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1. Sanati S, Watson MA, Salavaggione AL, Humphrey PA: Gene expression profiles of ductal versus acinar adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Mod Pathol; 2009 Oct;22(10):1273-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Gene expression profiles of ductal versus acinar adenocarcinoma of the prostate.
  • Ductal adenocarcinoma is an uncommon variant of prostatic adenocarcinoma with a generally more aggressive clinical course than usual acinar adenocarcinoma.
  • However, the molecular distinction between ductal and acinar adenocarcinomas is not well characterized.
  • The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the relatedness of ductal versus acinar prostatic adenocarcinoma by comparative gene expression profiling.
  • Archived, de-identified, snap frozen tumor tissue from 5 ductal adenocarcinomas, 3 mixed ductal-acinar adenocarcinomas, and 11 acinar adenocarcinomas cases were analyzed.
  • All cases of acinar and ductal adenocarcinomas were matched by Gleason grade.
  • RNA from whole tissue sections of the 5 ductal and 11 acinar adenocarcinomas cases were subjected to gene expression profiling on Affymetrix U133Plus2 microarrays.
  • Independently, laser-capture microdissection was also performed on the three mixed ductal-acinar cases and five pure acinar cases to isolate homogeneous populations of ductal and acinar carcinoma cells from the same tumor.
  • Seven of these laser-capture microdissected samples (three ductal and four acinar cell populations) were similarly analyzed on U133Plus2 arrays.
  • Analysis of data from whole sections of ductal and acinar carcinomas identified only 25 gene transcripts whose expression was significantly and at least two-fold different between ductal and acinar adenocarcinomas.
  • A similar analysis of microdissected cell populations identified 10 transcripts, including the prolactin receptor, with more significant differences in expression of 5- to 27-fold between ductal and acinar adenocarcinomas cells.
  • Overexpression of prolactin receptor protein in ductal versus acinar adenocarcinoma was confirmed by immunohistochemistry in an independent set of tumors.
  • We conclude that ductal and acinar adenocarcinomas of the prostate are strikingly similar at the level of gene expression.
  • However, several of the genes identified in this study, including the prolactin receptor, represent targets for further investigations on the molecular basis for histomorphological and clinical behavioral differences between acinar and ductal adenocarcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Ductal / genetics. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Pancreatic Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19633648.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Prolactin
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2. Tohfe M, Baki SA, Saliba W, Ghandour F, Ashou R, Ghazal G, Bahous J, Chamseddine N: Metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma presenting with pulmonary symptoms: a case report and review of the literature. Cases J; 2008;1(1):316

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma presenting with pulmonary symptoms: a case report and review of the literature.
  • INTRODUCTION: Prostate cancer has a high tendency to spread to bone.
  • Few patients with prostate cancer present initially with symptomatic metastatic lung lesions and lymphadenopathy without any other concomitant distant dissemination.
  • Despite the absence of any detectable osseous lesions and with the presence of multiple hilar, mediastinal, para-aortic, and pelvic lymphadenopathy, the patient had a complete work-up in search for the primary adenocarcinoma.
  • His prostate specific antigen was 146 ng/ml and a prostatic biopsy done, revealing an acinar prostatic adenocarcinoma.
  • A tru-cut biopsy of a lung lesion under computed tomography guidance showed a metastatic prostatic adenocarcinoma positive for prostate specific antigen stain.
  • CONCLUSION: This case sheds light on an unusual metastatic pattern of prostatic adenocarcinoma.
  • It also emphasizes the importance of including prostate cancer in the differential diagnosis of men with adenocarcinoma of unknown origin.

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  • (PMID = 19014682.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2590613
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3. López JI: Prostate adenocarcinoma detected after high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia or atypical small acinar proliferation. BJU Int; 2007 Dec;100(6):1272-6
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  • [Title] Prostate adenocarcinoma detected after high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia or atypical small acinar proliferation.
  • OBJECTIVE: To review specific histological variables in patients with prostate cancer who previously had diagnoses of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) and/or atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP), compared with those who had no such diagnoses.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The histological characteristics of prostate cancers which were detected after a previous diagnosis of HGPIN and/or ASAP during 1998-2005 were investigated and correlated with the biopsies from patients with prostate cancer but with no such previous diagnoses.
  • RESULTS: HGPIN was followed by prostate cancer on repeat biopsy in 16.8% of patients, and ASAP in 26.7%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Patients with prostate cancer who had previous biopsies with HGPIN or ASAP were older and has lower grade- and volume-cancers than those who had not.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / pathology. Prostate / pathology. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17850386.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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4. Mancuso PA, Chabert C, Chin P, Kovac P, Skyring T, Watt WH, Napaki S: Prostate cancer detection in men with an initial diagnosis of atypical small acinar proliferation. BJU Int; 2007 Jan;99(1):49-52
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  • [Title] Prostate cancer detection in men with an initial diagnosis of atypical small acinar proliferation.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the subsequent prostatic adenocarcinoma detection rate amongst men with an initial diagnosis of atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed the Illawarra Prostate Pathology Database over a 10-year period (January 1994 to January 2004) for specimens diagnosed as ASAP.
  • The incidence of prostatic adenocarcinoma in this group was 17/31 (55%).
  • CONCLUSION: This study showed a detection rate for prostatic adenocarcinoma of 55% after an initial diagnosis of ASAP, which indicates that an initial diagnosis of ASAP mandates re-biopsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / pathology. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Cell Proliferation. Cohort Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 17227491.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-4096
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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5. Flury SC, Galgano MT, Mills SE, Smolkin ME, Theodorescu D: Atypical small acinar proliferation: biopsy artefact or distinct pathological entity? BJU Int; 2007 Apr;99(4):780-5
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  • [Title] Atypical small acinar proliferation: biopsy artefact or distinct pathological entity?
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine if atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP) represents minimally sampled prostate cancer not fully evaluated on a biopsy or a distinct pathological entity, by examining prostates removed at radical cystectomy, as a finding of ASAP of the prostate on needle-core biopsy is closely associated with the detection of cancer on subsequent biopsy.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: In all, 65 consecutive cystoprostatectomy specimens taken from June 1990 to March 2004 had prostatic material reviewed by one genitourinary pathologist (S.E.M.).
  • The presence of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), ASAP, and adenocarcinoma was recorded.
  • RESULTS: In all, 24 of 65 specimens (37%) had adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / pathology. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy, Needle. Cell Proliferation. Cystectomy / methods. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Predictive Value of Tests. Prostate / pathology. Prostatectomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 17378841.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-4096
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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6. Luebke AM, Schlomm T, Gunawan B, Bonkhoff H, Füzesi L, Erbersdobler A: Simultaneous tumour-like, atypical basal cell hyperplasia and acinar adenocarcinoma of the prostate: a comparative morphological and genetic approach. Virchows Arch; 2005 Mar;446(3):338-41
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  • [Title] Simultaneous tumour-like, atypical basal cell hyperplasia and acinar adenocarcinoma of the prostate: a comparative morphological and genetic approach.
  • Basal cell tumours of the prostatic gland are rare, and the classification is difficult.
  • In the present case report, a large, tumour-like proliferation of atypical basaloid cells was found incidentally in a prostatectomy specimen that otherwise contained a conventional acinar adenocarcinoma.
  • A high Ki-67 index was recorded within the atypical basaloid cells, by far exceeding the one counted in the conventional adenocarcinoma.
  • Comparative genomic hybridisation from microdissected tumour cells yielded losses at the short arms of chromosomes 8 and 12 in the conventional adenocarcinoma and a normal karyotype in the basal cell tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / complications. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / pathology. Prostatic Hyperplasia / complications. Prostatic Hyperplasia / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / complications. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15726402.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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7. Epstein JI: An update of the Gleason grading system. J Urol; 2010 Feb;183(2):433-40
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • RESULTS: Since the introduction of the Gleason grading system more than 40 years ago many aspects of prostate cancer have changed, including prostate specific antigen testing, transrectal ultrasound guided prostate needle biopsy with greater sampling, immunohistochemistry for basal cells that changed the classification of prostate cancer and new prostate cancer variants.
  • The grading of variants and subtypes of acinar adenocarcinoma of the prostate, including cancer with vacuoles, foamy gland carcinoma, ductal adenocarcinoma, pseudohyperplastic carcinoma and small cell carcinoma have also been modified.
  • CONCLUSIONS: It is remarkable that nearly 40 years after its inception the Gleason grading system remains one of the most powerful prognostic factors for prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 American Urological Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20006878.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3792
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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8. Hansel DE, Epstein JI: Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the prostate: a study of 42 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Oct;30(10):1316-21
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  • [Title] Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the prostate: a study of 42 cases.
  • Sarcomatoid carcinoma of the prostate is a rare type of prostatic cancer.
  • We examined transurethral resection, needle biopsy, and radical prostatectomy specimens from 42 patients with sarcomatoid carcinoma of the prostate, all of which were received in consultation.
  • Prior prostatic adenocarcinoma: The majority of patients (n=21; 66%) had a prior history of acinar adenocarcinoma of the prostate.
  • The time between the original diagnosis of acinar adenocarcinoma and diagnosis of sarcomatoid carcinoma ranged from 6 months to 16 years (mean 6.8 y).
  • Concurrent adenocarcinoma: The majority of patients demonstrated a concurrent high grade acinar carcinoma of Gleason score 7 (n=3), 8 (n=9), 9 (n=10), and 10 (n=10).
  • A subset of patients contained an admixed ductal adenocarcinoma (n=4), small cell carcinoma (n=3), squamous cell carcinoma (n=3), or other unusual pattern of prostate carcinoma (n=3).
  • In 1 case, the diagnosis was based on immunohistochemical evidence of epithelial differentiation along with the history of prior adenocarcinoma.
  • Of the 12 cases with received immunostains of the sarcomatoid component, 5/7 cases were at least focally positive for cytokeratin, 1/1 case was focally positive for Cam5.2, and 3/6 cases were focally positive for prostate acid phosphatase.
  • The sarcomatoid component did not demonstrate immunoreactivity for prostate-specific antigen in 8 cases.
  • No correlation was identified between patient survival and morphologic features, before radiation or hormone therapy, or concurrent high-grade prostate cancer.
  • The epithelial component is typically high-grade acinar adenocarcinoma, yet other aggressive tumor subtypes such as ductal adenocarcinoma and small cell carcinoma may also be seen.
  • Sarcomatoid carcinoma is an aggressive form of prostate cancer, the prognosis of which is dismal regardless of other histologic or clinical findings.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinosarcoma / secondary. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17001164.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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9. Herawi M, Epstein JI: Immunohistochemical antibody cocktail staining (p63/HMWCK/AMACR) of ductal adenocarcinoma and Gleason pattern 4 cribriform and noncribriform acinar adenocarcinomas of the prostate. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Jun;31(6):889-94
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunohistochemical antibody cocktail staining (p63/HMWCK/AMACR) of ductal adenocarcinoma and Gleason pattern 4 cribriform and noncribriform acinar adenocarcinomas of the prostate.
  • Overexpression of alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase (AMACR) in combination with absence of basal cell markers [ie, p63 and high molecular weight cytokeratin (HMWCK)] is typical of classic acinar prostatic adenocarcinoma.
  • We studied the expression and diagnostic utility of p63/HMWCK/AMACR immunohistochemical cocktail staining in ductal adenocarcinoma and cribriform Gleason pattern 4 acinar prostate cancer and compared it to noncribriform Gleason pattern 4 acinar prostate cancer.
  • One to 4 representative formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded archival tissue blocks from 62 radical prostatectomy specimens harboring prostate cancer of ductal (n=51), cribriform Gleason pattern 4 acinar (n=27), and noncribriform Gleason pattern 4 acinar adenocarcinoma (n=48) were included in this study.
  • The percentage of staining intensity and the presence of occasional basal cells positive with p63/HMWCK were recorded in each histologic type of prostatic adenocarcinoma.
  • Seventy-seven percent of ductal prostatic adenocarcinoma, 67% of cribriform acinar prostatic carcinoma, and 81% of noncribriform acinar prostatic carcinoma showed positive staining for AMACR.
  • There was no statistically significant difference between AMACR staining among the 3 histologic types, although there was a trend for noncribriform acinar prostatic carcinoma to have greater expression of AMACR than cribriform acinar prostatic carcinoma (P=0.07).
  • Basal cells were detectable by p63 and HMWCK in a patchy fashion in 31.4% (16/51) of ductal and 29.6% (8/27) of cribriform acinar carcinomas compared with 2.1% (1/48) of noncribriform acinar carcinomas. In summary:.
  • (1) the majority of prostatic ductal and cribriform acinar carcinomas strongly expressed AMACR, however, subpopulations of these prostatic carcinoma were either completely negative or only weakly positive;.
  • (3) patchy basal cell staining in noncribriform acinar prostatic carcinoma is rare.
  • In contrast, remnants of basal cells identified by p63/HMWCK were seen in a patchy fashion in a significant minority of both ductal and cribriform acinar prostatic adenocarcinoma, which most likely represents intraductal spread of tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Keratins / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Racemases and Epimerases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17527076.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 5.1.- / Racemases and Epimerases; EC 5.1.99.4 / alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase
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10. Quick CM, Gokden N, Sangoi AR, Brooks JD, McKenney JK: The distribution of PAX-2 immunoreactivity in the prostate gland, seminal vesicle, and ejaculatory duct: comparison with prostatic adenocarcinoma and discussion of prostatic zonal embryogenesis. Hum Pathol; 2010 Aug;41(8):1145-9
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  • [Title] The distribution of PAX-2 immunoreactivity in the prostate gland, seminal vesicle, and ejaculatory duct: comparison with prostatic adenocarcinoma and discussion of prostatic zonal embryogenesis.
  • We studied PAX-2 expression in epithelium of normal seminal vesicle, normal ejaculatory duct, normal prostatic secretory epithelium, and prostatic adenocarcinoma to define its immunoreactivity pattern throughout the prostate gland and to evaluate its potential diagnostic role in the discrimination of seminal vesicle/ejaculatory duct epithelium from prostatic adenocarcinoma.
  • In addition, given that PAX-2 is highly expressed in tissues of wolffian duct embryologic origin, we also sought to confirm the divergent embryogenesis of the central zone, seminal vesicle, and ejaculatory duct from other regions of the prostate.
  • Prostatectomy specimens from 12 patients were reviewed to identify blocks containing seminal vesicle, ejaculatory duct, periurethral glands, benign prostatic glands, and prostatic acinar adenocarcinoma.
  • In addition, 2 tissue microarrays representing 15 additional seminal vesicles and 45 prostatic adenocarcinomas, 7 whole sections from prostatic adenocarcinomas of the central zone, and 5 core needle biopsies of seminal vesicle were also evaluated with anti-PAX-2 antibody.
  • In the 12 radical prostatectomy whole sections, nuclear reactivity for PAX-2 was identified in 12 (100%) of 12 of the seminal vesicle epithelium, 9 (90%) of 10 of the ejaculatory duct epithelium, 0 of 12 of the prostatic adenocarcinoma, and 0 of 6 of the high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • All 20 total additional seminal vesicles were positive for PAX-2 in the tissue microarray and biopsies; and all 52 additional prostatic adenocarcinomas were negative, including 7 of central zone origin.
  • Of the 19 total cases with evaluable central zone glands, 2 (10.5%) had focal nuclear reactivity in normal, benign prostatic secretory cells.
  • All other benign prostatic secretory epithelia from the peripheral and transition zones were negative for PAX-2.
  • No reactivity for PAX-2 was seen in prostatic adenocarcinoma or high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • In addition, these data add further support to the proposed embryogenesis of the prostatic central zone, seminal vesicle, and ejaculatory ducts from the wolffian system.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Ejaculatory Ducts / pathology. PAX2 Transcription Factor / metabolism. Prostate / embryology. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Seminal Vesicles / pathology

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20413145.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / PAX2 Transcription Factor; 0 / PAX2 protein, human
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11. Klock C, Gomes R, João M, Netto G: Prostate melanosis associated with acinar adenocarcinoma. Int J Surg Pathol; 2010 Oct;18(5):379-80
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  • [Title] Prostate melanosis associated with acinar adenocarcinoma.
  • Prostate melanosis is an uncommon lesion of uncertain etiology where melanin deposition is seen in the epithelium, in the stroma, or in the form of a blue nevus.
  • There are three reports in the literature of melanosis seen in association with prostatic adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / pathology. Melanosis / pathology. Prostate / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19098014.001).
  • [ISSN] 1940-2465
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Melanins
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12. Bostwick DG, Meiers I: Atypical small acinar proliferation in the prostate: clinical significance in 2006. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2006 Jul;130(7):952-7
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  • [Title] Atypical small acinar proliferation in the prostate: clinical significance in 2006.
  • About 2% of contemporary prostate needle biopsy specimens contain collections of small acini that are suspicious for cancer but that fall below the diagnostic threshold and are reported as atypical small acinar proliferation suspicious for but not diagnostic of malignancy.
  • Prostate cancer has been identified in specimens from subsequent biopsies in up to 60% of cases of atypical small acinar proliferation, indicating that this finding is a significant predictor of cancer.
  • Identification of atypical small acinar proliferation warrants repeat biopsy for concurrent or subsequent invasive carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Prostate / pathology. Prostatic Hyperplasia / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16831049.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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13. Rodríguez-Patrón Rodríguez R, Mayayo Dehesa T, Burgos Revilla FJ, Sanz Mayayo E, García González R: [Prognostic significance of PIN and Atypical Small Acinar Proliferation on transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy]. Actas Urol Esp; 2006 Apr;30(4):359-66
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  • [Title] [Prognostic significance of PIN and Atypical Small Acinar Proliferation on transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy].
  • OBJECTIVE: To review the incidence of PIN and Atypical Small Acinar Proliferation (ASAP) on first biopsy, the risk to find cancer on following biopsies and what is the importance given to this findings, analizing how frequently and how long after the initial finding this patients are rebiopsied.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biopsy, Needle / methods. Prostate / pathology. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Surgery, Computer-Assisted. Ultrasonography, Interventional

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  • (PMID = 16838607.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-4806
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas urologicas españolas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Urol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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14. Zhang HZ, Jiang ZM, Shi L: [Pathologic characteristics of pseudohyperplastic prostatic adenocarcinoma]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2007 Nov;36(11):742-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Pathologic characteristics of pseudohyperplastic prostatic adenocarcinoma].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the clinicopathologic features of 30 cases of pseudohyperplastic prostatic adenocarcinoma (PHPA).
  • METHODS: Eight hundred and sixty cases of ultrasound-guided prostatic needle biopsy and 46 cases of radical prostatectomy specimens collected during the period from January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2006 were retrieved from the archival files.
  • Histologically, 66.7% of PHPA demonstrated direct transition with conventional acinar adenocarcinoma; and 76.7% of cases had coexisting conventional acinar adenocarcinoma in the remaining tissue blocks.
  • PHPA resembled benign prostate glands, in which the hyperplastic malignant acini were predominantly of medium to large size.
  • However, amongst the 20 pathologic indices of prostatic malignancy studied, occurrence of 10 or more indices exceeded 66.7%.
  • CONCLUSIONS: PHPA is not a rare phenomenon in prostatic adenocarcinoma.
  • Majority of cases have concurrent conventional acinar adenocarcinoma.
  • It is different from well-differentiated (with Gleason's score 1 or 2) adenocarcinoma with a relatively indolent clinical course.
  • In contrast, PHPA corresponds to moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma with Gleason's score of 3.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Prostatic Hyperplasia / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Racemases and Epimerases / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Prostatectomy

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  • (PMID = 18307877.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 5.1.- / Racemases and Epimerases; EC 5.1.99.4 / alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase
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15. Samaratunga H, Delahunt B: Ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate: current opinion and controversies. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2008 Aug;30(4):237-46
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  • [Title] Ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate: current opinion and controversies.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the morphologic spectrum and clinical significance of ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate (DAP).
  • DAP is found in both the periurethral region and peripheral zone of the prostate and is considered high grade in the modified Gleason grading system.
  • Immunostaining for prostatic-specific antigen and prostate-specific acid phosphatase is present in these tumors, a high percentage of which overexpress alpha-methylacyl-coenzyme A racemase.
  • CONCLUSION: DAP are neoplasms of prostatic origin, and the terms endometrioid or endometrial adenocarcinoma are best avoided.
  • DAP are aggressive tumors with a shortened average time to progression compared with acinar adenocarcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 18773743.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 36
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16. Kim KH, Kim YB, Lee JK, Kim YJ, Jung TY: Pathologic results of radical prostatectomies in patients with simultaneous atypical small acinar proliferation and prostate cancer. Korean J Urol; 2010 Jun;51(6):398-402

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pathologic results of radical prostatectomies in patients with simultaneous atypical small acinar proliferation and prostate cancer.
  • PURPOSE: The incidence of adenocarcinoma on a subsequent biopsy following a diagnosis of atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP) ranges from 34% to 60%.
  • We reexamined radical prostatectomy (RP) specimens of patients diagnosed as having synchronous ASAP with prostate cancer (PCa) to evaluate pathological entities and the clinical significance of ASAP.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: From January 2007 to December 2008, a total of 118 patients who had been diagnosed with adenocarcinoma on prostate needle biopsy underwent RP.
  • Forty-six of the 118 patients (39%) were diagnosed as having synchronous ASAP with PCa on the prostate needle biopsy.
  • Using whole-mount sections and prostate mapping, we evaluated the RP specimens that were close sections to the ASAP on prostate needle biopsy.
  • RESULTS: Thirty-six of the 46 patients (78%) were diagnosed as having adenocarcinoma at sites of ASAP on the initial prostate needle biopsies.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Most ASAP on initial prostate needle biopsy was a true pathological entity, in other words, prostatic adenocarcinoma.

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  • [Cites] World J Urol. 2009 Oct;27(5):587-92 [19373471.001]
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  • (PMID = 20577606.001).
  • [ISSN] 2005-6745
  • [Journal-full-title] Korean journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2890056
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Needle biopsy / Prostatectomy / Prostatic neoplasms / Surgical pathology
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17. Scattoni V, Roscigno M, Freschi M, Briganti A, Fantini GV, Bertini R, Salonia A, Montorsi F, Rigatti P: Predictors of prostate cancer after initial diagnosis of atypical small acinar proliferation at 10 to 12 core biopsies. Urology; 2005 Nov;66(5):1043-7
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  • [Title] Predictors of prostate cancer after initial diagnosis of atypical small acinar proliferation at 10 to 12 core biopsies.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the factors that predict prostate cancer detection by means of 10 to 12 core repeat biopsies in patients with atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP) results on initial biopsy.
  • RESULTS: On initial biopsy, a concomitant high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) was present in 26 patients (23%) with ASAP.
  • In the group of patients who had isolated ASAP, the rate of cancer detection was significantly higher in patients who had a prostatic volume less than 50 mL (56%) than in patients with a prostatic volume of 50 mL or more (27%; P = 0.03).
  • In ASAP patients, the detection rate was lower for patients with a larger prostate than in those with a smaller prostate.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / pathology. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16286121.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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18. Morgan TM, Welty CJ, Vakar-Lopez F, Lin DW, Wright JL: Ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate: increased mortality risk and decreased serum prostate specific antigen. J Urol; 2010 Dec;184(6):2303-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate: increased mortality risk and decreased serum prostate specific antigen.
  • PURPOSE: The clinical significance of ductal prostatic carcinoma is not well-defined.
  • In a population based cancer registry we identified a large group of patients with ductal carcinoma to characterize the impact of the ductal subtype on presentation and survival in men with prostate cancer.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used a national cancer registry to identify incident cases of ductal and acinar adenocarcinoma from 1996 to 2006.
  • Prostate specific antigen values were available for 2004 to 2006 and used to assess differences in Gleason grade and serum prostate specific antigen between ductal and acinar cancer cases at diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: We identified 442,881 acinar and 371 ductal cases.
  • Ductal histology was associated with a 30% decrease in geometric mean prostate specific antigen (adjusted coefficient 0.7, 95% CI 0.6-0.8) and more than 2-fold increased odds of prostate specific antigen less than 4.0 ng/ml (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.4-4.0) independent of other clinicopathological variables.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In what is to our knowledge the largest series of this histological subtype ductal cancer cases were more likely to present with advanced stage cancer and lower prostate specific antigen, suggesting that timely disease detection is a significant challenge.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20952027.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3792
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA009168-30; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009168; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / T32 CA009168-30
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS294511; NLM/ PMC3111052
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19. Montironi R, Scattoni V, Mazzucchelli R, Lopez-Beltran A, Bostwick DG, Montorsi F: Atypical foci suspicious but not diagnostic of malignancy in prostate needle biopsies (also referred to as "atypical small acinar proliferation suspicious for but not diagnostic of malignancy"). Eur Urol; 2006 Oct;50(4):666-74
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Atypical foci suspicious but not diagnostic of malignancy in prostate needle biopsies (also referred to as "atypical small acinar proliferation suspicious for but not diagnostic of malignancy").
  • OBJECTIVE: To review atypical focus suspicious but not diagnostic of malignancy in needle biopsies of the prostate, also referred to as "atypical small acinar proliferation suspicious for but not diagnostic of malignancy."
  • METHODS: A number of descriptive and somewhat confusing terms have been used to refer to a prostate tissue biopsy with small focus of atypical glands.
  • Its presence in a biopsy set is a strong predictor for concurrent or subsequent adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Prostate / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16930809.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-2838
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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20. Yaskiv O, Cao D, Humphrey PA: Microcystic adenocarcinoma of the prostate: a variant of pseudohyperplastic and atrophic patterns. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Apr;34(4):556-61
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  • [Title] Microcystic adenocarcinoma of the prostate: a variant of pseudohyperplastic and atrophic patterns.
  • Cystic change in adenocarcinoma of the prostate is unusual and may be confused with benign cystic atrophy.
  • Limited data exist on the pathologic attributes of microcystic change in malignant prostatic glands.
  • The aim of this study was to assess histologic and immunohistologic characteristics of microcystic adenocarcinoma of the prostate.
  • The microcystic glands were typically adjacent to usual small acinar adenocarcinoma.
  • Atrophic features were seen at least focally in all cases, although many microcystic adenocarcinoma epithelia exhibited a moderate amount of cytoplasm.
  • Microcystic adenocarcinoma of the prostate is a distinctive histomorphologic presentation of prostatic adenocarcinoma that is deceptively benign-looking at low magnifications.
  • Detection of intraluminal crystalloids or wispy blue mucin at low magnification, immunostains for alpha-methylacyl CoA racemase, and basal cells, and a search for adjacent usual small acinar adenocarcinoma are helpful diagnostic aids.
  • Diagnostic awareness of this growth pattern of prostatic carcinoma is important to avoid underdiagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the prostate.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Prostate / pathology. Prostatic Hyperplasia / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20216381.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 5.1.- / Racemases and Epimerases; EC 5.1.99.4 / alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase
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21. Cheng L, Bostwick DG: Atypical sclerosing adenosis of the prostate: a rare mimic of adenocarcinoma. Histopathology; 2010 Apr;56(5):627-31
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  • [Title] Atypical sclerosing adenosis of the prostate: a rare mimic of adenocarcinoma.
  • AIMS: Sclerosing adenosis of the prostate is a benign, small, acinar proliferation in dense spindle cell stroma, with a distinct immunohistochemical profiles.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: We describe five cases of sclerosing adenosis with significant cytological atypia, referred to as atypical sclerosing adenosis (ASA), which were initially considered suspicious or diagnostic of adenocarcinoma.
  • All cases of typical and atypical sclerosing adenosis displayed an intact basal cell layer, which was immunoreactive for high-molecular-weight keratin, S100 protein, smooth muscle actin, and prostate-specific antigen, with no differences between ASA and the control group.
  • During a mean follow-up of 33 months (range 5-73 months), none developed recurrence or prostatic cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: ASA is an unusual small, acinar proliferation of the prostate that may be mistaken for adenocarcinoma, and should be distinguished from other mimics, including atypical adenomatous hyperplasia, mesonephric remnant hyperplasia, and post-atrophic hyperplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Prostatic Diseases / diagnosis. Prostatic Hyperplasia / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20459573.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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22. Mallén E, Gil P, Sancho C, Jesús Gil M, Allepuz C, Borque A, Del Agua C, Angel Rioja L: Atypical small acinar proliferation: review of a series of 64 patients. Scand J Urol Nephrol; 2006;40(4):272-5
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  • [Title] Atypical small acinar proliferation: review of a series of 64 patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the evolution of 64 patients initially diagnosed with ASAP (atypical small acinar proliferation).
  • RESULTS: The mean age of the patients assessed was 69 years (SD 6.4 years), the median prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level was 7.1 ng/ml (range 2-39 ng/ml) and 25% of the patients had a suspicious rectal examination.
  • At re-biopsy, we diagnosed 27 patients (42%) with prostate adenocarcinoma.
  • Radical prostatectomy was applied to 20/28 patients (71%) diagnosed with prostate cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In our experience, a pathological result of ASAP is associated with a definitive diagnosis of prostate cancer in 42% of cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Prostatic Diseases / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Cell Proliferation. Humans. Male. Prostate-Specific Antigen / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16916766.001).
  • [ISSN] 0036-5599
  • [Journal-full-title] Scandinavian journal of urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Scand. J. Urol. Nephrol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Sweden
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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23. Tarasova MV, Pozharisskiĭ KM, Ten VP, Arzumanov AA, Kudaĭbergenova AG: [The proliferative properties and regulators of the mitotic cell cycle of prostate adenocarcinoma]. Arkh Patol; 2009 Nov-Dec;71(6):20-3
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  • [Title] [The proliferative properties and regulators of the mitotic cell cycle of prostate adenocarcinoma].
  • The authors have made an immunohistochemical determination of Ki-67, topoisomerase IIalpha, cyclins D1, A, and B1, and calculated their indices in 145 acinar adenocarcinomas of the prostate.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / biosynthesis. Cell Proliferation. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Neoplasm Proteins / biosynthesis. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20131501.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-1955
  • [Journal-full-title] Arkhiv patologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arkh. Patol.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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24. Osunkoya AO, Nielsen ME, Epstein JI: Prognosis of mucinous adenocarcinoma of the prostate treated by radical prostatectomy: a study of 47 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Mar;32(3):468-72
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  • [Title] Prognosis of mucinous adenocarcinoma of the prostate treated by radical prostatectomy: a study of 47 cases.
  • Mucinous adenocarcinoma of the prostate is one of the least common variants of prostate cancer.
  • The prognosis of this variant of prostate cancer remains controversial.
  • The mean preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level was 9.0 ng/mL (range: 1.9 to 34.3 ng/mL).
  • Margins were positive in 4 cases of mucinous adenocarcinoma of the prostate.
  • Only 2 cases had isolated margin positivity in the nonmucinous acinar component of cancer.
  • In 12 cases (25.5%), mucinous adenocarcinoma had established extraprostatic extension (EEPE).
  • Using the Kattan nomogram, the predicted mean 5-year PSA progression-free risk for nonmucinous prostate cancer with the same PSA and postoperative findings as in the current study was 85.4%.
  • This study confirms that mucinous adenocarcinoma of the prostate treated by radical prostatectomy is not more aggressive, and possibly even less aggressive than nonmucinous prostatic adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / mortality. Prostatectomy. Prostatic Neoplasms / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / mortality. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood

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  • (PMID = 18300802.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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25. Brock M, Martin W, Sommerer F, Noldus J: [Ductal Adenocarcinoma of the prostate with infiltration of the bladder. Can radical cystectomy and antiandrogen therapy cure the disease?]. Urologe A; 2009 Jul;48(7):770-3
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  • [Title] [Ductal Adenocarcinoma of the prostate with infiltration of the bladder. Can radical cystectomy and antiandrogen therapy cure the disease?].
  • Ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate is a rare entity.
  • The lack of correlation between the prostate-specific antigen value and the tumor stage, as well as early dissemination, are major differences from acinar cancer.
  • We report the case of a 64-year-old man with ductal prostate cancer who underwent radical cystectomy followed by androgen deprivation therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgen Antagonists / administration & dosage. Carcinoma, Ductal / secondary. Carcinoma, Ductal / therapy. Cystectomy / methods. Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / secondary. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19352617.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-0563
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Urologe. Ausg. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologe A
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists
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26. Gong Y, Caraway N, Stewart J, Staerkel G: Metastatic ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate: cytologic features and clinical findings. Am J Clin Pathol; 2006 Aug;126(2):302-9
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  • [Title] Metastatic ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate: cytologic features and clinical findings.
  • We retrospectively reviewed the cytologic features of metastatic prostatic ductal carcinoma (PDC) in 23 cases, clinical manifestations, and clinical outcomes.
  • However, these features could be focal, subtle, and even indistinguishable from those of acinar carcinoma, particularly when the ductal component was predominantly of a cribriform and solid pattern or coexisted with acinar carcinoma.
  • A determination of a prostatic origin of a metastatic PDC, based on cytomorphologic features alone, could be difficult.
  • Immunostaining for prostate-specific antigen and prostatic acid phosphatase proved helpful in determining a definitive diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Ductal / secondary. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Acid Phosphatase. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy, Needle. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Prostate-Specific Antigen / analysis. Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases / analysis. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16891207.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9173
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.1.3.2 / Acid Phosphatase; EC 3.1.3.2 / prostatic acid phosphatase; EC 3.1.3.48 / Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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27. Tavora F, Epstein JI: High-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasialike ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate: a clinicopathologic study of 28 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Jul;32(7):1060-7
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  • [Title] High-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasialike ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate: a clinicopathologic study of 28 cases.
  • Most of the prostatic ductal adenocarcinomas of the prostate are characterized by cribriform and/or papillary architecture lined by columnar pseudostratified malignant epithelium.
  • We report 28 cases of ductal adenocarcinomas on needle biopsy and transurethral resection of prostate closely resembling high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) composed of simple glands with flat, tufting, or micropapillary architecture.
  • Prostate specific antigen serum level at diagnosis ranged from 1.2 to 12.1 ng/mL.
  • Concurrent conventional acinar Gleason score 6 adenocarcinomas were seen in 6 of the 9 radical prostatectomy cases, in all cases as separate nodules from the PIN-like ductal adenocarcinomas.
  • PIN-like ductal adenocarcinoma differs from HGPIN by the presence of cystically dilated glands, a greater predominance of flat architecture, and less frequently prominent nucleoli.
  • Although usual ductal adenocarcinoma is considered comparable to Gleason score 8, PIN-like ductal adenocarcinoma was accompanied by Gleason score 6 acinar carcinoma and behaved similar to Gleason score 6 acinar cancer.
  • Recognition of this entity is critical to differentiate it from both HGPIN and conventional ductal adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Ductal / pathology. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy, Needle. Cryotherapy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostatectomy. Radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 18496142.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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28. Epstein JI: Precursor lesions to prostatic adenocarcinoma. Virchows Arch; 2009 Jan;454(1):1-16
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Precursor lesions to prostatic adenocarcinoma.
  • High-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) is the one well-documented precursor to adenocarcinoma of the prostate.
  • High-grade PIN is also differentiated from invasive acinar (usual) and ductal adenocarcinoma.
  • Finally, intraductal carcinoma of the prostate, a controversial entity, is discussed and differentiated from high-grade PIN.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Prostatic Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Prostatic Hyperplasia / pathology. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 19048290.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 85
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29. Hansel DE, Nakayama M, Luo J, Abukhdeir AM, Park BH, Bieberich CJ, Hicks JL, Eisenberger M, Nelson WG, Mostwin JL, De Marzo AM: Shared TP53 gene mutation in morphologically and phenotypically distinct concurrent primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the prostate. Prostate; 2009 May 1;69(6):603-9
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  • [Title] Shared TP53 gene mutation in morphologically and phenotypically distinct concurrent primary small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the prostate.
  • BACKGROUND: Small cell carcinoma of the prostate is an uncommon neoplasm, the origin of which has been controversial.
  • To address this, we performed transcriptome profiling and TP53 sequencing of concurrent small cell and prostatic adenocarcinoma to determine the relationship between these entities.
  • METHODS: We identified an unusual case of primary prostate cancer that contained adjacent acinar adenocarcinoma (Gleason score 4 + 3 = 7) and small cell carcinoma.
  • RESULTS: Transcriptome profiling of the carcinoma components identified 99 genes with a greater than 10-fold differential expression between prostatic adenocarcinoma and small cell carcinoma, many of which have not been previously reported in prostate cancer.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of a primary small cell carcinoma of the prostate subjected to extensive molecular analysis and the first to show a clonal relation between two morphologically distinct prostate cancer types.

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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  • (PMID = 19125417.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0045
  • [Journal-full-title] The Prostate
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostate
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA058236-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA006973; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA058236; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA058236-10
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS285484; NLM/ PMC3170854
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30. Dickinson SI: Premalignant and malignant prostate lesions: pathologic review. Cancer Control; 2010 Oct;17(4):214-22
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Premalignant and malignant prostate lesions: pathologic review.
  • BACKGROUND: High-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) is currently the only recognized premalignant lesion of prostatic carcinoma.
  • METHODS: This review article discusses HGPIN, its link to prostatic adenocarcinoma, and the significance of its presence on needle biopsy.
  • The criteria and clinical impact of the diagnosis of atypical small acinar proliferation on needle biopsy are reviewed.
  • Certain subtypes of prostate cancer that are not associated with HGPIN are of clinical relevance, and the unique clinicopathologic features of these subtypes are discussed.
  • Histologic variants of prostatic adenocarcinoma with distinct cell types are also described.
  • CONCLUSIONS: HGPIN has a strong association with acinar-type prostatic adenocarcinoma.
  • HGPIN and acinar-type prostatic adenocarcinoma both show similar molecular alterations, providing further evidence of their association.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy, Needle. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / pathology. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 20861809.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-2359
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer control : journal of the Moffitt Cancer Center
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Control
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Yamashita R, Matsuzaki M, Matsui T, Yamaguchi R, Yuen K, Niwakawa M, Tobisu K: [Clinical characteristics of prostatic adenocarcinoma with ductal features]. Nihon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi; 2008 Mar;99(3):525-30
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  • [Title] [Clinical characteristics of prostatic adenocarcinoma with ductal features].
  • PURPOSE: To determine the incidence and prognosis of prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
  • We differentiated prostatic cases of ductal adenocarcinoma that were larger than 5 mm in diameter from cases of acinar adenocarcinomas.
  • We then examined these two groups for the pathological stages of the neoplasms and the incidence of postoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) failure.
  • RESULTS: We found eight cases (12%) of prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma among the 64 cases treated with radical prostatectomies.
  • Seven of the cases (11%) were mixed-type ductal adenocarcinomas, which contained acinar and ductal components.
  • In addition, one case was identified as pure ductal adenocarcinoma.
  • During the follow-up period, four of the eight cases of ductal adenocarcinoma (50%) and twelve of the 56 cases of acinar adenocarcinoma (21%) showed postoperative PSA failure.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We identified eight cases of ducal adenocarcinoma (12% of the examined cases), which suggests this disease is not as rare as previously reported.
  • Compared to the cases of acinar adenocarcinoma, the cases of ductal adenocarcinoma were at a more advanced pathological stage and resulted in a higher rate of postoperative PSA failure.
  • Therefore, we believe that patients that show even a limited degree of ductal adenocarcinoma should receive aggressive therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / therapy. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary. Prognosis. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood

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  • (PMID = 18404881.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-5287
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon Hinyōkika Gakkai zasshi. The japanese journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Hinyokika Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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32. Shi HY, Wei LX, Zhou ZH, Wen ZL: [Morphologic diagnosis and clinical significance of prostatic atypical small acinar proliferation suspicious but not diagnostic of cancer]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2006 Nov;35(11):660-3
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  • [Title] [Morphologic diagnosis and clinical significance of prostatic atypical small acinar proliferation suspicious but not diagnostic of cancer].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the morphologic features and clinical significance of atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP) suspicious but not diagnostic of cancer in prostatic biopsies.
  • METHODS: The slides of 11 cases of prostatic needle biopsies collected during a two-year period with the diagnosis of ASAP were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: All the 11 ASAP cases were characterized by the presence of a few compacted small acini in the prostatic stroma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: ASAP is a morphologic interpretation closely associated with prostatic adenocarcinoma.
  • The histologic features are suspicious of but not diagnostic of cancer, due to insufficient criteria in terms of acinar number, cytologic or architectural abnormalities.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Prostate / pathology. Prostatic Hyperplasia / pathology. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17374209.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 5.1.- / Racemases and Epimerases; EC 5.1.99.4 / alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase
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33. Lee TK, Miller JS, Epstein JI: Rare histological patterns of prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Pathology; 2010 Jun;42(4):319-24
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  • [Title] Rare histological patterns of prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
  • AIMS: Prostatic ductal adenocarcinomas account for 1% of prostate cancers.
  • Most commonly, these lesions grow in large cribriform and/or papillary patterns or, as recently described, in a manner resembling prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (i.e., 'PIN-like' prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma).
  • This study aims to report rare variants of ductal adenocarcinoma.
  • METHODS: Ten cases of rare patterns of prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma that have not been formally investigated prior to this study, primarily from one author's consultation service (1987-2009), were selected.
  • RESULTS: Two (n = 2) cases were prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma with mucinous and goblet cell features.
  • Three (n = 3) cases are the first described cases of foamy gland prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
  • Other unique cases were prostatic duct adenocarcinomas with associated Paneth cell-like neuroendocrine (n = 2), micropapillary (n = 2), and cystic papillary features (n = 1).
  • Prostatic origin was confirmed with immunohistochemical studies for prostate specific antigen (PSA), P501S, and prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA).
  • Four prostatic ductal adenocarcinomas had no evidence of disease at 2-8 years follow-up: foamy gland, Paneth cell-like, and micropapillary (two cases).
  • One mucinous prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma resulted in the patient's death and the other mucinous case was alive at 7 years and 2 months, yet with no information as to status of disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In summary, we report several rare and unique histological patterns of prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
  • The practical importance of recognising these histological variations is that in some cases they may be misdiagnosed as non-prostatic tumours.
  • These unusual cases also provide further support for the relationship between acinar and ductal adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Ductal / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Paneth Cells / pathology. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20438402.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3931
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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34. Aydin H, Zhang J, Samaratunga H, Tan N, Magi-Galluzzi C, Klein E, Jones JS, Zhou M: Ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate diagnosed on transurethral biopsy or resection is not always indicative of aggressive disease: implications for clinical management. BJU Int; 2010 Feb;105(4):476-80
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  • [Title] Ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate diagnosed on transurethral biopsy or resection is not always indicative of aggressive disease: implications for clinical management.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report the clinicopathological characteristics of 23 cases of ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate (DCP) and discuss the implications for clinical management, as DCP is considered an aggressive subtype of prostate adenocarcinoma (PA).
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: The presence of DCP in transrectal ultrasonography-guided prostate biopsy (TRUSB) is associated with adverse pathological findings at radical prostatectomy (RP) and clinical outcomes, and the significance of detecting DCP initially in transurethral biopsy (UB) or transurethral resection (TURP) in the present era of screening with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is unclear.
  • The study included 23 cases of pure DCP without acinar PA diagnosed on UB or TURP.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Most DCP diagnosed on UB or TURP in this contemporary series was associated with aggressive PA, but a subset presented as a small periurethral tumour with no concomitant acinar PA, and was eradicated by the initial biopsy/TURP alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Ductal / pathology. Prostate / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Transurethral Resection of Prostate

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  • (PMID = 19709071.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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35. Lopez-Beltran A, Cheng L, Prieto R, Blanca A, Montironi R: Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the prostate. Hum Pathol; 2009 Jul;40(7):982-7
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  • [Title] Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the prostate.
  • In this report, we summarized the clinicopathologic features of 5 cases of lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the prostate, a rare variant of prostate cancer characterized by a malignant epithelial component densely infiltrated by lymphoid cells.
  • In all 5 patients, there were obstructive symptoms and elevated prostate-specific antigen; one patient had also hematuria.
  • The initial diagnosis of lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the prostate was made on transurethral resection in 3 cases and radical prostatectomy in 2 others.
  • In one case the diagnosis of lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma admixed with conventional acinar adenocarcinoma was an unexpected finding at time of transurethral resection for benign prostatic hyperplasia.
  • All cases were associated with adenocarcinoma, either as the sole pattern in 5 cases or with an additional ductal component in 3 cases.
  • Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated that lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma was positive for prostate-specific antigen, prostate acid phosphatase, alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase, and epithelial membrane antigen; several cytokeratins (AE1/AE3, 7, 8, and 20 [rare cells]) were also immunoreactive.
  • DNA ploidy of the concurrent adenocarcinoma gave DNA aneuploid peaks except in one DNA diploid case.
  • In summary, lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma of the prostate arise in aggressive prostate cancers at advanced clinical stage.
  • Morphologic recognition and distinction from other prostatic lesions and tumors with prominent lymphoid stroma is critical for its clinical management.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19269013.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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36. Pickup M, Van der Kwast TH: My approach to intraductal lesions of the prostate gland. J Clin Pathol; 2007 Aug;60(8):856-65
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] My approach to intraductal lesions of the prostate gland.
  • The morphologically heterogeneous (intra)ductal lesions of the prostate frequently present a diagnostic challenge, particularly when found within prostate needle biopsies.
  • By current convention, all high-grade intra-acinar and intraductal neoplastic lesions of prostatic origin fall under the diagnostic umbrella term: prostatic intraepithelial neoplasm (PIN).
  • Illustrating this fact, the well-described ductal subtype of prostatic adenocarcinoma is frequently associated with conventional-type acinar adenocarcinoma, and has a tendency to propagate within adjacent intact prostatic ducts.
  • This review discusses the (intra)ductal lesions of the prostate, along with their differential diagnoses.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Ductal / pathology. Prostate / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Male. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Prostatic Hyperplasia / pathology. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17237185.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 71
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1994484
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37. Patel J, Layfield LJ: Histopathologic review of previously negative prostatic core needle biopsies following a new diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the prostate by core needle biopsies: implications for quality assurance programs. Clin Med Pathol; 2008;1:77-81

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Histopathologic review of previously negative prostatic core needle biopsies following a new diagnosis of adenocarcinoma of the prostate by core needle biopsies: implications for quality assurance programs.
  • Surgical pathology specimens have diminished in size such that the majority of diagnostic biopsies of prostatic lesions are now core needle biopsies.
  • No such requirement exists in surgical pathology for review of core biopsies.The Department of Pathology at the University of Utah instituted a QA policy requiring review of prior negative prostatic needle biopsies following a new diagnosis of prostatic adenocarcinoma.
  • We reviewed five years of QA records of prostate needle biopsy review.
  • Two hundred and ninety-five of these contained at least one biopsy with a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma.
  • Two hundred and eight patients had a prior set of prostatic needle biopsies with a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma.
  • The remaining 87 had prior biopsies with either a diagnosis of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (23), small atypical acinar proliferation (21) or no evidence of malignancy (43).
  • QA review of these 87 cases revealed two biopsies which revealed foci of adenocarcinoma.
  • In an additional twenty-one cases, microscopic foci of atypical small acinar proliferations were found in core biopsies antedating the positive core biopsy (7.1%).

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  • (PMID = 21876655.001).
  • [ISSN] 1178-1181
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical medicine. Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Med Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] New Zealand
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3159997
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; core needle biopsy / diagnostic errors / prostate / quality assurance
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38. Osunkoya AO, Hansel DE, Sun X, Netto GJ, Epstein JI: Aberrant diffuse expression of p63 in adenocarcinoma of the prostate on needle biopsy and radical prostatectomy: report of 21 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Mar;32(3):461-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Aberrant diffuse expression of p63 in adenocarcinoma of the prostate on needle biopsy and radical prostatectomy: report of 21 cases.
  • Aberrant diffuse expression of p63 in prostate carcinoma cells is a rare and poorly understood phenomenon.
  • We studied 19 cases of prostate cancer with aberrant diffuse expression of p63 on needle biopsy and reviewed the subsequent radical prostatectomies in 6 cases.
  • In all 8 radical prostatectomies p63 positive cancer was present, with in 2/8 cases both p63 positive cancer and usual p63 negative acinar prostate cancer.
  • Rarely, prostate cancer can aberrantly express diffuse p63 staining in a nonbasal cell distribution leading to the erroneous diagnosis of atrophy or atypical basal cell proliferation.
  • The diagnosis of prostate cancer is based on the morphology and confirmed by the absence of high molecular weight cytokeratin staining and positivity for alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase in the atypical glands.
  • Pathologists need to be aware of this rare and unusual phenomenon, which is a potential pitfall in prostate cancer diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / chemistry. Biopsy, Needle. Membrane Proteins / analysis. Prostatectomy. Prostatic Neoplasms / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 18300803.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins
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39. Samaratunga H, Duffy D, Yaxley J, Delahunt B: Any proportion of ductal adenocarcinoma in radical prostatectomy specimens predicts extraprostatic extension. Hum Pathol; 2010 Feb;41(2):281-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Any proportion of ductal adenocarcinoma in radical prostatectomy specimens predicts extraprostatic extension.
  • Ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate is an aggressive malignancy, often presenting at an advanced stage.
  • In mixed ductal and acinar adenocarcinomas, the relationship between the proportion of the ductal component of the tumor and the pathologic stage and whether or not aggressive behavior is simply a function of grade remains undetermined.
  • From 268 consecutive radical prostatectomies undertaken as a curative procedure for clinical localized prostate cancer, we identified 34 cases (12.7%) with ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate comprising 5% to 100% of the total tumor volume.
  • For cases with a ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate component, the mean age at diagnosis of 60 years (range 49-69 years), mean serum prostate-specific antigen of 8.4 ng/mL (range, 0.8-21 ng/mL) and positive surgical margin rate of 17.6% did not differ significantly from that of the pure adenocarcinoma group.
  • All 34 patients with ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate had peripheral zone involvement while 16 (46%) also had transition zone involvement.
  • Twenty-five (73%) cases with ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate had extraprostatic extension (pT3), which compared to 32.9% with acinar adenocarcinoma.
  • The presence of ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate (P < .0001), high tumor volume (P = .001) and Gleason score >7 (P = .04) significantly predicted pT3 staging category, and the presence of ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate remained a significant predictor for pT3, after adjusting for tumor volume and Gleason score >7.
  • The proportion of ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate did not significantly modify the strength of the observed association with pathological stage.
  • In view of the significant association with extraprostatic extension we would recommend that in both core biopsies and radical prostatectomy specimens any proportion of ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate should be reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Ductal / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Odds Ratio. Predictive Value of Tests. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostatectomy. Regression (Psychology)

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • [CommentIn] Hum Pathol. 2011 Apr;42(4):605-6; author reply 606-7 [21237485.001]
  • (PMID = 20004936.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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40. Cavalcanti Fde B, Alves VA, Pereira J, Kanamura CT, Wakamatsu A, Saldanha LB: Proliferative lesions of prostate: a multivariate approach to differential diagnosis. Pathol Oncol Res; 2005;11(2):103-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Proliferative lesions of prostate: a multivariate approach to differential diagnosis.
  • Prostatic needle biopsies from 142 patients were studied: 61 cases were "benign", 19 atypical small acinar proliferation, 31 high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and 31 adenocarcinoma.
  • Multivariate analysis selected a small panel of histological features as those most helpful in the differential diagnosis of proliferative lesions in prostate biopsies.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / diagnosis. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15999155.001).
  • [ISSN] 1219-4956
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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41. Mazzucchelli R, Barbisan F, Santinelli A, Lopez-Beltran A, Cheng L, Scarpelli M, Montironi R: Immunohistochemical expression of prostate stem cell antigen in cystoprostatectomies with incidental prostate cancer. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol; 2009 Jul-Sep;22(3):755-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunohistochemical expression of prostate stem cell antigen in cystoprostatectomies with incidental prostate cancer.
  • High expression of prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) has been shown to be associated with adverse prognostic features in clinically-diagnosed prostate cancer.
  • The aim of this study is to analyze PSCA expression in cystoprostatectomies with incidental prostate carcinoma (PCa).
  • PSCA expression was evaluated immunohistochemically in normal-looking epithelium (NEp), high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) and pT2a Gleason score 6 acinar adenocarcinoma.
  • Our findings suggest that PSCA is a marker associated with neoplastic transformation of prostate cells, both in CyPs and RPs.
  • However, there are no significant differences between CyPs with incidental prostate carcinoma and RPs with clinically diagnosed cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / immunology. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / immunology. Immunohistochemistry. Incidental Findings. Membrane Glycoproteins / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / immunology. Prostatic Neoplasms / immunology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / immunology

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  • (PMID = 19822092.001).
  • [ISSN] 0394-6320
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of immunopathology and pharmacology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / GPI-Linked Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / PSCA protein, human
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42. Sakamoto N, Ohtsubo S, Iguchi A, Takeshita M, Kurozumi T: Intestinal-type mucinous adenocarcinoma arising from the prostatic duct. Int J Urol; 2005 May;12(5):509-12
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intestinal-type mucinous adenocarcinoma arising from the prostatic duct.
  • We present a case of mucinous adenocarcinoma of intestinal type arising from the prostatic duct in a 72-year-old Japanese man.
  • A transurethral biopsy specimen revealed mucinous adenocarcinoma.
  • In the prostatectomy specimen, the cancer lesion mainly showed intraductal growth in the prostatic ducts with scattered mucin lakes in the prostatic stroma.
  • The cancer cells resembled the intestinal epithelium rather than either the prostatic duct or the acinar epithelium, which showed diffusely positive immunohistochemical staining for carcinoembryonic antigen, but showed negative staining for prostate-specific antigen.
  • Therefore, these findings suggest mucinous adenocarcinoma of intestinal type arising from the prostatic duct.
  • A number of cases with mucinous adenocarcinoma arising from the prostatic urethra resembling the present case have been reported, but this is the first known case of carcinoma arising from the prostatic duct.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15948756.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen
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43. Schwartz AM, Man YG, Rezaei MK, Simmens SJ, Berg PE: BP1, a homeoprotein, is significantly expressed in prostate adenocarcinoma and is concordant with prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Mod Pathol; 2009 Jan;22(1):1-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] BP1, a homeoprotein, is significantly expressed in prostate adenocarcinoma and is concordant with prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia.
  • This study attempts to determine whether BP1 expression is detectable in prostate cancer, another hormone dependent solid tumor, and whether this expression correlates with histopathologic and prognostic factors.
  • Paraffin sections from radical prostatectomy cancer specimens and from tissue microarray sections of prostate cancer, obtained from the Prostate Cancer Tissue Registry (NIH), were assayed for BP1 immunoreactivity.
  • Immunoreactivity scoring by two independent pathologists, using a three-tiered system (0, 1+, 2+), was recorded and correlated with Gleason scoring and prostatic specific antigen (PSA) biochemical recurrence.
  • Significant BP1 immunoreactivity (2+) was identified in approximately 70% of prostatic adenocarcinomas, whether the analysis was performed on tissue sections (50 cases) or tissue microarray platforms (123 cases).
  • BP1 immunoreactivity was seen in <5% of normal acinar cells.
  • In tissue sections, 12 cases with paired carcinoma and prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) showed concordance with strong immunoreactivity.
  • Gleason scores or prostatic specific antigen (PSA) biochemical recurrences were not correlated with strong BP1 immunoreactivity.
  • These findings suggest that BP1 is an important upstream factor in the carcinogenic pathway of prostate cancer and that the expression of BP1 may reflect or directly contribute to tumor progression and/or invasion.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Homeodomain Proteins / biosynthesis. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Transcription Factors / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 18931648.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DLX4 protein, human; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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44. Perez N, Castillo M, Santos Y, Truan D, Gutierrez R, Franco A, Palacin A, Bombi JA, Campo E, Fernandez PL: Carcinosarcoma of the prostate: two cases with distinctive morphologic and immunohistochemical findings. Virchows Arch; 2005 May;446(5):511-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Carcinosarcoma of the prostate: two cases with distinctive morphologic and immunohistochemical findings.
  • Carcinosarcomas (CS) of the prostate are very uncommon neoplasms defined by the admixture of malignant epithelial and mesenchymal components.
  • We describe here two new examples of CS in two patients aged 66 and 77 years, the first without previous history of prostate adenocarcinoma and the second with a 5-year history of acinar type prostate adenocarcinoma.
  • Both biphasic tumours exhibited papillary areas of ductal differentiation and conventional adenocarcinoma in the epithelial component, as well as malignant fibrous histiocytoma and angiosarcomatous areas in the first case and solid, poorly differentiated epithelial areas with neuroendocrine features in the second case.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinosarcoma / diagnosis. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Antigens, CD31 / analysis. Biomarkers. Biopsy, Needle. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / analysis. Liver Neoplasms / secondary. Male. Neprilysin / analysis. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostatectomy. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / analysis. Receptor, ErbB-2 / analysis. Transurethral Resection of Prostate. Ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 15821929.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD31; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / CAM 5.2 antigen; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, ErbB-2; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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45. Cao D, Maitra A, Saavedra JA, Klimstra DS, Adsay NV, Hruban RH: Expression of novel markers of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in pancreatic nonductal neoplasms: additional evidence of different genetic pathways. Mod Pathol; 2005 Jun;18(6):752-61
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Expression of novel markers of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in pancreatic nonductal neoplasms: additional evidence of different genetic pathways.
  • Solid pseudopapillary tumor, pancreatoblastoma, undifferentiated carcinoma with osteoclastic-like giant cells, and acinar cell carcinomas are rare pancreatic nonductal neoplasms.
  • In order to elucidate their molecular pathogenesis, we constructed tissue microarrays to study the expression of some novel pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma-associated tumor markers in these nonductal pancreatic neoplasms.
  • We analyzed nine markers including tumor suppressor gene (14-3-3 sigma), proliferation marker (topoisomerase II alpha), epithelial markers (prostate stem cell antigen, mesothelin and cytokeratin 19), stromal markers (fascin, hsp47 and fibronectin), and gamma-synuclein whose function is not delineated.
  • Expression of topoisomerase II alpha is not seen in solid pseudopapillary tumors and undifferentiated carcinomas with osteoclastic-like giant cells but is focally seen in pancreatoblastomas (50%) and acinar cell carcinomas (85%).
  • [MeSH-minor] 14-3-3 Proteins. Antigens, Neoplasm. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / pathology. Carrier Proteins / analysis. Cytoskeletal Proteins / analysis. DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Exonucleases / analysis. Exoribonucleases. Fibronectins / analysis. GPI-Linked Proteins. HSP47 Heat-Shock Proteins. Heat-Shock Proteins / analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / analysis. Membrane Glycoproteins / analysis. Microfilament Proteins / analysis. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Nerve Tissue Proteins / analysis. Serpins / analysis. Smad4 Protein. Synucleins. Trans-Activators / analysis. beta Catenin. gamma-Synuclein

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  • (PMID = 15696124.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA62924
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 14-3-3 Proteins; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Fibronectins; 0 / GPI-Linked Proteins; 0 / HSP47 Heat-Shock Proteins; 0 / Heat-Shock Proteins; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Microfilament Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / PSCA protein, human; 0 / SERPINH1 protein, human; 0 / SMAD4 protein, human; 0 / Serpins; 0 / Smad4 Protein; 0 / Synucleins; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / beta Catenin; 0 / gamma-Synuclein; 0 / mesothelin; 146808-54-0 / fascin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 3.1.- / Exonucleases; EC 3.1.- / Exoribonucleases; EC 3.1.- / SFN protein, human
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46. Montironi R, Vela Navarrete R, Lopez-Beltran A, Mazzucchelli R, Mikuz G, Bono AV: Histopathology reporting of prostate needle biopsies. 2005 update. Virchows Arch; 2006 Jul;449(1):1-13
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Histopathology reporting of prostate needle biopsies. 2005 update.
  • This report reviews the diagnostic and prognostic importance of the pathologic findings in prostate needle biopsies.
  • The morphological findings of the needle biopsy may be placed into one of the following five categories: prostate cancer, atypical small acinar proliferation, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, inflammation, and benign prostatic tissue.
  • While the prime goal of the biopsy is to diagnose prostatic adenocarcinoma, once carcinoma is detected, further descriptive information regarding the type, amount of cancer, and grade forms the cornerstone for contemporary management of the patient and for assessment of the potential for local cure and the risk for distant metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biopsy, Needle / trends. Prostate / pathology. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16633784.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 81
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47. Pinkstaff DM, Igel TC, Petrou SP, Broderick GA, Wehle MJ, Young PR: Systematic transperineal ultrasound-guided template biopsy of the prostate: three-year experience. Urology; 2005 Apr;65(4):735-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Systematic transperineal ultrasound-guided template biopsy of the prostate: three-year experience.
  • OBJECTIVES: To review the technique of transperineal saturation prostate biopsy and to update our results on patients at high risk of prostate cancer.
  • METHODS: A total of 210 men who met the study inclusion criteria underwent systematic transperineal ultrasound-guided template biopsy of the prostate.
  • All patients had previously undergone at least one set of transrectal prostate biopsies and 170 (81%) had undergone two or more.
  • The mean number of prostate cores obtained before the template biopsy was 17.4.
  • A mean of 21.2 cores (range 12 to 41) were obtained at the template biopsy, depending on prostate size.
  • The study inclusion criteria included prostate-specific antigen level of 10 ng/mL or greater, prostate-specific antigen velocity of 0.75 ng/mL per year or greater, or the presence of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and/or atypical small cell acinar proliferation on the previous biopsy.
  • RESULTS: Adenocarcinoma was detected in 78 men (37%).
  • CONCLUSIONS: A systematic transperineal template biopsy provides uniform sampling of the entire prostate.
  • This technique appears to enhance the identification of transition zone cancers not detected by previous transrectal prostate biopsy in patients at high risk of prostate adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / ultrasonography. Biopsy, Needle / methods. Prostate / pathology. Prostate / ultrasonography. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / ultrasonography


48. Begnami MD, Quezado M, Pinto P, Linehan WM, Merino M: Adenoid cystic/basal cell carcinoma of the prostate: review and update. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2007 Apr;131(4):637-40
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  • [Title] Adenoid cystic/basal cell carcinoma of the prostate: review and update.
  • CONTEXT: Although most prostate carcinomas are of the conventional acinar type, unusual variants have been reported.
  • Adenoid cystic/basal cell carcinoma of the prostate is a rare tumor with distinctive histopathologic features.
  • OBJECTIVE: To review current literature together with the clinical, pathologic, and immunohistochemical features of adenoid cystic/basal cell carcinoma of the prostate and offer a practical approach to the diagnosis--including the differential diagnosis--of this neoplasm in surgical pathologic specimens.
  • DATA SOURCES: Adenoid cystic/basal cell carcinoma of the prostate is composed of infiltrating basaloid cells forming dilated acinar and cribriform spaces with luminal basementlike material.
  • Differentiation of adenoid cystic/basal cell carcinoma from basal cell hyperplasia and cribriform pattern of acinar adenocarcinoma may be difficult.
  • The use of cytokeratin 34betaE12 and prostate-specific antigen can help in difficult cases.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Various histologic and immunohistochemical features are helpful in recognizing adenoid cystic/basal cell carcinoma of the prostate.
  • This is a rare subtype of prostate cancer and correct diagnosis is important because of the unique clinical and biological features and the implications for treatment and prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17425398.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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49. Hansel DE, Nadasdy T, Epstein JI: Fibromyxoid nephrogenic adenoma: a newly recognized variant mimicking mucinous adenocarcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Aug;31(8):1231-7

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Fibromyxoid nephrogenic adenoma: a newly recognized variant mimicking mucinous adenocarcinoma.
  • Nephrogenic adenomas demonstrate a variety of morphologic patterns that may occasionally be confused with malignant processes, including urothelial and prostatic carcinoma.
  • All 8 patients were elderly men who had a prior or concurrent history of acinar prostate cancer (n=4), combined acinar prostate and urothelial carcinoma (n=1), urothelial-type adenocarcinoma of the prostate (n=1), bladder urothelial carcinoma (n=1), or no prior reported prostatic or urothelial abnormalities (n=1).
  • Immunostains for prostate-specific antigen were negative.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Adenoma / pathology. Fibroma / pathology. Urologic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17667548.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Mucins
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50. Tonini G, Rosini R, Teppa A, Aulenti V, Kalantary F, Tosana M, Bianchi D, Zorzi F: [Adenoid cystic/basal cell carcinoma of the prostate:case report]. Urologia; 2008 Oct-Dec;75(4):245-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Adenoid cystic/basal cell carcinoma of the prostate:case report].
  • Although most prostate carcinomas belong to the conventional acinar type, unusual variants have been reported.
  • The adenoid cystic/basal cell carcinoma of the prostate is a rare tumor with distinctive histopathologic features.
  • METHODS. A 71-year-old man had an increased PSA value (5.11 ng/dL); the prostatic biopsy examination was positive for adenoid cystic/basal cell carcinoma.
  • The histology examination showed an acinar conventional carcinoma and adenoid cystic/basal cell carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS. Various histologic and immunohistochemical features are helpful in recognizing the adenoid cystic/basal cell carcinoma of the prostate.
  • Clinically, the only difference from a conventional adenocarcinoma is that the PSA value is usually normal or only slightly increased.

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  • (PMID = 21086341.001).
  • [ISSN] 0391-5603
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologia
  • [Language] ita
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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51. Robinson BD, Epstein JI: Intraductal carcinoma of the prostate without invasive carcinoma on needle biopsy: emphasis on radical prostatectomy findings. J Urol; 2010 Oct;184(4):1328-33
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Intraductal carcinoma of the prostate without invasive carcinoma on needle biopsy: emphasis on radical prostatectomy findings.
  • PURPOSE: Limited information is available on radical prostatectomy findings in men with intraductal carcinoma of the prostate on needle core biopsy in the absence of invasive prostate cancer.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: From the consulting files of one of us we identified 83 men in whom biopsy showed only intraductal prostate cancer.
  • Of the 19 prostatectomies with invasive adenocarcinoma 16 (84%) were conventional acinar adenocarcinoma, 2 (11%) ductal adenocarcinoma, and 1 (5%) mixed ductal and acinar adenocarcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: At radical prostatectomy men in whom prior biopsies showed only intraductal carcinoma of the prostate typically have high grade (Gleason score 7 or greater) invasive adenocarcinoma and most have advanced stage disease (pT3).
  • Definitive therapy is recommended in men with intraductal carcinoma of the prostate on needle biopsy even in the absence of pathologically documented invasive prostate cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / surgery. Prostatectomy. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20723921.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3792
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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52. Wolters T, van der Kwast TH, Vissers CJ, Bangma CH, Roobol M, Schröder FH, van Leenders GJ: False-negative prostate needle biopsies: frequency, histopathologic features, and follow-up. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Jan;34(1):35-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] False-negative prostate needle biopsies: frequency, histopathologic features, and follow-up.
  • Little is known about the frequency, histopathologic characteristics, and clinical consequences of false-negative prostate biopsies, that is, biopsies classified as benign but containing adenocarcinoma or atypical suspicious glands [atypical small acinar proliferations (ASAP)].
  • Objective of this study was to evaluate false-negative prostate biopsy in a prostate cancer screening setting.
  • Prostate biopsy sets of 196 participants of a screening trial, which had been reported as "benign" at initial diagnosis, followed by a diagnosis of adenocarcinoma in a subsequent screening round were reviewed by 2 urologic pathologists.
  • Adenocarcinoma was identified in 19 biopsy cores corresponding to 16 (8.2%) patients and ASAP in 24 cores, corresponding to 19 patients (9.7%).
  • All missed prostate cancers were Gleason score 6 (3+3).
  • After correction for patient selection, the overall false-negative biopsy rate was estimated to be 2.4%; 1.1% for prostate cancer; and 1.3% for ASAP.
  • Clinicopathologic features at the time of initial biopsy and of subsequent prostate cancer diagnosis did not differ between patients with a false-negative or true benign biopsy.
  • Another potential pitfall was the presence of prostate cancer variants, as 1 adenocarcinoma was of foamy gland type and 3 of pseudohyperplastic type.
  • Routine examination of at least 1 level of prostate biopsy sets at high magnification and awareness of histologic prostate cancer variants might reduce the risk of missing or misinterpreting a relevant lesion at prostate biopsy evaluation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Biopsy, Needle. Diagnostic Errors. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. False Negative Reactions. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood

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  • (PMID = 19935058.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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53. Ashley RA, Inman BA, Routh JC, Mynderse LA, Gettman MT, Blute ML: Reassessing the diagnostic yield of saturation biopsy of the prostate. Eur Urol; 2008 May;53(5):976-81
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Reassessing the diagnostic yield of saturation biopsy of the prostate.
  • OBJECTIVE: Prostate biopsy remains the gold standard for detection of prostate cancer (PCa).
  • This study was performed to determine whether saturation biopsy (>or= 24 cores) detects more prostate cancer than a standard 12-18 core office biopsy technique.
  • METHODS: We conducted a nonrandomized cohort study of a consecutive series of prostate biopsies.
  • The primary outcome assessed by both univariate and multivariate analysis was the detection of PCa, whereas the secondary outcomes of HGPIN (high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia) and ASAP (atypical small acinar proliferation) were also analyzed.
  • RESULTS: From September 2005 to June 2006, a total of 469 patients undergoing prostate biopsy were included in this study.
  • A standard office prostate biopsy was performed in 301 men, whereas 168 underwent a saturation biopsy.
  • Age, body mass index (BMI), prostate volume, and family history of PCa were similar.
  • After adjusting for covariates, saturation biopsy did not detect more abnormal pathology than standard office prostate biopsy, including PCa (OR, 1.2; p=0.339), HGPIN (OR, 1.4; p=0.368), or ASAP (OR, 2.2; p=0.201).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Saturation biopsy does not appear to detect more abnormal prostate pathology than standard office biopsy of the prostate.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Biopsy / methods. Prostate / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prospective Studies. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Reproducibility of Results

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  • [CommentIn] Eur Urol. 2008 May;53(5):982-3 [17997023.001]
  • [CommentIn] Eur Urol. 2008 May;53(5):981-2 [17997013.001]
  • (PMID = 17997028.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-2838
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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54. Martínez-Cornelio A, González-Pérez J, Tabares-García Fde J, Ramos-Salgado F, Alvarado-Cabrero I, Hernández-Toriz N: [Androgen-deprivation therapy in the management of neuroendocrine prostate cancer]. Cir Cir; 2009 Jul-Aug;77(4):293-9; 273-8
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  • [Title] [Androgen-deprivation therapy in the management of neuroendocrine prostate cancer].
  • BACKGROUND: Prostatic neuroendocrine carcinomas comprise <1% of all prostate neoplasms, and approximately 200 cases have been reported in the literature.
  • We undertook this study to describe the experience in the management of prostatic neuroendocrine carcinoma with androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT).
  • In patients with suspicion of prostate cancer, transrectal ultrasonography-guided biopsy (TRUS) or transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) was carried out during the period from January 2000 to December 2007.
  • Characteristics analyzed were age, clinical stage, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), imaging studies, treatment and survival.
  • In three (30%) patients, PSA was suspicious for prostate cancer.
  • In six (60%) patients mixed variant was documented (acinar adenocarcinoma and neuroendocrine carcinoma) with a median survival of 11.6 months.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Prostatic neuroendocrine carcinoma is uncommon, aggressive and represents a prostatic neoplasia without PSA expression.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgen Antagonists / therapeutic use. Carcinoma, Neuroendocrine / drug therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19919791.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-7411
  • [Journal-full-title] Cirugía y cirujanos
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cir Cir
  • [Language] eng; spa
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Mexico
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgen Antagonists
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55. Van der Kwast TH, Evans A, Lockwood G, Tkachuk D, Bostwick DG, Epstein JI, Humphrey PA, Montironi R, Van Leenders GJ, Pihl CG, Neetens I, Kujala PM, Laurila M, Mazerolles C, Bubendorf L, Finelli A, Watson K, Srigley J: Variability in diagnostic opinion among pathologists for single small atypical foci in prostate biopsies. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Feb;34(2):169-77
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Variability in diagnostic opinion among pathologists for single small atypical foci in prostate biopsies.
  • Pathologists are increasingly exposed to prostate biopsies with small atypical foci, requiring differentiation between adenocarcinoma, atypical small acinar proliferation suspicious for malignancy, and a benign diagnosis.
  • We studied the level of agreement for such atypical foci among experts in urologic pathology and all-round reference pathologists of the European Randomized Screening study of Prostate Cancer (ERSPC).
  • For this purpose, we retrieved 20 prostate biopsies with small (most <1 mm) atypical foci.
  • Experts and ERSPC pathologists rendered diagnoses ranging from benign to adenocarcinoma on the same biopsy in 5 and 9 biopsies, respectively.
  • The experts diagnosed adenocarcinoma (49%) more often than the ERSPC pathologists (32%) (P<0.001).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Prostate / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2010 Jul;34(7):1071-2; author reply 1072 [20495442.001]
  • [CommentIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2010 Jul;34(7):1071; author reply 1072 [20495443.001]
  • [ErratumIn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2010 May;34(5):688. Pihl, C G[removed]
  • (PMID = 20061936.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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56. Leite KR, Camara-Lopes LH, Cury J, Dall'oglio MF, Sañudo A, Srougi M: Prostate cancer detection at rebiopsy after an initial benign diagnosis: results using sextant extended prostate biopsy. Clinics (Sao Paulo); 2008 Jun;63(3):339-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prostate cancer detection at rebiopsy after an initial benign diagnosis: results using sextant extended prostate biopsy.
  • INTRODUCTION: Sextant prostate biopsy remains the standard technique for the detection of prostate cancer.
  • It is well known that after a diagnosis of small acinar proliferation (ASAP) or high grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN), the possibility of finding cancer is approximately 40% and 30%, respectively.
  • METHODS: From July 2000 to December 2003, 1177 patients were submitted to sextant extended prostate biopsy in our hospital.
  • Eight cases of adenocarcinoma (10.5%) were detected, six (75%) at the first rebiopsy.
  • CONCLUSION: Our data indicate that in extended prostate biopsy, the first biopsy detects more cancer, and the first, second, and third rebiopsies after an initial benign diagnosis succeed in finding cancer in 7.9% (6/55), 5.9% (1/15) and 20% (1/4) of patients, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Prostate / pathology. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biopsy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prostate-Specific Antigen / analysis. Prostatectomy. Statistics, Nonparametric

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  • (PMID = 18568243.001).
  • [ISSN] 1807-5932
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics (São Paulo, Brazil)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clinics (Sao Paulo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2664245
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57. Zhao J, Epstein JI: High-grade foamy gland prostatic adenocarcinoma on biopsy or transurethral resection: a morphologic study of 55 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Apr;33(4):583-90
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] High-grade foamy gland prostatic adenocarcinoma on biopsy or transurethral resection: a morphologic study of 55 cases.
  • Foamy gland carcinoma is a variant of adenocarcinoma of the prostate that typically is assigned a Gleason score 3+3=6.
  • We analyzed 55 cases of high-grade (Gleason score 7 or greater) foamy gland carcinoma of the prostate in needle biopsy (n=49) or transurethral resection (n=6) specimens.
  • Concurrent ordinary acinar nonfoamy adenocarcinoma was encountered in 26 of 55 cases (47%) with the following Gleason scores: Gleason 6 (27%); Gleason 7 (27%); and Gleason 8 to 10 (46%).
  • Associated ordinary high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and foamy gland variant of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia/intraductal adenocarcinoma were seen in 13 cases (24%) and 11 cases (20%), respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biopsy, Needle. Cell Nucleolus / pathology. Humans. Keratin-7 / analysis. Male. Middle Aged. Mitosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Transurethral Resection of Prostate

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  • (PMID = 19033862.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Keratin-7
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58. Han B, Mehra R, Suleman K, Tomlins SA, Wang L, Singhal N, Linetzky KA, Palanisamy N, Zhou M, Chinnaiyan AM, Shah RB: Characterization of ETS gene aberrations in select histologic variants of prostate carcinoma. Mod Pathol; 2009 Sep;22(9):1176-85
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  • [Title] Characterization of ETS gene aberrations in select histologic variants of prostate carcinoma.
  • Histologic variants of prostate carcinoma account for 5-10% of the disease and are typically seen in association with conventional acinar carcinoma.
  • Recently, recurrent gene fusions between the androgen-regulated gene TMPRSS2 and the ETS transcription factors ERG, ETV1, ETV4, or ETV5 have been identified in a majority of conventional prostate carcinomas.
  • However, the frequency and significance of this critical molecular event is unknown in the histologic variants of prostate carcinoma.
  • Here, we used break-apart fluorescence in situ hybridization to assess TMPRSS2 and ETS aberrations in a series of select histologic variants: foamy gland carcinoma (N=17), ductal adenocarcinoma (N=18), mucinous carcinoma (N=18), and small cell carcinoma (N=7).
  • A histologic variation of acinar adenocarcinoma, demonstrating glomeruloid morphology (N=9), was also investigated.
  • TMPRSS2:ERG fusion was identified in 83% (15/18), 71% (5/7), 50% (9/18), 33% (3/9), and 29% (5/17) of mucinous, small cell, ductal, glomeruloid, and foamy gland prostate carcinomas, respectively.
  • Previously, we reported that 100% of androgen-independent metastatic prostate carcinomas harboring TMPRSS2:ERG gene fusion were associated with interstitial deletion (Edel).
  • SPINK1, a biomarker expressed exclusively in a subset of ETS negative prostate carcinomas, was expressed in 6% of ETS negative histologic variants, specifically in ductal adenocarcinoma.
  • Notably, 88% (43/49) variant morphologies in this cohort showed concordance of TMPRSS2:ERG fusion with associated conventional acinar type, suggesting that variant morphology is clonally related to the latter.
  • Overall, our data provide insight into the origin, molecular mechanism, and phenotypic association of ETS fusions in histologic variants of prostate carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 19465903.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA069568-110020; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA111275-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA102872; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50CA69568; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA069568-110020; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / UO1 CA111275-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA069568; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01 CA111275
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ets; 0 / SPINK1 protein, human; 0 / TMPRSS2-ERG fusion protein, human; 0 / TMPRSS2-ETV1 fusion protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS148618; NLM/ PMC2760291
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59. Adley BP, Yang XJ: Application of alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of prostate cancer: a review. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2006 Feb;28(1):1-13
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  • [Title] Application of alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of prostate cancer: a review.
  • Alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase (AMACR) is a recently discovered enzyme protein that has been shown to be increased at both the mRNA and protein levels in prostatic adenocarcinoma as compared with normal prostatic tissues.
  • Since its discovery, AMACR has gained wide acceptance for use in the diagnosis of prostatic adenocarcinoma in conjunction with morphology and immunohistochemical staining for basal cell markers.
  • Numerous studies have consistently shown high sensitivity and specificity of AMACR for prostate cancer.
  • This review focuses on AMACR expression in prostate cancer and its morphologic variants, high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, adenosis and benign conditions of the prostate.
  • Finally, we emphasize diagnostic pitfalls in the application of AMACR to small, atypical foci of glands seen on prostate needle core biopsy and project future diagnostic as well as clinical applications for the protein.

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  • (PMID = 16566275.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 5.1.- / Racemases and Epimerases; EC 5.1.99.4 / alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase
  • [Number-of-references] 63
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60. Arista-Nasr J, Martínez-Benítez B, Fernández-Amador JA, Bornstein-Quevedo L, Albores-Saavedra J: [Pseudohyperplastic carcinoma with xanthomatous changes: a neoplasm mimicking glandular hyperplasia of the prostate]. Actas Urol Esp; 2010 Apr;34(4):333-9
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  • [Title] [Pseudohyperplastic carcinoma with xanthomatous changes: a neoplasm mimicking glandular hyperplasia of the prostate].
  • INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Varieties of prostatic adenocarcinoma whose architectural and cytological appearance mimicked benign lesions have been reported in recent decades.
  • METHODS: Five cases (1.8%) of pseudohyperplastic carcinoma showing xanthomatous changes were selected from a total of 280 biopsies showing prostate carcinoma.
  • Glandular prostatic hyperplasia was originally diagnosed in four of such cases.
  • All patients had high prostate-specific antigen levels, and digital rectal examination showed abnormalities in four of them.
  • Several useful criteria for diagnosis of acinar carcinoma, such as perineural infiltration, mitosis, crystalloids, blue secretions, and prostatic intraepithelial neoplasm, were absent.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Prostatic carcinoma with a pseudohyperplastic pattern and xanthomatous changes mimics hyperplastic glands.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Prostatic Hyperplasia / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20470695.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-7980
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas urologicas españolas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Urol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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61. Newell KJ, Amrhein JF, Desai RJ, Middlebrook PF, Webster TM, Sawka BW, Rudrick BF: Prostate gland biopsies and prostatectomies: an Ontario community hospital experience. Can Urol Assoc J; 2008 Oct;2(5):518-23
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  • [Title] Prostate gland biopsies and prostatectomies: an Ontario community hospital experience.
  • OBJECTIVE: Transrectal ultrasound-guided core biopsies of the prostate gland and prostatectomies have become common procedures at many community hospitals in Canada, especially in the era of serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening for prostate cancer.
  • The Gleason grading of prostate cancer in biopsies and prostatectomies is a major determinant used for treatment planning.
  • There is evidence in the literature that suggests important discordance between community hospital pathologists and urological pathologists with respect to the Gleason grading of prostate cancer.
  • Our objective was to determine the diagnostic rates and Gleason scoring patterns for prostate gland biopsies and prostatectomies at our institution compared with the literature.
  • METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of all prostate gland biopsies and prostatectomies performed at the Grey Bruce Health Services from January 2005 to September 2005.
  • The rates of diagnosis from prostate gland biopsies of benign (17.6%), high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (11.0%), atypical small acinar proliferation suspicious for invasive malignancy (13.2%) and invasive prostatic adenocarcinoma (58.2%) at our institution were significantly different than those reported in the literature (p < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSION: Our results showed a significant difference in prostate gland biopsy categorical diagnoses compared with the literature.
  • There were also significant differences in categorical diagnoses of prostate gland biopsies among the community hospital pathologists in our study.
  • We would encourage other community hospital pathologists, in collaboration with their urologists, to review periodically their prostate gland pathology practices in an attempt to improve the uniformity of diagnoses.

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  • (PMID = 18953449.001).
  • [ISSN] 1911-6470
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian Urological Association journal = Journal de l'Association des urologues du Canada
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can Urol Assoc J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2572237
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62. Mazzucchelli R, Barbisan F, Scarpelli M, Lopez-Beltran A, van der Kwast TH, Cheng L, Montironi R: Is incidentally detected prostate cancer in patients undergoing radical cystoprostatectomy clinically significant? Am J Clin Pathol; 2009 Feb;131(2):279-83
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  • [Title] Is incidentally detected prostate cancer in patients undergoing radical cystoprostatectomy clinically significant?
  • Cystoprostatectomy specimens obtained from patients with bladder cancer provide a unique opportunity to assess the features of silent prostate adenocarcinoma (PCa).
  • The whole-mount prostate sections of 248 totally embedded and consecutively examined radical cystoprostatectomy (RCP) specimens were reviewed to determine the incidence and features of incidentally detected PCa.
  • Features were as follows: acinar adenocarcinoma, 123 (100.0%); peripheral zone location, 98 (79.7%); pT2a, 96 (78.0%); pT2b, 11 (8.9%); pT2c, 9 (7.3%); pT3a, 5 (4.1%); pT3b, 2 (1.6%); pT4, 0 (0.0%); Gleason score 6 or less, 107 (87.0%); negative margins, 119 (96.7%); pN0 for PCa, 123 (100.0%); and tumor volume less than 0.5 cc, 116 (94.3%).
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Incidental Findings. Prostatectomy. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19141388.001).
  • [ISSN] 1943-7722
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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63. Bonkhoff H: [Differential diagnosis of prostate cancer: impact of pattern analysis and immunohistochemistry]. Pathologe; 2005 Nov;26(6):405-21
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Differential diagnosis of prostate cancer: impact of pattern analysis and immunohistochemistry].
  • Prostate cancer offers a wide range of growth patterns depicted in the classical Gleason diagram.
  • For each Gleason pattern exist a number of benign and malignant mimickers that can simulate prostatic adenocarcinoma.
  • In the present review, the use of immunohistochemical markers is discussed with emphasis to a pattern-based approach to differential diagnosis in prostate pathology.
  • AMACR (P504 s) is helpful not only in identifying small amount of cancer in needle biopsies but also in the diagnosis of high grade prostatic intra epithelial neoplasia (HGPIN).
  • A number of lesions which may be confused with small acinar adenocarcinoma (Cowper's gland, nephrogenic metaplasia, mesonephric glands) and poorly differentiated prostate cancer (urothelial neoplasia, mucinous colon cancer and other metastatic lesions) lacks convincing PSA immunoreactivity.
  • Basal cell markers and the nuclear androgen receptors are important markers to differentiate Gleason grade 5 A und 5 B patterns from prostatic involvement by transitional cell carcinoma.
  • Finally, a selected panel of markers is useful to classify prostatic stromal lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Prostate / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Basal Cell / pathology. Cell Division / physiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Prostatic Hyperplasia / pathology. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16205899.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-8113
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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64. Kozuka Y, Imai H, Yamanaka M, Kozuka M, Uchida K, Shiraishi T: [Histopathological features of prostate cancer]. Nihon Rinsho; 2005 Feb;63(2):231-6
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  • [Title] [Histopathological features of prostate cancer].
  • The diagnosis of prostatic cancer present in a limited amount within needle biopsy tissue, is often challenging.
  • The most common mimickers giving rise to false-positive cancer diagnosis are atypical adenomatous hyperplasia, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, atrophy and post-atrophic hyperplasia.
  • Immunohistochemical staining for both basal cells, such as 34betaE12 and p63, and AMACR, which label the cytoplasm of approximately 80% of prostatic adenocarcinoma, may be a useful adjunct in the diagnosis of limited prostatic cancer.
  • When the glands lacking sufficient criteria to establish a definitive carcinoma is present, we use the term 'atypical small acinar proliferation'.
  • [MeSH-major] Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Biopsy, Needle. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / diagnosis. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15714971.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Number-of-references] 19
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65. Suttie AW, Dinse GE, Nyska A, Moser GJ, Goldsworthy TL, Maronpot RR: An investigation of the effects of late-onset dietary restriction on prostate cancer development in the TRAMP mouse. Toxicol Pathol; 2005;33(3):386-97
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  • [Title] An investigation of the effects of late-onset dietary restriction on prostate cancer development in the TRAMP mouse.
  • In our previous work we showed that dietary restriction initiated at puberty reduced prostate cancer development in the TRAMP mouse model.
  • Male TRAMP mice were maintained on an ad libitum diet until 20 weeks of age when proliferative prostate lesions are clearly evident.
  • Mice were sacrificed at 20, 24, 32, and 39 weeks of age and proliferative epithelial lesions of the prostate were assessed using an established grading scheme.
  • In this study, although dietary restriction reduced mean sex pluck weight (prostate and seminal vesicles), and mean grade of epithelial proliferative lesions in the dorsal and lateral lobes of the prostate, the effect was not as pronounced as was the case with dietary restriction from puberty.
  • There was no relationship between serum insulin like growth factor (IGF-1) and prostate lesion grade.
  • Additionally, we also report the relationship between lobe specific lesion development and SV40 immunostaining and, the occurance of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) in the ventral prostate and urethra of the TRAMP mouse.
  • SV40 positive tubulo-acinar tumors seen occasionally in the kidney, did not stain for synaptophysin nor NSE.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Caloric Restriction. Neuroendocrine Tumors / metabolism. Prostate / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15805078.001).
  • [ISSN] 0192-6233
  • [Journal-full-title] Toxicologic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Toxicol Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / N01-ES-95434; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / N01-ES-95446
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Synaptophysin; EC 4.2.1.11 / Phosphopyruvate Hydratase
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66. Leite KR, Mitteldorf CA, Srougi M, Dall'oglio MF, Antunes AA, Pontes J Jr, Camara-Lopes LH: Cdx2, cytokeratin 20, thyroid transcription factor 1, and prostate-specific antigen expression in unusual subtypes of prostate cancer. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2008 Aug;12(4):260-6
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  • [Title] Cdx2, cytokeratin 20, thyroid transcription factor 1, and prostate-specific antigen expression in unusual subtypes of prostate cancer.
  • There are some unusual histologic variants of prostate carcinoma, including mucinous, signet-ring cells, and ductal carcinomas that can metastasize in a problematic way and simulate lung, colorectal, or bladder primaries.
  • Our aim is to study the profile of expression of Cdx2, thyroid transcription factor 1 (TTF1), and cytokeratin 20 (CK20) in prostate cancer with unusual histologic finding.
  • Twenty-nine prostate adenocarcinomas with unusual histologic findings were submitted to immunohistochemistry with prostate-specific antigen (PSA), CK20, Cdx2, and TTF1 antibodies.
  • There were 7 mucinous, 5 ductal, 2 signet-ring cells, and 15 usual acinar adenocarcinomas with focal mucinous differentiation.
  • To compare the results with usual acinar adenocarcinomas, we studied 10 primary and their respective lymph node metastases in a tissue microarray, 2 unusual metastatic adenocarcinomas, and 6 usual acinar high-grade carcinomas.
  • Prostate-specific antigen was positive in 28 (96.6%) cases and negative in 1 ductal adenocarcinoma.
  • There was only 1 worrisome ductal adenocarcinoma that was strongly CK20 positive and PSA negative.
  • Almost one third of mucinous prostate carcinomas express Cdx2.
  • Cytokeratin 20 can be positive also in one third of prostate carcinomas, especially the ductal type.
  • Pathologist should be alert when evaluating immunohistochemical profiles of unusual histologic findings of prostate cancer, mostly in distant sites.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Homeodomain Proteins / biosynthesis. Nuclear Proteins / biosynthesis. Prostate-Specific Antigen / biosynthesis. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Transcription Factors / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 18620992.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CDX2 protein, human; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / KRT20 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / thyroid nuclear factor 1; EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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67. Bryan JN, Keeler MR, Henry CJ, Bryan ME, Hahn AW, Caldwell CW: A population study of neutering status as a risk factor for canine prostate cancer. Prostate; 2007 Aug 1;67(11):1174-81
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  • [Title] A population study of neutering status as a risk factor for canine prostate cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer has been reported to occur more commonly in neutered than intact male dogs in several case series.
  • This study was undertaken to evaluate risk of prostate cancer in a large population database.
  • The hypothesis was that castration is a risk factor for prostate cancer in male companion dogs.
  • The Veterinary Medical Databases (VMDB) were queried to yield male dogs with urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC), prostate adenocarcinoma (ACA), prostate TCC, prostate carcinoma (CA), and prostate tumors.
  • Neutered males had an odds ratio of 3.56 (3.02-4.21) for urinary bladder TCC, 8.00 (5.60-11.42) for prostate TCC, 2.12 (1.80-2.49) for prostate adenocarcinoma, 3.86 (3.13-4.16) for prostate carcinoma, and 2.84 (2.57-3.14) for all prostate cancers.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Breed predisposition suggests that genetic factors play a role in the development of prostate cancer.
  • The risk associated with being neutered is highest for TCC, supporting previous work identifying the urothelium and ductular rather than acinar epithelium as the source of these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Dog Diseases / epidemiology. Orchiectomy / veterinary. Prostatic Neoplasms / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma / veterinary. Animals. Carcinoma / epidemiology. Carcinoma / veterinary. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / epidemiology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / veterinary. Dogs. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Male. Odds Ratio. Risk Factors. Species Specificity. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / epidemiology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 17516571.001).
  • [ISSN] 0270-4137
  • [Journal-full-title] The Prostate
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prostate
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NLM NIH HHS / LM / T15-LM07089
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Martens MB, Keller JH: Routine immunohistochemical staining for high-molecular weight cytokeratin 34-beta and alpha-methylacyl CoA racemase (P504S) in postirradiation prostate biopsies. Mod Pathol; 2006 Feb;19(2):287-90
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  • [Title] Routine immunohistochemical staining for high-molecular weight cytokeratin 34-beta and alpha-methylacyl CoA racemase (P504S) in postirradiation prostate biopsies.
  • A total of 43 cases of postirradiation prostate cores were assessed in an attempt to determine if routine use of alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR) in conjunction with high-molecular weight cytokeratin (HMWCK) would increase the recognition of carcinoma in postirradiation prostate biopsies.
  • We concluded that in most cases the addition of AMACR in conjunction with HMWCK does not increase the recognition of prostatic adenocarcinoma, however it is supportive in nature.
  • In one case the use of AMACR highlighted the extent of the adenocarcinoma which otherwise would have been designated as atypical small acinar proliferation (ASAP).
  • Further evaluation is required to assess the significance of a diagnosis of atypical small acinar proliferation in postirradiation prostate biopsies.
  • [MeSH-major] Keratins / analysis. Prostate / chemistry. Prostatic Neoplasms / metabolism. Racemases and Epimerases / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adenocarcinoma / radiotherapy. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Male. Molecular Weight. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Reproducibility of Results. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16341144.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 5.1.- / Racemases and Epimerases; EC 5.1.99.4 / alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase
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69. Chuang AY, Chang SJ, Horng CF, Tsou MH: Study of prostate cancer pathologic features in Chinese populations. Urology; 2007 May;69(5):915-20
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  • [Title] Study of prostate cancer pathologic features in Chinese populations.
  • OBJECTIVES: To report the pathologic features of prostate cancer and its clinical outcome in the Chinese population in Taiwan.
  • The histologic type was acinar adenocarcinoma in 137, mucinous adenocarcinoma in 1, and ductal adenocarcinoma in 1.
  • The median tumor number in each prostate gland was 2.
  • The clinical stage (P = 0.0059), serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level (greater than 20 ng/mL versus 10 ng/mL or less, P = 0.002), extraprostatic extension (P = 0.0012), seminal vesicle invasion (P <0.0001), and surgical margin status (P <0.0001) were all significant factors for disease progression on univariate analysis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The patients with prostate cancer cared for at the Koo Foundation Sun Yat-Sen Cancer Center were older and had greater PSA levels, a more advanced stage, higher grade tumors, and high positive surgical margin rates.
  • [MeSH-major] Prostatic Neoplasms / ethnology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Distribution. Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Humans. Incidence. Korea / ethnology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Staging. Probability. Proportional Hazards Models. Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood. Prostatectomy. Registries. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Statistics, Nonparametric. Survival Rate. Taiwan / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 17482934.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.21.77 / Prostate-Specific Antigen
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70. Lotan TL, Toubaji A, Albadine R, Latour M, Herawi M, Meeker AK, DeMarzo AM, Platz EA, Epstein JI, Netto GJ: TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusions are infrequent in prostatic ductal adenocarcinomas. Mod Pathol; 2009 Mar;22(3):359-65
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  • [Title] TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusions are infrequent in prostatic ductal adenocarcinomas.
  • Ductal adenocarcinoma of the prostate is an unusual subtype that may be associated with a more aggressive clinical course, and is less responsive to conventional therapies than the more common prostatic acinar adenocarcinoma.
  • However, given its frequent association with an acinar component at prostatectomy, some have challenged the concept of prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma as a distinct clinicopathologic entity.
  • We studied the occurrence of the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion, in 40 surgically resected ductal adenocarcinoma cases, and in their associated acinar component using fluorescence in situ hybridization.
  • A group of 38 'pure' acinar adenocarcinoma cases matched with the ductal adenocarcinoma group for pathological grade and stage was studied as a control.
  • Compared with the matched acinar adenocarcinoma cases, the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion was significantly less frequently observed in ductal adenocarcinoma (45 vs 11% of cases, P=0.002, Fisher's exact test).
  • Here, of the ductal adenocarcinoma cases with the gene fusion, 75% were fused through deletion, and the remaining case was fused through translocation.
  • The TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion was also rare in the acinar component of mixed ductal-acinar tumors when compared with the pure acinar adenocarcinoma controls (5 vs 45%, P=0.001, Fisher's exact test).
  • In 95% of the ductal adenocarcinoma cases in which a concurrent acinar component was analyzed, there was concordance for presence/absence of the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion between the different histologic subtypes.
  • In the control group of pure acinar adenocarcinoma cases, 59% were fused through deletion and 41% were fused through translocation.
  • The presence of the TMPRSS2-ERG gene fusion in some cases of prostatic ductal adenocarcinoma supports the concept that ductal adenocarcinoma and acinar adenocarcinoma may be related genetically.
  • However, the significantly lower rate of the gene fusion in pure ductal adenocarcinoma cases underscores the fact that genetic and biologic differences exist between these two tumors that may be important for future therapeutic strategies.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Ductal / genetics. Oncogene Proteins, Fusion / genetics. Prostatic Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / pathology. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 19151660.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA058236
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / TMPRSS2-ERG fusion protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS403690; NLM/ PMC3484370
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71. Iğdem S, Spiegel DY, Efstathiou J, Miller RC, Poortmans PM, Koca S, Kiliç-Unsal D, Okkan S, Zietman A: Prostatic duct adenocarcinoma: clinical characteristics, treatment options, and outcomes - a Rare Cancer Network study. Onkologie; 2010;33(4):169-73
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  • [Title] Prostatic duct adenocarcinoma: clinical characteristics, treatment options, and outcomes - a Rare Cancer Network study.
  • BACKGROUND: To evaluate the clinical characteristics, contemporary treatment options, and outcome of prostatic duct adenocarcinoma (PDA), we initiated a Rare Cancer Network (RCN) study.
  • RESULTS: Of the 14 patients managed with radiotherapy, 1 patient developed bone metastases and died of prostate cancer, and 1 patient had a biochemical relapse 8 years after definitive radiotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that PDA is a cancer with a behavior similar to that of high Gleason grade acinar carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Ductal / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Ductal / therapy. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20389142.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0240
  • [Journal-full-title] Onkologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Onkologie
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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72. Cheng L, MacLennan GT, Abdul-Karim FW, Lopez-Beltran A, Montironi R: Eosinophilic metaplasia of the prostate: a newly described lesion distinct from other eosinophilic changes in prostatic epithelium. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2008 Aug;30(4):226-30
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  • [Title] Eosinophilic metaplasia of the prostate: a newly described lesion distinct from other eosinophilic changes in prostatic epithelium.
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe the morphologic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features of large, intensely eosinophilic cytoplasmic granules in prostatic epithelial cells in the benign prostate, as well as the prevalence of this condition.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Two hundred twenty prostate needle biopsies and 104 radical prostatectomy specimens were examined for the presence of eosinophilic granules in benign prostatic epithelium.
  • RESULTS: We found benign prostatic cells with bright eosinophilic granules in 13 of 84 (16%) negative prostate needle biopsies, 3 of 13 (23%) needle biopsies with high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, 15 of 123 (12%) needle biopsies with adenocarcinoma and 21 of 104 (20%) radical prostatectomy specimens.
  • Benign prostatic cells with eosinophilic granules were more commonly seen in prostatic ductal epithelium than acinar epithelium.
  • CONCLUSION: Eosinophilic metaplasia of the prostate appears to represent a form of nonspecific histologic change in response to altered cellular milieu in the prostate.

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  • (PMID = 18773741.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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73. Suzuki T, Togo Y, Yasuda K, Yamamoto H, Kokura K, Nagareda T: [Prostatic duct adenocarcinoma with pagetoid spread on the glans penis: a case report]. Hinyokika Kiyo; 2006 Nov;52(11):887-90
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  • [Title] [Prostatic duct adenocarcinoma with pagetoid spread on the glans penis: a case report].
  • At the time, the prostatectomy specimen incidentally revealed a prostatic acinar adenocarcinoma at the bilateral peripheral zone.
  • Re-examination of the previous prostatectomy specimen revealed prostatic duct adenocarcinoma with prostatic acinar adenocarcinoma.
  • Therefore, the final diagnosis was prostatic duct adenocarcinoma with Pagetoid spread to the glans penis.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Paget Disease, Extramammary / pathology. Penile Neoplasms / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17176876.001).
  • [ISSN] 0018-1994
  • [Journal-full-title] Hinyokika kiyo. Acta urologica Japonica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hinyokika Kiyo
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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74. Fu XM, Dai X, Ding J, Zhu BT: Pancreas-specific protein disulfide isomerase has a cell type-specific expression in various mouse tissues and is absent in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells: implications for its functions. J Mol Histol; 2009 Jun;40(3):189-99
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  • [Title] Pancreas-specific protein disulfide isomerase has a cell type-specific expression in various mouse tissues and is absent in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells: implications for its functions.
  • In the present study, we found that PDIp was also highly expressed in several other tissues in mice, including the stomach, cecum, ileum, adrenal glands, epididymis, and prostate.
  • Notably, in the digestive organs, such as the stomach and pancreas, very high levels of PDIp were selectively expressed in the digestive enzyme-secreting cells (e.g., gastric chief cells and pancreatic acinar cells).
  • In addition, high levels of PDIp expression were also detected in normal human pancreas, but its expression was mostly absent in human pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma and pancreatic cancer cell lines.
  • The absence of PDIp expression in pancreatic adenocarcinoma may serve as an additional biomarker for pancreatic cancer.

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  • (PMID = 19821078.001).
  • [ISSN] 1567-2387
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of molecular histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Mol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA097109; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA97109; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20RR021940
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 5.3.4.1 / Protein Disulfide-Isomerases
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75. Mazzucchelli R, Lopez-Beltran A, Cheng L, Scarpelli M, Kirkali Z, Montironi R: Rare and unusual histological variants of prostatic carcinoma: clinical significance. BJU Int; 2008 Nov;102(10):1369-74
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  • [Title] Rare and unusual histological variants of prostatic carcinoma: clinical significance.
  • We review the clinicopathological features of the following unusual histological variants of prostatic carcinoma: small cell carcinoma, ductal adenocarcinoma, sarcomatoid (carcinosarcoma), basal cell, squamous cell and adenosquamous, and urothelial carcinoma.
  • These variants are rare and account for 5-10% of carcinomas that originate in the prostate.
  • Some develop from acinar adenocarcinoma after hormonal or radiation therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Carcinoma, Acinar Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Carcinosarcoma / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 18793296.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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76. Stamatiou K, Alevizos A, Mariolis A, Fanou D, Alevizou A, Michalodimitrakis E, Sofras F: Adenocarcinomas of the prostatic duct in necropsy material. Can J Urol; 2007 Apr;14(2):3502-6
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  • [Title] Adenocarcinomas of the prostatic duct in necropsy material.
  • The general consensus about prostatic duct adenocarcinomas is that they have a rather aggressive biological behavior.
  • In addition, studies or reports of latent adenocarcinoma of the prostatic duct in necropsy material are scarce in the literature.
  • We report here three cases of adenocarcinoma of the prostatic duct that were found incidentally among 39 cases of latent acinar prostate adenocarcinomas in necropsy material.
  • We examined the morphologic and histological features of these prostatic duct adenocarcinomas, in order to better understand their biological behavior.
  • We identified two cases of mixed ductal-acinar adenocarcinoma and one case of pure ductal adenocarcinoma.
  • The finding of prostatic ductal adenocarcinomas among autopsy material, as well as some of their histological features, suggest that these tumors might have a similar biological potential as prostatic acinar cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17466156.001).
  • [ISSN] 1195-9479
  • [Journal-full-title] The Canadian journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
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77. Cohen RJ, Wheeler TM, Bonkhoff H, Rubin MA: A proposal on the identification, histologic reporting, and implications of intraductal prostatic carcinoma. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2007 Jul;131(7):1103-9
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  • [Title] A proposal on the identification, histologic reporting, and implications of intraductal prostatic carcinoma.
  • CONTEXT: Prostatic adenocarcinoma growing within acinar-ductal spaces (intraductal carcinoma) in contrast to high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-PIN) impacts negatively on patient outcome.
  • There is currently no generally accepted definition of this lesion nor is it classified in the current prostate cancer grading system (Gleason).
  • OBJECTIVE: To define intraductal carcinoma of the prostate (IDC-P) with major and minor diagnostic criteria that clearly separate it from HG-PIN.
  • DATA SOURCES: We reviewed all published data referring to intraductal spread of prostate carcinoma.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Intraductal carcinoma of the prostate as defined by major criteria that include enlarged gland structures, neoplastic cells spanning the gland lumen, central comedonecrosis, and further supported by minor diagnostic criteria including molecular biological markers, separate this entity from HG-PIN.
  • Despite its perimeter basal cells, IDC-P should be interpreted as biologically equivalent to Gleason pattern 4 or 5 adenocarcinoma.
  • Several hypotheses are proposed as to the evolution of IDC-P, which is almost always a late event in prostate carcinoma progression.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biopsy. Humans. Male. Prognosis. Prostate / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2008 Mar;132(3):319-20; author reply 320-1 [18318572.001]
  • (PMID = 17616999.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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78. MacLennan GT, Eisenberg R, Fleshman RL, Taylor JM, Fu P, Resnick MI, Gupta S: The influence of chronic inflammation in prostatic carcinogenesis: a 5-year followup study. J Urol; 2006 Sep;176(3):1012-6
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  • [Title] The influence of chronic inflammation in prostatic carcinogenesis: a 5-year followup study.
  • PURPOSE: We investigated an association between chronic prostatic inflammation and prostate carcinogenesis.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Initial prostate needle biopsies from 177 patients with clinical parameters suspicious for malignancy were examined.
  • Additional pathological findings in some cases in each group included simple atrophy, high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, adenocarcinoma and atypical small acinar proliferation.
  • A significant association between serum prostate specific antigen and the degree of inflammation was observed in needle biopsies.
  • Of these cancers 6 occurred in patients in whom initial biopsies showed only chronic inflammation, 15 occurred in patients with initial post-atrophic hyperplasia/proliferative inflammatory atrophy lesions, 7 occurred in patients with initial high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and chronic inflammation, and 1 occurred in a patient with initial atypical small acinar proliferation and chronic inflammation.
  • High grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia was newly discovered in 9 patients in the initial chronic inflammation group, of whom 7 had post-atrophic hyperplasia/proliferative inflammatory atrophy and 2 had simple atrophy and chronic inflammation in the initial biopsies.
  • In contrast, in 33 patients initially showing no inflammation adenocarcinoma was subsequently found in 2 (6%).
  • One of these patients had high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and the other had atypical small acinar proliferation on initial biopsies.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Chronic inflammation may be a significant risk factor for prostatic adenocarcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / etiology. Prostatic Neoplasms / etiology. Prostatitis / complications

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  • (PMID = 16890681.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-5347
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCCIH NIH HHS / AT / R01 AT 002709; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 108512
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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79. Samaratunga H, Gardiner RA, Yaxley J, Brown I: Atypical prostatic glandular proliferations on needle biopsy: Diagnostic implications, use of immunohistochemistry, and clinical significance. Anal Quant Cytol Histol; 2006 Apr;28(2):104-10
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  • [Title] Atypical prostatic glandular proliferations on needle biopsy: Diagnostic implications, use of immunohistochemistry, and clinical significance.
  • In recent times, PSA screening and a substantial increase in prostate needle biopsies have not only resulted in detection of minute foci of cancer but have also very likely resulted in increased detection of atypical glandular proliferations.
  • Foci of atypical glands, also labeled atypical small acinar proliferation of uncertain significance, have features suspicious for but not diagnostic of cancer.
  • These include benign, small acinar proliferations mimicking prostate cancer and atypical glandular proliferations suspicious for carcinoma.
  • Patients with atypical glands on prostate needle biopsy have a high risk for harboring cancer and therefore have an increased risk for having cancer detected in subsequent biopsies.

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  • (PMID = 16637513.001).
  • [ISSN] 0884-6812
  • [Journal-full-title] Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 35
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80. Garcia JJ, Al-Ahmadie HA, Gopalan A, Tickoo SK, Scardino PT, Reuter VE, Fine SW: Do prostatic transition zone tumors have a distinct morphology? Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Nov;32(11):1709-14
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  • [Title] Do prostatic transition zone tumors have a distinct morphology?
  • Previous studies have proposed that the morphologic spectrum of prostatic glands of variable size with tall columnar cells displaying basally oriented nuclei and clear to pale pink cytoplasm (TZ-LOOK) is characteristic of the well to moderately differentiated component of transition zone (TZ) tumors.
  • In a recent report, we identified dominant peripheral zone (PZ) and TZ tumors situated anterior to the prostatic urethra.
  • In tumors of both zones with predominant (scores 3 to 4; >50%) TZ-LOOK histology, darker glands of usual acinar adenocarcinoma was often seen at the periphery.
  • Given this lack of specificity, caution should be exercised in assigning zone of origin based on this histologic appearance, especially in limited samples such as prostate needle biopsy.

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  • (PMID = 18769336.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA092629-10; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA092629; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA092629-10
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS237591; NLM/ PMC3010973
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81. Gologan A, Bastacky S, McHale T, Yu J, Cai C, Monzon-Bordonaba F, Dhir R: Age-associated changes in alpha-methyl CoA racemase (AMACR) expression in nonneoplastic prostatic tissues. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Nov;29(11):1435-41

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  • [Title] Age-associated changes in alpha-methyl CoA racemase (AMACR) expression in nonneoplastic prostatic tissues.
  • Alpha-methyl CoA racemase (AMACR) is overexpressed in several human cancers, most notably colon and prostate.
  • AMACR expression in the prostate has been investigated primarily in patients, in an older age group, treated for prostatic carcinoma and benign prostatic hypertrophy.
  • Archival paraffin-embedded prostate tissue from 41 organ donor men (age range, 13-63 years) with no evidence of prostate neoplasia was stained with a monoclonal antibody for AMACR.
  • Semi-quantitative analysis of staining in acinar cells was used to generate a composite score (CS) [Sigma(% area x intensity)] for each case.
  • Nondonor cases with foci of prostate cancer and high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) were used as external positive controls for AMACR.
  • Acinar cells showed granular cytoplasmic staining.
  • Focal positive staining was also seen in the prostatic urethra and the periurethral glands.
  • Most cases in the control set of prostatic adenocarcinoma cases showed moderate to strong staining.
  • 1) AMACR expression can be seen in benign prostatic glandular epithelium, across all age groups.
  • 2) Focal positive staining is seen in the prostatic urethra and periurethral glands in 71% of the cases, with no age correlation.
  • However, AMACR staining should be interpreted with caution and the diagnosis of PIN or prostate cancer should be rendered only with convincing histologic evidence.
  • [MeSH-major] Prostate / metabolism. Racemases and Epimerases / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 16224209.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01-CA 86735-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U01-CA 88110-05
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; EC 5.1.- / Racemases and Epimerases; EC 5.1.99.4 / alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase
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82. Cecena G, Wen F, Cardiff RD, Oshima RG: Differential sensitivity of mouse epithelial tissues to the polyomavirus middle T oncogene. Am J Pathol; 2006 Jan;168(1):310-20
eagle-i research resources. PMID 16400032 (Special Collections) .

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  • PyMT expression induced by K18-driven Cre in internal epithelial organs resulted in pancreatic acinar metaplasia and ductal dysplasia with remarkable desmoplastic stromal responses in all 25 bitransgenic mice.
  • Hepatoma formation with altered lipid metabolism and gastric adenocarcinoma occurred in 96 and 54% of these mice, respectively.
  • Elevated PyMT RNA expression also correlated with intraepithelial neoplasia in the prostate.

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  • (PMID = 16400032.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9440
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA89140; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA089140; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA30199; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA030199; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / U42 RR14905; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / U42 RR014905; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA42302; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA102583
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Polyomavirus Transforming; 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors; 0 / Hes1 protein, mouse; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / KRT18 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-18; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1592648
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83. Rioux-Leclercq N, Leray E, Patard JJ, Lobel B, Guillé F, Jouan F, Bellaud P, Epstein JI: The utility of Ki-67 expression in the differential diagnosis of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and ductal adenocarcinoma. Hum Pathol; 2005 May;36(5):531-5
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  • [Title] The utility of Ki-67 expression in the differential diagnosis of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia and ductal adenocarcinoma.
  • Cribriform and/or papillary prostatic lesions observed on limited tissue, such as needle biopsy, can pose diagnostic dilemmas.
  • One such area of difficulty is the distinction between papillary and/or cribriform prostatic high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-PIN) and ductal adenocarcinoma.
  • Over 48 months, we identified 17 cases of ductal adenocarcinoma and 17 cases of HG-PIN from radical retropubic prostatectomy specimens.
  • The HG-PIN lesions were in all cases associated with an acinar prostatic adenocarcinoma component.
  • The proliferative activity, defined as Ki-67 labeling index, was statistically higher in ductal adenocarcinoma (mean 33%, range 21%-66%) as compared with HG-PIN (mean 6%, range 2%-15%), with no overlap in the Ki-67 indices (P = 0001).
  • A combination of histological features and measurements of cellular proliferation may be helpful to distinguish HG-PIN from ductal adenocarcinoma in limited prostatic tissue samples.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis. Prostatic Intraepithelial Neoplasia / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15948120.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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84. Basturk O, Khanani F, Sarkar F, Levi E, Cheng JD, Adsay NV: DeltaNp63 expression in pancreas and pancreatic neoplasia. Mod Pathol; 2005 Sep;18(9):1193-8
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  • DeltaNp63 (DNp63) has become widely used, in particular, for distinguishing invasive carcinomas from noninvasive ducts by highlighting the myoepithelial or basal cells in the breast and prostate, respectively.
  • A total of 25 cases were non-neoplastic pancreata, 25 were pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) of various grades, and 50 were examples of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
  • Among invasive carcinomas, it seems to be entirely specific for areas of squamous differentiation. (II) Those incidental microcysts seen in acinar lobules and lined by attenuated cells are also positive for DNp63, which suggests that they may be metaplastic in nature, and that they do not represent neoplastic cells. (III) Unlike the ducts of other exocrine organs, breast and prostate, there are no DNp63-expressing cells in the normal pancreatic ducts, and therefore, this marker cannot be used in distinguishing invasive carcinomas from the non-invasive ducts. (IV) No p63-expressing 'stem' cells are present in the pancreas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. DNA-Binding Proteins. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Transcription Factors. Tumor Suppressor Proteins

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  • (PMID = 15976814.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / PAR-02-068
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins
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85. Kayed H, Bekasi S, Keleg S, Michalski CW, Giese T, Friess H, Kleeff J: BGLAP is expressed in pancreatic cancer cells and increases their growth and invasion. Mol Cancer; 2007;6:83
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  • In this study, we analyzed the expression and role of BGLAP in the normal human pancreas, chronic pancreatitis (CP), and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) using quantitative RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, immunocytochemistry and enzyme immunoassays, as well as cell proliferation and invasion assays.
  • BGLAP was faintly present in the cytoplasm of normal acinar cells but was strongly expressed in the cytoplasm and nuclei of tubular complexes and PanIN lesions of CP and PDAC tissues.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / genetics. Carcinoma, Pancreatic Ductal / genetics. Cell Proliferation. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / physiology. Osteocalcin / genetics. Pancreatic Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18163903.001).
  • [ISSN] 1476-4598
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Drug Combinations; 0 / Laminin; 0 / Proteoglycans; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 104982-03-8 / Osteocalcin; 119978-18-6 / matrigel; 9007-34-5 / Collagen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2245975
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86. Gilks CB, Huntsman DG: Diagnostic uncertainty in the interpretation of small atypical acinar lesions of prostate. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Jul;34(7):1071; author reply 1072
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Diagnostic uncertainty in the interpretation of small atypical acinar lesions of prostate.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Prostate / pathology. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uncertainty

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  • [CommentOn] Am J Surg Pathol. 2010 Feb;34(2):169-77 [20061936.001]
  • (PMID = 20495443.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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