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1. Stulberg DL, Clark N, Tovey D: Common hyperpigmentation disorders in adults: Part II. Melanoma, seborrheic keratoses, acanthosis nigricans, melasma, diabetic dermopathy, tinea versicolor, and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Am Fam Physician; 2003 Nov 15;68(10):1963-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Common hyperpigmentation disorders in adults: Part II. Melanoma, seborrheic keratoses, acanthosis nigricans, melasma, diabetic dermopathy, tinea versicolor, and postinflammatory hyperpigmentation.
  • The American Cancer Society's "ABCD" rules are useful for differentiating a benign nevus from malignant melanoma.
  • While acanthosis nigricans may signal an underlying malignancy (e.g., gastrointestinal tumor), it more often is associated with insulin resistance (type 2 diabetes, polycystic ovary syndrome) or obesity.
  • Treatments for melasma include bleaching agents, laser therapy, and a new medication that combines hydroquinone, tretinoin, and fluocinolone acetonide.
  • Tinea versicolor responds to treatment with selenium sulfide shampoo and topical or oral antifungal agents.
  • [MeSH-minor] Acanthosis Nigricans / diagnosis. Acanthosis Nigricans / etiology. Adult. Child. Diabetes Complications. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Inflammation / complications. Male. Melanoma / diagnosis. Nevus / diagnosis. Pregnancy. Tinea Versicolor / diagnosis. Tinea Versicolor / therapy

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  • (PMID = 14655805.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-838X
  • [Journal-full-title] American family physician
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am Fam Physician
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 22
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2. Paul PC, Chattopadhyay A, Dutta SK, Mazumder DN, Santra A: Histopathology of skin lesions in chronic arsenic toxicity--grading of changes and study of proliferative markers. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2000 Jul;43(3):257-64
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Histological study of H/E stained sections showed--hyperkeratosis in 13, parakeratosis in 13, acanthosis in 12, papillomatosis in 24, elongation of reteridges in 21, increased basal pigmentation in 27 and dysplastic changes in 8 cases.
  • Changes of skin lesions after drug DMSA and DMPS therapy compared to placebo were studied.
  • Proliferative activity of skin lesions in CAT were studied by AgNOR stain to assess the biological behaviour of the lesions.
  • AgNOR score showed--normal control 1.08, benign changes (e.g.
  • Hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis, acanthosis, papillomatosis etc.) without dysplasia--1.35, mild to moderate dysplasia--1.735, severe dysplasia--3.0 and carcinoma--3.56.
  • Thus, AgNOR score gives some idea on the biological behaviour of CAT lesions.

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  • (PMID = 11218669.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] N712M78A8G / Arsenic
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3. Fu JF, Liang L, Dong GP, Jiang YJ, Zou CC: [Obese children with benign acanthosis nigricans and insulin resistance: analysis of 19 cases]. Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi; 2004 Dec;42(12):917-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Obese children with benign acanthosis nigricans and insulin resistance: analysis of 19 cases].
  • OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of obesity and of type 2 diabetes mellitus in children have increased in the Chinese population over the past two decades, and thus diabetes prevention has become a major concern of public health agencies.
  • Insulin resistance is the hallmark of the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
  • Acanthosis nigricans (AN) has been proposed as a reliable marker of hyperinsulinemia, but its utility for predicting hyperinsulinemia has not been systematically evaluated in obese children.
  • In order to further explore the relationship between obese childhood with benign acanthosis nigricans and insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus, we examined 19 obese children with benign acanthosis nigricans.
  • METHODS: Nineteen of seventy six obese children (25%) with BMI over 25 enrolled in the Children' Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine fromJune 1st to September 1st in 2003 were studied.
  • Skin biopsies were performed in these 19 obese children with acanthosis nigricans for final diagnosis.
  • Oral glucose tolerance tests were also performed in these 19 children with benign acanthosis nigricans.
  • RESULTS: Anthropometric parameters including waist/hip ratio, fat mass, body fat percentage and body mass index as well as fasting insulin level in acanthosis nigricans group were significantly higher than that of healthy controls (P < 0.01).
  • Fasting glucose to insulin ratio (FGIR) of these 19 obese children with benign acanthosis nigricans was 4.27 +/- 0.53, indicating apparent insulin resistance.
  • One of them was diagnosed as type 2 diabetes mellitus and ten of them showed impaired oral glucose tolerance.
  • CONCLUSION: Childhood benign acanthosis nigricans is tightly associated with obesity, hyperinsulinemia, insuline resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and may be used as a reliable index of insulin resistance.
  • [MeSH-major] Acanthosis Nigricans / physiopathology. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / physiopathology. Hyperinsulinism / physiopathology. Insulin Resistance. Obesity / physiopathology


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4. Canjuga I, Mravak-Stipetić M, Kopić V, Galić J: Oral acanthosis nigricans: case report and comparison with literature reports. Acta Dermatovenerol Croat; 2008;16(2):91-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Oral acanthosis nigricans: case report and comparison with literature reports.
  • Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a rare condition which may affect oral cavity.
  • There are two forms of AN: benign and malignant.
  • Benign AN may be hereditary, or may be related to systemic diseases or drugs.
  • [MeSH-major] Acanthosis Nigricans / etiology. Acanthosis Nigricans / pathology. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / complications. Mouth Diseases / etiology. Mouth Diseases / pathology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 18541106.001).
  • [ISSN] 1330-027X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta dermatovenerologica Croatica : ADC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Dermatovenerol Croat
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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5. Ruiz-Roca JA, Berini-Aytés L, Gay-Escoda C: Pyostomatitis vegetans. Report of two cases and review of the literature. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod; 2005 Apr;99(4):447-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Pyostomatitis vegetans (PV) is a rare benign chronic mucocutaneous pustular disorder of unknown etiology, though it is usually associated with chronic inflammatory disease of the bowel-particularly ulcerative colitis.
  • The histology shows epithelial acanthosis and superficial ulceration.
  • The differential diagnosis should be established with Neumann type pemphigus vegetans, since in both cases the lesions are clinically similar and the histology reveals an important eosinophil response, acanthosis, and the formation of intraepithelial miliary microabscesses.
  • In the event the orofacial lesions persist, topical oral drugs such as corticoids, with additional antibiotherapy, multivitamin complexes, and nutritional supplements, can be provided.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Clinical Protocols. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Oral Ulcer / etiology. Periapical Abscess / etiology

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  • (PMID = 15772593.001).
  • [ISSN] 1079-2104
  • [Journal-full-title] Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; ADN79D536H / Clobetasol
  • [Number-of-references] 25
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6. Cairo F, Rubino I, Rotundo R, Prato GP, Ficarra G: Oral Acanthosis nigricans as a marker of internal malignancy. A case report. J Periodontol; 2001 Sep;72(9):1271-5
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  • [Title] Oral Acanthosis nigricans as a marker of internal malignancy. A case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Acanthosis nigricans (AN) is a rare mucocutaneous condition that can involve the oral tissues.
  • There are 2 clinical forms of AN: benign and malignant.
  • Benign AN is related to systemic diseases such as diabetes and obesity or can be induced by drugs such as systemic corticosteroids, nicotinic acid, estrogens, insulin, and fusidic acid.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The diagnostic importance of oral AN is emphasized because, in our patient, its recognition led to the detection of 2 occult malignant tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Acanthosis Nigricans / complications. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / complications. Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / complications. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Mouth Diseases / complications. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 11577962.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3492
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of periodontology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Periodontol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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7. Blomberg M, Jeppesen EM, Skovby F, Benfeldt E: FGFR3 mutations and the skin: report of a patient with a FGFR3 gene mutation, acanthosis nigricans, hypochondroplasia and hyperinsulinemia and review of the literature. Dermatology; 2010;220(4):297-305
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  • [Title] FGFR3 mutations and the skin: report of a patient with a FGFR3 gene mutation, acanthosis nigricans, hypochondroplasia and hyperinsulinemia and review of the literature.
  • We present a 14-year-old girl with mild hypochondroplasia who developed acanthosis nigricans.
  • We review the present literature, describing studies in which FGFR3 mutations have been investigated in skin lesions: primarily seborrheic keratoses and epidermal nevi, but also other benign skin tumors and a single case of a squamous cell carcinoma.
  • Our case shows that FGFR3 mutation analysis should be considered in case of the coexistence of acanthosis nigricans and a skeletal dysplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Acanthosis Nigricans / genetics. Dwarfism / genetics. Hyperinsulinism / genetics. Point Mutation. Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 3 / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Blood Glucose / drug effects. C-Peptide / blood. Female. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / therapeutic use. Human Growth Hormone / therapeutic use. Humans. Keratosis, Seborrheic / genetics. Metformin / therapeutic use

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 20453470.001).
  • [ISSN] 1421-9832
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / C-Peptide; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone; 9100L32L2N / Metformin; EC 2.7.10.1 / FGFR3 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 3
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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8. Lafzi A, Farahani RM, Shoja MA: Phenobarbital-induced gingival hyperplasia. J Contemp Dent Pract; 2007;8(6):50-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • AIM: The aim of this article is to present a case of a phenobarbital-induced gingival hyperplasia (GH), discuss possible etiological mechanisms of drug-induced GH, and to present a concise review of the literature.
  • REPORT: An extremely rare case of phenobarbital-induced GH in a 28-year-old male patient who had received this drug for three years is presented.
  • The histological examination of the lesion revealed a hyperplastic epithelium, epithelial acanthosis, and elongated rete ridges as well as obviously enhanced dense collagenous fibers and proliferation of fibroblasts.
  • However, it seems to show a benign behavior with reference to recurrence after surgical excision.

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  • (PMID = 17846671.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-3711
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of contemporary dental practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Contemp Dent Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticonvulsants; YQE403BP4D / Phenobarbital
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