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1. Freye E: Cerebral monitoring in the operating room and the intensive care unit - an introductory for the clinician and a guide for the novice wanting to open a window to the brain. Part II: Sensory-evoked potentials (SSEP, AEP, VEP). J Clin Monit Comput; 2005 Apr;19(1-2):77-168
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • An evoked potential is the brain's response to a repetitive stimulus along a specific nerve pathway.
  • 2. Monitoring of the effects of anesthetic agents and other centrally active drugs, which, besides the cortex, affect deeper neuronal structures.
  • 7. Operation on peripheral nerves and nerve roots to identify early trauma.
  • 10. An intraoperative warning device of unsuspected awareness during light anesthesia when movement is abolished by muscle relaxants and cardiovascular responses are modified by vasoactive drugs.
  • The generation of potential changes at various sites along the pathway is an index for the integrity of the nerve.
  • Thus, the evoked potential can be considered a neurophysiological response (usually of the cortex) to impulses originating from some externally stimulated sensory nerve.
  • They provide a physiological measure of the functional integrity of the sensory nerve pathway, which can be used as a clinical diagnostic tool as well as for intraoperative monitoring.
  • If the auditory nerve is stimulated by "clicks" from headphones, it is called the auditory evoked potential (AEP).
  • If a nerve on the arm or the leg is stimulated by a small electrical current applied to the overlying skin, it is called the Somatosensory Evoked Potential (SSEP).
  • Evoked potentials are used both as a diagnostic tool and as a monitoring technique.
  • As diagnostic tests, evoked potentials are useful to evaluate neurologic disorders such as: a) multiple sclerosis, b) acoustic nerve tumors, and c) optic neuritis.

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  • (PMID = 16167223.001).
  • [ISSN] 1387-1307
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical monitoring and computing
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Monit Comput
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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2. Schoemaker MJ, Swerdlow AJ, Auvinen A, Christensen HC, Feychting M, Johansen C, Klaeboe L, Lönn S, Salminen T, Tynes T: Medical history, cigarette smoking and risk of acoustic neuroma: an international case-control study. Int J Cancer; 2007 Jan 1;120(1):103-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Medical history, cigarette smoking and risk of acoustic neuroma: an international case-control study.
  • Acoustic neuroma (vestibular schwannoma) is a benign tumor of the vestibulocochlear nerve.
  • Its recorded incidence is increasing but risk factors for this tumor have scarcely been investigated.
  • We conducted a population-based case-control study of risk factors for acoustic neuroma in the UK and Nordic countries, including 563 cases and 2,703 controls.
  • Tumor risk was analyzed in relation to medical history and cigarette smoking.
  • Risk of acoustic neuroma was significantly raised in parous compared with nulliparous women (OR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1-2.6), but was not related to age at first birth or number of children.
  • Risk was not associated with a history of allergic disease, past head injury, past diagnosis of a neoplasm or birth characteristics, but was significantly raised for past diagnosis of epilepsy (OR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.3-4.9).
  • Tumor risk was significantly reduced in subjects who had ever regularly smoked cigarettes (OR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.6-0.9), but the reduction applied only to current smokers (OR = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.4-0.6), not ex-smokers (OR = 1.0, 95% CI: 0.8-1.3).
  • The reduced risk of acoustic neuroma in smokers and raised risk in parous women might relate to sex hormone levels, or smoking might suppress tumor growth, but effects of parity and smoking on timing of diagnosis of the tumor are also a potential explanation.
  • The raised risk in relation to past diagnosis of epilepsy might be a surveillance artefact or imply that epilepsy and/or antiepileptic medication use predispose to acoustic neuroma.
  • [MeSH-major] Neuroma, Acoustic / etiology. Smoking / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Asthma / complications. Case-Control Studies. Eczema / complications. Epilepsy / complications. Epilepsy / drug therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Medical History Taking. Middle Aged. Risk Factors