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3. Iczkowski KA, Montironi R: Adenoid cystic/basal cell carcinoma of the prostate strongly expresses HER-2/neu. J Clin Pathol; 2006 Dec;59(12):1327-30
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  • [Title] Adenoid cystic/basal cell carcinoma of the prostate strongly expresses HER-2/neu.
  • Adenoid cystic/basal cell carcinoma (ACBCC) is a rare neoplasm in the prostate.
  • Ten acinar adenocarcinomas of varying grades were also immunostained as controls.
  • Protein and mRNA expression were 2+ to 3+ (of 3+) in all patients with ACBCC, compared to a breast cancer control with strong reactivity, whereas protein expression was noted in only one acinar carcinoma and mRNA expression was absent in all acinar carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / metabolism. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / metabolism. Mixed Tumor, Malignant / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism


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4. Souter LH, Andrews JD, Zhang G, Cook AC, Postenka CO, Al-Katib W, Leong HS, Rodenhiser DI, Chambers AF, Tuck AB: Human 21T breast epithelial cell lines mimic breast cancer progression in vivo and in vitro and show stage-specific gene expression patterns. Lab Invest; 2010 Aug;90(8):1247-58
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  • [Title] Human 21T breast epithelial cell lines mimic breast cancer progression in vivo and in vitro and show stage-specific gene expression patterns.
  • Early breast cancer progression involves advancement through specific morphological stages including atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive mammary carcinoma (IMC), although not necessarily always in a linear fashion.
  • Observational studies have examined genetic, epigenetic and gene expression differences in breast tissues representing these stages of progression, but model systems which would allow for experimental testing of specific factors influencing transition through these stages are scarce.
  • The 21T series cell lines, all originally derived from the same patient with metastatic breast cancer, have been proposed to represent a mammary tumor progression series.
  • We report here that three of the 21T cell lines indeed mimic specific stages of human breast cancer progression (21PT-derived cells, ADH; 21NT-derived cells, DCIS; 21MT-1 cells, IMC) when grown in the mammary fat pad of nude mice, albeit after a year.
  • To develop a more rapid, readily manipulatable in vitro assay for examining the biological differences between these cell lines, we have used a 3D Matrigel system.
  • When the three cell lines were grown in 3D Matrigel, they showed characteristic morphologies, in which quantifiable aspects of stage-specific in vivo behaviors (ie, differences in acinar structure formation, cell polarization, colony morphology, cell proliferation, cell invasion) were recapitulated in a reproducible fashion.
  • Gene expression profiling revealed a characteristic pattern for each of the three cell lines.
  • Interestingly, Wnt pathway alterations are particularly predominant in the early transition from 21PTci (ADH) to 21NTci (DCIS), whereas alterations in expression of genes associated with control of cell motility and invasion phenomena are more prominent in the later transition of 21NTci (DCIS) to 21MT-1 (IMC).
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms. Carcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20458274.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0307
  • [Journal-full-title] Laboratory investigation; a journal of technical methods and pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lab. Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] Canada / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / / 42511
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Laminin; 0 / Proteoglycans; 119978-18-6 / matrigel; 9007-34-5 / Collagen
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5. Kinkor Z, Skálová A: [Acinic cell-like differentiation in invasive ductal carcinoma and in ductal hyperplasia of the breast--report of two cases]. Cesk Patol; 2005 Jan;41(1):29-33
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  • [Title] [Acinic cell-like differentiation in invasive ductal carcinoma and in ductal hyperplasia of the breast--report of two cases].
  • [Transliterated title] "Acinic cell-like" diferenciace v invazivním duktálním karcinomu a duktální hyperlazii mlécné zlázy--popis dvou prípadů.
  • Described are two epithelial lesions of the breast displaying extremely rare, widespread acinic cell-like differentiation (metaplasia).
  • Two women, 70 and 40-year-old, one with invasive ductal papillocarcinoma, the other one with conventional intraductal hyperplasia without atypia, both demonstrated massive diffuse, PAS positive, granular eosinophilic transformation of the cell cytoplasm.
  • This unusual cell appearance closely simulated acinar cells in normal serous salivary gland/acinic cell carcinoma or Paneth cells.
  • Both extensive expression of lysozyme and finding of numerous zymogen granules ultrastructurally confirmed the acinic cell-like fenotype.
  • Discussed is differential diagnosis of the breast neoplasm containing overt eosinophilic and granular cytoplasm.
  • Reviewing literature and comparing our unique finding of unusual salivary-type differentiation in conventional ductal hyperplasia of the breast, biologic implications are considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology


6. Han B, Mehra R, Suleman K, Tomlins SA, Wang L, Singhal N, Linetzky KA, Palanisamy N, Zhou M, Chinnaiyan AM, Shah RB: Characterization of ETS gene aberrations in select histologic variants of prostate carcinoma. Mod Pathol; 2009 Sep;22(9):1176-85
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  • [Title] Characterization of ETS gene aberrations in select histologic variants of prostate carcinoma.
  • Histologic variants of prostate carcinoma account for 5-10% of the disease and are typically seen in association with conventional acinar carcinoma.
  • However, the frequency and significance of this critical molecular event is unknown in the histologic variants of prostate carcinoma.
  • Here, we used break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization to assess TMPRSS2 and ETS aberrations in a series of select histologic variants: foamy gland carcinoma (N=17), ductal adenocarcinoma (N=18), mucinous carcinoma (N=18), and small cell carcinoma (N=7).
  • A histologic variation of acinar adenocarcinoma, demonstrating glomeruloid morphology (N=9), was also investigated.
  • TMPRSS2:ERG fusion was identified in 83% (15/18), 71% (5/7), 50% (9/18), 33% (3/9), and 29% (5/17) of mucinous, small cell, ductal, glomeruloid, and foamy gland prostate carcinomas, respectively.
  • Interestingly, ERG rearrangement in small cell carcinomas occurred exclusively through Edel, supporting the notion that TMPRSS2:ERG with Edel is an aggressive molecular subtype.
  • Notably, 88% (43/49) variant morphologies in this cohort showed concordance of TMPRSS2:ERG fusion with associated conventional acinar type, suggesting that variant morphology is clonally related to the latter.
  • Overall, our data provide insight into the origin, molecular mechanism, and phenotypic association of ETS fusions in histologic variants of prostate carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 19465903.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA069568-110020; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA111275-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA102872; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50CA69568; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA069568-110020; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / UO1 CA111275-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA069568; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA111275
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets; 0 / SPINK1 protein, human; 0 / TMPRSS2-ERG fusion protein, human; 0 / TMPRSS2-ETV1 fusion protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS148618; NLM/ PMC2760291
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7. Guo HB, Johnson H, Randolph M, Nagy T, Blalock R, Pierce M: Specific posttranslational modification regulates early events in mammary carcinoma formation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2010 Dec 7;107(49):21116-21
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  • [Title] Specific posttranslational modification regulates early events in mammary carcinoma formation.
  • The expression of an enzyme, GnT-V, that catalyzes a specific posttranslational modification of a family of glycoproteins, namely a branched N-glycan, is transcriptionally up-regulated during breast carcinoma oncogenesis.
  • To determine the molecular basis of how early events in breast carcinoma formation are regulated by GnT-V, we studied both the early stages of mammary tumor formation by using 3D cell culture and a her-2 transgenic mouse mammary tumor model.
  • Overexpression of GnT-V in MCF-10A mammary epithelial cells in 3D culture disrupted acinar morphogenesis with impaired hollow lumen formation, an early characteristic of mammary neoplastic transformation.
  • The disrupted acinar morphogenesis of mammary tumor cells in 3D culture caused by her-2 expression was reversed in tumors that lacked GnT-V expression.

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  • (PMID = 21078982.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-6490
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA064462; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA128454; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P41 RR018502; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA128454; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA64462; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR018502
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.4.1.- / N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferases; EC 2.4.1.155 / alpha-1,6-mannosylglycoprotein beta 1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase; EC 2.7.10.1 / Erbb2 protein, mouse; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3000280
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8. Sandal T, Valyi-Nagy K, Spencer VA, Folberg R, Bissell MJ, Maniotis AJ: Epigenetic reversion of breast carcinoma phenotype is accompanied by changes in DNA sequestration as measured by AluI restriction enzyme. Am J Pathol; 2007 May;170(5):1739-49
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  • [Title] Epigenetic reversion of breast carcinoma phenotype is accompanied by changes in DNA sequestration as measured by AluI restriction enzyme.
  • To investigate the relationship between chromatin organization and tumor phenotype, we used an established three-dimensional assay in which normal and malignant human breast cells can be easily distinguished by the morphology of the structures they make (acinus-like versus tumor-like, respectively).
  • Treatment of T4-2 breast cancer cells in three-dimensional culture with cAMP analogs or a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor not only reverted their phenotype from nonpolar to polar acinar-like structures but also enhanced chromatin sensitivity to AluI.

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  • (PMID = 17456778.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9440
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / R01 EY010457; United States / NEI NIH HHS / EY / EY10457
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP; EC 3.1.21.- / DNA Restriction Enzymes
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1854967
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9. La Rosa S, Franzi F, Marchet S, Finzi G, Clerici M, Vigetti D, Chiaravalli AM, Sessa F, Capella C: The monoclonal anti-BCL10 antibody (clone 331.1) is a sensitive and specific marker of pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma and pancreatic metaplasia. Virchows Arch; 2009 Feb;454(2):133-42
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  • [Title] The monoclonal anti-BCL10 antibody (clone 331.1) is a sensitive and specific marker of pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma and pancreatic metaplasia.
  • Acinar cell carcinoma (ACC) is a rare pancreatic cancer which may be difficult to distinguish from other solid nonadenocarcinoma tumors.
  • The diagnosis depends on the demonstration of acinar differentiation, obtained with antibodies recognizing various pancreatic enzymes that, although specific, show different sensitivity.
  • The C-terminal portion of the BCL10 protein shows homology with carboxyl ester hydrolase (CEH), an enzyme produced by pancreatic acinar cells.
  • We investigated the usefulness of a C-terminal BCL10 monoclonal antibody in the diagnosis of ACCs.
  • We examined normal pancreases and different pancreatic tumors including ACCs, mixed acinar-endocrine carcinomas, ductal adenocarcinomas, mucinous, serous, solid pseudopapillary, and endocrine neoplasms.
  • In addition, various normal tissues and cases of pancreatic metaplasia of the gastroesophageal mucosa, cases of ectopic pancreas, gastrointestinal endocrine tumors, salivary and breast acinic cell carcinomas, gastric adenocarcinomas with and without acinar differentiation, and hepatocellular carcinomas were studied.
  • BCL10 immunoreactivity paralleled that of CEH and was restricted to acinar cells of normal and ectopic pancreas, of pancreatic metaplasia, and of ACCs.
  • We suggest using BCL10 antibody for diagnosing pancreatic tumors and whenever an acinar differentiation is suspected in gastrointestinal neoplastic and metaplastic lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing / analysis. Antibodies, Monoclonal / immunology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / diagnosis. Pancreas / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19066953.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-2307
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / BCL10 protein, human; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.1.1.1 / Carboxylesterase
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10. Del Vecchio M, Foschini MP, Peterse JL, Eusebi V: Lobular carcinoma of the breast with hybrid myoepithelial and secretory ("myosecretory") cell differentiation. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Nov;29(11):1530-6
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  • [Title] Lobular carcinoma of the breast with hybrid myoepithelial and secretory ("myosecretory") cell differentiation.
  • Three cases of lobular carcinoma of the breast showing a complex morphology that included myoepithelial cell differentiation are reported.
  • One case was a pure in situ acinar lesion, while the other 2 cases were in situ and invasive carcinomas.
  • Three different cell types were seen in these tumors: one was the phenotype commonly seen in the garden variety of in situ lobular carcinoma (LCIS) constituted by noncohesive round to ovoid cells with round nuclei and positivity for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), estrogen receptor (ER), and progesteron receptor (PR).
  • The third type, seen in a minority of cell population of case nos.
  • This type was defined as "hybrid myosecretory cell" to highlight contractile and secretory properties present at the same time.
  • Cells with hybrid features probably indicate that myoepithelial and secretory cells are strictly related and the existence of a stem cell, at least for these cases, is not necessary.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology. Myoepithelioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cell Differentiation. Female. Humans. Mastectomy. Middle Aged


13. Lam L, Hu X, Aktary Z, Andrews DW, Pasdar M: Tamoxifen and ICI 182,780 increase Bcl-2 levels and inhibit growth of breast carcinoma cells by modulating PI3K/AKT, ERK and IGF-1R pathways independent of ERalpha. Breast Cancer Res Treat; 2009 Dec;118(3):605-21
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  • [Title] Tamoxifen and ICI 182,780 increase Bcl-2 levels and inhibit growth of breast carcinoma cells by modulating PI3K/AKT, ERK and IGF-1R pathways independent of ERalpha.
  • We recently showed that estrogen withdrawal from the ERalpha(+), high Bcl-2-expressing breast carcinoma cells (MCF-7B) reduced Bcl-2 protein levels while increasing cell-cell adhesion, and junction formation.
  • Here we compared these cells with the ERalpha(+) and low Bcl-2-expressing MCF-7 cells and with the normal mammary epithelial cell line MCF-10-2A not expressing ERalpha or Bcl-2.
  • All cell lines expressed normal HER2.
  • Antiestrogen (Tamoxifen and ICI 182,780) treatment increased Bcl-2 levels in both MCF-7 and -7B cells and led to the formation of acinar structures.
  • Our data show that Tamoxifen and ICI 182,780 can induce growth inhibitory effects via the sustained activation/inactivation of signaling pathways that regulate cell survival, cell death and differentiation in the absence of ERalpha.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Estradiol / analogs & derivatives. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / drug effects. Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators / pharmacology. Signal Transduction / drug effects. Tamoxifen / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Blotting, Western. Cell Adhesion / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Connexins / drug effects. Estrogen Receptor alpha / drug effects. Estrogen Receptor alpha / metabolism. Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases / drug effects. Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases / metabolism. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique. Humans. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / drug effects. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / drug effects. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt / metabolism. Receptor, IGF Type 1 / drug effects. Receptor, IGF Type 1 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19002577.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7217
  • [Journal-full-title] Breast cancer research and treatment
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Connexins; 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 22X328QOC4 / fulvestrant; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, IGF Type 1; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
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14. Reis-Filho JS, Natrajan R, Vatcheva R, Lambros MB, Marchió C, Mahler-Araújo B, Paish C, Hodi Z, Eusebi V, Ellis IO: Is acinic cell carcinoma a variant of secretory carcinoma? A FISH study using ETV6'split apart' probes. Histopathology; 2008 Jun;52(7):840-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Is acinic cell carcinoma a variant of secretory carcinoma? A FISH study using ETV6'split apart' probes.
  • AIMS: Acinic cell carcinomas (ACCs) and secretory carcinomas (SCs) of the breast are rare, low-grade malignancies that preferentially affect young female patients.
  • It has been demonstrated that SCs of the breast consistently harbour the t(12;15)ETV6-NTRK3 translocation.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Based on the lack of ETV6 rearrangements in ACCs, our results strongly support the concept that SCs and ACCs are distinct entities and should be recorded separately in breast cancer taxonomy schemes.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / genetics. Gene Rearrangement. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets / genetics. Repressor Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18462362.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / ETS translocation variant 6 protein; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets; 0 / Repressor Proteins
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15. Li J, Yang SJ, Zhao XL, Zhang YQ, Li KN, Cui JH, Li J: [Significant increase of glucose transport activity in breast cancer]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2008 Feb;37(2):103-8
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  • [Title] [Significant increase of glucose transport activity in breast cancer].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the expression level and significance of glucose transporter 1 (Glut-1) in normal breast tissue, adenosis, adenoma and breast carcinoma.
  • METHODS: A total of 147 cases of female breast tissue samples, including 92 cases of invasive ductal carcinoma, 26 cases of breast fibroadenoma, 24 cases of breast adenosis and 5 cases of normal breast tissues, were collected for quantitative detection of the expression of Glut-1 protein by immunohistochemistry (EnVision method) and Western blot, and its mRNA by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).
  • RESULTS: In normal breast tissue and benign lesions of the breast, Glut-1 was undetectable or only weakly detectable in cytoplasm of ductal and acinar epithelia.
  • Western blot and RT-PCR analyses showed that the expression of Glut-1 protein and mRNA were significantly increased in invasive ductal carcinoma than fibroadenoma (P =0.001 for protein; P <0.05 for mRNA) and adenosis (P =0.001 for protein; P < 0.05 for mRNA).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Glucose transport activity, as indicated by Glut-1 protein and its mRNA expression, significantly increases in breast carcinoma than non-cancerous lesions.
  • The over-expression of Glut-1 in breast carcinoma is tightly coupled with tumor cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis, implying that Glut-1 may serve as a new marker in the early diagnosis and prognostication of breast malignancy as well as a new therapeutic target.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Glucose / physiology. Glucose Transporter Type 1 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18681321.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative; 0 / Glucose Transporter Type 1; IY9XDZ35W2 / Glucose
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16. Foschini MP, Krausz T: Salivary gland-type tumors of the breast: a spectrum of benign and malignant tumors including "triple negative carcinomas" of low malignant potential. Semin Diagn Pathol; 2010 Feb;27(1):77-90
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  • [Title] Salivary gland-type tumors of the breast: a spectrum of benign and malignant tumors including "triple negative carcinomas" of low malignant potential.
  • Salivary gland-type neoplasms of the breast are uncommon and comprise numerous entities analogous to that more commonly seen in salivary glands.
  • In the breast, benign adenomyoepithelioma is recognized in addition to malignant one, whereas in the salivary gland a histologically similar tumor is designated as epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma without a separate benign subgroup.
  • Mammary adenoid cystic carcinoma is a low-grade neoplasm compared with its salivary equivalent.
  • It is also important to appreciate that in contrast to "triple negative" conventional breast carcinomas with aggressive course, most salivary-type malignant breast neoplasms behave in a low-grade manner.
  • Well established examples of this group include pleomorphic adenoma, adenomyoepithelioma, and adenoid cystic carcinoma.
  • Key examples include mucoepidermoid carcinoma and acinic cell carcinoma.
  • The number of cases of salivary gland-type mammary neoplasms in the published data is constantly increasing but some of the rarest subtypes like polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma and oncocytic carcinoma are "struggling" to become clinically relevant entities in line with those occurring more frequently in salivary glands.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Complex and Mixed / pathology. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma, Pleomorphic / metabolism. Adenoma, Pleomorphic / pathology. Adenomyoepithelioma / metabolism. Adenomyoepithelioma / pathology. Breast Neoplasms, Male / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms, Male / pathology. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / metabolism. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / metabolism. Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / pathology. Female. Humans. Male. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism. Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20306833.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-2570
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 2.7.10.1 / ERBB2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2
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17. Haji BE, Das DK, Al-Ayadhy B, Pathan SK, George SG, Mallik MK, Abdeen SM: Fine-needle aspiration cytologic features of four special types of breast cancers: mucinous, medullary, apocrine, and papillary. Diagn Cytopathol; 2007 Jul;35(7):408-16
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  • [Title] Fine-needle aspiration cytologic features of four special types of breast cancers: mucinous, medullary, apocrine, and papillary.
  • Recognition of special types of breast cancers by fine-needle aspiration (FNA) cytology may have prognostic implications but some difficulties still exist in the ability of cytopathologists to determine the tumor subtypes.
  • Detailed cytomorphological features were studied in the four special and unusual types of breast cancer cases (8 cases of mucinous, 9 medullary, 9 apocrime, and 11 papillary) and compared between themselves and with those of 32 duct cell carcinomas, not otherwise specified (NOS).
  • In mucinous carcinoma, the frequency of signet ring cells (62.5%), and background pools of mucin (87.5%) were significantly higher than those of duct cell carcinoma (NOS), medullary carcinoma, apocrine carcinoma, and papillary carcinoma (P = 0.0408 to < 0.0001).
  • In medullary carcinomas, lymphomononuclear cell infiltration (100.0%) was observed in significantly higher number of cases than in papillary, mucinous, and apocrine types (P < 0.0001).
  • Further, moderate to marked nuclear pleomorphism (100.0%) and nuclear irregularity (77.8%) was significantly higher than those of mucinous carcinoma and papillary carcinoma (P = 0.0294 to <0.0003).
  • Abnormal apocrine cells and papillary formation, characterizing all the apocrine carcinomas and papillary carcinomas, respectively, were present in significantly lower number in other variants and in duct cell carcinoma (NOS) (P = 0.0002 to <0.0001).
  • Glycogen vacuoles (63.6%) were observed in a significantly higher number of papillary carcinoma as compared to duct cell carcinoma (NOS), apocrine, and medullary carcinomas (P = 0.0047 to 0.0022).
  • The significant parameters differentiating papillary carcinoma and benign papillary lesions were loose cohesive clusters (P = 0.001) and acinar formation by neoplastic cells (P = 0.0237).
  • Histopathology reports available in 36 cases, confirmed the cytodiagnosis of carcinoma in all 35 cases and the benign lesion in one case.
  • Cytological subtyping was confirmed in 13 of 16 special types of carcinomas and all the 15 duct cell carcinoma (NOS).
  • Thus, special and unusual variants of duct cell carcinomas like mucinous, medullary, apocrine, and papillary have specific cytomorphological features, which differentiate them from one another and from duct cell carcinoma (NOS).
  • However, differentiating features between papillary carcinoma and benign papillary lesions were very few in this study.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Apocrine Glands / pathology. Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Medullary / pathology. Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17580344.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Brogi E, Murray MP, Corben AD: Lobular carcinoma, not only a classic. Breast J; 2010 Sep-Oct;16 Suppl 1:S10-4
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  • [Title] Lobular carcinoma, not only a classic.
  • Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) and atypical lobular hyperplasia are rare lesions, found incidentally in breast biopsies.
  • They have been regarded traditionally as high-risk lesions, but recent genetic evidence and follow-up data indicates that they also constitute nonobligate precursors of invasive carcinoma.
  • The use of E-cadherin in the evaluation of solid mammary carcinoma in situ with ambiguous morphology has identified variants of LCIS characterized by massive acinar expansion and necrosis with calcifications, and/or marked nuclear pleomorphism or signet ring cell formation.
  • In contrast to classic LCIS, these rare lesions are detected mammographically and often occur in association with invasive carcinoma.
  • A pleomorphic variant of invasive lobular carcinoma has also been described.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Lobular / pathology

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
  • (PMID = 21050299.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4741
  • [Journal-full-title] The breast journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Breast J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDH1 protein, human; 0 / Cadherins
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19. Jensen SB, Mouridsen HT, Reibel J, Brünner N, Nauntofte B: Adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients induces temporary salivary gland hypofunction. Oral Oncol; 2008 Feb;44(2):162-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Adjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients induces temporary salivary gland hypofunction.
  • The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of CT on salivary function in breast cancer patients during and after adjuvant CT.
  • Forty-five breast cancer patients, eligible for adjuvant CT with CEF or CMF (cyclophosphamide, epirubicin or methotrexate, 5-fluorouracil) were followed before, during, six months and one year after CT.
  • Findings were compared to those in a control group of 31 breast cancer patients not receiving CT.
  • SPS flow rate was not significantly affected, suggesting that the decrease in whole saliva production is accounted for by decreased acinar saliva formation by the submandibular glands.
  • Thus, the results suggest that acinar and ductal cell functions are affected by adjuvant CT.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Salivary Glands / drug effects. Xerostomia / chemically induced


20. Yamaguchi R, Tanaka M, Yokoyama T, Nonaka Y, Kojima K, Terasaki H, Yamaguchi M, Fukunaga M, Toh U, Nakashima O, Kage M, Yano H: Clinicocytopathology of breast cancers with a ring-like appearance on ultrasonography and/or magnetic resonance imaging. Pathol Int; 2010 Jan;60(1):22-6
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  • [Title] Clinicocytopathology of breast cancers with a ring-like appearance on ultrasonography and/or magnetic resonance imaging.
  • On breast cancer imaging some cancers have an anechoic or high-echoic zone in the tumor on ultrasonography and ring-shaped enhancement on contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with high intensity in the central area of the tumor on T2-weighted imaging, necessitating their differentiation from benign disease.
  • Thus, nine breast cancers with a ring-like appearance on imaging were analyzed on cytopathology.
  • In summary, the present series of breast cancers having a ring appearance on imaging did not have uniform cytopathological features.
  • They were classified as MPC or CAC, and cytology was useful in their diagnosis and differentiation in some cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / diagnosis

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  • [ErratumIn] Pathol Int. 2010 Apr;60(4):336. Nonaka, Hideyuki [corrected to Nonaka, Yasuhide]
  • (PMID = 20055948.001).
  • [ISSN] 1440-1827
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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21. Hasteh F, Pu R, Michael CW: A metastatic renal carcinoid tumor presenting as breast mass: a diagnostic dilemma. Diagn Cytopathol; 2007 May;35(5):306-10
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  • [Title] A metastatic renal carcinoid tumor presenting as breast mass: a diagnostic dilemma.
  • We present clinicopathological and cytological findings of a well-defined breast mass in a patient with history of primary renal carcinoid tumor.
  • Occasional tumor cells were arranged in acinar architecture resembling glandular differentiation.
  • The unusual location for metastasis of this rare type of carcinoid tumor and overlapping cytological features with primary mammary carcinoma led to an erroneous preliminary cytological diagnosis of primary breast carcinoma with plasmacytoid features.
  • Tumor cells in the corresponding cell block showed strong diffuse positivity for synapthophysin and pan-cytokeratin with weak focal positivity for chromogranin markers.
  • To the best of our knowledge, a few cases of carcinoid tumor metastatic to the breast have been reported in the literature and more than half of these cases were initially misdiagnosed as primary breast carcinoma causing unnecessary surgical treatment.
  • This is a first reported case of metastatic renal carcinoid tumor into breast diagnosed with FNA biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Breast Neoplasms / secondary. Carcinoid Tumor / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chromogranins / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / analysis. Middle Aged. Synaptophysin / analysis

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17427210.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Synaptophysin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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22. Yamashita R, Matsuzaki M, Matsui T, Yamaguchi R, Yuen K, Niwakawa M, Tobisu K: [Clinical characteristics of prostatic adenocarcinoma with ductal features]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2008 Mar;99(3):525-30
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  • We differentiated prostatic cases of ductal adenocarcinoma that were larger than 5 mm in diameter from cases of acinar adenocarcinomas.
  • Seven of the cases (11%) were mixed-type ductal adenocarcinomas, which contained acinar and ductal components.
  • During the follow-up period, four of the eight cases of ductal adenocarcinoma (50%) and twelve of the 56 cases of acinar adenocarcinoma (21%) showed postoperative PSA failure.
  • Compared to the cases of acinar adenocarcinoma, the cases of ductal adenocarcinoma were at a more advanced pathological stage and resulted in a higher rate of postoperative PSA failure.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / therapy. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Prognosis. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood

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  • (PMID = 18404881.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5287
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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23. Michl J, Scharf B, Schmidt A, Huynh C, Hannan R, von Gizycki H, Friedman FK, Brandt-Rauf P, Fine RL, Pincus MR: PNC-28, a p53-derived peptide that is cytotoxic to cancer cells, blocks pancreatic cancer cell growth in vivo. Int J Cancer; 2006 Oct 1;119(7):1577-85
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  • [Title] PNC-28, a p53-derived peptide that is cytotoxic to cancer cells, blocks pancreatic cancer cell growth in vivo.
  • PNC-28 is a p53 peptide from its mdm-2-binding domain (residues 17-26), which contains the penetratin sequence enabling cell penetration on its carboxyl terminal end.
  • We have found that this peptide induces necrosis, but not apoptosis, of a variety of human tumor cell lines, including several with homozygous deletion of p53, and a ras-transformed rat acinar pancreatic carcinoma cell line, BMRPA1. Tuc3.
  • On the other hand, PNC-28 has no effect on untransformed cells, such as rat pancreatic acinar cells, BMRPA1, and human breast epithelial cells and no effect on the differentiation of human stem cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Humans. Mice. Mice, Nude. Rats. Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16688716.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA42500
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / PNC-28; 0 / Peptide Fragments; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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24. Kuroda N, Hamaguchi N, Takeuchi E, Ohara M, Hirouchi T, Mizuno K: Lung adenocarcinoma with a micropapillary pattern: a clinicopathological study of 25 cases. APMIS; 2006 May;114(5):381-5
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  • Micropapillary carcinoma is predominantly located at the periphery of the tumor nodule or mass and occurs irrespective of the subtype of the adenocarcinoma.
  • Four cases showed intensive invasive growth such as micropapillary adenocarcinoma of the breast and 21 showed alveolar type morphology with piling-up of the neoplastic cells with or without stromal invasion.
  • However, the carcinoma seen in the five patients who died showed breast type histology with intensive invasive growth in three cases and alveolar type histology with intensive stromal invasion in two.
  • Lung micropapillary carcinoma of breast type may behave more aggressively than the alveolar type.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Bronchiolo-Alveolar / pathology. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Calcinosis / pathology. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / pathology. Female. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Pleura / pathology. Survival Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16725015.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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25. Piechocki MP, Dibbley SK, Lonardo F, Yoo GH: Gefitinib prevents cancer progression in mice expressing the activated rat HER2/neu. Int J Cancer; 2008 Apr 15;122(8):1722-9
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  • We tested the efficacy of gefitinib in the prevention of HER2/neu-mediated breast cancer development in BALB-NeuT transgenic mice.
  • The development of acinic cell carcinoma in the parotid glands of these animals was also reduced coincident with decreased stromal involvement during progression.
  • These studies demonstrate the critical role of HER2 signal transduction in the onset and progression of HER2/neu-dependent breast cancer and suggest a role for specific inhibitors to prevent the outgrowth of early hyperplastic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / pharmacology. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / prevention & control. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Quinazolines / pharmacology. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Animals. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / prevention & control. Carcinoma, Lobular / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Lobular / prevention & control. Disease Progression. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Mice, Transgenic. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases / metabolism. Phosphorylation / drug effects. Rats. Signal Transduction / drug effects. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 18076070.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Quinazolines; EC 2.7.10.1 / Erbb2 protein, mouse; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; EC 2.7.12.2 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases; S65743JHBS / gefitinib
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26. Santos-García D, Prieto JM, Lema M: [Clinical course of multiple sclerosis in patients treated with cytostatic drugs for cancer]. Rev Neurol; 2009 Jan 16-31;48(2):71-4
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  • CASE REPORTS: We present a series of four women with clinically defined MS and subjected to cytostatic therapy (cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil, leukovorin, adriamycin, tamoxifen and anastrozole) after the development of cancer: two presented breast cancer, one colon cancer, and the fourth parotid gland malignancy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adult. Breast Neoplasms / complications. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / complications. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / complications. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / radiotherapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / surgery. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Colonic Neoplasms / complications. Colonic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Colonic Neoplasms / surgery. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Immunosuppressive Agents / therapeutic use. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Methylprednisolone / adverse effects. Methylprednisolone / therapeutic use. Nitriles / administration & dosage. Parotid Neoplasms / complications. Parotid Neoplasms / drug therapy. Parotid Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Parotid Neoplasms / surgery. Tamoxifen / administration & dosage. Triazoles / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 19173204.001).
  • [ISSN] 1576-6578
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de neurologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Neurol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Cytostatic Agents; 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Triazoles; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen; 2Z07MYW1AZ / anastrozole; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; X4W7ZR7023 / Methylprednisolone
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27. Fulciniti F, Losito NS, Ionna F, Longo F, Aversa C, Botti G, Foschini MP: Sclerosing polycystic adenosis of the parotid gland: report of one case diagnosed by fine-needle cytology with in situ malignant transformation. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 May;38(5):368-73

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  • In line with numerous other pathological analogies between breast and salivary gland lesions, SPA shares with fibrocystic disease of the breast many histopathological features, i.e., fibrosis, oncocytic (apocrine) changes, hyperplasia of ductal and acinar epithelium, cystic dilation of ducts, and, often, atypical epithelial changes.
  • In this article, we introduce a new case occurring in the parotid gland of a 57-year-old male showing atypical epithelial hyperplasia and low-grade in situ mucoepidermoid carcinoma.
  • Fine-needle cytology (FNC) was performed on the lesion and, when a diagnosis of SPA was prospected, the variegated cytological features of the obtained sample posed several differential diagnostic problems.
  • The spectrum of pathological lesions entering differential diagnosis comprised sebaceous adenoma, Warthin's tumors with presence of sebaceous remnants, and low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma.
  • Histopathological examination disclosed SCA with intraductal neoplastic transformation resembling noninvasive low-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma.
  • The cytological diagnosis of SPA should be entertained whenever a polymorphous picture is found on FNC samples comprising oncocytic/apocrine changes, sebaceous cells, cystic background, and epithelial hyperplasia with low-grade cytological atypias.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / diagnosis. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Cysts / pathology. Parotid Gland / pathology. Parotid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Parotid Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19937766.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Darling MR, Tsai S, Jackson-Boeters L, Daley TD, Diamandis EP: Human kallikrein 8 expression in salivary gland tumors. Head Neck Pathol; 2008 Sep;2(3):169-74
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  • The human kallikrein 8 protein (KLK8) is expressed in many normal tissues including esophagus, skin, testis, tonsil, kidney, breast, and salivary gland, and is found in biological fluids including breast milk, amniotic fluid, seminal fluid and serum.
  • It has also been shown to be a biomarker and prognostic factor for breast cancer.
  • Pleomorphic adenomas, adenoid cystic carcinomas, polymorphous low grade adenocarcinomas, acinic cell carcinomas, mucoepidermoid carcinomas, and adenocarcinomas NOS of both minor and major salivary glands were examined.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / metabolism. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques

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  • (PMID = 20614312.001).
  • [ISSN] 1936-0568
  • [Journal-full-title] Head and neck pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Head Neck Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.4.21.- / KLK8 protein, human; EC 3.4.21.- / Kallikreins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2807567
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Human kallikrein 8 / Immunohistochemistry / Kallikreins / Prognostic markers / Salivary gland tumors
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29. Taraseviciute A, Vincent BT, Schedin P, Jones PL: Quantitative analysis of three-dimensional human mammary epithelial tissue architecture reveals a role for tenascin-C in regulating c-met function. Am J Pathol; 2010 Feb;176(2):827-38
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  • Remodeling of the stromal extracellular matrix and elevated expression of specific proto-oncogenes within the adjacent epithelium represent cardinal features of breast cancer, yet how these events become integrated is not fully understood.
  • In the presence of TN-C, however, acini failed to generate a normal BM, and net epithelial cell proliferation increased.
  • To quantify how TN-C alters 3-D tissue architecture and function, we developed a computational image analysis algorithm, which showed that although TN-C disrupted acinar surface structure, it had no effect on their volume.
  • Thus, TN-C promoted epithelial cell proliferation leading to luminal filling, a process that we hypothesized involved c-met, a proto-oncogene amplified in breast tumors that promotes intraluminal filling.
  • Indeed, TN-C increased epithelial c-met expression and promoted luminal filling, whereas blockade of c-met function reversed this phenotype, resulting in normal BM deposition, proper lumen formation, and decreased cell proliferation.
  • Collectively, these studies, combining a novel quantitative image analysis tool with 3-D organotypic cultures, demonstrate that stromal changes associated with breast cancer can control proto-oncogene function.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Breast Neoplasms / genetics. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal / genetics. Carcinoma, Ductal / metabolism. Carcinoma, Ductal / pathology. Cell Culture Techniques. Cell Proliferation. Cell Size. Cells, Cultured. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Imaging, Three-Dimensional. Middle Aged. Models, Biological. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20042668.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-2191
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tenascin; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2808088
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30. Zhu T, Starling-Emerald B, Zhang X, Lee KO, Gluckman PD, Mertani HC, Lobie PE: Oncogenic transformation of human mammary epithelial cells by autocrine human growth hormone. Cancer Res; 2005 Jan 1;65(1):317-24
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  • The human growth hormone (hGH) gene is expressed in the normal human mammary epithelial cell and its expression increases concomitant with the acquisition of proliferative lesions.
  • Herein we demonstrate that autocrine production of hGH in human mammary carcinoma cells dramatically enhances anchorage-independent growth in a Janus kinase 2-dependent manner.
  • Moreover, autocrine hGH disrupted normal mammary acinar architecture with luminal filling and deregulated proliferation in three-dimensional epithelial cell culture.
  • Forced expression of a single orthotopically expressed wild-type gene is therefore sufficient for oncogenic transformation of the immortalized human mammary epithelial cell.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / cytology. Breast / pathology. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Epithelial Cells / cytology. Human Growth Hormone / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Neoplasms. Cell Division. Cell Line. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival. Cyclin D1 / genetics. DNA Primers. Female. Genes, myc. Genetic Vectors. Humans. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Transcription, Genetic. Transfection

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  • (PMID = 15665309.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
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31. Aranda V, Haire T, Nolan ME, Calarco JP, Rosenberg AZ, Fawcett JP, Pawson T, Muthuswamy SK: Par6-aPKC uncouples ErbB2 induced disruption of polarized epithelial organization from proliferation control. Nat Cell Biol; 2006 Nov;8(11):1235-45
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  • The polarized glandular organization of epithelial cells is frequently lost during development of carcinoma.
  • Inhibition of interaction between Par6 and aPKC blocked the ability of ErbB2 to disrupt the acinar organization of breast epithelia and to protect cells from apoptosis but was not required for cell proliferation.
  • Therefore, oncogenes target polarity proteins to disrupt glandular organization and protect cells from apoptotic death during development of carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carrier Proteins / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Epithelial Cells / metabolism. Protein Kinase C / metabolism. Receptor, ErbB-2 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Apoptosis / physiology. Cell Cycle / physiology. Cell Line. Cell Polarity / physiology. Gene Expression. Immunoblotting. Immunoprecipitation. Microscopy, Fluorescence. Protein Binding. Signal Transduction / physiology


32. Fulciniti F, Losito NS, Botti G, Manola M, Ionna F: Spontaneous infarction of pleomorphic adenoma: report of a case simulating malignancy on fine-needle cytology sample. Diagn Cytopathol; 2010 Jun;38(6):430-4

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  • Ischemic or hemorrhagic infarction has been described as an uncommon but possible complication of fine-needle cytology sampling in numerous organs, more frequently the thyroid, the salivary glands, the breast, the lymph node, and the kidney.
  • The cytopathologic picture showed a quizzical mixture of necrosis and inflammation coupled to hyperplastic changes of the acinar cells, oncocytic metaplasia, and atypical squamous metaplasia of extreme degree simulating high-grade epidermoid- or mucoepidermoid carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Fine-Needle / adverse effects. Carcinoma, Mucoepidermoid / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19894261.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0339
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. Anderson LR, Sutherland RL, Butt AJ: BAG-1 overexpression attenuates luminal apoptosis in MCF-10A mammary epithelial cells through enhanced RAF-1 activation. Oncogene; 2010 Jan 28;29(4):527-38
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  • Although the multi-functional, prosurvival protein, Bcl-2-associated anthanogene 1 (BAG-1) is frequently overexpressed in breast cancers, its role in the development or maintenance of the malignant state remains unclear.
  • Here, we have used the established MCF-10A 3-dimensional (3D) model of mammary morphogenesis as a biologically relevant system to determine how BAG-1 expression may influence the development of breast cancer.
  • When cultured in 3D, MCF-10A cells undergo a highly regulated morphogenic program leading to the development of polarized acinar structures containing a central, hollow lumen formed, in part, through the induction of BIM-dependent apoptosis.
  • BAG-1 overexpression resulted in an attenuation of this normal apoptotic program characterized by a significantly increased number of acini with filled lumens-a phenotype commonly observed in ductal carcinoma in situ.
  • As BAG-1 expression is often elevated in preinvasive breast cancers, these findings support a possible role for BAG-1 as an early contributor to the malignant process in the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis. Breast Neoplasms / metabolism. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-raf / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Butadienes / pharmacology. Cell Culture Techniques. Cell Line. Cell Line, Tumor. Enzyme Activation. Humans. MAP Kinase Signaling System / drug effects. Mammary Glands, Human / cytology. Mammary Glands, Human / metabolism. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1 / antagonists & inhibitors. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1 / metabolism. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3 / antagonists & inhibitors. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3 / metabolism. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases / metabolism. Neoplasm Invasiveness / genetics. Nitriles / pharmacology. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology

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  • (PMID = 19881545.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-5594
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncogene
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncogene
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BCL2-associated athanogene 1 protein; 0 / Butadienes; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / U 0126; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-raf; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3; EC 2.7.12.2 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases
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34. Whelan KA, Caldwell SA, Shahriari KS, Jackson SR, Franchetti LD, Johannes GJ, Reginato MJ: Hypoxia suppression of Bim and Bmf blocks anoikis and luminal clearing during mammary morphogenesis. Mol Biol Cell; 2010 Nov 15;21(22):3829-37
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Proper adhesion to extracellular matrix is critical for epithelial cell survival.
  • Selective apoptosis of cells that become detached from matrix is associated with the formation of a lumen in three-dimensional mammary epithelial acinar structures in vitro.
  • Because early breast cancer lesions such as carcinoma in situ, characterized by ducts exhibiting lumens filled with cells, are often associated with hypoxic markers, we sought to examine the role of hypoxia in anoikis and lumen formation in mammary epithelial cells.
  • We show that hypoxia regulates specific cell survival pathways that disrupt tissue architecture related to clearing of luminal space during mammary morphogenesis and suggest that hypoxia-mediated anoikis resistance may contribute to cancer progression.
  • [MeSH-minor] Butadienes / pharmacology. Cell Culture Techniques. Cell Hypoxia. Cell Line. Cell Line, Tumor. Enzyme Activation / drug effects. Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology. Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases / metabolism. Gene Expression. Humans. Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit / metabolism. Immunoblotting. MAP Kinase Kinase 1 / antagonists & inhibitors. MAP Kinase Kinase 1 / metabolism. Mammary Glands, Human / cytology. Mammary Glands, Human / growth & development. Mammary Glands, Human / metabolism. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / antagonists & inhibitors. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism. Morphogenesis. Nitriles / pharmacology. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 20861305.001).
  • [ISSN] 1939-4586
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular biology of the cell
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Biol. Cell
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing; 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / BMF protein, human; 0 / Bcl-2-like protein 11; 0 / Butadienes; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / HIF1A protein, human; 0 / Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / U 0126; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases; EC 2.7.12.2 / MAP Kinase Kinase 1
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2982135
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35. Young RH: From Krukenberg to today: the ever present problems posed by metastatic tumors in the ovary. Part II. Adv Anat Pathol; 2007 May;14(3):149-77
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  • The first tumor discussed is gastric carcinoma of intestinal-type whose ovarian manifestations have been the subject of a recent paper which emphasized its differences from the Krukenberg tumor.
  • The section on pancreatic neoplasms reemphasizes the problems caused by metastatic ductal carcinoma, considered primarily in Part I, and discusses less common issues such as spread of neuroendocrine and acinar cell carcinomas.
  • The limited information on spread of tumors of the gallbladder and extrahepatic bile ducts is then reviewed before more detailed consideration of hepatic neoplasms, prompted by recent contributions on hepatocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, the latter based on significant experience with this problem in Thailand.
  • The section on appendiceal neoplasms highlights ovarian spread of diverse tumors ranging from typical intestinal-type adenocarcinoma to signet-ring cell carcinomas with various patterns which in the ovary may prompt diagnoses such as a goblet cell (mucinous) carcinoid tumor, but whose ovarian features place them in the category of a Krukenberg tumor.
  • The diverse problems in differential diagnosis of carcinoid tumor (provoked by nested, acinar, and other patterns, including folliclelike spaces) are then reviewed.
  • The section on breast cancer emphasizes that, although usually a manifestation of late stage disease and often not bulky in the ovaries, metastatic breast cancer may form large masses which can represent the clinical presentation.
  • That patients with breast cancer have an increased risk of primary ovarian cancer and that the latter is more common than secondary spread of breast cancer is noted.
  • The section on lung tumors largely reflects information in a recent paper that small cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma are the lung cancers that spread to the ovary most commonly.
  • The extremely broad differential diagnosis posed by metastatic malignant melanoma ranging from that of an oxyphilic tumor, to a small cell tumor, to a follicle-forming neoplasm, is then considered.
  • The sections on renal cell carcinoma and other urinary tract neoplasms emphasize the differential diagnosis of metastatic clear cell carcinoma and primary clear cell carcinoma, an issue usually resolvable by an awareness of the various features of the ovarian variant, rarely or never seen in the renal variant.
  • The sections on ovarian spread of uterine carcinomas emphasize the problems owing to cervical adenocarcinomas, which have a greater tendency to involve the ovaries than squamous cell carcinomas and can simulate primary mucinous or endometrioid cancers.
  • The final neoplasms considered are malignant mesothelioma and the desmoplastic small round cell tumor.
  • The microscopic features of malignant mesothelioma are so different from those of primary ovarian carcinoma in most instances that the diagnosis should be readily established on routine microscopic evaluation.
  • The differential diagnosis of the desmoplastic small round cell tumor is more complex because of the greater overlap with the many other small cell malignant tumors that may involve the ovaries primarily or secondarily.
  • However, as pointed out in brief concluding remarks, despite the aid of that modality, as in surgical pathology overall, careful consideration of the clinical background, distribution of disease, gross characteristics and spectrum of routine microscopic findings, will lead to the correct diagnosis in the majority of cases and at the very least lead to formulation of a considered differential diagnosis such that use of special techniques may be judicious and those results placed in context of the time-honored clinical and pathologic features.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / secondary. Krukenberg Tumor / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. History, 19th Century. History, 20th Century. Humans

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  • (PMID = 17452813.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-4109
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Historical Article; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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36. Martínez-Romero C, Rooman I, Skoudy A, Guerra C, Molero X, González A, Iglesias M, Lobato T, Bosch A, Barbacid M, Real FX, Hernández-Muñoz I: The epigenetic regulators Bmi1 and Ring1B are differentially regulated in pancreatitis and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. J Pathol; 2009 Oct;219(2):205-13
Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI). Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) .

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  • Chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are associated with major changes in cell differentiation.
  • Polycomb proteins are epigenetic silencers expressed in adult stem cells; up-regulation of Polycomb proteins has been reported to occur in a variety of solid tumours such as colon and breast cancer.
  • To obtain mechanistic insights, Bmi1 expression in cells undergoing in vitro exocrine cell metaplasia and the effects of Bmi1 depletion in an acinar cancer cell line were studied.
  • We found that Bmi1 and Ring1B are expressed in pancreatic exocrine precursor cells during early development and in ductal and islet cells-but not acinar cells-in the adult pancreas.
  • Bmi1 expression was induced in acinar cells during acute injury, in acinar-ductal metaplastic lesions, as well as in pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and PDAC.
  • Bmi1 knockdown in cultured acinar tumour cells led to changes in the expression of various digestive enzymes.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal / metabolism. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Pancreatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Pancreatitis, Chronic / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism. Repressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] 2009 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • (PMID = 19585519.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9896
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BMI1 protein, human; 0 / Bmi1 protein, mouse; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / transcription factor PTF1; EC 6.3.2.19 / Polycomb Repressive Complex 1
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37. Matoso A, Easley SE, Gnepp DR, Mangray S: Salivary gland acinar-like differentiation of the breast. Histopathology; 2009 Jan;54(2):262-3
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  • [Title] Salivary gland acinar-like differentiation of the breast.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / complications. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / complications. Choristoma / complications. Salivary Glands
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation. Female. Humans. Metaplasia. Middle Aged. Neoadjuvant Therapy

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  • (PMID = 19207954.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
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