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1. Tsuda H, Ishikawa H, Asayama K, Saito T, Endo S, Mizutani T: Abducens nerve palsy and Horner syndrome due to metastatic tumor in the cavernous sinus. Intern Med; 2005 Jun;44(6):644-6
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  • [Title] Abducens nerve palsy and Horner syndrome due to metastatic tumor in the cavernous sinus.
  • Two years later, right abducens nerve palsy and Horner syndrome appeared.
  • This is the first case of combination of abducens nerve palsy and ipsilateral Horner syndrome due to metastasis from parotid carcinoma to the cavernous sinus.
  • [MeSH-major] Abducens Nerve Diseases / etiology. Carcinoma / secondary. Cavernous Sinus / pathology. Horner Syndrome / etiology. Neoplasms, Vascular Tissue / secondary. Parotid Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male

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  • (PMID = 16020898.001).
  • [ISSN] 0918-2918
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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2. Tsuda H, Ishikawa H, Kishiro M, Koga N, Kashima Y: Abducens nerve palsy and postganglionic Horner syndrome with or without severe headache. Intern Med; 2006;45(14):851-5
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  • [Title] Abducens nerve palsy and postganglionic Horner syndrome with or without severe headache.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report the clinical features of 9 patients with both abducens nerve palsy and postganglionic Horner syndrome.
  • RESULTS: In primary diseases, neoplasm in the cavernous sinus was observed in 2 patients, sphenoidal sinus cyst in 2, intra-cavernous carotid aneurysm in 2, epipharynx carcinoma in 1, chordoma in the base of the skull in 1, and meningioma in the middle cranial fossa in 1.
  • After therapy, abducens nerve palsy improved in 5 patients, however, Horner syndrome persisted in all patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Abducens Nerve Diseases / physiopathology. Headache / etiology. Horner Syndrome / physiopathology. Sympathetic Fibers, Postganglionic / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cavernous Sinus / physiopathology. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Male. Maxillary Sinus Neoplasms / complications. Maxillary Sinus Neoplasms / physiopathology. Maxillary Sinus Neoplasms / therapy. Middle Aged. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • [CommentIn] Intern Med. 2006;45(17):993-4 [17015998.001]
  • (PMID = 16908941.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7235
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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3. Ayberk G, Ozveren MF, Yildirim T, Ercan K, Cay EK, Koçak A: Review of a series with abducens nerve palsy. Turk Neurosurg; 2008 Oct;18(4):366-73
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  • [Title] Review of a series with abducens nerve palsy.
  • OBJECTIVE: In this report, we aimed to investigate the patients that presented at our clinic complaint with diplopia due to the abducens nerve palsy and neurosurgical disease.
  • METHODS: The study design was a retrospective review of ten cases with the abducens nerve palsy.
  • The causes of the abducens nerve paralysis of our patients were as follows: two cases with head trauma, three cases with pituitary tumors, one case with sphenoid sinus mucocele, one case with greater superficial petrosal nerve cellular schwannoma at the petrous apex, one case with hypertensive intraventricular hemmorhage, one case with hydrocephalus, and one case with parotid tumor and skull base/brain stem invasion.
  • The lesions sited at the subarachnoid portion of the abducens nerve or in the cavernous sinus, the abducens nerve palsy improved or botilinum injection was performed during recovery period.
  • CONCLUSION: We presented abducens nerve palsy cases due to neruosurgical disorders.
  • A botilinum injection was performed in three patients with the abducens palsy.
  • Botilinum injection can help patients with sixth nerve palsy during the recovery period.
  • [MeSH-major] Abducens Nerve Diseases / pathology. Abducens Nerve Diseases / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Botulinum Toxins, Type A / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / complications. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Child. Craniocerebral Trauma / complications. Craniocerebral Trauma / pathology. Diplopia / etiology. Humans. Intracranial Pressure / physiology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Mucocele / complications. Mucocele / pathology. Neuromuscular Agents / therapeutic use. Paralysis / pathology. Paralysis / surgery. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19107682.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-5149
  • [Journal-full-title] Turkish neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Turk Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neuromuscular Agents; EC 3.4.24.69 / Botulinum Toxins, Type A
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4. Ela-Dalman N, Arnold AC, Chang LK, Velez FG, Lasky JL 3rd: Abducens nerve ocular neuromyotonia following non-sellar or parasellar tumors. Strabismus; 2007 Jul-Sep;15(3):149-51
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  • [Title] Abducens nerve ocular neuromyotonia following non-sellar or parasellar tumors.
  • Ocular neuromyotonia is an uncommon disorder resulting from episodic involuntary discharge of ocular motor nerves producing sustained contraction of their respective ocular muscles.
  • Ocular neuromyotonia manifests in brief spells of diplopia occurring spontaneously or after eccentric gaze holding.
  • In most cases, ocular neuromyotonia follows months or years after radiotherapy to the sellar and parasellar region and involves the oculomotor nerve.
  • We report two unusual cases of abducens nerve ocular neuromyotonia that followed radiation therapy of tumors in areas other than the sellar or parasellar region.
  • [MeSH-major] Abducens Nerve. Cerebellar Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Isaacs Syndrome / etiology. Oculomotor Muscles. Oculomotor Nerve Diseases / etiology. Radiation Injuries / complications. Skull Base Neoplasms / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 17763251.001).
  • [ISSN] 0927-3972
  • [Journal-full-title] Strabismus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Strabismus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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5. Hirao M, Oku H, Sugasawa J, Utsumi T, Ikeda T: [Three cases of abducens nerve palsy accompanied by Horner syndrome]. Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi; 2006 Jul;110(7):520-4
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  • [Title] [Three cases of abducens nerve palsy accompanied by Horner syndrome].
  • PURPOSE: To report three cases of nasopharyngeal carcinoma, exhibiting abducens nerve palsy and Horner syndrome during the medical treatment of the tumor, whose invasive cavernous sinus lesions could be detected.
  • RESULTS: Right abducens nerve palsy, Horner syndrome, and impairment of the 1st division of the trigeminal nerve were recognized in all patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The abducens and sympathetic nerves run closely together in the cavernous sinus.
  • Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is apt to invade the cavernous sinus and often impairs the abducens nerve.
  • Therefore the presence of Horner syndrome and trigeminal palsy in combination with abducens nerve palsy should be cautiously investigated to confirm the existence of the cavernous sinus lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Abducens Nerve Diseases / etiology. Horner Syndrome / etiology. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 16884072.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-0203
  • [Journal-full-title] Nippon Ganka Gakkai zasshi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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6. Han SB, Kim JH, Hwang JM: Presumed metastasis of breast cancer to the abducens nucleus presenting as gaze palsy. Korean J Ophthalmol; 2010 Jun;24(3):186-8
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  • [Title] Presumed metastasis of breast cancer to the abducens nucleus presenting as gaze palsy.
  • Neuro-ophthalmologic examination revealed right gaze palsy and peripheral facial nerve palsy.
  • However, two months later a repeat brain MRI revealed an enhancing round nodular mass at the right facial colliculus of the lower pons, at the location of the abducens nucleus.
  • Localized metastasis to the abducens nucleus can cause gaze palsy in a patient with breast cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Abducens Nerve Diseases. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / complications. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / secondary. Ocular Motility Disorders / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Facial Paralysis / complications. Female. Fixation, Ocular. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Pons / pathology

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  • [Cites] Cancer. 1981 Jul 15;48(2):384-94 [7237407.001]
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  • (PMID = 20532149.001).
  • [ISSN] 2092-9382
  • [Journal-full-title] Korean journal of ophthalmology : KJO
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2882086
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Abducens nerve palsy / Breast neoplasms / Neoplasm metastasis / Pons / Sixth nerve palsy
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7. Tsuda H, Yorinaga Y, Tamada Y, Kutsuki S, Nakanoma T, Tai K, Yoshioka M, Ishihara N, Sekine Y, Ishikawa H: Combination of abducens nerve palsy and ipsilateral postganglionic Horner syndrome as an initial manifestation of uterine cervical cancer. Intern Med; 2009;48(16):1457-60
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  • [Title] Combination of abducens nerve palsy and ipsilateral postganglionic Horner syndrome as an initial manifestation of uterine cervical cancer.
  • A 74-year-old woman presented with abducens nerve palsy, postganglionic Horner syndrome and sensory disturbance in the territory of the ophthalmic nerve on the left side.
  • Cranial magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a gadolinium-enhanced lesion within the left cavernous sinus.
  • We emphasize that the combination of abducens nerve palsy and ipsilateral postganglionic Horner syndrome may indicate a lesion located within the posterior portion of the cavernous sinus or in its vicinity.
  • [MeSH-major] Abducens Nerve Diseases / diagnosis. Horner Syndrome / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans


8. Ziyal IM, Bozkurt G, Bilginer B, Gülsen S, Ozcan OE: Abducens nerve palsy in a patient with a parasagittal meningioma--case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2006 Feb;46(2):98-100
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  • [Title] Abducens nerve palsy in a patient with a parasagittal meningioma--case report.
  • A 67-year-old female presented with isolated unilateral abducens nerve palsy progressing in 10 days.
  • The tumor was grossly totally removed and the patient's nerve palsy gradually improved within 3 weeks.
  • The mechanism of the isolated abducens nerve palsy in this case is attributed to compression of the abducens nerve by entrapment of the cerebrospinal fluid just before entering Dorello's canal under the petrolingual ligament.
  • Linear forces in the midsagittal plane due to the mass effect of the tumor may have temporarily increased the local cerebrospinal fluid pressure and caused 'pseudoentrapment' of the abducens nerve.
  • [MeSH-major] Abducens Nerve Diseases / etiology. Abducens Nerve Diseases / physiopathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / complications. Meningeal Neoplasms / pathology. Meningioma / complications. Meningioma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16498221.001).
  • [ISSN] 0470-8105
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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9. Vachata P, Sames M: Abducens nerve schwannoma mimicking intrinsic brainstem tumor. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2009 Oct;151(10):1281-7
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  • [Title] Abducens nerve schwannoma mimicking intrinsic brainstem tumor.
  • Schwannomas of the abducens nerve are extremely rare tumors affecting cavernous, cisternal or both segments of sixth cranial nerve.
  • Clinical features and neuroradiological imagery are frequently insufficient to reach an accurate pre-operative diagnosis.
  • We report a patient with a cystic tumor with ring-like contrast enhancement at the right anterior pontomesencephalic junction.
  • Radical excision was performed via anterior transpetrosal approach and showed an extrinsic tumor originating from the sixth nerve.
  • A postoperative sixth nerve palsy had disappeared completely 9 months after the surgery.
  • The correct diagnosis of an abducens nerve schwannoma is established by the intraoperative finding of a tumor attachment to the sixth nerve and by histopathological analysis.
  • The various differential diagnoses, the clinical and radiological features of this diagnosis and management are issues discussed in this illustrated review.
  • [MeSH-major] Abducens Nerve / pathology. Abducens Nerve Diseases / pathology. Brain Stem Neoplasms / diagnosis. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / pathology. Neurilemmoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain Stem / pathology. Brain Stem / radiography. Brain Stem / surgery. Craniotomy. Diagnosis, Differential. Diagnostic Errors / prevention & control. Facial Nerve Diseases / etiology. Hearing Loss / etiology. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neurosurgical Procedures. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19357806.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Number-of-references] 41
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10. Irace C, Davì G, Corona C, Candino M, Usai S, Gambacorta M: Isolated intraorbital schwannoma arising from the abducens nerve. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2008 Nov;150(11):1209-10
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  • [Title] Isolated intraorbital schwannoma arising from the abducens nerve.
  • CASE REPORT: A case of isolated schwannoma of the orbit, arising from the terminal branches of the abducens nerve to the lateral rectus muscle, is reported.
  • DISCUSSION: Preoperative diagnosis of benign intraorbital neoplasm was made by means of CT and MR scans; the mass was radically excised through a microsurgical lateral orbitotomy and the pathological examination revealed a schwannoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Abducens Nerve / pathology. Abducens Nerve Diseases / pathology. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / pathology. Neurilemmoma / pathology. Orbit / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18941708.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / S100 Proteins
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11. Erlich SA, Tymianski M, Kiehl TR: Cellular schwannoma of the abducens nerve: case report and review of the literature. Clin Neurol Neurosurg; 2009 Jun;111(5):467-71
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  • [Title] Cellular schwannoma of the abducens nerve: case report and review of the literature.
  • Schwannomas of the abducens nerve are extremely uncommon tumors.
  • Here, we report the case of a 26-year-old woman who presented with a 6th nerve palsy and was found to have a large tumor at the right side of her pons.
  • The case is presented in its clinical, neurosurgical and neuropathologic aspects and the literature on 6th nerve schwannomas is reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Abducens Nerve Diseases / pathology. Abducens Nerve Diseases / surgery. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / pathology. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / surgery. Neurilemmoma / pathology. Neurilemmoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Brain Stem Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neurosurgical Procedures. Paralysis. Pons / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19200646.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-6968
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical neurology and neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Neurol Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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12. Horinaka N, Ito Y, Miyajima M, Hishii M, Suzuki K, Saito M, Arai H: Intracranial peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor manifesting as abducens nerve palsy. Childs Nerv Syst; 2005 Apr;21(4):327-30
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  • [Title] Intracranial peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor manifesting as abducens nerve palsy.
  • INTRODUCTION: Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) occurring as an extra-axial lesion within the intracranial space and extending to the subarachnoid space is extremely rare.
  • CASE REPORT: An 18-month-old girl presented with an intracranial peripheral PNET manifesting as abducens nerve palsy.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging on admission revealed a lesion affecting the trigeminal and abducens nerves.
  • The tumor was partially removed via the subtemporal approach.
  • Histological examination showed a high-grade, undifferentiated neoplasm of small cell type with positive immunostaining for MIC2.
  • The histological diagnosis was peripheral PNET.
  • OUTCOME: Craniospinal radiotherapy reduced the tumor size, but adjuvant chemotherapy designed for Ewing's sarcomas and PNETs was not effective.
  • [MeSH-major] Abducens Nerve Diseases / etiology. Brain Neoplasms / complications. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Abducens Nerve / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Infant. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Protozoan Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 15657787.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-7040
  • [Journal-full-title] Child's nervous system : ChNS : official journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Childs Nerv Syst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protozoan Proteins; 120300-02-9 / thrombospondin-related adhesive protein, protozoan
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13. Shono T, Mizoguchi M, Yoshimoto K, Amano T, Natori Y, Sasaki T: Clinical course of abducens nerve palsy associated with skull base tumours. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2009 Jul;151(7):733-8; discussion 738
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  • [Title] Clinical course of abducens nerve palsy associated with skull base tumours.
  • BACKGROUND: The clinical course of abducens nerve palsy associated with skull base tumour is rarely reported.
  • In this study, we examined the post-operative course of abducens nerve palsies associated with various skull base tumours.
  • Among them, nine patients presented with abducens nerve palsies (ten nerves) following surgery.
  • We evaluated the function of the abducens nerves in these patients on admission, at discharge, and periodically in the outpatient clinic.
  • FINDINGS: Four of the abducens nerve palsies already existed prior to surgery, and six of them developed post-operatively.
  • In three patients with petro-clival meningiomas, the abducens nerves were completely transected during surgery, and one was reconstructed using fibrin glue.
  • This patient remarkably recovered from the abducens nerve palsy within 2 years.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The abducens nerve palsies in pituitary adenomas and trigeminal schwannomas showed a better clinical course compared to those in skull base meningiomas.
  • The abducens nerve palsies that occur with skull base meningiomas are less likely to recover.
  • Nevertheless, it is important to preserve the nerves and to perform surgical repair if the nerve is transected.
  • [MeSH-major] Abducens Nerve / surgery. Abducens Nerve Diseases / etiology. Abducens Nerve Diseases / surgery. Skull Base Neoplasms / complications. Skull Base Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / pathology. Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Aged. Cranial Fossa, Posterior / pathology. Cranial Fossa, Posterior / surgery. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / complications. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / pathology. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / surgery. Female. Fibrin Tissue Adhesive / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Meningeal Neoplasms / complications. Meningeal Neoplasms / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / surgery. Meningioma / complications. Meningioma / pathology. Meningioma / surgery. Middle Aged. Neurilemmoma / complications. Neurilemmoma / pathology. Neurilemmoma / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures / adverse effects. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Postoperative Complications / etiology. Postoperative Complications / physiopathology. Prognosis. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods. Recovery of Function / physiology. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Trigeminal Nerve Diseases / complications. Trigeminal Nerve Diseases / pathology. Trigeminal Nerve Diseases / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19387538.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fibrin Tissue Adhesive
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14. Brinar VV, Habek M, Ozretić D, Djaković V, Matijević V: Isolated nontraumatic abducens nerve palsy. Acta Neurol Belg; 2007 Dec;107(4):126-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Isolated nontraumatic abducens nerve palsy.
  • INTRODUCTION: Abducens nerve palsy (ANP) is the most common isolated palsy.
  • The injury of the abducens nerve can occur anywhere along its long course, so differential diagnosis of ANP occasionally demands thorough investigation to find the proper cause.
  • [MeSH-major] Abducens Nerve Diseases / etiology. Abducens Nerve Diseases / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Brain / pathology. Carotid-Cavernous Sinus Fistula / complications. Cholesteatoma, Middle Ear / complications. Diabetes Complications. Female. Humans. Hydrocephalus / complications. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Multiple Sclerosis / complications. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / complications. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage / complications. Tolosa-Hunt Syndrome / complications

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  • (PMID = 18416288.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9009
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurologica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurol Belg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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15. Tanioka D, Abe T, Kunii N, Izumiyama H: [A case of a hemorrhagic non-functioning pituitary adenoma presenting with abducens nerve palsy]. No Shinkei Geka; 2005 May;33(5):473-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [A case of a hemorrhagic non-functioning pituitary adenoma presenting with abducens nerve palsy].
  • A pituitary adenoma presenting with isolated abducens nerve palsy is an extremely rare occurrence.
  • The authors report a rare case of a hemorrhagic non-functioning pituitary adenoma presenting with isolated abducens nerve palsy.
  • The etiology of isolated abducens nerve palsy by a pituitary tumor is discussed.
  • On admission, he had right-sided isolated abducens nerve palsy.
  • The tumor was totally resected via the transnasal route.
  • The histological diagnosis was a typical non-functioning pituitary adenoma with hemorrhage.
  • The abducens nerve palsy was completely resolved 7 months after surgery.
  • It was supposed that the isolated abducens nerve palsy was caused by the direct compression of abducens nerve in the cavernous sinus by the extension of a pituitary tumor and hematoma.
  • Pituitary adenoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of abducens nerve palsy.
  • Early diagnosis and transsphenoidal surgery is recommended to improve the abducens nerve palsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Abducens Nerve Diseases / etiology. Adenoma / complications. Intracranial Hemorrhages / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 15912767.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2603
  • [Journal-full-title] No shinkei geka. Neurological surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] No Shinkei Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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16. Matti AI, Rudkin AK, Lee AW, Chen CS: Isolated unilateral abducens cranial nerve palsy: a rare presentation of pituitary apoplexy. Eur J Ophthalmol; 2010 Jan-Feb;20(1):234-6
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  • [Title] Isolated unilateral abducens cranial nerve palsy: a rare presentation of pituitary apoplexy.
  • PURPOSE: To describe a rare presentation of pituitary apoplexy as unilateral abducens nerve palsy demonstrating the various presentations of the condition.
  • RESULTS: A 48-year-old man presented with isolated right abducens nerve palsy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Pituitary apoplexy may present subtly with an isolated sixth nerve palsy but the condition is critical and high index of suspicion needs to be governed.
  • [MeSH-major] Abducens Nerve Diseases / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Pituitary Apoplexy / diagnosis. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19882540.001).
  • [ISSN] 1120-6721
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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17. Kau HC, Tsai CC: Abducens ocular neuromyotonia in a patient with nasopharyngeal carcinoma following concurrent chemoradiotherapy. J Neuroophthalmol; 2010 Sep;30(3):266-7
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  • [Title] Abducens ocular neuromyotonia in a patient with nasopharyngeal carcinoma following concurrent chemoradiotherapy.
  • We describe a case of ocular neuromyotonia (ONM) following concurrent chemoradiotherapy for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).
  • In the quiescent period, ocular motor examination revealed a partial left sixth nerve palsy.
  • While diplopic complaints in patients with NPC raise suspicion of tumor recurrence or radiation-related cranial neuropathy, ONM must also be kept in the differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Abducens Nerve Diseases / etiology. Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions. Ocular Motility Disorders / etiology. Radiotherapy / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Carcinoma / therapy. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Diplopia / etiology. Female. Fluorouracil / adverse effects. Humans. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Middle Aged. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / therapy


18. Kim SH, Lee KC, Kim SH: Cranial nerve palsies accompanying pituitary tumour. J Clin Neurosci; 2007 Dec;14(12):1158-62
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  • [Title] Cranial nerve palsies accompanying pituitary tumour.
  • We reviewed 12 patients with pituitary tumour and cranial nerve palsy to analyse the clinical characteristics, the radiographic appearances, and the outcome after surgery.
  • The third cranial nerve was the most frequently affected, followed by the sixth and fourth cranial nerves.
  • Third cranial nerve palsy manifested as a symptom sequence comprising mydriasis, followed by limitation of gaze and ptosis.
  • The time taken for recovery of cranial nerve palsy after surgery was significantly correlated with the length of time between the onset of symptoms and surgery.
  • Pituitary apoplexy appears to be the primary cause of cranial nerve palsy with pituitary tumour.
  • Early surgical intervention is most likely to bring about rapid recovery from cranial nerve dysfunction.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerve Diseases / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Abducens Nerve Diseases / etiology. Adult. Aged. Cerebral Angiography. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Oculomotor Nerve Diseases / etiology. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Trochlear Nerve Diseases / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17964787.001).
  • [ISSN] 0967-5868
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical neuroscience : official journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Clin Neurosci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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19. Merino P, Gómez de Liaño P, Villalobo JM, Franco G, Gómez de Liaño R: Etiology and treatment of pediatric sixth nerve palsy. J AAPOS; 2010 Dec;14(6):502-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Etiology and treatment of pediatric sixth nerve palsy.
  • PURPOSE: To describe the causes and treatment of sixth (abducens) nerve palsy in a series of pediatric patients.
  • METHODS: This was a 14-year retrospective study of sixth nerve palsy in children under 14 years of age.
  • Patients were treated with botulinum toxin injection at the time of diagnosis; surgery was indicated if treatment with botulinum toxin was unsuccessful.
  • RESULTS: Sixth nerve palsy was diagnosed in 15 patients (10 boys; mean age, 4.1 years) between 1995 and 2008.
  • Causes included neoplasm (4 cases), trauma (2), idiopathic (3), congenital (2), viral (2), and inflammatory (1).
  • In all 15 patients, mean time from diagnosis to resolution was 39 months (range, 5 to 170 months).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Neoplasms were the most frequent cause of sixth nerve palsy in our patient population.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • [CommentIn] J AAPOS. 2011 Oct;15(5):507-8; author reply 508-9 [21958902.001]
  • (PMID = 21168073.001).
  • [ISSN] 1528-3933
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of AAPOS : the official publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J AAPOS
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Dyskinesia Agents; EC 3.4.24.69 / Botulinum Toxins
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20. Marchese-Ragona R, Maria Ferraro S, Marioni G, Staffieri C, Manara R, Restivo DA, Staffieri A: Abducent nerve paralysis: first clinical sign of clivus metastasis from tonsillar carcinoma. Acta Otolaryngol; 2008 Jun;128(6):713-6
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  • [Title] Abducent nerve paralysis: first clinical sign of clivus metastasis from tonsillar carcinoma.
  • Cranial nerve palsy occurrence is associated with a poorer prognosis with an average survival of only 5 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Abducens Nerve Diseases / etiology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / secondary. Cranial Fossa, Posterior. Skull Base Neoplasms / secondary. Tonsillar Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18568510.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6489
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oto-laryngologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Otolaryngol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Norway
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21. Dasgupta S, Adilieje C, Bhattacharya A, Smith B, Sheikh Mu: Capecitabine and sixth cranial nerve palsy. J Cancer Res Ther; 2010 Jan-Mar;6(1):80-1
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  • [Title] Capecitabine and sixth cranial nerve palsy.
  • We describe a 60 year old man with colonic carcinoma who developed diplopia due to a sixth nerve palsy following the use of capecitabine which is an orally administered prodrug of 5-FU.
  • An MRI of brain did not reveal a space occupying lesion or vascular insult to account for his cranial nerve palsy.
  • The sixth nerve palsy resolved spontaneously once capecitabine was withdrawn.
  • [MeSH-major] Abducens Nerve Diseases / chemically induced. Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / adverse effects. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Fluorouracil / analogs & derivatives
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / drug therapy. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Capecitabine. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / adverse effects. Colonic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Colonic Neoplasms / surgery. Digestive System Surgical Procedures. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 20479552.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4138
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cancer Res Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 6804DJ8Z9U / Capecitabine; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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22. Sugimoto M, Tsunemori H, Kakehi Y: Health-related quality of life evaluation in patients undergoing cavernous nerve reconstruction during radical prostatectomy. Jpn J Clin Oncol; 2009 Oct;39(10):671-6
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  • [Title] Health-related quality of life evaluation in patients undergoing cavernous nerve reconstruction during radical prostatectomy.
  • OBJECTIVE: Nerve-grafting surgery after resection of neuro-vascular bundles during radical prostatectomy is one of the promising resolutions for dilemma between cancer control and functional preservation.
  • The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of nerve-grafting surgery on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in localized prostate cancer patients with special interest in the influence of sexual dysfunction on mental status.
  • Of those, 24 patients underwent unilateral nerve-sparing with contralateral nerve-grafting or bilateral nerve-grafting and 64 patients underwent prostatectomy without nerve-sparing procedure.
  • RESULTS: Patients in nerve-grafting group who recovered potency demonstrated higher sexual function scores compared with those without nerve-sparing procedure (P = 0.022 and 0.001 in 25-48 and 49 months or later, respectively).
  • However, sexual bother scores in nerve-grafting group who recovered potency were lower than those without nerve-sparing procedure throughout the observation periods (P = 0.012 in 49 months or later).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Cavernous nerve reconstruction provided recovery of erectile dysfunction in substantial proportion of patients, which resulted in favorable physical HRQOL.
  • [MeSH-major] Prostate / surgery. Prostatectomy / adverse effects. Prostatic Neoplasms / complications. Quality of Life
  • [MeSH-minor] Abducens Nerve / surgery. Aged. Erectile Dysfunction / etiology. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Surveys and Questionnaires

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  • (PMID = 19654133.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3621
  • [Journal-full-title] Japanese journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Jpn. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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23. Lau KK, Joshi SM, Ellamushi H, Afshar F: Isolated bilateral oculomotor nerve palsy in pituitary apoplexy: case report and review. Br J Neurosurg; 2007 Aug;21(4):399-402
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  • [Title] Isolated bilateral oculomotor nerve palsy in pituitary apoplexy: case report and review.
  • We report a case of a pituitary adenoma presenting with complete, bilateral oculomotor nerve palsies, but minimal loss of visual fields, and intact abducens and trochlear nerves.
  • [MeSH-major] Nerve Compression Syndromes / etiology. Oculomotor Nerve / surgery. Ophthalmoplegia / etiology. Pituitary Apoplexy / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 17676462.001).
  • [ISSN] 0268-8697
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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24. Hammam T, McFadzean RM, Ironside JW: Anti-hu paraneoplastic syndrome presenting as bilateral sixth cranial nerve palsies. J Neuroophthalmol; 2005 Jun;25(2):101-4
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  • [Title] Anti-hu paraneoplastic syndrome presenting as bilateral sixth cranial nerve palsies.
  • A 62-year-old woman presented with diplopia caused by bilateral sixth cranial nerve palsies.
  • This is the first reported case of anti-Hu paraneoplastic brain stem encephalitis presenting with sixth cranial nerve palsies.
  • [MeSH-major] Abducens Nerve Diseases / diagnosis. Autoantibodies / analysis. Brain Stem / pathology. Diplopia / diagnosis. Encephalitis / diagnosis. Nerve Tissue Proteins / immunology. Paraneoplastic Polyneuropathy / diagnosis. RNA-Binding Proteins / immunology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / surgery. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / surgery. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / pathology. Carcinoma, Intraductal, Noninfiltrating / surgery. ELAV Proteins. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Mastectomy, Simple. Middle Aged. Syndrome

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  • (PMID = 15937431.001).
  • [ISSN] 1070-8022
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-ophthalmology : the official journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neuroophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / ELAV Proteins; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins
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25. Hayashi M, Chernov M, Tamura N, Yomo S, Ochiai T, Nagai M, Tamura M, Izawa M, Muragaki Y, Iseki H, Okada Y, Takakura K: Gamma Knife surgery for abducent nerve schwannoma. Report of 4 cases. J Neurosurg; 2010 Dec;113 Suppl:136-43
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  • [Title] Gamma Knife surgery for abducent nerve schwannoma. Report of 4 cases.
  • Abducent nerve schwannomas are extremely rare.
  • The authors recently performed Gamma Knife surgery (GKS) in 4 patients with such tumors and describe their experiences with these cases.
  • Two patients had no symptoms, 1 complained of slight visual disturbances, and the other 1 had abducent nerve palsy.
  • All 4 tumors were located in the cavernous sinus: 2 of these tumors within the borders of the sinus, 1 tumor extending into the orbit, and 1 tumor extending into the prepontine cistern.
  • The volume of the neoplasms varied from 1.7 to 4.9 cm(3) (mean 3.0 cm(3)).
  • No patient underwent tumor resection.
  • The dose directed to the tumor margin was 12 Gy in all cases.
  • Imaging studies showed temporary enlargement of all tumors during the 1st posttreatment year, but thereafter, there was a trend toward reduction in volume.
  • None of the neoplasms displayed regrowth.
  • In the 3 patients who did not have abducent nerve palsy before GKS, it appeared, at least temporarily, after the procedure.
  • Purely intracavernous neoplasms in general followed uneventful posttreatment courses, but dumbbell-shaped tumors were associated with significant morbidity.
  • After GKS, the patient treated for an orbitocavernous schwannoma experienced a significant deterioration in vision, temporary blindness in 1 eye, and late development of permanent abducent nerve palsy, which were seemingly caused by compression of neurovascular structures within the anulus of Zinn during a temporary increase in the lesion's volume after irradiation.
  • Gamma Knife surgery controls the growth of abducent nerve schwannomas and may be effectively used to manage intracavernous neoplasms.
  • Caution, however, should be used in cases of dumbbell-shaped tumors, particularly those extending through the superior orbital fissure.
  • [MeSH-major] Abducens Nerve Diseases / surgery. Cavernous Sinus / surgery. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / surgery. Neurilemmoma / surgery. Radiosurgery / instrumentation

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  • (PMID = 21121795.001).
  • [ISSN] 1933-0693
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Kashyap R, Kumar R, Kumar S: Cranial nerve palsy in multiple myeloma and solitary plasmacytoma. Asia Pac J Clin Oncol; 2010 Dec;6(4):251-5
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  • [Title] Cranial nerve palsy in multiple myeloma and solitary plasmacytoma.
  • Cranial nerve involvement in multiple myeloma and solitary plasmacytoma is rare.
  • We report on two patients who developed cranial nerve palsy due to skull base plasmacytoma.
  • Patient 1, a 55-year old man with multiple myeloma, developed right sixth cranial nerve palsy during a phase of chemotherapy.
  • Patient 2, a 40-year old man, presented with right third cranial nerve palsy and was detected to have a solitary skull base plasmacytoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Abducens Nerve Diseases / etiology. Multiple Myeloma / complications. Oculomotor Nerve Diseases / etiology. Plasmacytoma / complications. Skull Base Neoplasms / complications

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  • [Copyright] © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
  • (PMID = 21114773.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-7563
  • [Journal-full-title] Asia-Pacific journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asia Pac J Clin Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 4Z8R6ORS6L / Thalidomide; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 7S5I7G3JQL / Dexamethasone; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; VAD protocol
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27. Malloy KA: Prostate cancer metastasis to clivus causing cranial nerve VI palsy. Optometry; 2007 Feb;78(2):55-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prostate cancer metastasis to clivus causing cranial nerve VI palsy.
  • Clinical evaluation found left cranial nerve (CN) VI palsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Abducens Nerve Diseases / etiology. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Cranial Fossa, Posterior. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Skull Base Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Ocular Motility Disorders / diagnosis. Ocular Motility Disorders / etiology. Spinal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Vision Disorders / diagnosis. Vision Disorders / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17258159.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-1839
  • [Journal-full-title] Optometry (St. Louis, Mo.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Optometry
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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28. Rodríguez JA, Hedges TR 3rd, Heilman CB, Strominger MB, Laver NM: Painful sixth cranial nerve palsy caused by a malignant trigeminal nerve sheath tumor. J Neuroophthalmol; 2007 Mar;27(1):29-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Painful sixth cranial nerve palsy caused by a malignant trigeminal nerve sheath tumor.
  • A 17-year-old woman developed a sixth cranial nerve palsy from a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor of the trigeminal nerve.
  • This case is unusual in that the principal symptom was diplopia stemming from a sixth cranial nerve palsy.
  • Treatment with gamma knife stereotactic radiosurgery produced some improvement in sixth cranial nerve function and reduction in tumor size over a follow-up period of 9 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Abducens Nerve Diseases / etiology. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / complications. Pain / etiology. Trigeminal Nerve Diseases / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Biopsy. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Radiosurgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17414869.001).
  • [ISSN] 1070-8022
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-ophthalmology : the official journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neuroophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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29. Esposito F, Kelly DF, Vinters HV, DeSalles AA, Sercarz J, Gorgulhos AA: Primary sphenoid sinus neoplasms: a report of four cases with common clinical presentation treated with transsphenoidal surgery and adjuvant therapies. J Neurooncol; 2006 Feb;76(3):299-306
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Primary sphenoid sinus neoplasms: a report of four cases with common clinical presentation treated with transsphenoidal surgery and adjuvant therapies.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary neoplasms of the sphenoid sinus are a rare occurrence, accounting for approximately 1-2% of all paranasal sinus tumors.
  • METHODS: Four patients with sphenoid sinus neoplasms were identified (1%), all treated during the year 2003.
  • Two patients presented with unilateral abducens cranial nerve (CN) palsies; one had trigeminal facial numbness and dizziness; another had headache, epistaxis, and partial third and fourth CN palsies.
  • Cavernous sinus invasion was present in all four cases, including one patient with tumor in the ethmoid sinus and intra-tumoral hemorrhage.
  • All patients underwent subtotal tumor removal via an endonasal transsphenoidal route.
  • Tumor histology included neuroendocrine carcinoma, sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma, mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and giant cell tumor.
  • One patient required a second endonasal tumor debulking 15 months after the first for new visual loss that then resolved.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Intra-sphenoidal tumors are locally invasive tumors that include a wide pathological spectrum.
  • Recognizing their distinctive clinical presentation and MRI features is helpful in differentiating them from primary sellar tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Neurosurgical Procedures. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / pathology. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / therapy. Sphenoid Sinus / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16163447.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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30. O'Neill EC, Connell PP, Kadare S, Tormey PT: Acute sixth nerve palsy in a young man, beware of the 'red herring'. Ir J Med Sci; 2010 Jun;179(2):301-3
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  • [Title] Acute sixth nerve palsy in a young man, beware of the 'red herring'.
  • BACKGROUND: Cranial nerve palsies has several etiologies including vascular insufficiency, neoplasm, trauma and inflammation.
  • Isolated sixth nerve palsy is an extremely rare presenting feature of leukemia.
  • AIM: We describe an unusual ocular presentation of a bilateral progressive sixth nerve palsy in a young male with a preceding head injury.
  • CONCLUSION: Acquired sixth nerve palsies in young adults may be due to trauma but in the absence of a definitive history other systemic processes must be outruled.
  • We describe a case of bilateral sixth nerve palsy in a patient with ALL with no obvious CNS involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Abducens Nerve Diseases / diagnosis. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / diagnosis. Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18949533.001).
  • [ISSN] 1863-4362
  • [Journal-full-title] Irish journal of medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ir J Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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31. Amemiya S, Aoki S, Ohtomo K: Cranial nerve assessment in cavernous sinus tumors with contrast-enhanced 3D fast-imaging employing steady-state acquisition MR imaging. Neuroradiology; 2009 Jul;51(7):467-70
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  • [Title] Cranial nerve assessment in cavernous sinus tumors with contrast-enhanced 3D fast-imaging employing steady-state acquisition MR imaging.
  • INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study is to apply contrast-enhanced 3D fast-imaging employing steady-state acquisition (3D-FIESTA) imaging to the evaluation of cranial nerves (CN) in patients with cavernous sinus tumors.
  • METHODS: Contrast-enhanced 3D-FIESTA images were acquired from ten patients with cavernous sinus tumors with a 3-T unit.
  • RESULTS: In all cases, the trigeminal nerve with tumor involvement was easily identified in the cavernous portions.
  • Although oculomotor and abducens nerves were clearly visualized against the tumor area with intense contrast enhancement, they were hardly identifiable within the area lacking contrast enhancement.
  • The trochlear nerve was visualized in part, but not delineated as a linear structure outside of the lesion.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Contrast-enhanced 3D-FIESTA can be useful in the assessment of cranial nerves in and around the cavernous sinus with tumor involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Cavernous Sinus / pathology. Cranial Nerves / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Angiography / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Contrast Media. Female. Gadolinium. Hemangioma / pathology. Humans. Male. Meningioma / pathology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19238368.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1920
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuroradiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuroradiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contrast Media; AU0V1LM3JT / Gadolinium
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32. Waldron JS, Tihan T, Parsa AT: Solitary fibrous tumor arising from Cranial Nerve VI in the prepontine cistern: case report and review of a tumor subpopulation mimicking schwannoma. Neurosurgery; 2006 Oct;59(4):E939-40; discussion E940
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  • [Title] Solitary fibrous tumor arising from Cranial Nerve VI in the prepontine cistern: case report and review of a tumor subpopulation mimicking schwannoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: The authors present a report of a solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) arising from the intradural component of the VIth cranial nerve as it travels through the prepontine cistern.
  • Because of their infrequency and clinical similarity to other central nervous system (CNS) lesions, diagnosis is largely dependent on pathological features.
  • In this study, the authors define a subpopulation of SFTs that seem to arise directly from nerve, rather than meninges, and clinically mimic the appearance of a schwannoma.
  • The patient was then taken to the operating room by a combined neurosurgical and ear, nose, and throat team, where the patient underwent a retrolabyrinthine/subtemporal craniotomy for tumor resection.
  • During resection of the prepontine component, the tumor was identified as originating from the left Cranial Nerve VI as it traversed through the prepontine cistern.
  • Resection of the tumor component involving the cavernous sinus and Meckel's cave was deferred for follow-up treatment with intensity-modulated radiation therapy.
  • Pathological examination revealed tissue consistent with the diagnosis of SFT.
  • This patient had an SFT masquerading as a VIth cranial nerve schwannoma.
  • Although the natural history of SFTs in the CNS is not completely understood, correct diagnosis is important, given the rate of recurrence found in the more common pleural-based SFT and examples of CNS SFTs with malignant features.
  • [MeSH-major] Abducens Nerve. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / pathology. Fibroma / pathology. Neurilemmoma / pathology. Pons
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cerebral Angiography. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

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  • (PMID = 17038929.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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33. Abdul-Hussein A, Morris PA, Markova T: An unusual presentation of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the minor salivary glands with cranial nerve palsy: a case study. BMC Cancer; 2007;7:157
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  • [Title] An unusual presentation of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the minor salivary glands with cranial nerve palsy: a case study.
  • BACKGROUND: Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma (ACC) is a rare tumor entity and comprises about 1% of all malignant tumor of the oral and maxillofacial region.
  • We report the first case of the 5th and 6th nerve palsy due to cavernous sinus invasion by adenoid cystic carcinoma.
  • There was numbness in all three divisions of the right trigeminal nerve.
  • Motor and sensory examination of extremities was normal.
  • Biopsy showed an ACC tumor with a cribriform pattern of the minor salivary glands.
  • The patient had long history of headaches which changed in character during the past year, and symptoms of acute 5th and 6th cranial nerve involvement.
  • Our unique case demonstrates direct invasion of cavernous sinus and could explain the 5th and 6th cranial nerve involvement as histopathology revealed no perineural invasion.
  • [MeSH-major] Abducens Nerve Diseases / etiology. Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / complications. Salivary Gland Neoplasms / complications. Trigeminal Nerve Diseases / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17697321.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1994955
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34. Park UC, Kim SJ, Hwang JM, Yu YS: Clinical features and natural history of acquired third, fourth, and sixth cranial nerve palsy. Eye (Lond); 2008 May;22(5):691-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Clinical features and natural history of acquired third, fourth, and sixth cranial nerve palsy.
  • PURPOSE: Clinical features of acquired third, fourth, and sixth cranial nerve palsy showed variation among previous studies.
  • METHODS: Retrospective chart review was performed on 206 patients who visited a neuro-ophthalmic department with acquired third, fourth, and sixth nerve palsy.
  • Aetiology and results of ocular exam on each visit were reviewed, and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent factors affecting recovery.
  • RESULTS: The sixth cranial nerve was affected most frequently (n=108, 52.4%) and vascular disease (n=64, 31.1%) was the most common aetiology.
  • CONCLUSIONS: With objective criteria based on deviation angle, overall recovery rate from the third, fourth, and sixth nerve palsy was 85.2%.
  • [MeSH-major] Abducens Nerve Diseases / etiology. Oculomotor Nerve Diseases / etiology. Trochlear Nerve Diseases / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Craniocerebral Trauma / complications. Eye Neoplasms / complications. Female. Fixation, Ocular / physiology. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Vascular Diseases / complications. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 17293794.001).
  • [ISSN] 0950-222X
  • [Journal-full-title] Eye (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eye (Lond)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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35. Gibbins J, Steeds C, Greenslade GL, Tunstall SR, Patel NK, Stannard CF: To replace or not to replace? - Partial coning and a sixth nerve palsy secondary due to displacement of a tunnelled intrathecal catheter for pain control. Palliat Med; 2008 Jul;22(5):668-70
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  • [Title] To replace or not to replace? - Partial coning and a sixth nerve palsy secondary due to displacement of a tunnelled intrathecal catheter for pain control.
  • We report the displacement of a tunnelled intrathecal catheter causing significant cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak, resulting in partial coning and a sixth nerve palsy.
  • [MeSH-minor] Abducens Nerve Diseases / etiology. Cerebrospinal Fluid. Humans. Infusion Pumps, Implantable. Male. Mesothelioma / complications. Middle Aged. Pain, Intractable / drug therapy. Peritoneal Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 18612034.001).
  • [ISSN] 0269-2163
  • [Journal-full-title] Palliative medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Palliat Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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36. Mori Y, Hashizume C, Kobayashi T, Shibamoto Y, Kosaki K, Nagai A: Stereotactic radiotherapy using Novalis for skull base metastases developing with cranial nerve symptoms. J Neurooncol; 2010 Jun;98(2):213-9
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  • [Title] Stereotactic radiotherapy using Novalis for skull base metastases developing with cranial nerve symptoms.
  • Skull base metastases are challenging situations because they often involve critical structures such as cranial nerves.
  • We evaluated the role of stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) which can give high doses to the tumors sparing normal structures.
  • They had neurological symptoms due to cranial nerve involvement including optic nerve (3 patients), oculomotor (3), trigeminal (6), abducens (1), facial (4), acoustic (1), and lower cranial nerves (1).
  • The interval between the onset of cranial nerve symptoms and Novalis SRT was 1 week to 7 months.
  • Eleven tumors of 8-112 ml in volume were treated by Novalis SRT with 30-50 Gy in 10-14 fractions.
  • The tumors were covered by 90-95% isodose.
  • All 11 metastatic tumors were locally controlled until the end of the follow-up time or patient death, though retreatment for re-growth was done in 1 patient.
  • In 10 of 11 patients, cranial nerve deficits were improved completely or partially.
  • In some patients, the cranial nerve symptoms were relieved even during the period of fractionated SRT.
  • Novalis SRT is thought to be safe and effective treatment for skull base metastases with involvement of cranial nerves and it may improve cranial nerve symptoms quickly.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerve Diseases / etiology. Cranial Nerve Diseases / surgery. Radiosurgery / methods. Skull Base Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 20405306.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-7373
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. Halefoğlu AM: Neurofibromatosis type 2 associated with multiple cranial nerve schwannomas: a case report. Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg; 2007;17(3):171-5
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  • [Title] Neurofibromatosis type 2 associated with multiple cranial nerve schwannomas: a case report.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated multiple extra-axial enhancing masses in the vicinity of both hypoglossal nerves, the right vestibular nerve, the left vestibular nerve, the right trigeminal, the left occulomotor, and the right abducens nerves.
  • These findings were evaluated as multiple cranial nerve schwannomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Cochlear Nerve. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neurilemmoma / diagnosis. Neurofibromatosis 2 / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Deafness / etiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Tinnitus / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17873509.001).
  • [ISSN] 1300-7475
  • [Journal-full-title] Kulak burun boğaz ihtisas dergisi : KBB = Journal of ear, nose, and throat
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Turkey
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38. Ichimura S, Kawase T, Onozuka S, Yoshida K, Ohira T: Four subtypes of petroclival meningiomas: differences in symptoms and operative findings using the anterior transpetrosal approach. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2008 Jul;150(7):637-45
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  • Tumour origin was classified into four subtypes according to the main attachment and trigeminal nerve deviation into, upper clivus (UC), cavernous sinus (CS), tentorium (TE), and petrous apex (PA).
  • FINDINGS: The characteristic symptom was ataxia in the UC type (37.5%), abducens nerve palsy in the CS type (64.3%) and trigeminal neuropathy, mainly neuralgia in the PA type (80.0%) with a higher statistical difference from other subtypes.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This classification is useful to predict the relation between the tumour and the cranial nerves based on symptoms and images.
  • [MeSH-major] Meningeal Neoplasms / classification. Meningeal Neoplasms / surgery. Meningioma / classification. Meningioma / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Abducens Nerve Diseases / etiology. Adult. Aged. Ataxia / etiology. Cavernous Sinus / pathology. Cranial Fossa, Middle. Cranial Fossa, Posterior. Dura Mater / pathology. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Petrous Bone. Trigeminal Neuralgia / etiology

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  • (PMID = 18548192.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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39. Pearlman LS, McVittie A, Hunter K: Discharge management of an adolescent female with posterior fossa syndrome: a case report. Can J Neurosci Nurs; 2008;30(3):14-20
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  • The clinical presentation of PFS typically includes cerebellar mutism, bulbar dysfunction, ataxia, cranial nerve palsies, flaccid hemiparesis and emotional lability.
  • [MeSH-major] Abducens Nerve Diseases / etiology. Ataxia / etiology. Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / surgery. Medulloblastoma / surgery. Mutism / etiology. Patient Discharge
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Cranial Fossa, Posterior. Craniotomy / adverse effects. Deglutition Disorders / etiology. Female. Fourth Ventricle. Humans. Hydrocephalus / etiology. Laminectomy / adverse effects. Muscle Hypotonia / etiology. Patient Care Planning. Pediatric Nursing. Syndrome

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  • (PMID = 18856094.001).
  • [ISSN] 1913-7176
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian journal of neuroscience nursing
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Neurosci Nurs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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40. de Notaris M, Cavallo LM, Prats-Galino A, Esposito I, Benet A, Poblete J, Valente V, Gonzalez JB, Ferrer E, Cappabianca P: Endoscopic endonasal transclival approach and retrosigmoid approach to the clival and petroclival regions. Neurosurgery; 2009 Dec;65(6 Suppl):42-50; discussion 50-2
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  • RESULTS: The comparison of the 2 endoscopic surgical views (endonasal and retrosigmoid) allowed us to define 3 subregions over the clival area (cranial, middle, and caudal levels) when explored via the endonasal route.
  • The definition of these subregions was based on the identification of some anatomic landmarks (the internal carotid artery from the lacerum to the intradural segment, the abducens nerve, and the hypoglossal canal) that limit the bone opening via the endonasal route and the natural well-established corridors via the retrosigmoid route.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Fossa, Posterior / surgery. Cranial Sinuses / surgery. Endoscopy / methods. Nasal Cavity / surgery. Petrous Bone / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Abducens Nerve / anatomy & histology. Biomarkers. Cadaver. Carotid Artery, Internal / anatomy & histology. Cerebellopontine Angle / anatomy & histology. Cerebellopontine Angle / surgery. Craniotomy / instrumentation. Craniotomy / methods. Humans. Hypoglossal Nerve / anatomy & histology. Neurosurgical Procedures / instrumentation. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Preoperative Care. Skull Base Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19935001.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers
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41. Ramina R, Neto MC, Fernandes YB, Silva EB, Mattei TA, Aguiar PH: Surgical removal of small petroclival meningiomas. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2008 May;150(5):431-8; discussion 438-9
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  • Transient abducent nerve palsy was the only post-operative complication.
  • The pre-operative cranial nerves deficits improved after surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Fossa, Posterior. Meningeal Neoplasms / surgery. Meningioma / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures. Petrous Bone. Skull Base Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Abducens Nerve Diseases / etiology. Abducens Nerve Diseases / physiopathology. Adult. Aged. Cranial Nerve Diseases / etiology. Cranial Nerve Diseases / physiopathology. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Postoperative Period. Radiosurgery. Recovery of Function. Reoperation. Time Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18309454.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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42. Leibovitch I, Pakrou D, Selva D, Crompton J: Neuro-ophthalmic manifestations of intracranial cavernous hemangiomas. Eur J Ophthalmol; 2006 Jan-Feb;16(1):148-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Ophthalmic presentations included internuclear ophthalmoplegia (one patient), third cranial nerve (CN) palsy (one patient), fourth CN palsy (one patient), and sixth CN palsy (six patients).
  • Sixth CN palsy is the most common cause.
  • [MeSH-major] Abducens Nerve Diseases / diagnosis. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diplopia / diagnosis. Hemangioma, Cavernous, Central Nervous System / diagnosis. Ocular Motility Disorders / diagnosis. Oculomotor Nerve Diseases / diagnosis. Trochlear Nerve Diseases / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16496260.001).
  • [ISSN] 1120-6721
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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43. Müri RM, Klimmeck E, Imesch P: [Intermittent diplopia after prolonged downward gaze to the right: what is the differential diagnosis?]. Rev Neurol (Paris); 2005 May;161(5):575-7
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  • [Title] [Intermittent diplopia after prolonged downward gaze to the right: what is the differential diagnosis?].
  • In general, intermittent diplopia evokes suspicion of ocular myasthenia gravis.
  • We present a case of intermittent diplopia due to a tumor in the cavernous sinus.
  • In 1992, the diagnosis of inactive macroadenoma of the pituitary gland was established and the patient underwent surgery and radiation therapy.
  • At physical examination, prolonged downward gaze to the right of about 2 minutes provoked paresis of abduction, slight ptosis, and restriction of elevation on the left side, corresponding to sixth nerve palsy and palsy of the superior branch of the third nerve on the left side.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Brain Neoplasms / complications. Cavernous Sinus. Diplopia / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Abducens Nerve Diseases / etiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Fixation, Ocular / physiology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neurologic Examination. Radiosurgery

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  • (PMID = 16106809.001).
  • [ISSN] 0035-3787
  • [Journal-full-title] Revue neurologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev. Neurol. (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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44. Koizumi H, Oka H, Utsuki S, Sato S, Tanizaki Y, Shimizu S, Suzuki S, Iizuka T, Sakai F, Fujii K: Primary germinoma arising from the midbrain. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2006 Nov;148(11):1197-200; discussion 1200
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  • A 29-year-old man presented with diplopia, dysarthria, anisocoria, oculomotor nerve paralysis, abducens nerve paralysis, right facial palsy, and spastic hemiparetic gait.
  • MRI-guided stereotactic biopsy was performed, and the histologic diagnosis was pure germinoma.
  • The tumor disappeared after chemotherapy and radiotherapy.
  • Germinoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of midbrain lesions in young adults.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Stem Neoplasms / therapy. Germinoma / diagnosis. Germinoma / therapy. Mesencephalon / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Anisocoria / etiology. Anisocoria / pathology. Anisocoria / physiopathology. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Diplopia / etiology. Diplopia / pathology. Diplopia / physiopathology. Drug Therapy. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neuronavigation. Oculomotor Nerve Diseases / etiology. Oculomotor Nerve Diseases / pathology. Oculomotor Nerve Diseases / physiopathology. Radiotherapy. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17039305.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6268
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Austria
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45. Kato K, Wanifuchi H, Watanabe A: [Cyst formation after gamma knife radiosurgery for trigeminal schwannoma: a case report]. No Shinkei Geka; 2009 Jun;37(6):573-8
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  • An 81-year-old male presented with abducens palsy and ataxia 6 years after gamma knife radiosurgery for trigeminal schwannoma.
  • The cyst was removed and the abducens palsy and ataxia improved within a month.
  • Histological findings revealed variable tumor tissue in the cyst wall.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / surgery. Cysts / etiology. Neurilemmoma / surgery. Radiosurgery / adverse effects. Trigeminal Nerve Diseases / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19522285.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-2603
  • [Journal-full-title] No shinkei geka. Neurological surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] No Shinkei Geka
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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46. Fleseriu M, Lee M, Pineyro MM, Skugor M, Reddy SK, Siraj ES, Hamrahian AH: Giant invasive pituitary prolactinoma with falsely low serum prolactin: the significance of 'hook effect'. J Neurooncol; 2006 Aug;79(1):41-3
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  • The authors report a case of a patient with giant, invasive skull base tumor extending to the parasellar area discovered incidentally during the work-up for decreased memory.
  • Given the large size of the tumor, the elevated prolactin (PRL) was interpreted to be secondary to stalk effect and patient underwent debulking surgery through a transcranial approach.
  • Immunostaining of the excised tumor tissue was strongly positive for prolactin.
  • His prolactin was found to be 13,144 ng/ml in our lab after surgery confirming the diagnosis of invasive giant prolactinoma.
  • The patient developed a complete right third, fourth and sixth nerve palsy postoperatively.
  • He was started on Cabergoline with normalization of his prolactin level and more than 50% decrease in residual tumor size over 9 months periods.
  • [MeSH-major] Diagnostic Errors. Hyperprolactinemia / etiology. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis. Prolactin / blood. Prolactinoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Abducens Nerve Diseases / etiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Dopamine Agonists / therapeutic use. Ergolines / therapeutic use. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neurosurgical Procedures / adverse effects. Oculomotor Nerve Diseases / etiology. Skull Base Neoplasms / pathology. Trochlear Nerve Diseases / etiology

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  • (PMID = 16598425.001).
  • [ISSN] 0167-594X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurooncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Dopamine Agonists; 0 / Ergolines; 9002-62-4 / Prolactin; LL60K9J05T / cabergoline
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47. Tachibana T, Tomita N, Ueda T, Katoh J, Takemura S, Taguchi J, Suzuki Y, Kasahara M, Ishigatsubo Y, Fujita H: [Systemic neurolymphomatosis complicated in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma]. Rinsho Ketsueki; 2007 Dec;48(12):1563-6
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  • After 3 courses of CHOP therapy, right abducens nerve paralysis appeared and was diagnosed as central nervous system infiltration with lymphoma cells.
  • Nerve conduction velocity examination revealed mononeuritis multiplex, but we could not reach a final diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma, Large B-Cell, Diffuse / pathology. Nervous System / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology


48. Pan L, Wang EM, Zhang N, Zhou LF, Wang BJ, Dong YF, Dai JZ, Cai PW: Long-term results of Leksell gamma knife surgery for trigeminal schwannomas. J Neurosurg; 2005 Jan;102 Suppl:220-4
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  • The mean target volume was 8.7 cm3 (range 0.8-33 cm3); the mean maximum dose was 27 Gy (range 20-40 Gy); the mean tumor margin dose was 13.3 Gy (range 10-15 Gy); and the mean follow-up period was 68 months (range 27-114 months).
  • Disappearance of the tumor occurred in seven patients.
  • An obvious decrease in tumor volume was observed in 41 patients, four tumors remained unchanged, and four tumors progressed at 5, 26, 30, and 60 months, respectively.
  • One patient with disease progression died of tumor progression at 36 months after GKS.
  • The tumor growth control rate in this group was 93% (52 of 56 cases).
  • Trigeminal nerve dysfunction was either unchanged or slightly worse in 13 patients after GKS.
  • Four patients experienced mild symptom deterioration related to tumor progression.
  • Some larger tumors are also suitable for radiosurgery if there is no significant brainstem compression.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / surgery. Neurilemmoma / surgery. Radiosurgery / instrumentation. Trigeminal Nerve / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Abducens Nerve Diseases / etiology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Brain Diseases / etiology. Child. Cysts / etiology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Radiation Dosage. Radiation Injuries / complications. Time

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  • (PMID = 15662814.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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49. Hentschel SJ, Vora Y, Suki D, Hanna EY, DeMonte F: Malignant tumors of the anterolateral skull base. Neurosurgery; 2010 Jan;66(1):102-12; discussion 112
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  • [Title] Malignant tumors of the anterolateral skull base.
  • The most common presenting feature was cranial nerve palsy (60%).
  • Of these cranial nerve palsies, trigeminal neuropathies causing facial numbness were the most common, with V2 being affected in 35%, V3 affected in 33%, and V1 affected in 17%.
  • Abducens neuropathy was present in 14% of patients.
  • The most common complications were a new or worsened cranial nerve deficit (n = 4), pneumonia (n = 4), and flap necrosis (n = 3).
  • CONCLUSION: It is our belief that anterolateral skull base malignancies comprise a distinct group of tumors.
  • With a multimodality treatment protocol, acceptable survivals may be obtained that are comparable to results that have been reported for tumors involving less difficult areas of the skull base.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Fossa, Anterior / surgery. Skull Base Neoplasms / pathology. Skull Base Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20023541.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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50. Schankin CJ, Wagner J, Elstner M, Reinisch VM, Straube A: [Migraine recurrence due to intracranial metastasis of a thyroid carcinoma]. Nervenarzt; 2008 Apr;79(4):465-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / secondary. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Migraine Disorders / etiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Abducens Nerve Diseases / diagnosis. Abducens Nerve Diseases / therapy. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Palliative Care. Prolactin / blood. Recurrence

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  • (PMID = 18210040.001).
  • [ISSN] 0028-2804
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Nervenarzt
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nervenarzt
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-62-4 / Prolactin
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51. Cherekaev VA, Shchekut'ev GA, Ogurtsova AA, Gol'binh DA, Smirnov RA: [Intraoperative identification of oculomotor, trochlear and abducent nerves in surgery of invasive cranioorbital tumors (new technique)]. Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko; 2010 Jul-Sep;(3):31-6; discussion 36-7
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  • [Title] [Intraoperative identification of oculomotor, trochlear and abducent nerves in surgery of invasive cranioorbital tumors (new technique)].
  • BACKGROUND: Aim of the study was to evaluate effectiveness of intraoperative identification of oculomotor nerves (OMN) in resection of skull base tumors invading superior orbital fissure and cavernous sinus.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: 69 patients with cranioorbital tumors operated in Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute (Moscow, Russia) since 2000 until 2005 were included in the study.
  • Intraoperative identification of OMN was performed using coaxial electrode while muscular response was registered through electrodes inserted in m. levator palpebrae superioris, m. obliquus superior and m. rectus lateralis (for III, IV and VI cranial nerves, respectively).
  • Identification of IMN trunci was repeated throughout the whole stage of tumor resection for their preservation.
  • The rates in main and control groups were: for III and IV nerves--37% and 68% (p < 0.05), for VI nerve--47% and 54% (p > 0.05), respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: application of intraoperative identification of OMN allows to decrease the risk of oculomotor deterioration due to III and IV nerve dysfunction by 1.8 times.
  • [MeSH-major] Abducens Nerve. Eye Movement Measurements / instrumentation. Eye Movements. Meningioma. Orbital Neoplasms. Trochlear Nerve
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Electrodes. Female. Humans. Intraoperative Care / instrumentation. Intraoperative Care / methods. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Ocular Motility Disorders / pathology. Ocular Motility Disorders / physiopathology. Ocular Motility Disorders / surgery

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  • (PMID = 21254574.001).
  • [ISSN] 0042-8817
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhurnal voprosy neĭrokhirurgii imeni N. N. Burdenko
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zh Vopr Neirokhir Im N N Burdenko
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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52. Inui T, Morimoto T, Koshimae N, Nagata K, Aketa S, Hironaka Y, Tei R: Dura-based giant intracranial schwannoma in the middle fossa. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2007 Aug;47(8):367-70
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  • Surgery via the transsylvian approach confirmed the origin of the tumor between the left internal carotid artery and the trigeminal nerve in the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus.
  • Elongated abducens nerve was confirmed, but no tumor adhesion to the abducens nerve was found.
  • The tumor was closely attached to the dura mater of the middle fossa and the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus.
  • The histological diagnosis was schwannoma.
  • Both left oculomotor and abducens nerve pareses occurred immediately after the operation but gradually resolved over 3 months.
  • The operative findings indicated that this schwannoma may have arisen from the meningeal branch of the trigeminal nerve in the dura mater of the middle fossa.
  • [MeSH-major] Cavernous Sinus / pathology. Cranial Fossa, Middle / pathology. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / pathology. Dura Mater / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / pathology. Neurilemmoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Medical Illustration. Middle Aged. Neurosurgical Procedures. Postoperative Complications. Treatment Outcome. Trigeminal Nerve / pathology. Trigeminal Nerve Diseases / pathology. Trigeminal Nerve Diseases / physiopathology. Trigeminal Nerve Diseases / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17721054.001).
  • [ISSN] 0470-8105
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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53. Fratzoglou M, Condilis N, Panayiotopoulos V, Bahal D, Patheni M: Cavernous sinus chondroma. Case report and review of the literature. Ann Ital Chir; 2008 Jan-Feb;79(1):43-5
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  • A 50 year old man experienced left hemifacial pain followed by left abducens nerve palsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Cavernous Sinus. Chondroma. Vascular Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 18572738.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-469X
  • [Journal-full-title] Annali italiani di chirurgia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Ital Chir
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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54. Grau S, Schueller U, Weiss C, Tonn JC: Primary meningeal T-cell lymphoma at the clivus mimicking a meningioma. World Neurosurg; 2010 Oct-Nov;74(4-5):513-6
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  • BACKGROUND: Most primary lymphomas of the central nervous system (CNS) are of B-cell origin and are found intra-axially, with a few reported cases of skull base tumors involving the upper clivus or sellar region or both.
  • In this case, a tumor resembling a clivus meningioma without osseous involvement was surgically removed and turned out to be a primary T-cell lymphoma.
  • CASE REPORT: A 60-year-old woman presented with slight right-sided abducens nerve palsy.
  • Cranial imaging revealed an extra-axial mass at the caudal clivus resembling a meningioma.
  • The tumor was removed surgically; smear preparations obtained intraoperatively were inconclusive presumably because of preoperative steroid treatment.
  • The final diagnosis was peripheral T-cell lymphoma, not otherwise unspecified.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although a very rare entity among primary T-cell lymphomas of the CNS, these tumors also can occur as skull base lesions without involvement of the bone.
  • Preoperative steroid medication may complicate intraoperative histologic assessment and lead to inadequate treatment of these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Cranial Fossa, Posterior / surgery. Infratentorial Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lymphoma, T-Cell / diagnosis. Meningeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Meningioma / diagnosis. Skull Base Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21492604.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-8769
  • [Journal-full-title] World neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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55. Fei Z, Zhang X, Jiang XF, Liu WP, Wang XL, Xie L: Removal of large benign cephalonasal tumours by transbasal surgery combined with endonasal endoscopic sinus surgery and neuronavigation. J Craniomaxillofac Surg; 2007 Jan;35(1):30-4
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  • The long-term postoperative sequelae included hypoosmia, ophthalmoplegia, paralysis of the 6th cranial nerve or hypopsia in 8 patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Endoscopy / methods. Head and Neck Neoplasms / surgery. Neuronavigation / methods. Skull Base / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Abducens Nerve Diseases / etiology. Adolescent. Adult. Child. Child, Preschool. Deglutition Disorders / etiology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Nasal Cavity / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasm, Residual / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / surgery. Olfaction Disorders / etiology. Ophthalmoplegia / etiology. Paralysis / etiology. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / surgery. Radiotherapy, Adjuvant. Reoperation. Retrospective Studies. Skull Base Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17261369.001).
  • [ISSN] 1010-5182
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery : official publication of the European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniomaxillofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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56. Zhou T, Wei SB, Meng XH, Xu BN: [Pure endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach for 375 pituitary adenomas]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2010 Oct 1;48(19):1443-6
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  • Transient palsy of oculomotor nerve or abducens nerve occurred in 7 cases of operations involved cavernous sinus.
  • [MeSH-major] Hypophysectomy / methods. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 21176648.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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57. Oohira A, Furuya T: Ocular neuromyotonia with spastic lid closure. J Neuroophthalmol; 2006 Dec;26(4):244-7
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  • [Title] Ocular neuromyotonia with spastic lid closure.
  • Ocular neuromyotonia is characterized by tonic spasms of extraocular muscles evoked by eccentric gaze that induces transient strabismus and diplopia.
  • We report the case of a 70-year-old woman who initially presented with unilateral deficits in fifth and sixth cranial nerve functions attributed to a fifth cranial nerve schwannoma.
  • After radiation treatment, she developed neuromyotonia and synkinesis of the ipsilateral third cranial nerve.
  • The ocular neuromyotonia regressed spontaneously within 3 years, but components of the synkinesis persisted.
  • Ephaptic transmission in a damaged third cranial nerve may be responsible for the neuromyotonia and synkinesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Eyelid Diseases / etiology. Neurilemmoma / radiotherapy. Ocular Motility Disorders / etiology. Oculomotor Nerve / radiation effects. Oculomotor Nerve Diseases / etiology. Radiotherapy / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Abducens Nerve Diseases / etiology. Abducens Nerve Diseases / pathology. Abducens Nerve Diseases / physiopathology. Aged. Anticonvulsants / therapeutic use. Axons / pathology. Axons / radiation effects. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / pathology. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / physiopathology. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Female. Humans. Muscle Spasticity / etiology. Muscle Spasticity / physiopathology. Nerve Degeneration / etiology. Nerve Degeneration / pathology. Nerve Degeneration / physiopathology. Treatment Outcome. Trigeminal Nerve Diseases / pathology. Trigeminal Nerve Diseases / physiopathology. Trigeminal Nerve Diseases / radiotherapy

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  • [CommentIn] J Neuroophthalmol. 2006 Dec;26(4):241-3 [17204913.001]
  • (PMID = 17204914.001).
  • [ISSN] 1070-8022
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-ophthalmology : the official journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neuroophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anticonvulsants
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58. Dong Y, Wei SH, Pi YL, Yan RM: [Ocular manifestations of brainstem tumor]. Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi; 2009 Nov;45(11):999-1003
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  • [Title] [Ocular manifestations of brainstem tumor].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the ocular manifestations of brainstem tumors and to avoid misdiagnosis and missed diagnosis.
  • The clinical data of 57 brainstem tumor in-patients were collected from 1993 to 2007.
  • RESULTS: The present series included 51 cases of brainstem germinoma, 4 cases of cavernous hemangioma, 1 case of hemangioblastoma and 1 case of metastatic tumor.
  • Patients were presented with diplopia, ocular motility disturbance, nystagmus, anisocoria, and facial palsy.
  • The incidence of oculomotor nerve paralysis was 17.5% (10/57); trochlear paralysis, 1.8% (1/57); trigeminal nerve paralysis, 5.3% (3/57); abducens nerve paralysis, 35.1% (20/57); facial palsy, 14.0% (8/57); optic disc edema, 19.3% (11/57); nystagmus, 21.1% (12/57) and anisocoria, 10.5% (6/57).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Ocular manifestations occur frequently in brainstem tumor.
  • Nuclear ophthalmoplegia, nystagmus and other neuro-ophthalmic signs provide helpful clues for the diagnosis of brainstem tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Stem Neoplasms / pathology. Eye Diseases / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20137418.001).
  • [ISSN] 0412-4081
  • [Journal-full-title] [Zhonghua yan ke za zhi] Chinese journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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59. Adachi K, Yoshida K, Ueda R, Kawase T: Adenoid cystic carcinoma of the cavernous region. Case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2006 Jul;46(7):358-60
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  • A 62-year-old Japanese male patient presented with right oculomotor, abducens, and trigeminal nerve disturbances.
  • Neuroimaging revealed a right middle cranial fossa mass lesion with the characteristics of trigeminal schwannoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / pathology. Cavernous Sinus / pathology. Vascular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neurilemmoma / diagnosis. Peripheral Nervous System Neoplasms / diagnosis. Trigeminal Nerve / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16861831.001).
  • [ISSN] 0470-8105
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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60. Yip WW, Yu CB, Fan DS, Yick DW, Rao SK, Lam DS: Anterior segment ischemia after two-muscle surgery in a patient with radiation-treated nasopharyngeal carcinoma. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus; 2008 Jan-Feb;45(1):40-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Anterior Eye Segment / blood supply. Ischemia / etiology. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / radiotherapy. Oculomotor Muscles / surgery. Postoperative Complications. Strabismus / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Abducens Nerve Diseases / surgery. Diplopia / surgery. Glucocorticoids / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prednisolone / therapeutic use. Risk Factors. Tomography, Optical Coherence

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  • (PMID = 18286962.001).
  • [ISSN] 0191-3913
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Glucocorticoids; 9PHQ9Y1OLM / Prednisolone
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61. Kadom N: Pediatric strabismus imaging. Curr Opin Ophthalmol; 2008 Sep;19(5):371-8
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  • PURPOSE OF REVIEW: With both radiologists and ophthalmologists in mind, this article describes the best use of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of strabismus.
  • The collaboration between imagers and ophthalmologists is essential in the development of feasible innovative methods of imaging that will advance diagnosis and monitoring in children with strabismus.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain / abnormalities. Cranial Nerve Diseases / diagnosis. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Oculomotor Muscles / pathology. Strabismus / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Abducens Nerve / abnormalities. Cerebellum / abnormalities. Child. Child, Preschool. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / diagnosis. Duane Retraction Syndrome / diagnosis. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Neurilemmoma / diagnosis. Oculomotor Nerve Diseases / diagnosis. Rhombencephalon / abnormalities

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  • (PMID = 18772668.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-7021
  • [Journal-full-title] Current opinion in ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Opin Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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62. Kassam AB, Prevedello DM, Carrau RL, Snyderman CH, Gardner P, Osawa S, Seker A, Rhoton AL Jr: The front door to meckel's cave: an anteromedial corridor via expanded endoscopic endonasal approach- technical considerations and clinical series. Neurosurgery; 2009 Mar;64(3 Suppl):ons71-82; discussion ons82-3
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  • OBJECTIVE: Tumors within Meckel's cave are challenging and often require complex approaches.
  • In this report, an expanded endoscopic endonasal approach is reported as a substitute for or complement to other surgical options for the treatment of various tumors within this region.
  • The quadrangular space is opened, which is bound by the internal carotid artery medially and inferiorly, V2 laterally, and the abducens nerve superiorly.
  • Five patients developed a new facial numbness in at least 1 segment of the trigeminal nerve, but the deficit was permanent in only 2.
  • Two patients had a transient VIth cranial nerve palsy.
  • Nine patients (30%) showed improvement of preoperative deficits on Cranial Nerves III to VI.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Adenoid Cystic / surgery. Cranial Fossa, Middle / surgery. Endoscopy / methods. Meningioma / surgery. Nasal Cavity / surgery. Neurilemmoma / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Skull Base Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cranial Nerve Injuries / etiology. Cranial Nerve Injuries / physiopathology. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Nasal Septum / surgery. Postoperative Complications / epidemiology. Postoperative Complications / pathology. Retrospective Studies. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19240575.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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63. Kano T, Ikota H, Kobayashi S, Iwasa S, Kurosaki S, Wada H: Malignant transformation of an intracranial large epidermoid cyst with leptomeningeal carcinomatosis: case report. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2010;50(4):349-53
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  • A 64-year-old female presented with rapid onset of left ophthalmoplegia and truncal ataxia, after experiencing diplopia due to left abducens nerve palsy for a year.
  • The tumor was partially removed and the histological diagnosis was squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Epidermal Cyst / pathology. Meningeal Carcinomatosis / pathology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 20448435.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-8029
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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64. Yamada S, Fukuhara N, Oyama K, Takeshita A, Takeuchi Y: Repeat transsphenoidal surgery for the treatment of remaining or recurring pituitary tumors in acromegaly. Neurosurgery; 2010 Oct;67(4):949-56
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  • [Title] Repeat transsphenoidal surgery for the treatment of remaining or recurring pituitary tumors in acromegaly.
  • BACKGROUND: Acromegaly is a disorder characterized by hypersecretion of growth hormone caused by a growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma.
  • Only 1 patient was undergoing additional hormonal replacement after surgery, although transient cerebrospinal fluid leak, transient abducens nerve palsy, severe nasal bleeding, and pituitary abscess occurred in each patient, respectively.
  • Multivariate analysis clarified that a favorable surgical outcome was achieved in patients without cavernous sinus invasion (hazard ratio 12.56), tumor segmentation (hazard ratio 5.82), or in those older than 40 years old (hazard ratio 3.21).
  • [MeSH-major] Acromegaly / etiology. Acromegaly / surgery. Growth Hormone / secretion. Hypophysectomy / adverse effects. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 20881560.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9002-72-6 / Growth Hormone
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65. Mathiesen T, Gerlich A, Kihlström L, Svensson M, Bagger-Sjöbäck D: Effects of using combined transpetrosal surgical approaches to treat petroclival meningiomas. Neurosurgery; 2007 Jun;60(6):982-91; discussion 991-2
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  • We analyzed our series of transpetrosally operated petroclival meningiomas to obtain detailed information regarding the surgery outcomes with respect to facial nerve effects, hearing changes, general neurological and psychosocial differences, and recurrence rates to identify opportunities for improvement.
  • Facial nerve function was found to be of House-Brackmann Grade 3 or worse in six patients (including three individuals with transcochlear surgery and facial nerve rerouting).
  • Outcomes can be improved, however by improving patients' psychosocial support; striving to decompress, preserve, and minimize dissection of ill-defined planes of cranial nerves; and using Simpson Grade 4 gamma knife approaches when radicality is precluded.
  • Currently, the performance of transpetrosal surgery for petroclival meningiomas is a major undertaking that significantly affects a patient's health for several years; however, the approaches that we used allowed a high degree of tumor control with relatively little neurological morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] Meningioma / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Skull Base Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Abducens Nerve / physiopathology. Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Cranial Sinuses. Facial Nerve / physiopathology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Recovery of Function. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome

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  • [ReprintIn] Neurosurgery. 2008 Jun;62(6 Suppl 3):1213-23 [18695542.001]
  • (PMID = 17538371.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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66. Ishige S, Iwadate Y, Ishikura H, Saeki N: Primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis followed with serial magnetic resonance images. Neuropathology; 2007 Jun;27(3):290-4
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  • A 45-year-old man manifested with bilateral abducens nerve palsy and meningisms.
  • The MRI findings described here would contribute to the diagnosis of PDLG among other common diseases diffusely spreading along the leptomeningeal structures.
  • [MeSH-major] Glioma / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17645245.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-6544
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropathology : official journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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67. Seiz M, Radek M, Buslei R, Kreutzer J, Hofmann B, Kottler U, Doerfler A, Nimsky C, Fahlbusch R: Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma of the clivus with intrasellar expansion: Case report. Zentralbl Neurochir; 2006 Nov;67(4):219-22
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  • Rhabdomyosarcomas are common tumors of the head and neck region in children.
  • However, a primarily intracranial localization of this tumor entity is rare.
  • We report on a 3-year-old boy presenting with double vision due to left VI (th) nerve palsy.
  • Transsphenoidal biopsy was performed and histopathological examination as well as molecular diagnostics confirmed the diagnosis of an alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS).
  • Staging identified a metastatic lesion in the fourth thoracic vertebra resulting in the diagnosis of stage IV disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Rhabdomyosarcoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Abducens Nerve Diseases / etiology. Abducens Nerve Diseases / pathology. Adrenocorticotropic Hormone / deficiency. Angiography. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain / pathology. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Child, Preschool. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Human Growth Hormone / deficiency. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Radiosurgery. Sella Turcica / pathology. Sella Turcica / surgery. Spine / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17139605.001).
  • [ISSN] 0044-4251
  • [Journal-full-title] Zentralblatt für Neurochirurgie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zentralbl. Neurochir.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic; 12629-01-5 / Human Growth Hormone; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 9002-60-2 / Adrenocorticotropic Hormone; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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68. Kim SR, Kanda F, Kobessho H, Sugimoto K, Matsuoka T, Kudo M, Hayashi Y: Hepatocellular carcinoma metastasizing to the skull base involving multiple cranial nerves. World J Gastroenterol; 2006 Nov 7;12(41):6727-9
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  • [Title] Hepatocellular carcinoma metastasizing to the skull base involving multiple cranial nerves.
  • We describe a rare case of HCV-related recurrent multiple hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasizing to the skull base involving multiple cranial nerves in a 50-year-old woman.
  • The patient presented with symptoms of ptosis, fixation of the right eyeball, and left abducens palsy, indicating disturbances of the right oculomotor and trochlear nerves and bilateral abducens nerves.
  • The diagnosis of metastatic HCC to the skull base was made on the basis of neurological findings and imaging studies including CT and MRI, without histological examinations.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / secondary. Cranial Nerve Neoplasms / secondary. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Skull Base Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / diagnosis. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17075993.001).
  • [ISSN] 1007-9327
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J. Gastroenterol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4125685
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69. Li MH, Hong T, Li YY, Zhou DW, Zeng EM, Xu GS: [Surgical management of petroclival meningiomas invading into cavernous sinus]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2010 Feb 2;90(5):295-7
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  • The presigmoidal approach was selected to remove tumors.
  • The surgical strategy for tumor in cavernous sinus was partial resection combined with radiosurgery.
  • Postoperative cranial nerve function and patient survival status were analyzed.
  • RESULTS: The main symptoms of subtype of petroclival meningiomas were headache, abducens nerve palsy and trigeminal neuropathy.
  • Gross total tumor removal was achieved in 13 cases and more than 90% resection in 2 cases.
  • Nine cases suffered from new postoperative cranial nerve deficits.
  • After a follow-up of 6 - 59 months, complete improvement was achieved in oculomotor nerve deficits, much improvement in VII nerve deficit, but V and VI nerve function deficits improved slightly.
  • The tumor progression-free survival rate was 86.7%.
  • [MeSH-major] Cavernous Sinus / pathology. Meningioma / surgery. Skull Base Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20368047.001).
  • [ISSN] 0376-2491
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua yi xue za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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70. Muto J, Kawase T, Yoshida K: Meckel's cave tumors: relation to the meninges and minimally invasive approaches for surgery: anatomic and clinical studies. Neurosurgery; 2010 Sep;67(3 Suppl Operative):ons291-8; discussion ons298-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Meckel's cave tumors: relation to the meninges and minimally invasive approaches for surgery: anatomic and clinical studies.
  • BACKGROUND: Literature on tumors originating from Meckel's cave (MC) and their surgical treatment are scarce.
  • OBJECTIVE: We present 37 cases of tumors originating from MC, the largest single-institution series reported thus far, and discuss the ideal surgical methods for each tumor type in relation to the normal and pathological anatomy of MC.
  • METHODS: We studied 37 cases of surgery for tumors in MC (26 schwannomas, 7 meningiomas, 2 epidermoids, 1 hemangiopericytoma, and 1 dermoid) performed at our institution between 1986 and 2008.
  • We excluded cases of large tumors of unknown origin, especially meningiomas.
  • Surgery for tumors in MC was performed via 2 approaches: anterolateral interdural access (Dolenc's) approach and posterior access via the anterior petrosal approach (APA).
  • RESULTS: The Dolenc approach was useful for parasellar tumors, especially schwannomas, because it resulted in minimal damage to the temporal lobe and adjacent cranial nerves.
  • The APA was useful for dumbbell-shaped tumors extending into the posterior fossa.
  • Tumors of nonmeningeal origin (schwannomas, epidermoids, and dermoids) were safely resected, with no postoperative complications except facial hypesthesia.
  • However, incidence of postsurgical paresthesia and abducens palsy were higher in meningioma and hemangiopericytoma, because of invasion into the Gasserian ganglion, the cavernous sinus (CS), or Dorello's canal.
  • CONCLUSION: An understanding of meningeal structure around MC enhances the radicality of tumor resection and helps minimize damage to adjacent structures.
  • [MeSH-major] Meningeal Neoplasms / surgery. Meningioma / surgery. Neurilemmoma / surgery. Neurosurgical Procedures / methods. Skull Base Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Retrospective Studies. Trigeminal Nerve / pathology. Trigeminal Nerve / surgery. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20679921.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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71. Shah GB, Bhaduri AS, Misra BK: Ectopic craniopharyngioma of the fourth ventricle: case report. Surg Neurol; 2007 Jul;68(1):96-8
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  • The patient underwent midline posterior fossa craniotomy and tumor excision, with prompt relief of gaze palsy.
  • We found no evidence to correlate this tumor to the suprasellar region.
  • CONCLUSION: Craniopharyngioma may not always be in primary communication with suprasellar tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / diagnosis. Craniopharyngioma / diagnosis. Fourth Ventricle / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Abducens Nerve Diseases / etiology. Child. Female. Humans. Hydrocephalus / etiology. Intracranial Pressure. Neurosurgical Procedures

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  • (PMID = 17586238.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-3019
  • [Journal-full-title] Surgical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surg Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Bohner G, Masuhr F, Distl R, Katchanov J, Klingebiel R, Zschenderlein R, von Deimling A, van Landeghem FK: Pilocytic astrocytoma presenting as primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis: report of a unique case and review of the literature. Acta Neuropathol; 2005 Sep;110(3):306-11
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We describe a 25-year-old male patient with primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis (PDLG) presenting with gait ataxia, positive Lhermitte's sign, double vision, and right abducens nerve palsy.
  • A thorough autopsy showed no evidence for primary neoplasms in brain, spine and optic nerve.
  • Sequence analysis of tumor protein 53 gene (TP53) revealed a missense mutation in exon 5, and expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog (mutated in multiple advanced cancers 1) (PTEN) protein was not detected, which may have contributed to astrocytoma development.
  • [MeSH-major] Astrocytoma / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / pathology. Meninges / pathology. Neoplasms, Neuroepithelial / pathology. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / pathology. Subarachnoid Space / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Brain / pathology. Brain / physiopathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Mutation / genetics. Spinal Cord / pathology. Spinal Cord / physiopathology. Spinal Cord Compression / etiology. Spinal Cord Compression / pathology. Spinal Cord Compression / physiopathology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics


73. Martin Polo J, Rivas López T, Martin Polo R, Ortin Castaño A, Arcaya Navarro J, Cacho Gutiérrez J: [Cavernous sinus syndrome: an initial expression of a breast carcinoma]. Neurologia; 2005 Apr;20(3):153-5
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Transliterated title] Síndrome del seno cavernoso como manifestación inicial de una neoplasia mamaria.
  • A case of a woman whose breast neoplasm was initially expressed by a CSS is discussed in this article.
  • Neurological examination showed left ptosis, limitation of elevation of left eye and abducens nerve palsy as well as hypoesthesia in the frontal and maxillary regions of her left-side facies.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / complications. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / secondary. Cavernous Sinus Thrombosis / etiology. Neoplastic Cells, Circulating

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  • (PMID = 15815952.001).
  • [ISSN] 0213-4853
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurología (Barcelona, Spain)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurologia
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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74. Pallini R, Sabatino G, Doglietto F, Lauretti L, Fernandez E, Maira G: Clivus metastases: report of seven patients and literature review. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2009 Apr;151(4):291-6; discussion 296
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  • All patients presented with a sixth nerve palsy as the symptom.
  • CONCLUSION: Though exceedingly rare, metastases involving the clivus should be considered in the differential diagnosis with clivus chordoma.
  • The trans-sphenoidal approach is the ideal procedure to establish a histopathological diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / secondary. Cranial Fossa, Posterior / pathology. Skull Base Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Abducens Nerve Diseases / etiology. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Prognosis. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology. Survival Rate. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19259614.001).
  • [ISSN] 0942-0940
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta neurochirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Neurochir (Wien)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Austria
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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75. Kramer CK, Ferreira N, Silveiro SP, Gross JL, Dora JM, Azevedo MJ: Pituitary gland metastasis from renal cell carcinoma presented as a non-functioning macroadenoma. Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol; 2010;54(5):498-501
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  • Metastatic tumors involving the pituitary gland are an uncommon finding and occur in up to 1% of all pituitary tumor resections.
  • On ophthalmologic examination, there was a left abducens nerve palsy and bitemporal hemianopia.
  • The patient underwent a transsphenoidal tumor resection that revealed renal cell carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenoma / diagnosis. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male

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  • (PMID = 20694412.001).
  • [ISSN] 1677-9487
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos brasileiros de endocrinologia e metabologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Bras Endocrinol Metabol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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76. Nishijima Y, Fujimura M, Nagamatsu K, Kohama M, Tominaga T: Neuroendoscopic management of symptomatic septum pellucidum cavum vergae cyst using a high-definition flexible endoscopic system. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo); 2009 Nov;49(11):549-52
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  • A 24-year-old man, who had an asymptomatic septum pellucidum cyst incidentally found one year previously, presented with severe headache and right abducens nerve palsy caused by expansion of the midline cyst.
  • The entire inner cyst wall could be inspected from the cyst cavity by manipulating the flexible neuroendoscopic system, which excluded the presence of neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Cerebral Ventricle Neoplasms / surgery. Cysts / surgery. Endoscopy / methods. Septum Pellucidum / surgery. Ventriculostomy / instrumentation. Ventriculostomy / methods

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  • (PMID = 19940409.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-8029
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurologia medico-chirurgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurol. Med. Chir. (Tokyo)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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77. Thomason K, Macleod K, Eyres KS: Hyponatraemia after orthopaedic surgery - a case of pituitary apoplexy. Ann R Coll Surg Engl; 2009 Apr;91(3):W3-5
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  • Adopting a multidisciplinary approach, successful diagnosis and management lead to a complete recovery without any long-term sequelae.
  • [MeSH-minor] Abducens Nerve Diseases / etiology. Adenoma / diagnosis. Aged. Humans. Incidental Findings. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Pituitary Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19335965.001).
  • [ISSN] 1478-7083
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of the Royal College of Surgeons of England
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann R Coll Surg Engl
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2765007
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78. Tominaga K: Abducens nerve palsy after thyroidectomy with unilateral modified neck dissection. Anesthesiology; 2007 Oct;107(4):679-80
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  • [Title] Abducens nerve palsy after thyroidectomy with unilateral modified neck dissection.
  • [MeSH-major] Abducens Nerve Diseases / etiology. Neck Dissection / adverse effects. Thyroidectomy / adverse effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Jugular Veins / physiopathology. Lymph Nodes / surgery. Male. Middle Aged. Pseudotumor Cerebri / etiology. Thyroid Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17893479.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-3022
  • [Journal-full-title] Anesthesiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anesthesiology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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79. Kurihara T: Abducens nerve palsy and ipsilateral incomplete Horner syndrome: a significant sign of locating the lesion in the posterior cavernous sinus. Intern Med; 2006;45(17):993-4
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  • [Title] Abducens nerve palsy and ipsilateral incomplete Horner syndrome: a significant sign of locating the lesion in the posterior cavernous sinus.
  • [MeSH-major] Abducens Nerve Diseases / etiology. Brain Neoplasms / complications. Cavernous Sinus. Horner Syndrome / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Abducens Nerve / pathology. Adult. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Sympathetic Nervous System / pathology

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  • [CommentOn] Intern Med. 2006;45(14):851-5 [16908941.001]
  • (PMID = 17015998.001).
  • [ISSN] 1349-7235
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine (Tokyo, Japan)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Editorial
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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80. Durkin SR, Tennekoon S, Kleinschmidt A, Casson RJ, Selva D, Crompton JL: Bilateral sixth nerve palsy. Ophthalmology; 2006 Nov;113(11):2108-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Bilateral sixth nerve palsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Abducens Nerve Diseases / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Eye Injuries / complications. Eye Neoplasms / complications. Female. Humans. Infant. Male. Middle Aged. Vascular Diseases / complications

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  • (PMID = 17074569.001).
  • [ISSN] 1549-4713
  • [Journal-full-title] Ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ophthalmology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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81. Arnault JP, Petitpain N, Granel-Brocard F, Cuny JF, Barbaud A, Schmutz JL: Acitretin and sixth nerve palsy. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2007 Oct;21(9):1258-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Acitretin and sixth nerve palsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Abducens Nerve / drug effects. Acitretin / adverse effects. Keratolytic Agents / adverse effects. Paralysis / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • [CommentIn] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2008 Aug;22(8):1024-5; author reply 1025 [18540983.001]
  • (PMID = 17894719.001).
  • [ISSN] 0926-9959
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Keratolytic Agents; LCH760E9T7 / Acitretin
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82. Baldawa S, Gopalakrishnan CV: Bilateral abducent nerve palsy as the initial clinical manifestation of medulloblastoma. Acta Neurochir (Wien); 2010 Nov;152(11):1947-8
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  • [Title] Bilateral abducent nerve palsy as the initial clinical manifestation of medulloblastoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Abducens Nerve Diseases / etiology. Brain Neoplasms / complications. Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Medulloblastoma / complications. Medulloblastoma / pathology. Meningeal Carcinomatosis / etiology


83. Gormley KM, Gutowski NJ: Recurrent headache and sixth nerve palsy associated with lumbar ependymoma. J Neurol; 2005 Mar;252(3):359-60
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  • [Title] Recurrent headache and sixth nerve palsy associated with lumbar ependymoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Abducens Nerve Diseases / complications. Ependymoma / complications. Headache / etiology. Spinal Cord Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 15726275.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-5354
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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84. Steele H, Aram J, Wilhelm T, Hickman SJ, Ginsberg L: Not a microvascular sixth nerve palsy. Pract Neurol; 2007 Nov;7(6):400-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Not a microvascular sixth nerve palsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Abducens Nerve / physiopathology. Abducens Nerve Diseases / etiology. Carcinoma / secondary. Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms / pathology. Skull Base / pathology. Skull Base Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Cerebrovascular Disorders / complications. Cerebrovascular Disorders / diagnosis. Cerebrovascular Disorders / physiopathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Diplopia / etiology. Diplopia / physiopathology. Disease Progression. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Pharynx / pathology. Philippines. Risk Factors. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18024781.001).
  • [ISSN] 1474-7766
  • [Journal-full-title] Practical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pract Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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85. Mittelbronn M, Kröber SM, Wersebe A, Weller M, Hewer W, Meyermann R, Kaiserling E, Beschorner R: A 63-year-old man with dementia, ataxia and VI nerve palsy. Brain Pathol; 2007 Oct;17(4):466-7, 474
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A 63-year-old man with dementia, ataxia and VI nerve palsy.
  • [MeSH-major] Abducens Nerve Diseases / pathology. Ataxia / pathology. Dementia / pathology. Lymphoma, B-Cell / pathology. Sella Turcica / pathology. Skull Base Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Atrophy / etiology. Atrophy / pathology. Atrophy / physiopathology. Brain / pathology. Cerebral Arteries / pathology. Dementia, Vascular / etiology. Dementia, Vascular / pathology. Dementia, Vascular / physiopathology. Disease Progression. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / physiopathology. Neoplasm Invasiveness / radiography. Subarachnoid Space / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 17919133.001).
  • [ISSN] 1015-6305
  • [Journal-full-title] Brain pathology (Zurich, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Brain Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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86. Chroni E, Tsambaos D: Isolated sixth nerve palsy during acitretin treatment: a retinoid side effect or a mere coincidence? J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol; 2008 Aug;22(8):1024-5; author reply 1025
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Isolated sixth nerve palsy during acitretin treatment: a retinoid side effect or a mere coincidence?
  • [MeSH-major] Abducens Nerve / drug effects. Acitretin / adverse effects. Keratolytic Agents / adverse effects. Paralysis / chemically induced
  • [MeSH-minor] Administration, Oral. Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Skin Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • [CommentOn] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2007 Oct;21(9):1258-9 [17894719.001]
  • (PMID = 18540983.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-3083
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology : JEADV
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Keratolytic Agents; LCH760E9T7 / Acitretin
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87. Irace C, Candino M: Innervation features of the extraocular muscles. J Craniofac Surg; 2009 Jul;20(4):1302
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Abducens Nerve / anatomy & histology. Eyelids / innervation. Oculomotor Muscles / innervation. Oculomotor Nerve / anatomy & histology. Orbit / innervation. Trochlear Nerve / anatomy & histology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cadaver. Humans. Male. Neurilemmoma / surgery. Orbital Neoplasms / surgery

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  • [CommentOn] J Craniofac Surg. 2007 Nov;18(6):1439-46 [17993897.001]
  • (PMID = 19625860.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-3732
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of craniofacial surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Craniofac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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88. Bogeschdorfer F, Kalinski T, Keck T: [Double vision and impediments to nasal breathing]. HNO; 2005 May;53(5):455-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Abducens Nerve Diseases / diagnosis. Chondrosarcoma / diagnosis. Diplopia / diagnosis. Nose Neoplasms / diagnosis. Respiration Disorders / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Male. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / complications. Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15657754.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-6192
  • [Journal-full-title] HNO
  • [ISO-abbreviation] HNO
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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89. Yoong HS, Kiaang TK: Gradenigo's syndrome presenting as a tumor. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg; 2006 Nov;135(5):821-2
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  • [Title] Gradenigo's syndrome presenting as a tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Abducens Nerve. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Diplopia / complications. Otitis Media / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Headache / complications. Humans. Male. Syndrome

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  • (PMID = 17071324.001).
  • [ISSN] 0194-5998
  • [Journal-full-title] Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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90. Riemenschneider MJ, Beseoglu K, Hänggi D, Reifenberger G: Prostate adenocarcinoma metastasis in the pituitary gland. Arch Neurol; 2009 Aug;66(8):1036-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Pituitary Neoplasms / secondary. Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Abducens Nerve Diseases / etiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Diplopia / etiology. Endoscopy. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Pituitary Gland / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19667229.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3687
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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91. Souayah N, Krivitskaya N, Lee HJ: Lateral rectus muscle metastasis as the initial manifestation of gastric cancer. J Neuroophthalmol; 2008 Sep;28(3):240-1
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Abducens Nerve Diseases / etiology. Abducens Nerve Diseases / pathology. Carcinoma / complications. Carcinoma / secondary. Orbital Neoplasms / complications. Orbital Neoplasms / secondary. Stomach Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Abducens Nerve / pathology. Abducens Nerve / physiopathology. Fatal Outcome. Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage / etiology. Humans. Lymphatic Diseases / etiology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Oculomotor Muscles / innervation. Oculomotor Muscles / pathology. Oculomotor Muscles / physiopathology. Orbit / anatomy & histology. Orbit / pathology. Radiotherapy. Stomach / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18769296.001).
  • [ISSN] 1536-5166
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neuro-ophthalmology : the official journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Neuroophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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92. Mut M, Palaoglu S, Alanay Y, Ismailoglu O, Tuncbilek E: Cavernous malformation with Poland-Möbius syndrome. Case illustration. J Neurosurg; 2007 Jul;107(1 Suppl):79
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Abducens Nerve Diseases / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Facial Paralysis / diagnosis. Hemangioma, Cavernous, Central Nervous System / diagnosis. Mobius Syndrome / diagnosis. Poland Syndrome / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Comorbidity. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Neurologic Examination. Temporal Lobe / pathology. Temporal Lobe / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


93. Ortiz-Pérez S, Sánchez-Dalmau B, Mesquida M, Fernández E, Adán A: [Eight-and-a-half syndrome]. Med Clin (Barc); 2010 Jan 23;134(1):45
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  • [Transliterated title] Síndrome del ocho y medio.
  • [MeSH-major] Abducens Nerve Diseases / etiology. Facial Paralysis / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Brain Neoplasms / complications. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Syndrome

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  • (PMID = 19767036.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-7753
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina clínica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Clin (Barc)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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94. Voykov B, Guenova E, Papageorgiou E, Heckl S, Schiefer U: When tuberous sclerosis complex becomes an emergency. Can J Ophthalmol; 2009 Apr;44(2):220-1
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  • [Title] When tuberous sclerosis complex becomes an emergency.

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  • (PMID = 19491969.001).
  • [ISSN] 1715-3360
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian journal of ophthalmology. Journal canadien d'ophtalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can. J. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
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95. Pérez Marín JC, Apolinario Hidalgo RM, Mohamad Tubío AM, Santos Moyano Z, Peña Quintana P, Gómez Díaz J: [A 25-year-old man with pancreatic tumor, double vision and bone lesions]. Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2008 Nov;31(9):626-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [A 25-year-old man with pancreatic tumor, double vision and bone lesions].
  • [Transliterated title] Varón de 25 años de edad con un tumor pancreático, diplopía y lesiones óseas.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Diplopia / etiology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / complications. Sarcoma, Ewing / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Abducens Nerve Diseases / etiology. Adult. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Osteolysis / etiology. Osteolysis / radiography. Skull Neoplasms / complications. Skull Neoplasms / radiography. Skull Neoplasms / secondary. Spinal Neoplasms / complications. Spinal Neoplasms / radiography. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19091260.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-5705
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroenterología y hepatología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol Hepatol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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96. Connor M, Williams A, Macleod M, Smith C: Vanishing diplopia: a problem case. Pract Neurol; 2007 Aug;7(4):268-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Cholangiocarcinoma / secondary. Diplopia / etiology. Liver Neoplasms / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / secondary. Meningitis, Aseptic / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Abducens Nerve Diseases / etiology. Abducens Nerve Diseases / physiopathology. Aged, 80 and over. Delirium / etiology. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Meninges / pathology. Nerve Tissue Proteins / analysis. Nerve Tissue Proteins / cerebrospinal fluid. Subarachnoid Space / pathology. Subarachnoid Space / physiopathology. Tuberculosis, Meningeal / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17636144.001).
  • [ISSN] 1474-7766
  • [Journal-full-title] Practical neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pract Neurol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins
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97. Smidt MH, van der Vliet A, Wesseling P, de Vries J, Twickler TB, Vos PE: Pituitary apoplexy after mild head injury misinterpreted as bacterial meningitis. Eur J Neurol; 2007 Jul;14(7):e7-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Craniocerebral Trauma / complications. Diagnostic Errors. Meningitis, Bacterial / diagnosis. Pituitary Apoplexy / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Abducens Nerve Diseases / etiology. Accidental Falls. Adenoma / blood supply. Adenoma / complications. Adenoma / surgery. Adult. Fever / etiology. Headache / etiology. Humans. Hydrocortisone / deficiency. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Pituitary Hormones / deficiency. Pituitary Neoplasms / blood supply. Pituitary Neoplasms / complications. Pituitary Neoplasms / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Vomiting / etiology

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  • (PMID = 17594322.001).
  • [ISSN] 1468-1331
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Pituitary Hormones; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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98. Eva Pérez López M, García Mata J, García Gómez J: [Proptosis and ophthalmoplegia with sudden onset]. Arch Esp Urol; 2007 Mar;60(2):210
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Abducens Nerve Diseases / etiology. Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Exophthalmos / etiology. Nerve Compression Syndromes / etiology. Ophthalmoplegia / etiology. Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology. Skull Neoplasms / secondary. Sphenoid Bone / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cranial Fossa, Posterior / pathology. Headache. Humans. Male. Sella Turcica / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17484495.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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99. Acakpo-Satchivi L, Tubbs RS, Woolley AL, Bui CJ, Liechty P, Hammers Y, Wellons J 3rd, Blount JP, Oakes WJ: Craniopharyngioma marsupialization. Case illustration. J Neurosurg; 2007 Dec;107(6 Suppl):521
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Craniopharyngioma / pathology. Pituitary Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Abducens Nerve Diseases / etiology. Blindness / etiology. Carotid Artery, Internal / surgery. Cerebral Angiography. Cerebrovascular Disorders / pathology. Child, Preschool. Exophthalmos / etiology. Humans. Intraoperative Complications / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Nasal Cavity / pathology. Neurosurgical Procedures. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18154027.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3085
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurosurg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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100. Debard A, Demasles S, Camdessanché JP, Duband S, Mohammedi R, Antoine JC: Dural localization of extramedullary hematopoiesis. Report of a case. J Neurol; 2009 May;256(5):837-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [MeSH-major] Choristoma / pathology. Hematopoiesis, Extramedullary / physiology. Hematopoietic System / pathology. Meningeal Neoplasms / pathology. Primary Myelofibrosis / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Abducens Nerve Diseases / etiology. Drug Therapy. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Humans. Leukemia, Myeloid / drug therapy. Leukemia, Myeloid / surgery. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Middle Aged. Paresis / etiology. Temporal Lobe / pathology. Temporal Lobe / physiopathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome. Trigeminal Nerve Diseases / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19252807.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1459
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Neurol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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