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1. Krug A, Wendisch VF, Bott M: Identification of AcnR, a TetR-type repressor of the aconitase gene acn in Corynebacterium glutamicum. J Biol Chem; 2005 Jan 7;280(1):585-95
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  • [Title] Identification of AcnR, a TetR-type repressor of the aconitase gene acn in Corynebacterium glutamicum.
  • In search for putative regulators, a gene (acnR) encoding a TetR-type transcriptional regulator was found to be encoded immediately downstream of the aconitase gene (acn) in C. glutamicum.
  • Deletion of the acnR gene led to a 5-fold increased acn-mRNA level and a 5-fold increased aconitase activity, suggesting that AcnR functions as repressor of acn expression.
  • DNA microarray analyses indicated that acn is the primary target gene of AcnR in the C. glutamicum genome.
  • Purified AcnR was shown to be a homodimer, which binds to the acn promoter in the region from -11 to -28 relative to the transcription start.
  • The acn-acnR organization is conserved in all corynebacteria and mycobacteria with known genome sequence and a putative AcnR consensus binding motif (CAGNACnnncGTACTG) was identified in the corresponding acn upstream regions.

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  • (PMID = 15494411.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9258
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of biological chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biol. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bacterial Proteins; 0 / Repressor Proteins; EC 4.2.1.3 / Aconitate Hydratase
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2. Lahausse JA, Fildes BN, Page Y, Fitzharris MP: The potential for automatic crash notification systems to reduce road fatalities. Ann Adv Automot Med; 2008 Oct;52:85-92
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  • This predictive study investigated the effectiveness of Automatic Crash Notification (ACN) systems in reducing road fatalities, due to enabling faster emergency medical services (EMS) notification times, and therefore, the earlier provision of treatment.
  • The cost-effectiveness associated with fleet installation of ACN systems in Australia was also evaluated.
  • A range of data sources were used to identify the range of road fatalities that ACN systems could potentially mitigate, with urban and rural crashes analyzed separately, due to the average EMS notification time being slower for rural areas.
  • It was established that ACN would provide an average crash-to-EMS notification time of one minute, which represented a three minute reduction in the total crash-to-hospital time for urban areas, with the corresponding reduction for rural areas being six minutes.
  • Calculations revealed that these reductions would save an estimated 104 fatalities on Australian roads per annum (41 urban and 63 rural), assuming all vehicles were fitted with ACN.
  • Despite the potential for ACN to significantly influence the Australian road toll, the benefit-cost-ratio analysis indicated that without government support, the systems are unlikely to be a cost-effective option for mandatory installation in all registered passenger vehicles.
  • It was also recommended, however, that the benefits of ACN systems should be further investigated, in order to better establish their potential to increase road safety.

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  • (PMID = 19026225.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-2461
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of advances in automotive medicine. Association for the Advancement of Automotive Medicine. Scientific Conference
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Adv Automot Med
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3256762
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3. Mühlfeld C, Weibel ER, Hahn U, Kummer W, Nyengaard JR, Ochs M: Is length an appropriate estimator to characterize pulmonary alveolar capillaries? A critical evaluation in the human lung. Anat Rec (Hoboken); 2010 Jul;293(7):1270-5
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  • Stereological estimations of total capillary length have been used to characterize changes in the alveolar capillary network (ACN) during developmental processes or pathophysiological conditions.
  • Here, we analyzed whether length estimations are appropriate to describe the 3D nature of the ACN.
  • Because of the geometry of the ACN both approaches carry an unpredictable bias.
  • The bias incurred by the design-based approach is proportional to the ratio between radius and length of the capillary segments in the ACN, the number of branching points and the winding of the capillaries.
  • In conclusion, the estimation of the total length of capillaries in the ACN cannot be recommended as the geometry of the ACN does not fulfill the requirements for stereological length estimation.

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  • (PMID = 20583281.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-8494
  • [Journal-full-title] Anatomical record (Hoboken, N.J. : 2007)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anat Rec (Hoboken)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Dispute rages over crucifix. Nurs Stand; 2010 Apr 06;24(31):5
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  • : The Association of Catholic Nurses (ACN) says nurses should be allowed to wear visible religious symbols in its response to a dispute between a nurse and her employer over wearing a crucifix.

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  • (PMID = 28030036.001).
  • [ISSN] 2047-9018
  • [Journal-full-title] Nursing standard (Royal College of Nursing (Great Britain) : 1987)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nurs Stand
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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5. Borissova M, Gorbatsova J, Ebber A, Kaljurand M, Koel M, Vaher M: Nonaqueous CE using contactless conductivity detection and ionic liquids as BGEs in ACN. Electrophoresis; 2007 Oct;28(20):3600-5
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  • [Title] Nonaqueous CE using contactless conductivity detection and ionic liquids as BGEs in ACN.
  • B2) diluted in ACN.
  • Some organic dyes were also successfully separated and detected by contactless conductivity detector in a 20 mM A6 separation electrolyte in ACN.

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  • (PMID = 17893951.001).
  • [ISSN] 0173-0835
  • [Journal-full-title] Electrophoresis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Electrophoresis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Buffers; 0 / Electrolytes; 0 / Estranes; 0 / Imidazoles; 0 / Ionic Liquids; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Organic Chemicals; 0 / Solvents; 151774-83-3 / 3-hydroxy-5-estrane-17-carbonitrile; L7J6A1NE81 / Benzoin
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6. Middaugh J, Hamel R, Jean-Baptiste G, Beriault R, Chenier D, Appanna VD: Aluminum triggers decreased aconitase activity via Fe-S cluster disruption and the overexpression of isocitrate dehydrogenase and isocitrate lyase: a metabolic network mediating cellular survival. J Biol Chem; 2005 Feb 4;280(5):3159-65
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  • In the present study, we demonstrate that aluminum promotes the inhibition of aconitase (Acn) activity via the perturbation of the Fe-S cluster in Pseudomonas fluorescens.
  • 13C NMR spectroscopic studies, Blue Native PAGE, and Western blot analyses indicated that although the decrease in Acn activity is concomitant with the increase of aluminum in the culture, the amount of Acn expressed is not sensitive to the concentration of the trivalent metal.
  • A 6-fold decrease in Acn activity and no discernable change in protein content in aluminum-stressed cultures were observed.
  • The addition of Fe(NH4)2(SO4)2 in a reducing environment led to a significant recovery in Acn activity.
  • The overexpression of the two isocitrate-metabolizing enzymes isocitrate lyase and IDH-NADP+ appears to mitigate the deficit in Acn activity.

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  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. GLYOXYLIC ACID .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. ALUMINUM, ELEMENTAL .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. IRON, ELEMENTAL .
  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. CITRIC ACID .
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  • (PMID = 15548528.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9258
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of biological chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biol. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Culture Media; 0 / Glyoxylates; 0 / Ketoglutaric Acids; 2968PHW8QP / Citric Acid; 328-50-7 / alpha-ketoglutaric acid; 70FD1KFU70 / Sulfur; CPD4NFA903 / Aluminum; E1UOL152H7 / Iron; EC 1.1.1.41 / Isocitrate Dehydrogenase; EC 4.1.3.1 / Isocitrate Lyase; EC 4.2.1.3 / Aconitate Hydratase; JQ39C92HH6 / glyoxylic acid
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7. Banerjee S, Nandyala AK, Raviprasad P, Ahmed N, Hasnain SE: Iron-dependent RNA-binding activity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis aconitase. J Bacteriol; 2007 Jun;189(11):4046-52
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  • Amino acid sequence analysis of M. tuberculosis aconitase (Acn), a tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzyme, showed the presence of the conserved residues of the IRP class of proteins.
  • We demonstrate that M. tuberculosis Acn is bifunctional.
  • As evident from gel retardation assays, M. tuberculosis Acn also behaves like an IRP by binding to known mammalian IRE-like sequences and to predicted IRE-like sequences present at the 3' UTR of thioredoxin (trxC) and the 5' UTR of the iron-dependent repressor and activator (ideR) of M. tuberculosis. M. tuberculosis Acn when reactivated with Fe(2+) functions as a TCA cycle enzyme, but upon iron depletion by a specific iron chelator, it behaves like an IRP, binding to the selected IREs in vitro.
  • Since iron is required for the Acn activity and inhibits the RNA-binding activity of Acn, the two activities of M. tuberculosis Acn are mutually exclusive.
  • Our results demonstrate the bifunctional nature of M. tuberculosis Acn, pointing to its likely role in iron homeostasis.

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  • (PMID = 17384188.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9193
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of bacteriology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Bacteriol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bacterial Proteins; 0 / Iron-Regulatory Proteins; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 63231-63-0 / RNA; E1UOL152H7 / Iron; EC 4.2.1.3 / Aconitate Hydratase
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1913386
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8. Pérez Escuredo J, Llorente JL, Melón S, de Oña M, García Martínez J, Alvarez Marcos C, Hermsen M: [Viral infection of herpes simplex, Epstein-Barr, varicela zoster, human papilloma, cytomegalovirus, or adenovirus are not related to sinonasal adenocarcinomas]. Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp; 2007 Aug-Sep;58(7):311-5
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  • However, until now sinonasal adenocarcinomas (ACN) have not been studied.
  • The aim of this study is to screen a series of ACN for the presence of a number of viruses known to play a role in cancer.
  • MATERIAL AND METHOD: Viral DNA sequences of herpes simplex virus, Epstein-Barr, varicela zoster, human papilloma, cytomegalovirus, and adenovirus were analysed by PCR in 37 primary ACN.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Viral infections do not seem to play a role in the etiology of ACN.

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  • (PMID = 17683698.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6519
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta otorrinolaringológica española
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Viral
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9. Porras SP, Jussila M: Electromigration of a heteroconjugated imidazole-acetate complex in ACN. Electrophoresis; 2007 Oct;28(20):3590-9
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  • [Title] Electromigration of a heteroconjugated imidazole-acetate complex in ACN.
  • ACN is an extremely poor hydrogen bond donor and therefore the anions dissolved in it are solvated mainly by other hydrogen bond donors (e.g. uncharged acids) possibly present in the solution.
  • In the present work we showed that also an uncharged base can stabilize an anion via hydrogen bonding in ACN.
  • It was shown that the studied complexation in ACN is sensitive to competition by other hydrogen bond donors such as water and methanol.

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  • (PMID = 17899537.001).
  • [ISSN] 0173-0835
  • [Journal-full-title] Electrophoresis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Electrophoresis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acetates; 0 / Estranes; 0 / Imidazoles; 0 / Nitriles; 059QF0KO0R / Water; 151774-83-3 / 3-hydroxy-5-estrane-17-carbonitrile; 7GBN705NH1 / imidazole; Y4S76JWI15 / Methanol
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10. Yu LS, Xu XQ, Huang L, Lin JM, Chen GN: Separation and detection of isoquinoline alkaloids using MEEKC coupled with field-amplified sample injection induced by ACN. Electrophoresis; 2009 Feb;30(4):661-7
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  • [Title] Separation and detection of isoquinoline alkaloids using MEEKC coupled with field-amplified sample injection induced by ACN.
  • New methods based on MEEKC coupling with field-amplified sample injection (FASI) induced by ACN were proposed for five isoquinoline alkaloids (berberine, palmatine, jatrorrhizine, sinomenine and homoharringtonine) in no salt and high salt sample solution (HS).
  • In order to improve the sensitivity, FASI induced by ACN was applied to increase the detection sensitivity.

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  • (PMID = 19156769.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-2683
  • [Journal-full-title] Electrophoresis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Electrophoresis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acetates; 0 / Acetonitriles; 0 / Alkaloids; 0 / Berberine Alkaloids; 0 / Harringtonines; 0 / Morphinans; 059QF0KO0R / Water; 368GB5141J / Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate; 6FG8041S5B / homoharringtonine; 76845O8NMZ / ethyl acetate; 8PJ61P6TS3 / 1-Butanol; S04A852S5I / sinomenine; Y4S76JWI15 / Methanol
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11. Li JP, Li LH, Wu LM, Chen L: Synthesis, properties, and theoretical studies of new stepwise layered iodoplumbate: [Ni(opd)2(acn)2]n[Pb4I10]n. Inorg Chem; 2009 Feb 16;48(4):1260-2
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  • [Title] Synthesis, properties, and theoretical studies of new stepwise layered iodoplumbate: [Ni(opd)2(acn)2]n[Pb4I10]n.
  • A novel 2D layered iodoplumbate, [Ni(opd)(2)(acn)(2)](n)[Pb(4)I(10)](n) (1), yellow-green in color, has been synthesized.

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  • (PMID = 19152332.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-510X
  • [Journal-full-title] Inorganic chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Inorg Chem
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Xiao H, Au DK, Hui Y, Chow CK, Fan YW, Wei WI: [Auditory brainstem implantation in patient with bilateral acoustic neuromas]. Lin Chuang Er Bi Yan Hou Ke Za Zhi; 2005 Nov;19(22):1017-9
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  • [Title] [Auditory brainstem implantation in patient with bilateral acoustic neuromas].
  • OBJECTIVE: To restore auditory sensation for patient suffering loss of hearing due to bilateral acoustic neuromas.
  • METHOD: One patient of bilateral acoustic neuromas received auditory brainstem implant (ABI) at the same surgery for resection of the second tumor.
  • The retrosigmoid approach was used for resection of the tumor and to exposure the lateral recess of the fourth ventricle for placement of ABI electrode array.
  • CONCLUSION: The multichannel ABI could effectively restore auditory sensation for patient deafened by bilateral acoustic neuromas.

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  • (PMID = 16463763.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Lin chuang er bi yan hou ke za zhi = Journal of clinical otorhinolaryngology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lin Chuang Er Bi Yan Hou Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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13. Lustig LR, Yeagle J, Driscoll CL, Blevins N, Francis H, Niparko JK: Cochlear implantation in patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 and bilateral vestibular schwannoma. Otol Neurotol; 2006 Jun;27(4):512-8
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  • [Title] Cochlear implantation in patients with neurofibromatosis type 2 and bilateral vestibular schwannoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the results of cochlear implantation in patients with neurofibromatosis Type 2 (NF2) and bilateral vestibular schwannoma.
  • PATIENTS: Seven patients with NF2 and bilateral vestibular schwannoma who lost hearing in at least one ear after treatment of their tumor (surgery or radiation therapy).
  • INTERVENTION: Cochlear implantation after treatment of their vestibular schwannoma.
  • CONCLUSION: In selected cases of deafness in patients with NF2 where there has been anatomic preservation of the auditory nerve after acoustic neuroma resection or radiation therapy, cochlear implantation may offer some improvement in communication skills, including the possibility of open-set speech communication in some patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Cochlear Implantation / methods. Hearing Loss, Sensorineural / etiology. Hearing Loss, Sensorineural / rehabilitation. Neurofibromatosis 2 / complications. Neuroma, Acoustic / complications


14. Sabol Z, Kipke-Sabol L, Miklić P, Hajnsek-Propadalo S, Sabol F: [Neurofibromatosis type 2 (central neurofibromatosis or bilateral acoustic neuromas, vestibular schwannomas): from phenotype to gene]. Lijec Vjesn; 2006 Sep-Oct;128(9-10):309-16
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  • [Title] [Neurofibromatosis type 2 (central neurofibromatosis or bilateral acoustic neuromas, vestibular schwannomas): from phenotype to gene].
  • Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) is an autosomal dominant disease that predisposes to bilateral vestibular schwannomas (neurinomas), other central and peripheral nervous system tumours (multiple meningeomas and neurofibromas) and ocular abnormalities (cataract).
  • [MeSH-major] Neurofibromatosis 2 / genetics. Neuroma, Acoustic / genetics


15. Watcharasit P, Suntararuks S, Visitnonthachai D, Thiantanawat A, Satayavivad J: Acrylonitrile induced apoptosis via oxidative stress in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell. J Appl Toxicol; 2010 Oct;30(7):649-55
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  • Acrylonitrile (ACN) is a chemical that is widely used in the production of plastics, acrylic fibers, synthetic rubbers and resins.
  • It has been reported that ACN can cause oxidative stress, a condition which is well recognized as an apoptotic initiator; however, information regarding ACN-induced apoptosis is limited.
  • This present study investigated whether ACN induces apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, and whether its apoptotic induction involves oxidative stress.
  • The results showed that ACN caused activation of caspase-3, a key enzyme involved in apoptosis, in a dose- and time-dependent manner.
  • Detection of sub-G1 apoptotic cell death and apoptotic nuclear condensation revealed that ACN caused an increase in the number of apoptotic cells indicating ACN induces apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells.
  • ACN dose- and time-dependently increased the level of proapoptotic protein, Bax.
  • Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant, attenuated caspase-3 activation by ACN, as evidenced by a reduction in proteolysis of PARP, a known caspase-3 substrate, as well as in the number of sub-G1 apoptotic cells.
  • Moreover, induction of Bax by ACN was abolished by NAC.
  • Taken together, the results indicate that ACN induces apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells via a mechanism involving generation of oxidative stress-mediated Bax induction.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 20981856.001).
  • [ISSN] 1099-1263
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of applied toxicology : JAT
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Appl Toxicol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / bcl-2-Associated X Protein; EC 2.4.2.30 / Poly(ADP-ribose) Polymerases; EC 3.4.22.- / Caspase 3; MP1U0D42PE / Acrylonitrile; WYQ7N0BPYC / Acetylcysteine
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16. Baxter J, Garton NJ, Cummings SP: The impact of acrylonitrile and bioaugmentation on the biodegradation activity and bacterial community structure of a topsoil. Folia Microbiol (Praha); 2006;51(6):591-7
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  • The analysis of the bacterial community within the soil using DGGE showed acrylonitrile (ACN) could lead to the selection of significantly similar communities.
  • High GC G+-bacteria also responded positively to ACN addition.
  • Bioaugmentation or carbon addition had no impact on the rate or degree of ACN degradation.
  • ACN could be readily degraded by the soil bacteria, however, the community structure was significantly affected by its addition as well as by the addition of carbon or Rhodococcus sp. AJ270.
  • ACN addition to a soil produces statistically significant changes in the bacterial community.

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  • (PMID = 17455796.001).
  • [ISSN] 0015-5632
  • [Journal-full-title] Folia microbiologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Folia Microbiol. (Praha)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Bacterial; 0 / DNA, Ribosomal; 7440-44-0 / Carbon; MP1U0D42PE / Acrylonitrile
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17. Khan HA, Alhomida AS, Arif IA: Neurovestibular toxicities of acrylonitrile and iminodipropionitrile in rats: a comparative evaluation of putative mechanisms and target sites. Toxicol Sci; 2009 May;109(1):124-31
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  • This investigation was aimed to study the effects of individual and concomitant exposures of the two nitrile compounds, the industrially important acrylonitrile (ACN; 5, 15, 45 mg/kg/day) and the positive control iminodipropionitrile (IDPN; 100 mg/kg/day) in rats.
  • The six treatment groups were 1 (control), 2 (ACN 5), 3 (ACN 15), 4 (ACN 45), 5 (IDPN), and 6 (IDPN + ACN 15).
  • Both the drugs were started on the same day and continued for 9 days (IDPN was given daily 30 min before ACN but stopped a day earlier).
  • There was no dyskinetic behavioral abnormality in the animals treated with any of the three doses of ACN whereas all the rats in IDPN alone treated group developed clear symptoms of excitation, circling, and chorea syndrome (ECC syndrome) on day 9.
  • Concomitant treatment of rats with ACN significantly attenuated the severity of IDPN-induced behavioral deficits.
  • Administration of ACN significantly depleted glutathione (GSH) in striatum, hippocampus and cerebral cortex; IDPN significantly reduced the GSH only in striatum.
  • The anterior striatum showed intense tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression in IDPN alone treated rat as compared to control and ACN alone treated rat.
  • Cotreatment with ACN reduced the intensity of TH immunostaining in IDPN-treated rats.
  • Administration of IDPN alone caused massive loss of vestibular sensory hair cells in the crista ampullaris whereas the sensory epithelium appeared intact in ACN alone treated groups.
  • The animals receiving the combination of ACN and IDPN showed comparatively less degeneration of sensory hair cells than IDPN alone group.
  • These findings suggest that ACN and IDPN produce different behavioral effects that are exerted through entirely different mechanisms; the nervous and vestibular systems appear to be the major target sites of these toxins, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Acrylonitrile / toxicity. Behavior, Animal / drug effects. Brain / drug effects. Hair Cells, Vestibular / drug effects. Nitriles / toxicity

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  • [CommentIn] Toxicol Sci. 2009 Jul;110(1):244-5; author reply 246-8 [19403855.001]
  • (PMID = 19244277.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-0929
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicological sciences : an official journal of the Society of Toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nitriles; 111-94-4 / 3,3'-iminodipropionitrile; EC 1.14.16.2 / Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase; GAN16C9B8O / Glutathione; MP1U0D42PE / Acrylonitrile
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18. Carrera MP, Antolín I, Martín V, Sainz RM, Mayo JC, Herrera F, García-Santos G, Rodríguez C: Antioxidants do not prevent acrylonitrile-induced toxicity. Toxicol Lett; 2007 Mar 30;169(3):236-44
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  • Several reports have recently described that acrylonitrile (ACN) toxicity resides in its capacity for inducing oxidative stress.
  • ACN can be conjugated with glutathione (GSH), diminishing its cellular content, or being metabolized to cyanide.
  • In the present report, we determine the effect of ACN on the viability of primary-cultured astrocytes as well as the oxidative damage generated by ACN by measuring GSH levels in primary cultured astrocytes.
  • We also analyzed whether the ACN (2.5mM) toxicity could be avoided by using antioxidants such as taurine (5mM), N-acetylcysteine (20 mM), trolox (100 microM), estradiol (10 microM) and melatonin (100 nM-1mM).
  • In this cell culture model, antioxidants were not able to prevent ACN-induced cell damage, with the exception of NAC, confirming that only GSH seems to play a key role in ACN-derived toxicity.
  • Additionally, we measured different parameters of oxidative stress such as catalase activity, lipid peroxidation and GSH concentration, as indicators of the potential oxidative stress mediated by the toxicity of ACN, after exposure of Wistar rats to a concentration of 200 ppm ACN for 14 days.
  • At the concentration assayed, we did not find any evidence of oxidative damage in the brain of ACN-treated rats.

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  • (PMID = 17337135.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-4274
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicology letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; EC 1.11.1.6 / Catalase; GAN16C9B8O / Glutathione; MP1U0D42PE / Acrylonitrile
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19. Mishra S, Singh DK, Ojha AK, Asthana BP, Singh RK: Raman and DFT study of polar nu(CN) and non-polar nu(C-H) modes of acetonitrile in aqueous Ag nano-colloids. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc; 2010 Oct 15;77(3):559-65
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  • Raman spectra of acetonitrile (Acn) in different millimolar (mM) concentrations adsorbed on Ag nano-colloids were recorded in the region 2100-3300cm(-1).
  • The nu(CN) and nu(C-H) modes show blue shifts of approximately 3 and approximately 1cm(-1), respectively, when the concentration of Acn in the mixture is increased from 2 to 8mM.
  • The blue shift of nu(CN) and nu(C-H) modes is predominantly because of adsorption of Acn molecules on Ag nano-colloids.
  • The wave number shift and variation of intensity of the nu(CN) and nu(C-H) bands have been discussed in terms of the adsorption geometry, which probably changes from flat-on configuration at lower concentration of Acn to an end-on configuration at higher concentration of Acn.
  • The dephasing of nu(CN) oscillator becomes considerably slower at higher concentration of Acn.
  • The adsorption of Acn molecules on the nano-colloids was simulated using the (B3LYP) method and the basis sets used for Acn molecules and Ag atoms were 6-311++G(d,p) and Lanl2dz, respectively.

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  • (PMID = 20655804.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-3557
  • [Journal-full-title] Spectrochimica acta. Part A, Molecular and biomolecular spectroscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acetonitriles; 0 / Colloids; 059QF0KO0R / Water; 3M4G523W1G / Silver; Z072SB282N / acetonitrile
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20. Mohamadin AM, El-Demerdash E, El-Beshbishy HA, Abdel-Naim AB: Acrylonitrile-induced toxicity and oxidative stress in isolated rat colonocytes. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol; 2005 Feb;19(2):371-7
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  • Acrylonitrile (ACN), an environmental toxic pollutant, has been detected in drinking water, food products and occupational environment.
  • The objective of the present work was to investigate the cytotoxic effects as well as the oxidative stress induced by ACN in cultured rat colonocytes.
  • Colonocytes were exposed in vitro to different concentrations of ACN (0.1-2.0mM) for 60min.
  • Also, colonocytes were incubated with ACN (1.0mM) for different time intervals extending to 180min.
  • Exposure of colonocytes to ACN (1.0mM) for 60min caused nearly a 50% decrease in cell viability and induced a 2.5-fold increase of LDH leakage.
  • In the same experiment, ACN caused a significant decrease in cellular GSH content as well as a significant enhancement of TBARS accumulation.
  • These toxic responses to ACN were dependent on both concentration and duration of exposure to ACN.
  • Treatment of colonocytes with GSH, N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) or dithiothreitol (DDT) prior to exposure to ACN afforded different degrees of protection as indicated by significant decrease in the LDH leakage and TBARS formation as compared to ACN alone-treated cells.
  • Preincubation with dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), a hydroxyl radical scavenger or desferroxiamine (DFO), an iron chelator, diminished ACN-induced LDH leakage and TBARS generation.
  • Our results suggest that ACN has a potential cytotoxic effect in rat colonocytes; and thiol group-donors, antioxidant enzymes, hydroxyl radical scavengers and iron chelators can play an important role against ACN-induced colonotoxicity.

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  • (PMID = 21783498.001).
  • [ISSN] 1382-6689
  • [Journal-full-title] Environmental toxicology and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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21. Esmat A, El-Demerdash E, El-Mesallamy H, Abdel-Naim AB: Toxicity and oxidative stress of acrylonitrile in rat primary glial cells: preventive effects of N-acetylcysteine. Toxicol Lett; 2007 Jul 10;171(3):111-8
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  • Brain is a target organ for acrylonitrile (ACN) toxicity.
  • The objective of the current work was to investigate ACN cytotoxicity in rat primary glial cells, using N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) as a potential protective agent.
  • Cells were exposed in vitro to different concentrations of ACN for different time intervals.
  • Approximately 50% membrane damage was observed in the incubations containing 1.0mM ACN for 3h.
  • ACN enhanced lipid peroxidation, as indicated by malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation, and depleted reduced glutathione (GSH) level with no change in total glutathione.
  • Also, ACN was activated to cyanide (CN(-)) with dramatic decrease in ATP level.
  • Cell treatment with NAC prior to exposure to ACN afforded some protection; as indicated by reducing MDA level and elevating level of both reduced and total glutathione.
  • Our results indicate that ACN is toxic to rat primary glial cells as evidenced by induction of oxidative stress and generation of CN(-) with subsequent energy depletion.
  • NAC can play an important role against ACN-induced oxidative damage.

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  • (PMID = 17606339.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-4274
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicology letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyanides; 0 / Free Radical Scavengers; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 8L70Q75FXE / Adenosine Triphosphate; EC 1.1.1.27 / L-Lactate Dehydrogenase; GAN16C9B8O / Glutathione; MP1U0D42PE / Acrylonitrile; WYQ7N0BPYC / Acetylcysteine
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22. Pollard JA, Zhang D, Downing JA, Knorr FJ, McHale JL: Solvent effects on interfacial electron transfer from Ru(4,4'-dicarboxylic acid-2,2'-bipyridine)2(NCS)2 to nanoparticulate TiO2: spectroscopy and solar photoconversion. J Phys Chem A; 2005 Dec 22;109(50):11443-52
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  • Resonance Raman spectra are reported for Ru(4,4'-dicarboxylic acid-2,2'-bipyridine)2(NCS)2 (commonly called "N3") in ethanol solution and adsorbed on nanoparticulate colloidal TiO2 in ethanol (EtOH) and in acetonitrile (ACN), at wavelengths within the visible absorption band of the dye.
  • Raman cross sections of free N3 in EtOH are found to be similar to those of N3 adsorbed on colloidal TiO2 in EtOH, and are generally lower than those of N3 on TiO2 in ACN.
  • Strong electronic coupling mediated by surface states results in red-shifted absorption spectra and enhanced Raman signals for N3 adsorbed on nanocolloidal TiO2 in ACN compared to EtOH.
  • In contrast, the absorption spectrum of N3 on nanocrystalline TiO2 in contact with solvent is similar for ACN and EtOH.
  • Luminescence spectra of N3 adsorbed on nanocrystalline films of TiO2 and ZrO2 in contact with solvent reveal that the quantum yield of electron injection phi(ET) into TiO2 decreases in the order ACN > EtOH > DMSO.
  • Dye-sensitized solar cells were fabricated with N3 adsorbed on nanocrystalline films of TiO2 in contact with ACN, EtOH, and DMSO solutions containing LiI/LiI3 electrolyte.
  • Photoconversion efficiencies eta were found to be 2.6% in ACN, 1.3% in DMSO, and 0.84% in EtOH.
  • Higher short circuit currents are found in cells using ACN, while the maximum voltage is found to be largest in DMSO.
  • It is concluded that the increased photocurrent and quantum yield of interfacial electron transfer in acetonitrile as compared to ethanol and DMSO is primarily the result of faster electron injection of N3 when adsorbed on TiO2 in the presence of ACN as opposed to EtOH or DMSO.

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  • (PMID = 16354034.001).
  • [ISSN] 1089-5639
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of physical chemistry. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Phys Chem A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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23. Chantara W, Watcharasit P, Thiantanawat A, Satayavivad J: Acrylonitrile-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation via protein kinase C (PKC) in SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells. J Appl Toxicol; 2006 Nov-Dec;26(6):517-23
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  • Acrylonitrile (ACN) is classified by IARC as a probable carcinogen.
  • Chronic exposure to ACN increases the incidence of tumors in various organs of test animals, including the brain and lung.
  • Therefore, this study examined whether ACN altered the activation state of ERK1/2 in human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells.
  • Treatment of these cells with ACN greatly increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in dose- and time-dependent manners.
  • This effect was inhibited by PD 98059 and U 0126, specific inhibitors of MEK, indicating that MEK, an upstream activator of ERK1/2, was directly involved in ACN-induced ERK1/2 activation.
  • Furthermore, the activation of ERK1/2 by ACN was attenuated by inhibition of PKC with GF 109203X, rottlerin and prolonged incubation with PMA (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate).
  • This demonstrated the participation of PKC in the ACN-stimulated activation of ERK1/2.
  • Taken together, our results indicate that ACN-induced ERK1/2 activation involves PKC through a MEK-dependent pathway.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 17080406.001).
  • [ISSN] 0260-437X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of applied toxicology : JAT
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Appl Toxicol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Receptors, Muscarinic; EC 2.7.11.13 / Protein Kinase C; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3; MP1U0D42PE / Acrylonitrile
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24. Acosta GA, del Fresno M, Paradis-Bas M, Rigau-DeLlobet M, Côté S, Royo M, Albericio F: Solid-phase peptide synthesis using acetonitrile as a solvent in combination with PEG-based resins. J Pept Sci; 2009 Oct;15(10):629-33
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  • This manuscript shows that ACN can be an excellent choice for the coupling of hindered amino acids as illustrated by the coupling of Fmoc-amino acids on free amino acids anchored on a BAL synthesis.
  • Furthermore, ACN can be a good alternative for solid-phase peptide synthesis in the absence of DMF (washings, removal of Fmoc, and coupling).

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  • [Copyright] 2009 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 19634177.001).
  • [ISSN] 1099-1387
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of peptide science : an official publication of the European Peptide Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pept. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acetonitriles; 0 / Amino Acids; 0 / Fluorenes; 0 / N(alpha)-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonylamino acids; 0 / Peptides; 0 / Polystyrenes; 0 / Solvents; 0 / aminomethyl-ChemMatrix resin; 0 / polyethylene glycol-polystyrene; 30IQX730WE / Polyethylene Glycols; Z072SB282N / acetonitrile
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25. El-Sayed el-SM, Abo-Salem OM, Abd-Ellah MF, Abd-Alla GM: Hesperidin, an antioxidant flavonoid, prevents acrylonitrile-induced oxidative stress in rat brain. J Biochem Mol Toxicol; 2008 Jul-Aug;22(4):268-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Acrylonitrile (ACN) is a volatile, toxic liquid used as a monomer in the manufacture of synthetic rubber, styrene plastics, acrylic fiber, and adhesives.
  • ACN is a potent neurotoxin.
  • A role for free radical mediated lipid peroxidation in the toxicity of ACN has been suggested.
  • We examined the ability of hesperidin, an antioxidant flavonoid, to attenuate ACN-induced alterations in lipid peroxidation in rat brains.
  • The daily oral administration of ACN to male albino rats in a dose of 50 mg/kg bwt for a period of 28 days produced a significant elevation in brain lipid peroxides measured as malondialdehyde (MDA) amounting to 107%, accompanied by a marked decrease in brain-reduced glutathione (GSH) content reaching 63%.
  • In addition, ACN administration resulted in significant reductions in the enzymatic antioxidant parameters of brain; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) recording 43%, 64%, 52%, and 43%, respectively.
  • On the other hand, pretreatment with hesperidin and its coadministration with ACN once daily in a dose of 200 mg/kg bwt i.p. for 28 days ameliorated ACN-induced alterations in brain lipid peroxidation.
  • These results suggest that hesperidin may have a beneficial role against ACN-induced oxidative stress in the brain; an effect that is mainly attributed to the antioxidant property of hesperidin.

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  • (PMID = 18752313.001).
  • [ISSN] 1099-0461
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biochemical and molecular toxicology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biochem. Mol. Toxicol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 4Y8F71G49Q / Malondialdehyde; E750O06Y6O / Hesperidin; EC 1.11.1.6 / Catalase; EC 1.11.1.9 / Glutathione Peroxidase; EC 1.15.1.1 / Superoxide Dismutase; EC 2.5.1.18 / Glutathione Transferase; GAN16C9B8O / Glutathione; MP1U0D42PE / Acrylonitrile
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26. Jiao ZQ, Guo YC, Xu Y: [The effects of acrylonitrile on cell apoptosis, proliferation and related genes expression of rat normal and tumor glial cells]. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2008 Jun;42(6):405-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of acrylonitrile (ACN) to cell growth, apoptosis, proliferation and related gene expression of rat normal glial cells (DI TNC1) and tumor glial cells (C6).
  • METHODS: The concentration of ACN on DI TNC1 and C6 were 25, 50 and 75 microg/ml.
  • RESULTS: After treatment of DI TNC1 cell with 25,50 and 75 microg/ml ACN, the DNA synthesis index were decreased 93.1%, 81.3% and 74.9% as compared to control respectively, the apoptosis index was increased 118%, 122% and 143% as compared to controls respectively.
  • The DNA synthesis and apoptosis indexes of C6 cell showed no change after treatment with ACN.
  • The cell cycle and apoptosis pathway related genes, such as cyclin and p53, also showed changes after treatment with ACN.
  • CONCLUSION: ACN inhibited the cell proliferation of DI TNC1, induced the apoptosis of DI TNC1 and had no effect on cell proliferation and apoptosis of C6 cells, and the related regulation gene expression changes further confirmed the results.

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  • (PMID = 19035041.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-9624
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Air Pollutants; MP1U0D42PE / Acrylonitrile
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27. Buskin SE, Torno MS, Talkington DF, Zhang M, Jones JL, Butler JC, McNaghten AD, Dworkin MS: Trends in nephropathy among HIV-infected patients. J Natl Med Assoc; 2009 Dec;101(12):1205-13
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  • We examined trends and correlates of all-cause nephropathy (ACN).
  • METHODS: Correlates of and trends in ACN were examined in the entire Adult/Adolescent Spectrum of HIV Disease longitudinal observational cohort.
  • RESULTS: The incidence of ACN rose among HIV-infected individuals through the mid-1990s, then declined.
  • The proportion of patients with ACN at the time of death increased over the study period.
  • Black race, injection-drug use (IDU), indinavir, hypertension, diabetes, decreased CD4+ lymphocyte count, increased viral load, and increased age were all highly associated with ACN.

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  • (PMID = 20070008.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-4693
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the National Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Natl Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Li T, Bai R, Ohandja DG, Liu J: Biodegradation of acetonitrile by adapted biofilm in a membrane-aerated biofilm reactor. Biodegradation; 2009 Jul;20(4):569-80
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  • A membrane-aerated biofilm reactor (MABR) was developed to degrade acetonitrile (ACN) in aqueous solutions.
  • The reactor was seeded with an adapted activated sludge consortium as the inoculum and operated under step increases in ACN loading rate through increasing ACN concentrations in the influent.
  • Initially, the MABR started at a moderate selection pressure, with a hydraulic retention time of 16 h, a recirculation rate of 8 cm/s and a starting ACN concentration of 250 mg/l to boost the growth of the biofilm mass on the membrane and to avoid its loss by hydraulic washout.
  • The step increase in the influent ACN concentration was implemented once ACN concentration in the effluent showed almost complete removal in each stage.
  • The specific ACN degradation rate achieved the highest at the loading rate of 101.1 mg ACN/g-VSS h (VSS, volatile suspended solids) and then declined with the further increases in the influent ACN concentration, attributed to the substrate inhibition effect.
  • The adapted membrane-aerated biofilm was capable of completely removing ACN at the removal capacity of up to 21.1 g ACN/m(2) day, and generated negligible amount of suspended sludge in the effluent.
  • Batch incubation experiments also demonstrated that the ACN-degrading biofilm can degrade other organonitriles, such as acrylonitrile and benzonitrile as well.
  • Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis studies showed that the ACN-degrading biofilms contained a stable microbial population with a low diversity of sequence of community 16S rRNA gene fragments.
  • Specific oxygen utilization rates were found to increase with the increases in the biofilm thickness, suggesting that the biofilm formation process can enhance the metabolic degradation efficiency towards ACN in the MABR.
  • The study contributes to a better understanding in microbial adaptation in a MABR for biodegradation of ACN.

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  • (PMID = 19137403.001).
  • [ISSN] 1572-9729
  • [Journal-full-title] Biodegradation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biodegradation
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acetonitriles; 0 / Membranes, Artificial; 9007-49-2 / DNA; S88TT14065 / Oxygen; Z072SB282N / acetonitrile
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29. Jin J, Hyun MH, Park JH: Chiral separation of amides of amino acid on a (S)-N-(3,5-dinitrobenzoyl)leucine-N-phenyl-N-propylamide-bonded silica using nonaqueous capillary electrochromatography. J Sep Sci; 2009 Jul;32(14):2421-5
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  • (S)-N-(3,5-dinitrobenzoyl)leucine-N-phenyl-N-propylamine-bonded silica was used as a chiral stationary phase for separation of a set of racemic pi-acidic and pi-basic alpha-amino acid amides in electrolyteless ACN-water eluents by CEC in the RP and polar organic (PO) modes.
  • The effect of the amount of water in the ACN-water eluent on chiral separation was examined.
  • As water is added to ACN, retention was shortened but resolution and selectivity deteriorated severely.
  • Retention, enantioselectivity, and resolution factors obtained in 100% ACN were compared with those in an n-hexane-isopropanol eluent with a small amount of water by normal phase (NP) CEC.
  • Much shorter retention times with comparable enantioselectivities were observed with 100% ACN, demonstrating the advantage of separation on (S)-N-(DNB)leucine-N-phenyl-N-propylamine-bonded silica in PO-CEC over NP-CEC.

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  • (PMID = 19557814.001).
  • [ISSN] 1615-9314
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of separation science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Sep Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Amides; 0 / Amino Acids; 059QF0KO0R / Water; 7631-86-9 / Silicon Dioxide; GMW67QNF9C / Leucine
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30. Bahr S, Kempter V: Interaction of acetonitrile with thin films of solid water. J Chem Phys; 2009 Jun 7;130(21):214509
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  • The interaction of acetonitrile (ACN) with these films was studied with the abovementioned techniques.
  • From the absence of any infrared activity in the initial adsorption stage, it is concluded that ACN adsorbs linearly and that the C identical withN axis is aligned parallel to the water surface (as also found on neat Ag).
  • During the completion of the first adlayer the ACN-ACN lateral interaction becomes of importance as well, and the ACN molecules become tilted with respect to the water surface.
  • ACN shows propensity to stay at the surface after surface adsorption even during annealing up to the onset of desorption.
  • The present results for the ACN-water interaction are compared with available classical molecular dynamics calculations providing the orientation profile for ACN on water as well as the ACN bonding properties.

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  • (PMID = 19508078.001).
  • [ISSN] 1089-7690
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of chemical physics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chem Phys
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Nasralla SN, Ghoneim AI, Khalifa AE, Gad MZ, Abdel-Naim AB: Lactoperoxidase catalyzes in vitro activation of acrylonitrile to cyanide. Toxicol Lett; 2009 Dec 15;191(2-3):347-52
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  • Acrylonitrile (ACN) is a widely used industrial chemical.
  • The present study aimed at investigating the ability of LPO enzyme system to oxidize ACN to cyanide (CN(-)) in vitro.
  • Detection of CN(-) served as a marker for the possible generation of free radical intermediates implicated in ACN induced toxicity in the activation process.
  • Optimum conditions for the oxidation of ACN to CN(-) were characterized with respect to pH, temperature and time of incubation as well as ACN, LPO and H(2)O(2) concentrations in incubation mixtures.
  • Inclusion of the sulfhydryl compounds glutathione (GSH), NAC (N-acetylcysteine), D-penicillamine or L-cysteine enhanced the rate of ACN oxidation.
  • The present results demonstrate the ability of LPO enzyme system to oxidize ACN to CN(-) and provide insight for the elucidation of ACN chronic toxicity.

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  • (PMID = 19825401.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-3169
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicology letters
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol. Lett.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Chromans; 0 / Cyanides; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Free Radical Scavengers; 0 / Resorcinols; 0 / Sulfhydryl Compounds; 968JJ8C9DV / Sodium Azide; 9IKM0I5T1E / Quercetin; BBX060AN9V / Hydrogen Peroxide; EC 1.11.1.- / Lactoperoxidase; MP1U0D42PE / Acrylonitrile; S18UL9710X / 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid; XXE1CET956 / Indomethacin; YUL4LO94HK / resorcinol
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32. Ngo T, Wrolstad RE, Zhao Y: Color quality of Oregon strawberries--impact of genotype, composition, and processing. J Food Sci; 2007 Jan;72(1):C025-32
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  • Color changes were measured along with the following compositional determinations: total monomeric anthocyanins (ACN), total phenolic content (TPC), and percent polymeric color.
  • ACN in fresh strawberries ranged from 37.1 mg to 122.3 mg per 100 g of fresh fruit.
  • Freezing resulted in an apparent increase in ACN and transfer of 70.2% of the anthocyanins from the berries into juice.
  • Physical transfer of pigments to syrup also occurred with canning: there was approximately 70% loss in ACN, about 20% increase in polymeric color, and 23.5% decrease in TPC.
  • Pronounced color change and substantial losses in ACN and TPC of strawberry jams occurred during processing and 9 wk of storage.
  • Storage of jams at 38 degrees C compared to 21 degrees C over a period of 9 wk resulted in marked losses of ACN and TPC.

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  • (PMID = 17995868.001).
  • [ISSN] 1750-3841
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of food science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Food Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anthocyanins; 0 / Phenols
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33. Emer D, Krug A, Eikmanns BJ, Bott M: Complex expression control of the Corynebacterium glutamicum aconitase gene: identification of RamA as a third transcriptional regulator besides AcnR and RipA. J Biotechnol; 2009 Mar 10;140(1-2):92-8
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  • Expression of the aconitase gene acn of Corynebacterium glutamicum was previously shown to be repressed by the TetR-type regulator AcnR in response to a yet unknown stimulus and by the AraC-type regulator RipA in response to iron limitation.
  • The RamA protein was enriched by DNA affinity chromatography with the acn promoter region from protein extracts of acetate-grown cells but not or only weakly from extracts of glucose-grown cells.
  • Inspection of the acn promoter region led to the identification of a RamA binding motif (TGGGGGTGAGTAAGGGGGT), which was shown by electrophoretic mobility shift assays to be essential for binding of purified RamA.
  • Furthermore, the functional relevance of this motif, which is located -180 to -162bp upstream of the transcriptional start site, for RamA-dependent activation of acn expression was confirmed by promoter fusion assays.
  • Thus, RamA was shown to be responsible for activation of acn expression in the presence of acetate.
  • Furthermore, evidence was obtained in this work that RamB negatively regulates acn expression, but in an indirect manner.

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  • (PMID = 19095019.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4863
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of biotechnology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Biotechnol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bacterial Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; EC 4.2.1.3 / Aconitate Hydratase
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34. Fisher LM, Doherty JK, Lev MH, Slattery WH: Concordance of bilateral vestibular schwannoma growth and hearing changes in neurofibromatosis 2: neurofibromatosis 2 natural history consortium. Otol Neurotol; 2009 Sep;30(6):835-41
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  • [Title] Concordance of bilateral vestibular schwannoma growth and hearing changes in neurofibromatosis 2: neurofibromatosis 2 natural history consortium.
  • OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between the amount of change in size and associated hearing in bilateral vestibular schwannomas (VSs) in persons with neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2).
  • Vestibular schwannoma size changes were not associated with the corresponding hearing changes (Kendall's tau, p = not significant [n.s.]).
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / pathology. Hearing Loss / etiology. Neurofibromatosis 2 / complications. Neuroma, Acoustic / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19704365.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-4505
  • [Journal-full-title] Otology & neurotology : official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otol. Neurotol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neurofibromin 2
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35. Huang JS, Zhong XJ, Wu X, Jin TY: [Effects of acrylonitrile on the activities of antioxidant enzymes and levels of lipid peroxidation in rat testes]. Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi; 2005 Apr;23(2):136-8
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  • OBJECTIVE: To explore the mechanism of male reproductive toxicity induced by acrylonitrile (ACN).
  • METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were daily administrated ACN by intraperitoneal injection 5 times a week for 13 weeks at the dose of 0, 7.5, 15.0 and 30.0 mg/kg body weight, respectively.
  • RESULTS: Following ACN treatment of 4 weeks, the levels of GSH in ACN 15.0 mg/kg and 30.0 mg/kg group were (7.44 +/- 0.77) mg/g pro and (6.95 +/- 0.77) mg/g pro respectively, and the activity of GSH-Px was (70.89 +/- 4.01) U/mg pro in 30.0 mg/kg group, all of which were significantly higher than the control group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01).
  • After 8 weeks, the levels of GSH decreased to (2.50 +/- 0.94) mg/g pro in ACN 30.0 mg/kg group (P < 0.01); the activities of SOD increased to (102.08 +/- 16.08) NU/mg pro and (113.30 +/- 17.20) NU/mg pro in ACN 15.0 mg/kg and 30.0 mg/kg group (P < 0.01).
  • After 13 weeks, the levels of GSH declined in ACN 15.0 mg/kg and 30.0 mg/kg group, and the activities of GST decreased in ACN 30.0 mg/kg group, and of GSH-Px decreased in both doses group.
  • 2 weeks after stopping ACN treatment, the level of GSH restored to normal but the levels of MDA or the activity of GSH-Px in 30.0 mg/kg group were still higher or lower respectively than those of control (P < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSION: ACN may impair the balance of antioxidant system, thus induce lipid peroxidation damage to rat testes.

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  • (PMID = 16105461.001).
  • [ISSN] 1001-9391
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua lao dong wei sheng zhi ye bing za zhi = Zhonghua laodong weisheng zhiyebing zazhi = Chinese journal of industrial hygiene and occupational diseases
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4Y8F71G49Q / Malondialdehyde; EC 1.11.1.9 / Glutathione Peroxidase; EC 1.15.1.1 / Superoxide Dismutase; EC 2.5.1.18 / Glutathione Transferase; GAN16C9B8O / Glutathione; MP1U0D42PE / Acrylonitrile
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36. Han SO, Inui M, Yukawa H: Transcription of Corynebacterium glutamicum genes involved in tricarboxylic acid cycle and glyoxylate cycle. J Mol Microbiol Biotechnol; 2008;15(4):264-76
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  • The acn-acnR-gat gene cluster was transcribed as a mono-, bi- or tricistronic mRNA, depending on the carbon source.
  • The 2.9-kb (acn) and 1.5-kb (acnR-gat) mRNAs, which were regulated by different promoters upstream of acn and acnR, were inversely expressed in acetate and glucose.
  • The 4.5 kb (acn-acnR-gat) mRNA was constitutively expressed.
  • RNA ligase-mediated rapid amplification of cDNA ends analysis of C. glutamicum RNA showed that the transcriptional start sites of gltA, acn, icd, odhA, sucB, sucC, sdhC, fum, mdh, mdhB, mqo, aceA and aceB were located 121, 107, 31, 99, 46, 83, 15, 25, 33, 23, 70, 111 and 183 bp upstream from the first nucleotide of the respective translation initiation codons.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 18285691.001).
  • [ISSN] 1660-2412
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of molecular microbiology and biotechnology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Mol. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Bacterial; 0 / Glyoxylates; 0 / RNA, Bacterial; 0 / RNA, Messenger; JQ39C92HH6 / glyoxylic acid
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37. Sämann PG, Tully C, Spoormaker VI, Wetter TC, Holsboer F, Wehrle R, Czisch M: Increased sleep pressure reduces resting state functional connectivity. MAGMA; 2010 Dec;23(5-6):375-89
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  • Among the spontaneously fluctuating resting state networks, the default mode network (DMN) and its anticorrelated network (ACN) hold key functions in segregating internally and externally directed awareness.
  • We used independent component and cross-correlation analysis to study functional connectivity (fc), focusing on the DMN and ACN.
  • RESULTS: After PSD, focal reductions of auto-correlation strength were detected in the posterior and anterior midline node of the DMN and in the lateral parietal and insular nodes of the ACN.
  • Cross-correlation analysis confirmed reduced cortico-cortical connectivity within and between the DMN and ACN.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Increased sleep pressure is reflected in reduced fc of main DMN and ACN nodes during rest.

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  • (PMID = 20473549.001).
  • [ISSN] 1352-8661
  • [Journal-full-title] Magma (New York, N.Y.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] MAGMA
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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38. Kay R, Barton C, Ratcliffe L, Matharoo-Ball B, Brown P, Roberts J, Teale P, Creaser C: Enrichment of low molecular weight serum proteins using acetonitrile precipitation for mass spectrometry based proteomic analysis. Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom; 2008 Oct;22(20):3255-60
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  • A rapid acetonitrile (ACN)-based extraction method has been developed that reproducibly depletes high abundance and high molecular weight proteins from serum prior to mass spectrometric analysis.
  • A nanoflow liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (nano-LC/MS/MS) multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method for 57 high to medium abundance serum proteins was used to characterise the ACN-depleted fraction after tryptic digestion.
  • The combination of ACN depletion and one-dimensional nano-LC/MS/MS enabled the detection of the low abundance serum protein, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), which has a serum concentration in the region of 100 ng/mL.
  • Total protein analysis of the ACN extracts showed that approximately 99.6% of all protein is removed from the serum.
  • The ACN-depletion strategy offers a viable alternative to the immunochemistry-based protein-depletion techniques commonly used for removing high abundance proteins from serum prior to MS-based proteomic analyses.

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  • (PMID = 18803344.001).
  • [ISSN] 0951-4198
  • [Journal-full-title] Rapid communications in mass spectrometry : RCM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acetonitriles; 0 / Blood Proteins; 0 / Indicators and Reagents; 0 / Protein Hydrolysates; 67763-96-6 / Insulin-Like Growth Factor I; EC 3.4.21.4 / Trypsin
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39. Gwon J, Jin J, McNeff CV, Park JH: Cellulose dimethylphenylcarbamate-immobilized zirconia for chiral separation in reversed-phase CEC. Electrophoresis; 2009 Nov;30(22):3846-54
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  • Enantiomers of the analytes investigated are well separated in ACN/phosphate buffer mobile phases.
  • Better enantioselectivity and resolution were obtained with ACN than MeOH as the organic modifier.

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  • (PMID = 19876957.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-2683
  • [Journal-full-title] Electrophoresis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Electrophoresis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Pharmaceutical Preparations; 0 / Phenylcarbamates; 110735-13-2 / cellulose tris-3,5-dimethylphenyl-carbamate; 9004-34-6 / Cellulose; C6V6S92N3C / Zirconium; S38N85C5G0 / zirconium oxide
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40. Jun-Ling Z, Xiao-gang Z, Fang X, Feng-Ping H: Effect of polar solvent acetonitrile on the electrochemical behavior of polyaniline in ionic liquid electrolytes. J Colloid Interface Sci; 2005 Jul 1;287(1):67-71
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  • Polyaniline film was electropolymerized in organic acidic media (CF3COOH) and then investigated by cyclic voltammetry, AC impedance, and galvanostatic charging and discharging tests in ionic liquid-1-methyl-3-butylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMIPF6) and the mixture electrolytes of BMIPF6 and acetonitrile (ACN) with different ratios.
  • The results showed that the polymer in mixture of BMIPF6 and ACN have lower solution resistance, higher cycle life, and higher electrochemical capacitance.

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  • (PMID = 15914149.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9797
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of colloid and interface science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Colloid Interface Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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41. Jiao Z, Pei X, Guo Y, Xu Y: [Effects of acrylonitrile on the activation of nuclear factor-kappaB signaling pathways and related gene expression in rat brain and rat glial cells]. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu; 2008 May;37(3):264-8
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  • METHODS: The microarray and EMSA (electrophoretic mobility shift assay) techniques were used to investigated NF-kappaB pathway and related gene expressions changes in rat brain after treated with 0 mg/kg and 200mg/kg ACN for 14,28 and 90 days and rat normal glial cells after treated with 0, 25, 50 and 75 microg/ml ACN for 4 and 24 hours.
  • RESULTS: ACN induced the NF-kappaB pathway related gene expression (NIK, IKK, NF-kappaB1, NF-kappaB 2, IkappaBa, c-myc) in rat brain (in vivo) and in rat glial cells (in vitro).
  • It was confirmed by EMSA results that ACN caused activation of the NF-kappaB pathway in rat brain and rat glial cells.
  • CONCLUSION: There is some relationship between gene expression of NF-kappaB pathway and ACN-induced oxidative stress.

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  • (PMID = 18646518.001).
  • [ISSN] 1000-8020
  • [Journal-full-title] Wei sheng yan jiu = Journal of hygiene research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Wei Sheng Yan Jiu
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / NF-kappa B; MP1U0D42PE / Acrylonitrile
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42. Lee HJ, Park SM: Electrochemistry of conductive polymers 37. Nanoscale monitoring of electrical properties during electrochemical growth of polypyrrole and its aging. J Phys Chem B; 2005 Jul 14;109(27):13247-54
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  • Of acetonitrile (ACN) solutions containing various amounts of water, one that contained 1.0% water produced the best quality films in their electrical and morphological properties in terms of homogeneities.
  • The degree of doping, as well as time evolution of the film structure and its conductivity, of the PPy films was investigated during their growth in water and ACN with 1.0% water by obtaining the current images at a few designated growing stages, and the results were compared.
  • Well-doped, conductive films were obtained from the very early stage during the electrodeposition of PPy in the ACN solution, while the films were poorly doped in water.
  • The current-voltage traces were obtained at each growing stage, which showed that the conductivity increases in both media as the PPy grows; the conductivity of the film grown in ACN is much higher than that of the film grown in water at all growing stages.

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  • (PMID = 16852652.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-6106
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of physical chemistry. B
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Phys Chem B
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. Straub AJ, Conklin AS, Ferguson JF, Stensel HD: Use of the ADM1 to investigate the effects of acetoclastic methanogen population dynamics on mesophilic digester stability. Water Sci Technol; 2006;54(4):59-66
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  • The acetate capacity number (ACN), defined as the ratio between the maximum acetate utilization rate and the average acetate production rate, was used to index digester instability.
  • Simulations of a single CSTR at steady state indicate a similar ACN can be obtained with a 12-day SRT digester dominated by Methanosarcina sp and a 24-day SRT digester dominated by Methanosaeta sp.
  • An increase in ACN with a decrease in SRT representing Methanosarcina sp. selection was observed for particulate feed loadings from 40 g COD/L to 90 g COD/L.
  • Feeding frequency and dual-pathway hydrolysis were found to have less effect on the ACN than the competitive acetoclastic model structure.

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  • (PMID = 17037170.001).
  • [ISSN] 0273-1223
  • [Journal-full-title] Water science and technology : a journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Water Sci. Technol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Water Pollutants
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44. Pouyatos B, Gearhart CA, Fechter LD: Acrylonitrile potentiates hearing loss and cochlear damage induced by moderate noise exposure in rats. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol; 2005 Apr 1;204(1):46-56
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  • If this is true, then acrylonitrile (ACN) would be expected to potentiate NIHL.
  • ACN, one of the 50 most commonly used chemicals in the United States, is metabolized via two pathways that are likely to disrupt intrinsic reactive oxygen species (ROS) buffering systems:.
  • We hypothesized that moderate noise exposure, that does not produce permanent hearing loss by itself, could initiate oxidative stress and that ACN could render the inner ear more sensitive to noise by disrupting intrinsic antioxidant defenses.
  • Temporary and persistent effects of ACN alone (50 mg/kg, sc 5 days), noise alone (95 or 97 dB octave band noise, 4 h/day for 5 days), or ACN in combination with noise were determined using distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) and compound action potential (CAP) amplitudes.
  • Individually, neither ACN nor noise exposures caused any permanent hearing or hair cell loss; only a reversible temporary threshold shift was measured in noise-exposed animals.
  • However, when given in combination, ACN and noise induced permanent threshold shifts (13-16 dB between 7 and 40 kHz) and a decrease in DPOAE amplitudes (up to 25 dB at 19 kHz), as well as significant outer hair cell (OHC) loss (up to 20% in the first row between 13 and 47 kHz).
  • This investigation demonstrates that ACN can potentiate NIHL at noise levels that are realistic in terms of human exposure, and that the OHCs are the main target of toxicity.

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  • (PMID = 15781293.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicology and applied pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIDCD NIH HHS / DC / DC 005503; United States / NIDCD NIH HHS / DC / DC 03481
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] MP1U0D42PE / Acrylonitrile
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45. Ribatti D, Nico B, Pezzolo A, Vacca A, Meazza R, Cinti R, Carlini B, Parodi F, Pistoia V, Corrias MV: Angiogenesis in a human neuroblastoma xenograft model: mechanisms and inhibition by tumour-derived interferon-gamma. Br J Cancer; 2006 Jun 19;94(12):1845-52
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  • We have previously shown that the ACN NB cell line is tumorigenic and angiogenic in immunodeficient mice, and that interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) gene transfer dampens ACN tumorigenicity.
  • In addition, we characterised the tumour vasculature of the ACN xenografts, using the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane assay.
  • We show that the ACN/IFN-gamma xenografts had a lower microvessel density and less in vivo angiogenic potential than the vector-transfected ACN/neo.
  • With respect to ACN/neo, the ACN/IFN-gamma xenografts showed more terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling-positive human and murine endothelial cells, suggesting that inhibition of angiogenesis by IFN-gamma was dependent on the induction of apoptosis, likely mediated by nitric oxide.

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  • (PMID = 16721359.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2361332
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46. Preuss M, Stein M, Huegens-Penzel M, Kuchelmeister K, Nestler U: Metastatic tumours mimicking vestibular schwannoma. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2008 Sep;150(9):915-9
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  • [Title] Metastatic tumours mimicking vestibular schwannoma.
  • In this review of the literature we discuss the rare occurrence of metastatic tumours mimicking bilateral vestibular schwannoma and present an own case with pancreatic signet-ring cell carcinoma as primary tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Signet Ring Cell / secondary. Ear Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ear Neoplasms / secondary. Ear, Inner. Neuroma, Acoustic / diagnosis. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18754073.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Number-of-references] 34
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47. Törnblom JK, Bureyko TF, MacKinnon CD: Simulating phenol high-performance liquid chromatography retention times as the pH changes. Mobile phase pH versus buffer pH. J Chromatogr A; 2005 Nov 18;1095(1-2):68-73
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  • The HPLC retention times of several substituted phenols have been measured and simulated using Advanced Chemistry Development's LC simulator, using 50% acetonitrile (ACN) as the mobile phase.
  • The pK(a) values in 50% ACN for some of these phenols have also been determined, which tend to be one unit higher than the aqueous pK(a) values reported in the literature.

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  • (PMID = 16275284.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9673
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of chromatography. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chromatogr A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acetonitriles; 0 / Buffers; 0 / Phenols; Z072SB282N / acetonitrile
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48. Fang R, Ke Z, Shen Y, Zhao C, Phillips DL: Concurrent cyclopropanation by carbenes and carbanions? A density functional theory study on the reaction pathways. J Org Chem; 2007 Jul 6;72(14):5139-45
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  • The mechanisms for the addition reactions of phenylhalocarbenes and phenyldihalomethide carbanions with acrylonitrile (ACN) and trimethylethylene (TME) have been investigated using an ab initio BH and HLYP/6-31G (d, p) level of theory.
  • These model calculations show that for the addition of phenylhalocarbenes, a TME species may readily undergo addition reactions with carbenes while ACN has a high-energy barrier to overcome.
  • However, the cyclopropanation proceeds not only via slow addition of phenylhalocarbenes to ACN but also forms through the stepwise reaction of phenyldihalomethide carbanions with ACN.
  • 2005, 127, 8960) that indicate that the cyclopropanation of phenylhalocarbenes and phenyldihalomethide carbanions with ACN are concurrent in THF.

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  • (PMID = 17552566.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3263
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of organic chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Org. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclopropanes; 0 / Halogens; 0 / Hydrocarbons; 2465-56-7 / carbene; 99TB643425 / cyclopropane; OP0UW79H66 / Methane
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49. McCalley DV: Is hydrophilic interaction chromatography with silica columns a viable alternative to reversed-phase liquid chromatography for the analysis of ionisable compounds? J Chromatogr A; 2007 Nov 9;1171(1-2):46-55
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  • The separation of acidic, neutral and particularly basic solutes was investigated using a bare silica column, mostly under hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) conditions with water concentrations >2.5% and with >70% acetonitrile (ACN).
  • Acidic solutes had low retention or showed exclusion in ammonium formate buffers, but were strongly retained when using trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) buffers, possibly due to suppression of repulsion of the solute anions from ionised silanol groups at the low (s)(s)pH of TFA solutions of aqueous ACN.
  • HILIC separations were ideal for fast analysis of ionised bases, due to the low viscosity of mobile phases with high ACN content, and the favourable Van Deemter curves which resulted from higher solute diffusivities.

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  • (PMID = 17931636.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9673
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of chromatography. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chromatogr A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acetonitriles; 0 / Buffers; 0 / Formates; 0 / Ions; 059QF0KO0R / Water; 64-18-6 / formic acid; 7631-86-9 / Silicon Dioxide; 7664-41-7 / Ammonia; E5R8Z4G708 / Trifluoroacetic Acid; Z072SB282N / acetonitrile
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50. Gonzalez-Arellano C, Luque R, Macquarrie DJ: Nanotubular self-assembly of n-dodecylamine-TEOS-water-acetonitrile mixtures. Chem Commun (Camb); 2009 Aug 14;(30):4581-3
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  • We report for the first time the observation of self-assembled nanotubular structures from n-dodecylamine-TEOS-water-ACN mixtures; the presence of these nanotubular domains was found to be strongly influenced by the generation of in situ metal nanoparticles and the presence of halide anions.

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  • (PMID = 19617990.001).
  • [ISSN] 1364-548X
  • [Journal-full-title] Chemical communications (Cambridge, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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51. Karasová G, Lehotay J, Sádecká J, Skacáni I, Lachová M: Selective extraction of derivates of p-hydroxy-benzoic acid from plant material by using a molecularly imprinted polymer. J Sep Sci; 2005 Dec;28(18):2468-76
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  • MIP was prepared with acrylamide as functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as crosslinking monomer and ACN as porogen.
  • The best specific binding capacity of MIP was obtained for PA in ACN (34.7 microg/g of MIP).
  • ACN was chosen as solvent for sample application. M. officinalis was extracted into methanol/water (4:1, v/v), the extract was then evaporated to dryness and dissolved in ACN before application on MIP.
  • Water and ACN were used as washing solvents and elution of benzoic acids was performed by means of a mixture methanol/acetic acid (9:1, v/v).

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  • (PMID = 16405176.001).
  • [ISSN] 1615-9306
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of separation science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Sep Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acetonitriles; 0 / Hydroxybenzoates; 0 / Parabens; 0 / Plant Extracts; 0 / Polymers; 0 / Solvents; 29656-58-4 / phenolic acid; JG8Z55Y12H / 4-hydroxybenzoic acid; Q40Q9N063P / Acetic Acid; Y4S76JWI15 / Methanol; Z072SB282N / acetonitrile
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52. Zhang J, Pierce GE: Laboratory-scale biofiltration of acrylonitrile by Rhodococcus rhodochrous DAP 96622 in a trickling bed bioreactor. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol; 2009 Jul;36(7):971-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Acrylonitrile (ACN), a volatile component of the waste generated during the production of acrylamide, also is often associated with aromatic contaminants such as toluene and styrene.
  • An experimental laboratory-scale trickling bed bioreactor using cells of Rhodococcus rhodochrous DAP 96622 supported on granular activated carbon (GAC) was developed and evaluated to assess the ability of biofiltration to treat ACN.
  • In addition to following the course of treatability of ACN, kinetics of ACN biodegradation during both recycle batch and open modes of operation by immobilized and free cells were evaluated.
  • For fed-batch mode bioreactor with immobilized cells, almost complete ACN removal (>95%) was achieved at a flow rate of 0.1 microl/min ACN and 0.8 microl/min toluene (TOL) (for comparative purposes this is equivalent to 6.9 mg l(-1) h(-1) ACN and 83.52 mg l(-1) h(-1) TOL).
  • In a single-pass mode bioreactor with immobilized cells, at ACN inlet loads of 100-200 mg l(-1) h(-1) and TOL inlet load of approximately 400 mg l(-1) h(-1), with empty bed retention time (EBRT) of 8 min, ACN removal efficiency was approximately 90%.

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  • (PMID = 19387713.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5535
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of industrial microbiology & biotechnology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] MP1U0D42PE / Acrylonitrile
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53. Yang B, Kallio H: Analysis of triacylglycerols of seeds and berries of sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides) of different origins by mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry. Lipids; 2006 Apr;41(4):381-92
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  • The seeds contained mainly TAG with acyl carbon number (ACN) of 52 with 2-6 double bonds (DB) (20-30%), and TAG of ACN 54 with 3-9 DB (70-80%).
  • In the pulp/peel fraction, the major TAG were species with ACN:DB of 48:1 to 48:3 (19-49%), 50:1 to 50:4 (31-41%), and 52:1 to 52:6 (9-19%).
  • The molecular weight species of whole berries largely resembled those of fruit pulp/peel with additional species of ACN 54 from the seeds (5-24%).
  • Subspecies (ssp.) sinensis differed from ssp. mongolica and rhamnoides by having a higher proportion of TAG of ACN 52 (27% vs. 21% and 22%, P< 0.05) and a lower proportion of ACN 54 (71% vs. 79% and 78%, P < 0.01) in seed TAG.
  • Berry TAG of ssp. mongolica had the highest proportion of molecular species of ACN 48 due to the higher proportion of palmitic and palmitoleic acids and the lower seed content of the berries.

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  • (PMID = 16808152.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-4201
  • [Journal-full-title] Lipids
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lipids
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fatty Acids; 0 / Triglycerides
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54. Flakus HT, Michta A: Investigations of interhydrogen bond dynamical coupling effects in the polarized IR spectra of acetanilide crystals. J Phys Chem A; 2010 Feb 4;114(4):1688-98
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  • This Article presents the investigation results of the polarized IR spectra of the hydrogen bond in acetanilide (ACN) crystals measured in the frequency range of the proton and deuteron stretching vibration bands, nu(N-H) and nu(N-D).
  • On the basis of the linear dichroic and temperature effects in the polarized IR spectra of ACN crystals, the H/D isotopic "self-organization" effects were revealed.
  • A nonrandom distribution of hydrogen isotope atoms (H or D) in the lattice was deduced from the spectra of isotopically diluted ACN crystals.
  • A more complex fine structure pattern of nu(N-H) and nu(N-D) bands in ACN spectra in comparison with the spectra of other secondary amides (e.g., N-methylacetamide) can be explained in terms of the "relaxation" theory of the IR spectra of hydrogen-bonded systems.

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  • (PMID = 20055492.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-5215
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of physical chemistry. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Phys Chem A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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55. Kalo P, Kemppinen A, Ollilainen V: Determination of triacylglycerols in butterfat by normal-phase HPLC and electrospray-tandem mass spectrometry. Lipids; 2009 Feb;44(2):169-95
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  • Here, we report the identification and quantification of the molecular species of long-, medium-, and short-chain triacylglycerols (TAG) in butterfat (BF), including TAG with an odd number of acyl carbons (ACN) and TAG with unidentified molecular species.
  • For the quantification of long-chain, odd ACN TAG, and TAG with unidentified molecular species, molar correction factors (MCF) were calculated from the uncorrected mol% (area mol%) of each ACN:DB (number of double bonds) class in randomized butterfat (RBF), and the respective mol% in the calculated random composition of RBF.
  • 450 TAG species in 184 quantified peaks of 88 ACN:DB classes.
  • The proportions of TAG with not identified molecular species and odd ACN TAG were 11.8 and 5.7 mol%, respectively.

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  • (PMID = 18949502.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-4201
  • [Journal-full-title] Lipids
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lipids
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fatty Acids; 0 / Triglycerides; 8029-34-3 / Butter
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56. Valeri AL, Kremser L, Raggi MA, Grüner B, Vespalec R, Kenndler E: Capillary electrophoresis of boron cluster compounds in aqueous and nonaqueous solvents. Electrophoresis; 2008 Apr;29(8):1658-66
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  • The electrophoretic properties of boron cluster compounds were determined in water, methanol and ACN as solvents of the BGE and discussed based on the principles of ion migration.
  • The BGE in all solvents was acetate/acetic acid buffer with pH 4.75 in water, 9.7 in methanol and 22.3 in ACN, respectively, at different ionic strength between 5 and 30 mM.
  • Electrophoresis of the analytes in a BGE consisting of 6 mM perchloric acid in ACN allows the conclusion that the present boron cluster compounds behave as stronger acids than perchloric acid.

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  • (PMID = 18383019.001).
  • [ISSN] 0173-0835
  • [Journal-full-title] Electrophoresis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Electrophoresis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Solvents; N9E3X5056Q / Boron
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57. Harfmann RG, Julka S, Cortes HJ: Instability of hexane-acetonitrile mobile phases used for the chromatographic analysis of triacylglycerides. J Sep Sci; 2008 Apr;31(6-7):915-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Determination of TAG in food products such as rice, palm, and canola oils have been previously described and the technique of choice utilizes a silver-modified silica column with hexane-ACN as the mobile phase.
  • The present report summarizes a study performed to determine the relative stability of ACN, propionitrile (PCN), and butyronitrile (BCN) at concentrations ranging from 0.43 to 2.8% in hexane and heptane.
  • The data obtained suggest that unless evaporative loss of the mobile phase is prevented, TAG retention time irreproducibility can be significant when using mobile-phase mixtures prepared with ACN or PCN.

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  • (PMID = 18381698.001).
  • [ISSN] 1615-9314
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of separation science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Sep Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acetonitriles; 0 / Hexanes; 0 / Triglycerides; 2DDG612ED8 / n-hexane; Z072SB282N / acetonitrile
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58. Müller A, Düsterloh K, Ringseis R, Eder K, Steinhart H: Development of an alternative eluent system for Ag+-HPLC analysis of conjugated linoleic acid isomers. J Sep Sci; 2006 Feb;29(3):358-65
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  • In this study, 13 different eluent systems containing n-hexane, n-heptane and iso-octane as main solvents and ACN, propionitrile (PCN) and butyronitrile (BCN) in concentrations between 0.1 and 0.2% as modifiers were tested for their influence on retention time shifts (RTS) and resolution of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) methyl esters using two ChromSpher 5 Lipids columns (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) in series.
  • The eluent system n-hexane/PCN 0.2% showed the highest stability with an obtained RTS of 0.26 min for the cis/trans-group after 14 consecutive injections of a CLA isomer mix compared to the reference system of n-hexane/ACN 0.15% (RTS of 2.35 min).
  • This enhanced stability is due to better solubility of PCN in n-hexane compared to ACN.

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  • (PMID = 16544876.001).
  • [ISSN] 1615-9306
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of separation science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Sep Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cations; 0 / Esters; 0 / Estranes; 0 / Hexanes; 0 / Linoleic Acids, Conjugated; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Solvents; 151774-83-3 / 3-hydroxy-5-estrane-17-carbonitrile; 2DDG612ED8 / n-hexane; 3FPU23BG52 / Toluene; 3M4G523W1G / Silver; X045WJ989B / Sorbic Acid
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59. Yang C, Ikegami T, Hara T, Tanaka N: Improved endcapping method of monolithic silica columns. J Chromatogr A; 2006 Oct 20;1130(2):175-81
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  • After endcapping with TMSI in acetonitrile (ACN), all columns provided better performance for hydrogen-bonding compounds and basic compounds than C(18) phases endcapped with HMDS.
  • The results indicate that one can significantly improve the performance of monolithic silica C(18) columns for basic compounds by a simple on-column reaction with TMSI in ACN at a relative low temperature.

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  • (PMID = 16674964.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9673
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of chromatography. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chromatogr A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Indicators and Reagents; 44RAL3456C / Methamphetamine; 7631-86-9 / Silicon Dioxide; CK833KGX7E / Amphetamine
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60. Zhao J, Lee CW, Han X, Chen F, Xu Y, Huang Y, Chan-Park MB, Chen P, Li LJ: Solution-processable semiconducting thin-film transistors using single-walled carbon nanotubes chemically modified by organic radical initiators. Chem Commun (Camb); 2009 Dec 14;(46):7182-4
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  • The reactivity of organic radicals produced by 1,1'-azobis(cyanocyclohexane) (ACN) is tuned to selectively suppress electrical conduction of small diameter single-walled carbon nanotubes, and the modified tubes are able to produce high-mobility (approximately 10 cm2 V(-1) s(-1)) and solution-processable thin-film transistors with full semiconductor device yield, promising applications in high-performance printable electronics.

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  • (PMID = 19921023.001).
  • [ISSN] 1364-548X
  • [Journal-full-title] Chemical communications (Cambridge, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Free Radicals; 0 / Nanotubes, Carbon; 0 / Organic Chemicals; 0 / Solutions
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61. Cledera-Castro M, Santos-Montes A, Izquierdo-Hornillos R, Gonzalo-Lumbreras R: Comparison of the performance of different reversed-phase columns for liquid chromatography separation of 11 pollutant phenols. J Sep Sci; 2007 Mar;30(5):699-707
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The binary mobile phases used were obtained by mixing 50 mM phosphate (pH = 3.0) and methanol, ACN, or THF as organic modifiers.
  • After selecting ACN as an organic modifier, the effects of pH and temperature on PPs separation were studied.
  • A mobile phase of 50 mM acetate (pH = 5.0)-ACN (60:40 v/v) at 50 degrees C allowed the separation of 11 phenols but not to baseline in 17 min.
  • A further reoptimization of the mobile phase was carried out for all the columns by studying the ACN content and pH, with the aim of improving the above-mentioned separations and selecting the most suitable one for PPs analysis.

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  • (PMID = 17461109.001).
  • [ISSN] 1615-9306
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of separation science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Sep Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Environmental Pollutants; 0 / Phenols
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62. Toufektsian MC, de Lorgeril M, Nagy N, Salen P, Donati MB, Giordano L, Mock HP, Peterek S, Matros A, Petroni K, Pilu R, Rotilio D, Tonelli C, de Leiris J, Boucher F, Martin C: Chronic dietary intake of plant-derived anthocyanins protects the rat heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury. J Nutr; 2008 Apr;138(4):747-52
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  • Male Wistar rats were fed the anthocyanin-rich (ACN-rich) or the anthocyanin-free (ACN-free) diet for a period of 8 wk.
  • Anthocyanins were significantly absorbed and detected in the blood and urine of only rats fed the ACN-rich diet.
  • In Langendorff preparations, the hearts of rats fed the ACN-rich diet were more resistant to regional ischemia and reperfusion insult.
  • Moreover, on an in vivo model of coronary occlusion and reperfusion, infarct size was reduced in rats that ate the ACN-rich diet than in those that consumed the ACN-free diet (P < 0.01).

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  • (PMID = 18356330.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-6100
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of nutrition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nutr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anthocyanins
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63. Wu X, Pittman HE 3rd, McKay S, Prior RL: Aglycones and sugar moieties alter anthocyanin absorption and metabolism after berry consumption in weanling pigs. J Nutr; 2005 Oct;135(10):2417-24
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • To investigate the absorption and metabolism of anthocyanins (ACNs) with different aglycones and sugar moieties, weanling pigs (11.4 +/- 3.8 kg) were fed, in a single meal, a freeze-dried powder of chokeberry, black currant, or elderberry at a single dose of 229, 140, or 228 mumol total ACN/kg body weight (BW), respectively.
  • Cyanidin ACNs were metabolized via methylation and glucuronidation as well as by formation of both derivatives on the same ACN molecule.
  • Over 80% of the ACN compounds containing rutinose or sambubiose, which were excreted in the urine from black currant, elderberry, or Marion blackberry, were excreted as the intact molecule.
  • ACN monoglycosides other than the glucoside were metabolized via methylation and/or glucuronide formation.

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  • (PMID = 16177206.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3166
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of nutrition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nutr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anthocyanins; 0 / Carbohydrates; A1TA934AKO / Xylose; B40ROO395Z / Arabinose; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose; X2RN3Q8DNE / Galactose
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64. Sanches-Silva A, Sendón-García R, López-Hernández J, Paseiro-Losada P: Determination of triclosan in foodstuffs. J Sep Sci; 2005 Jan;28(1):65-72
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The method includes extraction with hexane, followed by evaporation to dryness and residue re-dissolution in ACN 90%.
  • Chromatographic separation was performed with a Kromasil 100 C18 column (15 cm x 0.4 cm ID, 5 microm particle size) at 30 degrees C and using ACN and water as mobile phases.

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  • (PMID = 15688633.001).
  • [ISSN] 1615-9306
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of separation science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Sep Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Infective Agents, Local; 4NM5039Y5X / Triclosan
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65. Vitaglione P, Donnarumma G, Napolitano A, Galvano F, Gallo A, Scalfi L, Fogliano V: Protocatechuic acid is the major human metabolite of cyanidin-glucosides. J Nutr; 2007 Sep;137(9):2043-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • The metabolic fate of dietary anthocyanins (ACN) has not been fully clarified in humans.
  • In all previous studies, the proportion of total ACN absorbed and excreted in urine was <1% intake.
  • ACN recovered in 24-h urine collections represented approximately 1.2% of the ingested dose.
  • Data explained the metabolic fate of 74% of BOJ ACN.
  • A high concentration of PCA may explain the short-term increased plasma antioxidant activity observed after intake of cyanidin-rich food and it can also contribute to the numerous health benefits attributed to dietary ACN consumption.

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  • (PMID = 17709440.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3166
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of nutrition
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nutr.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anthocyanins; 0 / Glucosides; 0 / Hydroxybenzoates; 13306-05-3 / cyanidin; 29656-58-4 / phenolic acid; 36R5QJ8L4B / protocatechuic acid
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66. Pouyatos B, Gearhart C, Nelson-Miller A, Fulton S, Fechter L: Oxidative stress pathways in the potentiation of noise-induced hearing loss by acrylonitrile. Hear Res; 2007 Feb;224(1-2):61-74
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • This hypothesis was tested using acrylonitrile (ACN), a widely used industrial chemical whose metabolism is associated with glutathione (GSH) depletion and cyanide (CN) generation.
  • We have shown previously that ACN potentiates NIHL, even with noise exposure approaching permissible occupational levels.
  • We investigated the effects of sodium thiosulfate (STS), a CN inhibitor, 4-methylpyrazole (4MP), a drug that blocks CN generation by competing with CYP2E1, and l-N-acetylcysteine (l-NAC), a pro-GSH drug, in order to distinguish between GSH depletion and CN production as the mechanism responsible for potentiation of NIHL by ACN.
  • Long-Evans rats were exposed to an octave-band noise (97 dB SPL, 4h/day, 5 days) and ACN (50 mg/kg).
  • Concurrently, only l-NAC treatment decreased the auditory loss and hair cell loss resulting from ACN + noise, suggesting that GSH is involved in the protection of the cochlea against reactive oxygen species generated by moderate noise levels.

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  • (PMID = 17222524.001).
  • [ISSN] 0378-5955
  • [Journal-full-title] Hearing research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hear. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIOSH CDC HHS / OH / OH-03481
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antioxidants; 0 / Cyanides; 0 / Pyrazoles; 0 / Reactive Oxygen Species; 0 / Thiosulfates; 83LCM6L2BY / fomepizole; GAN16C9B8O / Glutathione; HX1032V43M / sodium thiosulfate; MP1U0D42PE / Acrylonitrile; WYQ7N0BPYC / Acetylcysteine
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67. Ahmad T, Guiochon G: Effect of the mobile phase composition on the adsorption behavior of tryptophan in reversed-phase liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr A; 2006 May 5;1114(1):111-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Single-component adsorption isotherm data of l-tryptophan on a C18-bonded silica column were acquired by frontal analysis (FA), with aqueous mobile phases containing 2.5, 5, and 7.5% of acetonitrile (ACN) or 7, 10, 15, and 20% of methanol (MeOH).
  • The inflection points shift toward higher concentrations with increasing mobile phase concentration in ACN or MeOH, which causes the differences in the isotherm profiles.
  • The nature of the organic modifier and its concentration affect only the isotherm profile and the numerical values of its parameters, not the nature of the best model, which is the bi-Moreau model in all cases.
  • Increasing the concentration of either ACN or MeOH in the mobile phase causes a slight decrease in the saturation capacities of the low and the high energy sites, and in the adsorption constant of the low energy sites.
  • Saturation capacities of the high energy sites are higher for ACN than for MeOH.

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  • (PMID = 16530206.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9673
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of chromatography. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chromatogr A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acetonitriles; 059QF0KO0R / Water; 8DUH1N11BX / Tryptophan; Y4S76JWI15 / Methanol; Z072SB282N / acetonitrile
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68. Belin GK, Erim FB, Gülaçar FO: Effect of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide on the migration of polyaromatic hydrocarbons in capillary electrokinetic chromatography. Talanta; 2006 May 15;69(3):596-600
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  • In order to increase the solubilities and selectivities of PAHs, acetonitrile (ACN) was used as an organic modifier.
  • Under the optimised conditions, 11 aromatic compounds were separated within 14.5min in a running electrolyte containing 10mM phosphate, 30mM CTAB, and 40% ACN at pH 6.0.
  • The effects of CTAB and ACN concentrations, voltage and pH on the resolution were investigated.

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  • (PMID = 18970609.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-3573
  • [Journal-full-title] Talanta
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Talanta
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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69. Ma H, Luo M, Shao S, Liu X, Jiang S: Cation effects in the separation of calix[4]pyrroles by nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis with tetraalkylammonium chloride salts as background electrolytes. J Chromatogr A; 2008 May 23;1192(1):180-6
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  • The migration behavior of three calix[4]pyrroles (C4Ps) in acetonitrile (ACN) and in the mixtures of ACN/ethanol (EtOH) (95:5; v/v)with tetraalkylammonium chloride as background electrolyte (BGE) was studied.
  • Electroosmotic flow (EOF) mobilities and absolute mobilities in ACN and mixture of ACN/EtOH (95:5; v/v) were investigated.
  • A decrease of EOF mobilities in EtOH/ACN was observed compared with that of in pure ACN.

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  • (PMID = 18395731.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9673
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of chromatography. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chromatogr A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acetonitriles; 0 / Cations; 0 / Electrolytes; 0 / Porphyrins; 0 / Quaternary Ammonium Compounds; 0 / calix(4)pyrrole; 130036-26-9 / Calixarenes; Z072SB282N / acetonitrile
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70. Dondoi MP, Bucur B, Danet AF, Toader CN, Barthelmebs L, Marty JL: Organophosphorus insecticides extraction and heterogeneous oxidation on column for analysis with an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) biosensor. Anal Chim Acta; 2006 Sep 25;578(2):162-9
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  • Three organic solvents, acetonitrile (ACN), ethanol and methanol were tested for their influence on AChE activity, insecticide inhibition and their ability to elute the adsorbed insecticides.
  • Our results showed that ACN in a concentration of 5% (v/v) had the less negative effect on biosensor analysis and was the most appropriate organic solvent for the column elution.
  • The inhibition of the biosensors was performed in phosphate buffer with 5% (v/v) ACN, while the initial and remaining response of the biosensors were measured in PBS.

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  • (PMID = 17723708.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4324
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytica chimica acta
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Chim. Acta
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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71. Jandera P, Hájek T: Utilization of dual retention mechanism on columns with bonded PEG and diol stationary phases for adjusting the separation selectivity of phenolic and flavone natural antioxidants. J Sep Sci; 2009 Nov;32(21):3603-19
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  • The retention of phenolic acid and flavone antioxidants was investigated on three columns with bonded PEG, hydroxy (DIOL) and mixed oxyethylene-hydroxy (Luna HILIC) stationary phases in buffered aqueous ACN mobile phases.
  • All columns show mixed retention mechanism: reversed phases in highly aqueous mobile phases and normal phases (HILIC, hydrophilic interaction LC) in mobile phases with high concentration of ACN, showing characteristic U-shape retention versus mobile phase composition plots.

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  • (PMID = 19839014.001).
  • [ISSN] 1615-9314
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of separation science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Sep Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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72. Wang JH, Zhang YB, Wang XL: Determination of multiclass pesticide residues in apple juice by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with large-volume injection. J Sep Sci; 2006 Oct;29(15):2330-7
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  • The sample was extracted with ACN, and coextractives were removed with primary/secondary amine sorbent.
  • ACN extract (20 microL) was injected into a PTV injection port in solvent vent mode, and the pesticides were determined by GC-MS using retention time locking software.

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  • (PMID = 17120817.001).
  • [ISSN] 1615-9306
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of separation science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Sep Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Pesticide Residues
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73. Matuschek MC, Hendriks WH, McGhie TK, Reynolds GW: The jejunum is the main site of absorption for anthocyanins in mice. J Nutr Biochem; 2006 Jan;17(1):31-6
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  • Intestinal absorption of anthocyanins (ACNs) was studied in vitro by comparing ACN disappearance from the mucosal solution of Ussing chambers not containing any tissue (controls) and that of Ussing chambers containing segments of mouse duodenum, jejunum, ileum or colon.
  • After the addition of an ACN extract to the mucosal solution, samples from both the mucosal side and the serosal side were withdrawn at 10, 40, 80 and 120 min and analyzed for ACN concentration using reversed-phase HPLC with photodiode array detection.
  • This study demonstrates for the first time that ACN absorption in mice occurs predominantly in the jejunum.

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  • (PMID = 16098729.001).
  • [ISSN] 0955-2863
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of nutritional biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Nutr. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anthocyanins
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74. Itoh T, McCreery RL: In situ Raman spectroelectrochemistry of azobenzene monolayers on glassy carbon. Anal Bioanal Chem; 2007 May;388(1):131-4
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  • In situ Raman spectra of chemisorbed azobenzene (AB) monolayers on glassy carbon (GC) electrodes were observed under potentiostatic conditions in acetonitrile (ACN) with tetrabutyl-ammonium tetrafluoroborate (TBA-BF4).

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  • (PMID = 17333142.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-2642
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal Bioanal Chem
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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75. Tokheim AM, Martin BL: Association of calcineurin with mitochondrial proteins. Proteins; 2006 Jul 1;64(1):28-33
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  • The resulting peptide mass spectrum was compared with the Mascot and Protein Prospector databases and resulted in the specific identification of heart mitochondrial proteins, specifically Mn-superoxide dismutase (SOD), aconitase (ACN), and malate dehydrogenase (MDH).
  • Using antibody preparations against Mn-SOD, ACN, and ICDH showed the presence of calcineurin and each of the three proteins in the immunoprecipitated complex by Western slot blotting.
  • The activity of ACN, but not MDH or ICDH, was enhanced after incubation with calcineurin indicating one possible regulatory function for the complex.
  • The mitochondrial forms of Mn-SOD, ACN, MDH, and ICDH were identified as partner proteins of calcineurin with all the proteins present in a single multiprotein complex.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16639748.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0134
  • [Journal-full-title] Proteins
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proteins
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 1.1.1.37 / Malate Dehydrogenase; EC 1.15.1.1 / Superoxide Dismutase; EC 3.1.3.16 / Calcineurin; EC 4.2.1.3 / Aconitate Hydratase
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76. Cao J, Qu H, Cheng Y: Micellar and aqueous-organic liquid chromatography using sub-2 microm packings for fast separation of natural phenolic compounds. J Sep Sci; 2010 Jul;33(13):1946-53
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  • Firstly, the effect of ACN and SDS on elution strength and selectivity was examined by isocratic submicellar (0-30% ACN/5% 1-butanol/1-6 mM SDS) and micellar (0-30% ACN/5% 1-butanol/40-60 mM SDS) systems.
  • Then, the application of organic modifier gradient was discussed in both submicellar and micellar LC using mobile phases of 4 mM SDS/5% 1-butanol or 50 mM SDS/5% 1-butanol containing ACN gradient from 0 to 30%, respectively.
  • The mobile phase was a mixture of ACN and water employing gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min, with analysis time below 9 min.

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  • (PMID = 20491058.001).
  • [ISSN] 1615-9314
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of separation science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Sep Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acetonitriles; 0 / Micelles; 0 / Phenols; 059QF0KO0R / Water; 368GB5141J / Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate
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77. Rodriguez J, Elola MD, Laria D: Coaxial cross-diffusion through carbon nanotubes. J Phys Chem B; 2009 Nov 12;113(45):14844-8
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  • We present results from nonequilibrium molecular dynamics experiments describing the relaxation of local concentrations at two reservoirs, initially filled with water (W) and acetonitrile (ACN), as they become connected through a membrane composed of (16,16) carbon nanotubes.
  • Within the hydrophobic nanotube cavities, the equilibrium concentrations contrast sharply to those observed at the reservoirs, with a clear enhancement of ACN, in detriment of W.
  • An intermediate interval with Fickian characteristics follows, during which the overall transport can be cast in terms of coaxial opposite fluxes, with a central water domain segregated from an external ACN shell, in close contact with the tube walls.

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  • (PMID = 19842653.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-5207
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of physical chemistry. B
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Phys Chem B
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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78. Peterson A, Hohmann L, Huang L, Kim B, Eng JK, Martin DB: Analysis of RP-HPLC loading conditions for maximizing peptide identifications in shotgun proteomics. J Proteome Res; 2009 Aug;8(8):4161-8
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  • The loading buffer acetonitrile (ACN) concentration greatly affected peptide identifications: up to a 26% increase in peptide identifications was observed by decreasing the ACN concentration from 5 to 2% during sample loading.
  • Hydrophilic peptides were the main contributors to the increase in peptide identifications and, at higher ACN concentrations, were washed from the precolumn during desalting.
  • Sampling of the hydrophilic peptides was enhanced by using a shallow initial ACN gradient.

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  • (PMID = 19601632.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-3893
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of proteome research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Proteome Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / P50 GM076547-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA126216; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / P50 GM076547; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA126216-02; United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM076547-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA126216-02
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acetonitriles; 0 / Peptide Fragments; Z072SB282N / acetonitrile
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS132613; NLM/ PMC2757279
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79. Lai JP, Yang ML, Niessner R, Knopp D: Molecularly imprinted microspheres and nanospheres for di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate prepared by precipitation polymerization. Anal Bioanal Chem; 2007 Sep;389(2):405-12
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  • The effect of the dispersive solvents acetonitrile (ACN) and cyclohexane (CH), the cross-linkers ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) and trimethylpropane trimethacrylate (TRIM), and the template on particle size and morphology of polymers was investigated in detail by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and BET adsorption isotherm determination.
  • When used as HPLC stationary phase, the microspheres exhibited strong affinity for the template DEHP with an imprint factor (IF) higher than 8.0 in ACN/water (60:40, v/v) as mobile phase.
  • Similarly, the obtained MINs exhibited an imprinting effect in pure ACN, i.e. the bond amount of DEHP was significantly higher compared to NIPs, as was shown in rebinding experiments.

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  • (PMID = 17551717.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-2642
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal Bioanal Chem
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Polymers; C42K0PH13C / Diethylhexyl Phthalate
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80. Downes K, Terry LA: A new acetonitrile-free mobile phase method for LC-ELSD quantification of fructooligosaccharides in onion (Allium cepa L.). Talanta; 2010 Jun 30;82(1):118-24
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  • In onion, sugars and FOS are typically separated using liquid chromatography (LC) with acetonitrile (ACN) as a mobile phase.
  • In recent times, however, the production of ACN has diminished due, in part, to the current worldwide economic recession.
  • A study was therefore undertaken, to find an alternative LC method to quantify sugars and FOS from onion without the need for ACN.
  • Two mobile phases were compared; the first taken from a paper by Vågen and Slimestad (2008) using ACN mobile phase, the second, a newly reported method using ethanol (EtOH).
  • The EtOH mobile phase eluted similar concentrations of all FOS compared to the ACN mobile phase.
  • Although the ACN mobile phase method is more convenient, in the current economic climate a method based on inexpensive and plentiful ethanol is a valid alternative and could potentially be applied to other fresh produce types.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20685445.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-3573
  • [Journal-full-title] Talanta
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Talanta
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acetonitriles; 0 / Oligosaccharides; 0 / fructooligosaccharide; 3K9958V90M / Ethanol; Y4S76JWI15 / Methanol; Z072SB282N / acetonitrile
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81. Li R, Carpentier E, Newell ED, Olague LM, Heafey E, Yihwa C, Bohne C: Effect of the structure of bile salt aggregates on the binding of aromatic guests and the accessibility of anions. Langmuir; 2009 Dec 15;25(24):13800-8
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  • The binding of naphthalene (Np), 1-ethylnaphthalene (EtNp), acenaphthene (AcN), and 1-naphthyl-1-ethanol (NpOH) as guests to the aggregates of sodium cholate (NaCh), taurocholate (NaTC), deoxycholate (NaDC), and deoxytaurocholate (NaTDC) was studied with the objective of determining how the structure of the bile salts affects the binding dynamics of guests and quenchers with the bile salt aggregates.
  • The formation of aggregates is in part driven by the structure of the guest, where an increased protection efficiency and residence time can be achieved by the introduction of short alkyl substituents (AcN or EtNp vs Np).
  • NpOH was shown to be located in a very different environment in all four bile salts when compared to AcN, EtNp, and Np, suggesting that hydrogen bonding plays an important role in the formation of the aggregate around NpOH.

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  • (PMID = 19606836.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-5827
  • [Journal-full-title] Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Langmuir
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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82. Conklin AS, Chapman T, Zahller JD, Stensel HD, Ferguson JF: Monitoring the role of aceticlasts in anaerobic digestion: activity and capacity. Water Res; 2008 Dec;42(20):4895-904
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  • This paper develops and applies an assay to measure digester stability by measuring the maximum aceticlastic methane production rate (Vmax,ac).
  • The Vmax,ac in combination with acetate concentrations was found to be an effective digestion monitoring tool to indicate process upsets.
  • At steady state, thermophilic, first stage and short SRT digesters generally had a greater Vmax,ac than mesophilic, second stage or long SRT digesters.
  • The ratio of the Vmax,ac to the plant aceticlastic methane production rate, termed the Acetate Capacity Number (ACN), is a measure of the excess capacity of the digester.
  • Either Vmax,ac or ACN can be used to estimate the capability to handle higher organic loading rates.
  • Monod modeling was used to predict Vmax,ac, ACN and maximum VS loading rates for mesophilic and thermophilic digestion and for staged digesters to better understand expected digestion capacity and stability.

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  • (PMID = 18947851.001).
  • [ISSN] 0043-1354
  • [Journal-full-title] Water research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Water Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acetates; 0 / Sewage; OP0UW79H66 / Methane
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83. Hernychova L, Toman R, Ciampor F, Hubalek M, Vackova J, Macela A, Skultety L: Detection and identification of Coxiella burnetii based on the mass spectrometric analyses of the extracted proteins. Anal Chem; 2008 Sep 15;80(18):7097-104
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  • The first of them starts with the acetonitrile (ACN) and trichloroacetic acid extractions of inactivated C. burnetii cells followed by the detection of extracted molecules and ions derived from the inactivated cells by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
  • In the second approach, identification of the proteins extracted by ACN is accomplished after enzymatic digestion by electrospray tandem mass spectrometry coupled to a nanoscale ultraperformance liquid chromatography (LC-MS/MS).
  • The LC-MS/MS approach has allowed identification of 20 proteins in the ACN extracts of C. burnetii strain RSA 493 that were observed in more than 3 out of 10 experiments.

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  • (PMID = 18707130.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-6882
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bacterial Proteins; EC 3.4.21.4 / Trypsin
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84. Feng G, Huang J, Sumpter BG, Meunier V, Qiao R: Structure and dynamics of electrical double layers in organic electrolytes. Phys Chem Chem Phys; 2010;12(20):5468-79
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  • The organic electrolyte of tetraethylammonium tetrafluoroborate (TEABF(4)) in the aprotic solvent of acetonitrile (ACN) is widely used in electrochemical systems such as electrochemical capacitors.
  • In this paper, we examine the solvation of TEA(+) and BF(4)(-) in ACN, and the structure, capacitance, and dynamics of the electrical double layers (EDLs) in the TEABF(4-)ACN electrolyte using molecular dynamics simulations complemented with quantum density functional theory calculations.
  • The solvation of TEA(+) and BF(4)(-) ions is found to be much weaker than that of small inorganic ions in aqueous solutions, and the ACN molecules in the solvation shell of both types of ions show only weak packing and orientational ordering.
  • Both the rotations (ACN only) and translations of interfacial ACN and ions are found to slow down as the electrode is electrified.
  • The rotation/diffusion of ACN and the diffusion of ions in the region beyond the first ACN or ion layer differ only weakly from those in the bulk.

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  • [Copyright] This journal is © the Owner Societies 2010
  • (PMID = 20467670.001).
  • [ISSN] 1463-9084
  • [Journal-full-title] Physical chemistry chemical physics : PCCP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Phys Chem Chem Phys
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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85. Hariharan S, Zhu J, Nadkarni MA, Donahue JE: Metastatic lung cancer in the cerebellopontine angles mimicking bilateral acoustic neuroma. J Clin Neurosci; 2005 Feb;12(2):184-6
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  • [Title] Metastatic lung cancer in the cerebellopontine angles mimicking bilateral acoustic neuroma.
  • Bilateral cerebellopontine angle (CPA) tumors identified on MRI are considered bilateral acoustic neuromas, the definitive diagnostic criterion of neurofibromatosis 2 (NF-2).
  • We report the case of a 67-year-old man with progressive bilateral hearing loss, vertigo, and imbalance.
  • MRI revealed bilateral enhancing CPA lesions, which were suggestive of acoustic neuromas and a diagnosis of NF-2.
  • Therefore, metastatic carcinoma to the CPA can mimic bilateral acoustic neuromas; imaging studies alone may be insufficient to diagnose NF-2.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neuroma, Acoustic


86. Fujita K, Chan JM, Bollinger JA, Alvarez ML, Dooley DM: Anaerobic purification, characterization and preliminary mechanistic study of recombinant nitrous oxide reductase from Achromobacter cycloclastes. J Inorg Biochem; 2007 Nov;101(11-12):1836-44
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  • Anaerobically purified A. cycloclastes recombinant N(2)OR (AcN(2)OR) has on average 4.5 Cu and 1.2 S per monomer.
  • Upon reduction by methyl viologen, AcN(2)OR displays a high specific activity: 124 U/mg at 25 degrees C.
  • Anaerobically purified AcN(2)OR displays a unique absorption spectrum.
  • CD spectra of the as-purified AcN(2)OR over a range of pH values reveal perturbations of the protein conformation induced by pH variations, although the principal secondary structure elements are largely unaltered.
  • Further, the activity of AcN(2)OR in D(2)O is significantly decreased compared with that in H(2)O, indicative of a significant solvent isotope effect on N(2)O reduction.

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  • (PMID = 17681606.001).
  • [ISSN] 0162-0134
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of inorganic biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Inorg. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Recombinant Proteins; 789U1901C5 / Copper; EC 1.- / Oxidoreductases; EC 1.7.2.4 / nitrous oxide reductase; K50XQU1029 / Nitrous Oxide
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87. Bose A, Basu S: Medium-dependent interactions of quinones with cytosine and cytidine: a laser flash photolysis study with magnetic field effect. Biophys Chem; 2009 Mar;140(1-3):62-8
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  • Laser flash photolysis and an external magnetic field have been used for the study of the interaction of two quinone molecules, namely, 9,10-anthraquinone (AQ) and 2-methyl 1,4-naphthoquinone (or menadione, MQ) with a DNA base, cytosine (C) and its nucleoside cytidine (dC) in two media, a homogeneous one composed of acetonitrile/water (ACN/H(2)O, 9:1, v/v) and a SDS micellar heterogeneous one.
  • Cytosine exhibits electron transfer (ET) followed by hydrogen abstraction (HA) while dC reveals a reduced ET compared to C, with both quinones in organic homogeneous medium (ACN/H(2)O).
  • Due to a higher electron affinity, AQ supports more faciler ET than MQ with dC in ACN/H(2)O but observations in SDS have been just the reverse.

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  • (PMID = 19121557.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4200
  • [Journal-full-title] Biophysical chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Biophys. Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acetonitriles; 0 / Quinones; 368GB5141J / Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate; 5CSZ8459RP / Cytidine; 8J337D1HZY / Cytosine; Z072SB282N / acetonitrile
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88. Katainen E, Niemelä P, Harjunen P, Suhonen J, Järvinen K: Evaluation of the amorphous content of lactose by solution calorimetry and Raman spectroscopy. Talanta; 2005 Nov 15;68(1):1-5
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  • The heat of solvation of the samples was determined by solution calorimetry in organic solvents MeOH, EtOH, ACN, THF, acetone (400mg sample/100ml solvent).
  • Lactose is virtually insoluble in ACN, THF and acetone and very slightly soluble in EtOH and MeOH.
  • The amorphous content of the samples could not be determined by solution calorimetry in EtOH, ACN, THF or acetone.

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  • (PMID = 18970276.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-3573
  • [Journal-full-title] Talanta
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Talanta
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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89. Norton D, Rizvi SA, Shamsi SA: Capillary electrochromatography-mass spectrometry of cationic surfactants. Electrophoresis; 2006 Nov;27(21):4273-87
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  • First, the optimization of CEC separation parameters are performed including the ACN concentration, triethylamine (TEA) content, buffer pH and ammonium acetate concentration.
  • Using 90% v/v ACN with 0.04% v/v TEA as mobile phase, the separation of longer chain C6-C18-TMA+ surfactants could be achieved in 15 min.
  • Lowering the ACN concentration to 70% v/v provided resolution of shorter chain C1, C2-TMA+ from C6-TMA+ although the total analysis time increased to 40 min.
  • Furthermore, variation of both the ACN and TEA content as well as ionic strength has found to significantly influence the retention of longer chain surfactants as compared to shorter chains.
  • The optimum CEC conditions are 70% v/v ACN, 0.04% v/v TEA, pH 3.0 and 15 mM ammonium acetate.

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  • (PMID = 17075924.001).
  • [ISSN] 0173-0835
  • [Journal-full-title] Electrophoresis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Electrophoresis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM62314
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acetates; 0 / Buffers; 0 / Cations; 0 / Ethylamines; 0 / Quaternary Ammonium Compounds; 0 / Surface-Active Agents; RRE756S6Q2 / ammonium acetate; VOU728O6AY / triethylamine
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90. Beskid O, Dusek Z, Solanský I, Srám RJ: The effects of exposure to different clastogens on the pattern of chromosomal aberrations detected by FISH whole chromosome painting in occupationally exposed individuals. Mutat Res; 2006 Feb 22;594(1-2):20-9
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  • The pattern of chromosomal aberrations (CA) was studied by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) technique (whole chromosomes #1 and #4 painting) in workers occupationally exposed to any of the four following conditions: acrylonitrile (ACN), ethyl benzene (EB), carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (c-PAHs), and irradiation in nuclear power plants (NPP), respectively.
  • Decrease in the relative frequency of translocations was observed in EB group, and an increase in reciprocal translocations in ACN and NPP-exposed groups.
  • An increase in a relative number of insertions was registered under all four conditions (significant at ACN, EB, c-PAHs, quasisignificant at NPP-exposed groups).
  • Significant differences in the percentage of lymphocytes with aberrations on chromosome #1 (58.8+/-32.7%, versus 73.8+/-33.6% in the controls, P < 0.05), and chromosome #4 (47.0+/-34.1%, versus 29.4+/-32.2%, P < 0.01) were found in workers exposed to ACN.

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  • (PMID = 16153664.001).
  • [ISSN] 0027-5107
  • [Journal-full-title] Mutation research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mutat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Benzene Derivatives; 0 / Mutagens; 0 / Polycyclic Hydrocarbons, Aromatic; L5I45M5G0O / ethylbenzene; MP1U0D42PE / Acrylonitrile
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91. Cao J, Yi L, Li P, Chang YX: On-line concentration of neutral analytes by complexation and acetonitrile sweeping in nonionic microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography with direct ultraviolet detection. J Chromatogr A; 2009 Jul 17;1216(29):5608-13
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  • To separate and detect neutral solutes in nonionic microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC), a novel method was developed, combining complex formation and acetonitrile (ACN) sweeping.
  • The operating parameters which affected the performance of analyte sweeping in nonionic MEEKC were examined in terms of borate complexation, ACN content, Brij-35 concentration and sample plug length.

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  • (PMID = 19524933.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-3778
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of chromatography. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chromatogr A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acetonitriles; 0 / Glucosides; Z072SB282N / acetonitrile
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92. Li Y, Luo Y, Wu S, Gao Y, Liu Y, Zheng D: Nucleic acids in protein samples interfere with phosphopeptide identification by immobilized-metal-ion affinity chromatography and mass spectrometry. Mol Biotechnol; 2009 Sep;43(1):59-66
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  • Acetonitrile (ACN) precipitation, a simple and efficient procedure, was established to remove nucleic acids from the protein samples.
  • We showed that ACN precipitation approximately doubled the phosphopeptide number identified by IMAC and mass spectrometry, indicating that nucleic acid removal significantly improves the identification of phosphopeptides.

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  • (PMID = 19412670.001).
  • [ISSN] 1073-6085
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular biotechnology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Biotechnol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Complex Mixtures; 0 / Metals; 0 / Nucleic Acids; 0 / Phosphopeptides; 0 / Proteins
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93. Hou J, Zheng J, Shamsi SA: Simultaneous chiral separation of ephedrine alkaloids by MEKC-ESI-MS using polymeric surfactant II: application in dietary supplements. Electrophoresis; 2007 May;28(9):1426-34
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  • Enantioselective separations of all ephedrine alkaloids were accomplished through a combination of polysodium N-undecenoxycarbonyl-L-leucinate (poly-L-SUCL) with 30% v/v ACN.
  • Interestingly, the more hydrophilic stereoisomers were eluted later than the hydrophobic ones indicating that hydrogen bonding interactions are much stronger than hydrophobic interactions in the presence of ACN in chiral MEKC.

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  • (PMID = 17465418.001).
  • [ISSN] 0173-0835
  • [Journal-full-title] Electrophoresis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Electrophoresis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIGMS NIH HHS / GM / GM 62314
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Alkaloids; 0 / Micelles; 0 / Polymers; 0 / Surface-Active Agents; GN83C131XS / Ephedrine
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94. Steinert RE, Ditscheid B, Netzel M, Jahreis G: Absorption of black currant anthocyanins by monolayers of human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells mounted in ussing type chambers. J Agric Food Chem; 2008 Jul 9;56(13):4995-5001
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  • Their role in human nutrition, however, needs to be related to biokinetic data, such as bioavailability.
  • Luminal to serosal transport of ACNs was examined by comparing ACN disappearance from the luminal solution of Ussing chambers not containing any inserts (control chambers) with that of Ussing chambers containing inserts.
  • ACNs (C total ACN approximately 180 microM) were not detected in any serosal solution.
  • However, it was shown that ACNs disappeared from the luminal side, not due to ACN degradation processes but rather--at least in part--due to physiological actions of the cells.
  • Thus, cell metabolism and translocation across the basolateral membrane may be the key determinants of ACN absorption and bioavailability.

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  • (PMID = 18540609.001).
  • [ISSN] 1520-5118
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of agricultural and food chemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Agric. Food Chem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anthocyanins
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95. del Pozo J, Fonseca E: Angiokeratoma circumscriptum naeviforme: successful treatment with carbon-dioxide laser vaporization. Dermatol Surg; 2005 Feb;31(2):232-6
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  • BACKGROUND: Angiokeratoma circumscriptum naeviforme (ACN) is an unusual type of localized angiokeratoma that occurs more frequently in females and is usually located on the buttocks or thighs, showing a unilateral distribution.
  • ACN usually causes large lesions, which may require laser ablation because they often are too extensive to perform surgical excision.
  • OBJECTIVE: Report of two cases of ACN treated with carbon-dioxide laser vaporization.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results, obtaining relevant cosmetic improvement after a few sessions of treatment, with low morbidity and minimal secondary effects, suggest that continuous-wave carbon-dioxide laser vaporization is a safe and effective treatment for ACN.

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  • (PMID = 15762221.001).
  • [ISSN] 1076-0512
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatologic surgery : official publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et al.]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 142M471B3J / Carbon Dioxide
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96. Lippert JA, Johnson TM, Lloyd JB, Smith JP, Johnson BT, Furlow J, Proctor A, Marin SJ: Effects of elevated temperature and mobile phase composition on a novel C18 silica column. J Sep Sci; 2007 May;30(8):1141-9
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  • A novel polydentate C18 silica column was evaluated at an elevated temperature under acidic, basic, and neutral mobile phase conditions using ACN and methanol as the mobile phase organic modifier.
  • Under neutral conditions, the column showed good column thermal stability at temperatures ranging between 120 and 200 degrees C in methanol-water and ACN-water solvent systems.
  • At pH 2 and 3, the column performed well up to about 160 degrees C at two fixed ACN-buffer compositions.

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  • (PMID = 17595949.001).
  • [ISSN] 1615-9306
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of separation science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Sep Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acetonitriles; 7631-86-9 / Silicon Dioxide; 77030-95-6 / octadecyl silane-bonded silica; Y4S76JWI15 / Methanol; Z072SB282N / acetonitrile
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97. Mandal P, Misra T, De A, Ghosh S, Chaudhury SR, Chowdhury J, Ganguly T: Photophysical processes involved within the bichromophoric system 9-benzotriazole-1-ylmethyl-9H-carbazole and its role as an artificial photosynthetic device. Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc; 2007 Mar;66(3):534-45
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  • CZ, thus being excited indirectly via energy transfer process, undergoes strong charge transfer (CT) reaction with the surrounding polar medium acetonitrile (ACN).
  • In less polar tetrahydrofuran (THF) and polar benzonitrile (BN) environment, lack of formation of CT band strongly suggests in favor of the electron-accepting behavior of ACN.
  • Thus, BHC, when dissolved in ACN, acts as a triad system of BZ-CZ-ACN where BZ acts as an antenna molecule and CZ as a reaction center.

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  • (PMID = 16859957.001).
  • [ISSN] 1386-1425
  • [Journal-full-title] Spectrochimica acta. Part A, Molecular and biomolecular spectroscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 9-benzotriazole-1-ylmethyl-9H-carbazole; 0 / Acetonitriles; 0 / Benzothiazoles; 0 / Carbazoles; 0P2197HHHN / carbazole; Z072SB282N / acetonitrile
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98. Huang HL, Stasyk T, Morandell S, Mogg M, Schreiber M, Feuerstein I, Huck CW, Stecher G, Bonn GK, Huber LA: Enrichment of low-abundant serum proteins by albumin/immunoglobulin G immunoaffinity depletion under partly denaturing conditions. Electrophoresis; 2005 Jul;26(14):2843-9
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  • Under native conditions, albumin/IgG were efficiently removed and several proteins were enriched as shown by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE).
  • Besides that, partly denaturing conditions were established by adding 5 or 20% acetonitrile (ACN) in order to disrupt the binding of low-molecular-weight (LMW) proteins to the carrier proteins albumin/IgG.
  • 2-DE results showed that the total number of detected LMW proteins increased under denaturing conditions when compared to native conditions.
  • Interestingly, the presence of 5% ACN in serum revealed better enrichment of LMW proteins when compared to 20% ACN condition.
  • Seven randomly distributed spots in albumin/IgG depleted serum samples under 5% ACN condition were picked from the 2-DE gels and identified by mass spectrometry (MS).

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  • (PMID = 15971195.001).
  • [ISSN] 0173-0835
  • [Journal-full-title] Electrophoresis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Electrophoresis
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Acetonitriles; 0 / Albumins; 0 / Blood Proteins; 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / Proteome; Z072SB282N / acetonitrile
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99. Ahmad T, Guiochon G: Numerical determination of the adsorption isotherms of tryptophan at different temperatures and mobile phase compositions. J Chromatogr A; 2007 Feb 23;1142(2):148-63
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  • Single-component adsorption isotherm data were acquired by frontal analysis (FA) for tryptophan on a C(18)-Kromasil packed column, using acetonitrile-water solutions of various compositions (2.5, 5, and 7.5% ACN+1% acetic acid) and at five different temperatures between 25 and 65 degrees C.
  • The adsorption isotherm model accounting best for these data is the bi-Moreau model, showing that two types of adsorption sites coexist on the surface and that strong adsorbate-adsorbate interactions take place.
  • Both indicate that the retention time of tryptophan decreases rapidly with increasing acetonitrile concentration in the mobile phase as well as the saturation capacities of the two types of adsorption sites, with the highest values of the two saturation capacities being found for the lowest ACN content and the lowest temperature.
  • In contrast, the adsorption constant on the high-energy sites increases with increasing ACN content of the mobile phase but decreases with increasing temperature.
  • The solute-solute interaction parameters for the low and the high-energy adsorption sites increase rapidly with increasing ACN concentration in the mobile phase and with increasing temperature.

  • Hazardous Substances Data Bank. (L)-Tryptophan .
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  • (PMID = 17229430.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9673
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of chromatography. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chromatogr A
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 8DUH1N11BX / Tryptophan
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100. Subbaraman LN, Glasier MA, Senchyna M, Sheardown H, Jones L: Extraction efficiency of an extraction buffer used to quantify lysozyme deposition on conventional and silicone hydrogel contact lens materials. Eye Contact Lens; 2007 Jul;33(4):169-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • PURPOSE: Extracting lysozyme from Food and Drug Administration group IV etafilcon lenses by using 0.2% trifluoroacetic acid and acetonitrile (TFA/ACN) is a well-established procedure.
  • TFA/ACN has been the extraction buffer of choice for extracting proteins from silicone hydrogel contact lenses.
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the efficiency of TFA/ACN in extracting lysozyme from silicone hydrogel and etafilcon lenses by using an in vitro model.
  • CONCLUSIONS: TFA/ACN is extremely efficient at extracting lysozyme deposited on etafilcon lenses.

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  • (PMID = 17630622.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-2321
  • [Journal-full-title] Eye & contact lens
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eye Contact Lens
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Buffers; 0 / Contact Lens Solutions; 0 / Methacrylates; 0 / etafilcon; EC 3.2.1.17 / Muramidase
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