression during HAART with or without chemotherapy, there is little documentation on KS management in resource-limited settings.
  • In this paper we review current KS treatments available worldwide and discuss the implications of the increased access to antiretrovirals for KS treatment strategies in resource-limited settings.
  • [MeSH-major] Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. HIV Infections / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 15875657.001).
  • [ISSN] 1139-6121
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Number-of-references] 51
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96. Ma Q, Cavallin LE, Yan B, Zhu S, Duran EM, Wang H, Hale LP, Dong C, Cesarman E, Mesri EA, Goldschmidt-Clermont PJ: Antitumorigenesis of antioxidants in a transgenic Rac1 model of Kaposi's sarcoma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2009 May 26;106(21):8683-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Antitumorigenesis of antioxidants in a transgenic Rac1 model of Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is the major AIDS-associated malignancy.
  • It is characterized by the proliferation of spindle cells, inflammatory infiltrate, and aberrant angiogenesis caused by Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV) infection.
  • Here, we show that expression of a constitutively active Rac1 (RacCA) driven by the alpha-smooth muscle actin promoter in transgenic mice is sufficient to cause KS-like tumors through mechanisms involving ROS-driven proliferation, up-regulation of AKT signaling, and hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha-related angiogenesis.
  • RacCA-induced tumors expressed KS phenotypic markers; displayed remarkable transcriptome overlap with KS lesions; and were, like KS, associated with male gender.
  • Consistent with a pathogenic role in KS, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that Rac1 is overexpressed in KSHV(+) spindle cells of AIDS-KS biopsies.
  • Our results demonstrate the direct oncogenicity of Rac1 and ROS and their contribution to a KS-like malignant phenotype, further underscoring the carcinogenic potential of oxidative stress in the context of chronic infection and inflammation.
  • They define the RacCA transgenic mouse as a model suitable for studying the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis and therapy of KS, with relevance to other inflammation-related malignancies.
  • Our findings suggest host and viral genes triggering Rac1 or ROS production as key determinants of KS onset and potential KS chemopreventive or therapeutic targets.

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  • (PMID = 19429708.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-6490
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / R01 HL071536; United States / NHLBI NIH HHS / HL / HL71536-08; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA75918; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / P30 AI073961; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA075918
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 3.6.5.2 / rac1 GTP-Binding Protein
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2679580
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97. Vaccher E, di Gennaro G, Simonelli C, Schioppa O, Tirelli U, Italian Cooperative Group on AIDS, Tumors (GICAT): Evidence of activity of Irinotecan in patients with advanced AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. AIDS; 2005 Nov 4;19(16):1915-6
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Kaposi's Sarcoma.

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  • [Title] Evidence of activity of Irinotecan in patients with advanced AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Fourteen HIV-infected patients with advanced Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) received Irinotecan 150 mg/m intravenously on days 1 and 10.
  • In HIV-infected patients with advanced KS, irinotecan is active and well tolerated.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / therapeutic use. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. HIV Infections / complications. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16227802.001).
  • [ISSN] 0269-9370
  • [Journal-full-title] AIDS (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AIDS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 7673326042 / irinotecan; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
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98. Chang M, Brown HJ, Collado-Hidalgo A, Arevalo JM, Galic Z, Symensma TL, Tanaka L, Deng H, Zack JA, Sun R, Cole SW: beta-Adrenoreceptors reactivate Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus lytic replication via PKA-dependent control of viral RTA. J Virol; 2005 Nov;79(21):13538-47
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. EPINEPHRINE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] beta-Adrenoreceptors reactivate Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus lytic replication via PKA-dependent control of viral RTA.
  • Reactivation of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) lytic replication is mediated by the viral RTA transcription factor, but little is known about the physiological processes controlling its expression or activity.
  • Links between autonomic nervous system activity and AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma led us to examine the potential influence of catecholamine neurotransmitters.

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  • (PMID = 16227274.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-538X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA91971; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI052737; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R01 AI036554; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI49135; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI36059; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI 36554; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE014153; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / AI52737; United States / NIAID NIH HHS / AI / R37 AI036059; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE14153; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA091791
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immediate-Early Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Adrenergic, beta; 0 / Rta protein, Human herpesvirus 8; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Viral Proteins; EC 2.7.11.11 / Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinases; X4W3ENH1CV / Norepinephrine; YKH834O4BH / Epinephrine
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1262578
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99. González de Arriba A, Pérez-Gala S, Goiriz-Valdés R, Ríos-Buceta L, García-Díez A: [Kaposi's sarcoma treated with topical alitretinoin]. Actas Dermosifiliogr; 2007 Jan-Feb;98(1):50-3
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. ALITRETINOIN .

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  • [Title] [Kaposi's sarcoma treated with topical alitretinoin].
  • [Transliterated title] Sarcoma de Kaposi clásico tratado con alitretinoína tópica.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma is a multifocal neoplastic process with four clinical variants, all of them induced by human herpes virus 8.
  • Currently there is no treatment of choice and it depends on the extension and location of the lesions as well as on the clinical type of the disease.
  • Alitretinoin gel 0.1 % is approved for the treatment of cutaneous lesions of AIDS-associated Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • We report a case of Kaposi's sarcoma treated with topical alitretinoin that had a favourable evolution in spite of an intense local reaction.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Sarcoma, Kaposi / drug therapy. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy. Tretinoin / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 17374335.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-7310
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas dermo-sifiliográficas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Dermosifiliogr
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 5300-03-8 / alitretinoin; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
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100. Goodier MR, Mela CM, Steel A, Gazzard B, Bower M, Gotch F: NKG2C+ NK cells are enriched in AIDS patients with advanced-stage Kaposi's sarcoma. J Virol; 2007 Jan;81(1):430-3
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  • [Title] NKG2C+ NK cells are enriched in AIDS patients with advanced-stage Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is an AIDS-defining condition in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection.
  • We investigated the phenotype and function of the NKG2C+ NK cell population in individuals with AIDS and Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • The staging of AIDS KS patients according to the AIDS Clinical Trial Group criteria revealed that patients with the S1 disease stage have a significantly higher proportion of NKG2C+ cells than those with the S0 disease stage.
  • These data demonstrate a link between NK cell phenotype and function and disease prognosis in AIDS.
  • [MeSH-major] Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome / complications. Killer Cells, Natural / immunology. Receptors, Immunologic / metabolism. Sarcoma, Kaposi / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily C. Neoplasm Staging. Phenotype. Receptors, Natural Killer Cell

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  • (PMID = 17035308.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-538X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / KLRC2 protein, human; 0 / NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily C; 0 / Receptors, Immunologic; 0 / Receptors, Natural Killer Cell
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1797234
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