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1. Dhillon MS, Saini R, Gill SS: Is there a need for reconstruction after excision of the distal ulna for giant-cell tumour? Acta Orthop Belg; 2010 Feb;76(1):30-7
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  • [Title] Is there a need for reconstruction after excision of the distal ulna for giant-cell tumour?
  • Giant cell tumour rarely involves the distal ulna; the literature has sporadic cases reported, and the need for reconstruction after distal ulnar resection remains controversial.
  • We analyzed our cases with specific reference to the need for additional reconstruction; the radiological and functional outcome of extraperiosteal distal ulna resection without reconstruction in 4 patients with giant cell tumour of the distal ulna was assessed at a mean follow-up of 9 years post surgical excision.
  • In conclusion, it could be suggested that there is no need for reconstruction after distal ulna resection for GCT as an adequate functional outcome is seen even in late diagnosed cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Ulna / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20306961.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6462
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta orthopaedica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Orthop Belg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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2. Dewsnup NC, Susarla SM, Abulikemu M, Faquin WC, Kaban LB, August M: Immunohistochemical evaluation of giant cell tumors of the jaws using CD34 density analysis. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 2008 May;66(5):928-33
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical evaluation of giant cell tumors of the jaws using CD34 density analysis.
  • PURPOSE: To compare CD34 expression in both aggressive and nonaggressive giant cell lesions of the jaws and identify any associations between tumor vascular density and biologic behavior.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study of subjects treated for giant cell lesions of the jaws at Massachusetts General Hospital from 1992 to 2006.
  • The primary predictor variable was tumor classification (aggressive or nonaggressive); tumors were considered aggressive if they were greater than 5 cm in size, recurred after treatment, or exhibited 3 of the following: presence of root resorption, tooth displacement, or cortical bone thinning or perforation.
  • Of the tumors included, 11 (34.4%) were located in the maxilla, 21 (65.6%) in the mandible.
  • Twenty-six tumors (81.2%) were classified as aggressive; the remainder (18.8%) were nonaggressive.
  • There were no statistically significant differences between subjects with aggressive versus nonaggressive tumors with regard to age, gender, or location.
  • Subjects with aggressive tumors had a significantly higher CD34 staining density (P = .02).
  • CONCLUSION: Vascular density of giant cell tumors of the jaws is significantly increased in aggressive tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD34 / biosynthesis. Giant Cell Tumors / blood supply. Giant Cell Tumors / pathology. Jaw Neoplasms / blood supply. Jaw Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neovascularization, Pathologic. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18423282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5053
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD34
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3. Liu B, Yu SF, Wu YT, Pang SZ: [Central giant cell lesions of the jaws: a clinicopathological study of 31 cases]. Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi; 2005 Jan;40(1):67-9
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  • [Title] [Central giant cell lesions of the jaws: a clinicopathological study of 31 cases].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the clinicopathologic features of central giant cell granuloma (CGCG) of the jaws and the relationship between the pathologic features and its clinical behavior.
  • METHODS: Histologic, radiographic and follow-up information for 31 cases of central giant cell granuloma were reviewed.
  • RESULTS: The majority of the giant cell granuloma of the jaws occurred in patients under 30 with a predilection of females and mostly were involved in the mandible.
  • The multinucleated giant cell scattered unevenly, the numbers of the nuclei were few and mostly 10-19.
  • CONCLUSIONS: CGCG was a non-neoplastic lesion of the jaws which was different from the giant cell tumor.
  • It was difficult to distinguish between the CGCG and giant cell tumor (GCT), and to predict its clinical behavior only by the histopathological patterns.
  • [MeSH-major] Granuloma, Giant Cell / pathology. Jaw Diseases / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15774157.001).
  • [ISSN] 1002-0098
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua kou qiang yi xue za zhi = Zhonghua kouqiang yixue zazhi = Chinese journal of stomatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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4. Wobeser BK, Kidney BA, Powers BE, Withrow SJ, Mayer MN, Spinato MT, Allen AL: Diagnoses and clinical outcomes associated with surgically amputated feline digits submitted to multiple veterinary diagnostic laboratories. Vet Pathol; 2007 May;44(3):362-5
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  • The Kaplan-Meier product-limit method was used to determine the disease-free interval and survival time.
  • Neoplastic disease was identified in 63 of 85 submissions, with exclusively inflammatory lesions composing the other 22 cases.
  • In 60 (95.2%) of the neoplastic cases, a malignant tumor was identified.
  • Squamous cell carcinoma was the most commonly identified malignant tumor (n = 15; 23.8%) and was associated with a median survival time of 73 days.
  • Other diagnoses included fibrosarcoma (n = 14; 22.2%); adenocarcinoma, likely metastases of a primary pulmonary neoplasm (n = 13; 20.6%); osteosarcoma (n = 5; 7.9%); mast cell tumor (n = 4; 6.3%); hemangiosarcoma (n = 5; 7.9%); malignant fibrous histiocytoma (n = 2; 3.2%); giant cell tumor of bone (n = 2; 3.2%); and hemangioma (n = 2; 3.2%).
  • Giant cell tumor of bone has not been previously described in the digits of cats.


5. Arumilli BR, Lenin Babu V, Paul AS: Painful swollen leg--think beyond deep vein thrombosis or Baker's cyst. World J Surg Oncol; 2008;6:6
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  • CASE PRESENTATION: This is a report of three patients who presented with a painful swollen leg and were initially treated as a deep vein thrombosis or a baker's cyst, but later diagnosed as a pleomorphic sarcoma, a malignant giant cell tumor of the muscle and a myxoid liposarcoma.
  • CONCLUSION: A painful swollen leg is a common clinical scenario and though rare, tumors must be thought of without any delay, in a duplex negative, low risk deep vein thrombosis situation.

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  • (PMID = 18205917.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7819
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Surg Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2244628
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6. Saw S, Thomas N, Gleeson MJ, Bódi I, Connor S, Hortobágyi T: Giant cell tumour and central giant cell reparative granuloma of the skull: do these represent ends of a spectrum? A case report and literature review. Pathol Oncol Res; 2009 Jun;15(2):291-5
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumour and central giant cell reparative granuloma of the skull: do these represent ends of a spectrum? A case report and literature review.
  • Giant cell tumour (GCT) of bone is an uncommon primary bone neoplasm typically occurring at the epiphyses of long bones in young adults.
  • These tumours appear very rarely in the skull, with those few reported cases arising predominantly in the sphenoid and occasionally the temporal bones.
  • It is widely believed that giant cell tumours should be distinguished from other giant cell lesions, importantly central giant cell reparative granulomata (CGCG) which are thought to have a lower recurrence rate and for which no cases of malignant transformation or metastases have been reported.
  • Investigators have noted that giant cell lesions in the skull bones may be unique and that GCT and CGCG may be part of a spectrum of a single disease process.
  • We present a case of a giant cell tumour of the temporal bone which illustrates and re-emphasises this concept and review the literature on these lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumors / pathology. Granuloma, Giant Cell / pathology. Skull Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19011995.001).
  • [ISSN] 1219-4956
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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7. Bui MM, Purohit CN, Hakam A: Fine needle aspiration biopsy of an osteoclast-rich undifferentiated urothelial carcinoma: A cytology case report and review of the literature. Cytojournal; 2010;7:18
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  • A review of the literature is emphasized on the cytological, histological and immunohistochemical features and differential diagnoses of giant cell tumor.

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  • (PMID = 20976205.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-6413
  • [Journal-full-title] CytoJournal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytojournal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2955341
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Fine needle aspiration biopsy / giant cell tumor / osteoclast-rich / undifferentiated urothelial carcinoma / urinary bladder
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8. Fellenberg J, Lehner B, Witte D: Silencing of the UCHL1 gene in giant cell tumors of bone. Int J Cancer; 2010 Oct 15;127(8):1804-12
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  • [Title] Silencing of the UCHL1 gene in giant cell tumors of bone.
  • Giant cell tumors are heterogeneous tumors consisting of multinucleated giant cells, fibroblast-like stromal cells and mononuclear histiocytes.
  • The stromal cells have been identified as the neoplastic cell population, which promotes the recruitment of histiocytes and the formation of giant cells.
  • Strong evidence exists that these cells develop from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) but little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in GCT tumorigenesis.
  • The aim of our study was the identification of cancer-related genes differentially expressed in GCTs compared to MSCs in order to identify possible targets for aberrant promoter methylation, which may contribute to MSC transformation and GCT development.
  • Gene expression of 440 cancer-related genes was analyzed by DNA microarrays in GCT stromal cells and bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMSCs) isolated from the same patient (n = 3) to avoid interindividual variations.
  • Differential expression was identified for 14 genes, which could be confirmed by quantitative PCR in further 21 GCT and 10 BMSC samples.
  • Methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite sequencing revealed a strong methylation of the CpG island covering the UCHL1 promoter in GCT stromal cells, whereas methylation was completely absent in BMSCs.
  • UCHL1 expression in stromal cells could be restored by the methylation inhibitor 5-aza-dC.
  • These data demonstrate that the UCHL1 gene is inactivated in GCTs but not in MSCs, suggesting a possible role of UCHL1 in MSC transformation and GCT development.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / genetics. DNA Methylation. Gene Silencing. Giant Cell Tumors / genetics. Ubiquitin Thiolesterase / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Blotting, Western. Cell Proliferation. Cells, Cultured. CpG Islands. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Male. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells / metabolism. Mesenchymal Stromal Cells / pathology. Middle Aged. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics. RNA, Messenger / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Stromal Cells / metabolism. Stromal Cells / pathology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20104524.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-0215
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; EC 3.1.2.15 / UCHL1 protein, human; EC 3.1.2.15 / Ubiquitin Thiolesterase
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9. Jeys LM, Suneja R, Chami G, Grimer RJ, Carter SR, Tillman RM: Impending fractures in giant cell tumours of the distal femur: incidence and outcome. Int Orthop; 2006 Apr;30(2):135-8
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  • [Title] Impending fractures in giant cell tumours of the distal femur: incidence and outcome.
  • Giant cell tumours are rare bone tumours that are characteristically benign but locally aggressive, most frequently occurring in the distal femur with pathological fractures being common.
  • This paper investigates relationships between tumour size and cortical breach on initial X-rays and subsequent treatment.
  • The X-rays of 54 patients with distal femoral giant cell tumours were reviewed.
  • The volumes of the tumour, distal femur and a ratio between the two parameters were estimated.
  • The presence of a cortical breach, discrete fracture and Campanacci grade was recorded.
  • There was a significant difference in the ratio of tumour volume to distal femoral volume between the discrete fracture group and the cortical breach group.
  • [MeSH-major] Femoral Fractures / epidemiology. Femoral Fractures / physiopathology. Femoral Neoplasms / physiopathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Analysis of Variance. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Prospective Studies. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 16474936.001).
  • [ISSN] 0341-2695
  • [Journal-full-title] International orthopaedics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Orthop
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2532068
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11. Tejera-Vaquerizo A, Ruiz-Molina I, González-Serrano T, Solís-García E: Primary giant cell tumor of soft tissue in the finger. Dermatol Online J; 2008;14(6):7
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  • [Title] Primary giant cell tumor of soft tissue in the finger.
  • Primary giant cell tumor of soft tissue (GCTST) arising in a finger is a rare event.
  • We report a case of a 54-year-old man with a primary finger giant cell tumor that appeared histologically identical to giant cell tumor of bone.
  • The distinction of this entity from other more common primary finger tumors with giant cell morphology is emphasized.
  • [MeSH-major] Fingers / pathology. Giant Cell Tumors / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18713588.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Mukhina MS, Leenman EE: [The diffuse type of giant cell tumors of the tendon sheaths]. Arkh Patol; 2010 Sep-Oct;72(5):34-6
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  • [Title] [The diffuse type of giant cell tumors of the tendon sheaths].
  • The authors give a morphological and immunohistochemical description of diffuse giant cell tumors of the tendon sheath, which differ in the composition of neoplastic cells.
  • Immunohistological detection of CD68, HAM56, CD45, and lysozyme is of crucial importance in the differential diagnosis with malignant soft tissue tumors.
  • Attention is drawn to the high proliferative activity of tumor cells; the Ki-67 index is as high as 40% in occasional portions, which may give a misimpression of malignancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumors / diagnosis. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tendons / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21313766.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-1955
  • [Journal-full-title] Arkhiv patologii
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arkh. Patol.
  • [Language] rus
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Russia (Federation)
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13. Sanghvi DA, Purandare NC, Jambhekar NA, Agarwal MG, Agarwal A: Diffuse-type giant cell tumor of the subcutaneous thigh. Skeletal Radiol; 2007 Apr;36(4):327-30
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  • [Title] Diffuse-type giant cell tumor of the subcutaneous thigh.
  • Diffuse-type giant cell tumor is an extra-articular form of pigmented villonodular synovitis.
  • The localized form of this lesion (tenosynovial giant cell tumor) is frequent, representing the most common subset arising from the synovium of a joint, bursa or tendon sheath, with 85% of cases occurring in the fingers.
  • The less frequent diffuse-type giant cell tumors are commonly located in the periarticular soft tissues, but on rare occasions these lesions can be purely intramuscular or subcutaneous We report the case of a 26-year-old female with diffuse-type giant cell tumor of the subcutaneous thigh, remote from a joint, bursa or tendon sheath.
  • A review of the literature did not reveal any similar description of a diffuse-type giant cell tumor completely within the subcutaneous thigh, remote from a joint, bursa or tendon sheath.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumors / diagnosis. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / diagnosis. Subcutaneous Tissue / pathology. Thigh / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16565836.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2348
  • [Journal-full-title] Skeletal radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skeletal Radiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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14. Häring P, Filippi A, Bornstein MM, Altermatt HJ, Buser D, Lambrecht JT: [The "globulomaxillary cyst" a specific entity or a myth?]. Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed; 2006;116(4):380-97
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  • Therefore, globulomaxillary cysts have to be diagnosed alternatively after a thorough clinical, radiological and histological examination as other odontogenic cysts like dentigerous cysts or odontogenic keratocysts, odontogenic tumors like ameloblastoma, central giant cell tumors, solitary bone cysts, etc.

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  • (PMID = 16708524.001).
  • [ISSN] 0256-2855
  • [Journal-full-title] Schweizer Monatsschrift fur Zahnmedizin = Revue mensuelle suisse d'odonto-stomatologie = Rivista mensile svizzera di odontologia e stomatologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Schweiz Monatsschr Zahnmed
  • [Language] FRE; GER
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Number-of-references] 81
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15. Soma P, Loreto F, Galia A, Siragó P: Diffuse-type giant cell tumor. Plast Reconstr Surg; 2006 Apr 15;117(5):1664-5
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  • [Title] Diffuse-type giant cell tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Foot Diseases / surgery. Giant Cell Tumors / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16641758.001).
  • [ISSN] 1529-4242
  • [Journal-full-title] Plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Kim L, Yoon YH, Choi SJ, Han JY, Park IS, Kim JM, Chu YC, Kim YJ: Hyalinizing spindle cell tumor with giant rosettes arising in the lung: report of a case with FUS-CREB3L2 fusion transcripts. Pathol Int; 2007 Mar;57(3):153-7
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  • [Title] Hyalinizing spindle cell tumor with giant rosettes arising in the lung: report of a case with FUS-CREB3L2 fusion transcripts.
  • Hyalinizing spindle cell tumor with giant rosettes (HSCT) is a very uncommon mesenchymal tumor that has similar morphological and biological features to the low-grade fibromyxoid sarcoma (LGFMS).
  • Reported herein is a case of primary pulmonary HSCT that had FUS-CREB3L2 fusion transcripts, a product of characteristic chromosomal abnormality t(7;16)(q33;p11) of HSCT and LGFMS.
  • Histologically, it was composed of bland spindle cells with variable cellularity deposited in a densely hyalinized stroma alternating with myxoid areas.
  • Despite its bland morphology, it is known as low-grade sarcoma and its recognition in the lung would be helpful for accurate diagnosis and proper management of this rare tumor.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Hyalin / metabolism. Middle Aged. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Transcription Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17295648.001).
  • [ISSN] 1320-5463
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CREB3L1 protein, human; 0 / Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins; 0 / Oncogene Proteins, Fusion; 0 / Transcription Factors
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17. Ng PK, Tsui SK, Lau CP, Wong CH, Wong WH, Huang L, Kumta SM: CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta is up-regulated in giant cell tumor of bone and regulates RANKL expression. J Cell Biochem; 2010 May 15;110(2):438-46
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  • [Title] CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta is up-regulated in giant cell tumor of bone and regulates RANKL expression.
  • Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is an aggressive non-cancerous tumor, which consists of multi-nucleated osteoclast-like giant cells, stromal cells, and monocytes.
  • It is believed that stromal cells are the neoplastic component of this tumor.
  • Expression of the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) in the stromal cells stimulates the monocytes to form giant multi-nucleated osteoclast-like cells, causing bone over-resorption at the tumor site.
  • Previously, our group has reported the up-regulation of RANKL in GCT of bone stromal cells, but the mechanism is unknown.
  • Using stromal cell culture of GCT obtained from patients, we demonstrated the up-regulation of the transcriptional activator CCAAT/enhancer binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta).
  • Furthermore, we also showed that C/EBPbeta bound to the RANKL promoter in GCT stromal cells in vivo by chromatin immunoprecipitation.
  • To conclude, our study has shown that C/EBPbeta is a RANKL promoter activator in stromal cells of GCT of bone and we have proposed a model in which C/EBPbeta plays an important role in the osteolytic characteristics and pathological causes of GCT of bone.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / metabolism. CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / metabolism. RANK Ligand / genetics. Up-Regulation
  • [MeSH-minor] Base Sequence. Chromatin Immunoprecipitation. DNA Primers. Humans. Molecular Sequence Data. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Promoter Regions, Genetic. Stromal Cells / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 20225273.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-4644
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cellular biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cell. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Protein-beta; 0 / CEBPB protein, human; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / RANK Ligand; 0 / TNFSF11 protein, human
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18. Beaufour A, Cazals-Hatem D, Regimbeau JM, Ponsot P, Degott C, Belghiti J, Sauvanet A: [Osteoclastic giant cell tumour of the pancreas]. Gastroenterol Clin Biol; 2005 Feb;29(2):197-200
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  • [Title] [Osteoclastic giant cell tumour of the pancreas].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumeur à cellules géantes ostéoclastiques du pancréas.
  • Osteoclast giant cell tumours are bone tumours that occur in adults, and that are considered benign by WHO but locally aggressive.
  • Strictly identical tumours are described in the pancreas, without simultaneous bone localization.
  • We report the case of a 62-year woman with an osteoclast giant cell tumour of the distal pancreas, without any epithelial component, which was diagnosed after pancreatic resection and with no signs of recurrence after a 24-month follow-up.
  • These pancreatic tumours are rare, with a very poor prognosis, an unclear histogenesis; they are often confused with pleomorphic or undifferentiated pancreatic carcinomas including a component of osteoclast giant cell.
  • These osteoclast giant cell tumours of the pancreas usually present as large cystic tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumor of Bone. Pancreatic Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 15795672.001).
  • [ISSN] 0399-8320
  • [Journal-full-title] Gastroentérologie clinique et biologique
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gastroenterol. Clin. Biol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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19. Kawamura K, Yajima H, Kobata Y, Murata K, Shigematsu K, Maegawa N, Takakura Y: Wrist arthrodesis with vascularized fibular grafting. J Reconstr Microsurg; 2009 Nov;25(8):501-5
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  • Six patients underwent wrist arthrodesis using vascularized fibular grafting for treatment of a segmental bone defect across the wrist.
  • Five patients had defects resulting from excision of a giant cell tumor at the distal radius, and one patient had a defect after debridement of a chronic infection.
  • There was no recurrence of a tumor or infection.
  • Wrist arthrodesis using vascularized fibular grafting is a useful procedure for the treatment of a segmental bone defect across the wrist.
  • [MeSH-major] Arthrodesis. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Fibula / transplantation. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19672821.001).
  • [ISSN] 1098-8947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of reconstructive microsurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Reconstr Microsurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Huang SC, Chang CL, Huang CH, Chang CC: Histiocytic sarcoma - a case with evenly distributed multinucleated giant cells. Pathol Res Pract; 2007;203(9):683-9
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  • [Title] Histiocytic sarcoma - a case with evenly distributed multinucleated giant cells.
  • Histiocytic sarcoma is an uncommon neoplasm of mature histiocytes with a poor clinical outcome.
  • We report a case of a true histiocytic sarcoma with prominent and evenly distributed multinucleated giant cells that mimics a giant cell tumor of soft tissue.
  • The tumor was located between the appendix, right ovary, and the terminal ileum with severe adhesion.
  • Grossly, the tumor appeared grayish white, solid, and soft.
  • Microscopically, polygonal mononuclear tumor cells aggregated to form somewhat epithelioid nests, which occasionally showed coagulative necrosis.
  • Prominent and evenly scattered giant cells were present in all sections.
  • In addition, tumor cell infiltration was noted in regional lymph nodes.
  • The tumor cells were positive for lysozyme, CD68, CD163, and negative for T- and B-cell lineage markers, follicular dendritic cell, megakaryocytic, epithelial, muscular, and melanocytic markers, CD1a and CD30.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumors / diagnosis. Giant Cells / pathology. Histiocytes / pathology. Histiocytic Disorders, Malignant / diagnosis. Sarcoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antigens, CD / analysis. Cell Lineage. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Muramidase / analysis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17673373.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; EC 3.2.1.17 / Muramidase
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21. Arbeitsgemeinschaft Knochentumoren, Becker WT, Dohle J, Bernd L, Braun A, Cserhati M, Enderle A, Hovy L, Matejovsky Z, Szendroi M, Trieb K, Tunn PU: Local recurrence of giant cell tumor of bone after intralesional treatment with and without adjuvant therapy. J Bone Joint Surg Am; 2008 May;90(5):1060-7
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  • [Title] Local recurrence of giant cell tumor of bone after intralesional treatment with and without adjuvant therapy.
  • BACKGROUND: The use of adjuvants after curettage has been well established for the treatment of giant cell tumor of bone.
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze the rates of recurrence following different types of treatment as well as the influence of various factors of tumor presentation on those rates.
  • METHODS: The data regarding benign giant cell tumors of the appendicular skeleton from ten bone tumor centers were evaluated.
  • Axial and malignant tumors were excluded.
  • The recurrence rates associated with the different treatment modalities were analyzed, and hazard ratios for a recurrence were calculated for multiple factors of tumor presentation.
  • RESULTS: The study included 384 surgical procedures, involving 256 primary and 128 recurrent tumors.
  • The highest rate of recurrence (36%) after curettage with adjuvants was associated with extracompartmental tumors.
  • Recurrent tumors were not at increased risk for another recurrence, even when they were extracompartmental.
  • The recurrence rate following curettage of a primary tumor without the use of adjuvants (55%) was higher than that following the same treatment of a recurrent tumor (39%) (p = 0.033).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Use of polymethylmethacrylate as an adjuvant significantly reduces the recurrence rate following intralesional treatment of benign giant cell tumors, and it appears to be the therapy of choice for primary as well as recurrent giant cell tumors of bone.
  • The significantly better results following treatment of recurrent tumors without adjuvants compared with the results of the same treatment of primary tumors were probably related to increased surgical thoroughness brought about by the surgeon's awareness of dealing with a riskier tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Cements / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / therapy. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / prevention & control. Polymethyl Methacrylate / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Cautery. Combined Modality Therapy. Curettage. Female. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Male. Neoplasm, Residual / prevention & control. Phenol / administration & dosage. Proportional Hazards Models. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18451399.001).
  • [ISSN] 1535-1386
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of bone and joint surgery. American volume
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Bone Joint Surg Am
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Bone Cements; 339NCG44TV / Phenol; 9011-14-7 / Polymethyl Methacrylate
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22. He SW, Zhang Z, Li ZQ: [The diffuse-type tenosynovial giant cell tumor in ankle joint: a case report]. Zhongguo Gu Shang; 2010 Jul;23(7):557
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  • [Title] [The diffuse-type tenosynovial giant cell tumor in ankle joint: a case report].

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  • (PMID = 20701140.001).
  • [ISSN] 1003-0034
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo gu shang = China journal of orthopaedics and traumatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Gu Shang
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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23. Griglione NM, Klapproth JM, Keilin SA: Giant cell tumor of the common bile duct. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol; 2010 May;8(5):A30
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor of the common bile duct.
  • [MeSH-major] Common Bile Duct / pathology. Common Bile Duct Neoplasms / diagnosis. Giant Cell Tumors / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19765676.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-7714
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical gastroenterology and hepatology : the official clinical practice journal of the American Gastroenterological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Rauramaa T, Pulkkinen J, Miettinen P, Kainulainen S, Seppä A, Kärjä V: Case report: osteoclast-like giant cell tumour of the pancreas without epithelial differentiation. J Clin Pathol; 2010 Apr;63(4):376-7
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  • [Title] Case report: osteoclast-like giant cell tumour of the pancreas without epithelial differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumors / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Cell Differentiation. Humans. Male. Osteoclasts / pathology. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 20354216.001).
  • [ISSN] 1472-4146
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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25. Kandamany N, Mahaffey PJ: Diffuse-type giant cell tumour of the tendon sheath of the proximal forearm. J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg; 2009 Apr;62(4):556-7
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  • [Title] Diffuse-type giant cell tumour of the tendon sheath of the proximal forearm.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumors / diagnosis. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tendons

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  • (PMID = 19010112.001).
  • [ISSN] 1878-0539
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of plastic, reconstructive & aesthetic surgery : JPRAS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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26. Abdulkareem FB, Eyesan SU, Akinde OR, Ezembakwe ME, Nnodu OE: Pathological study of bone tumours at the National Orthopaedic Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria. West Afr J Med; 2007 Oct-Dec;26(4):306-11
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  • [Title] Pathological study of bone tumours at the National Orthopaedic Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria.
  • BACKGROUND: Although primary bone tumours are relatively uncommon, they constitute the most important tumours in patients under 20 years.
  • OBJECTIVE: To update the literature on the relative frequency and clinico-pathologic characteristics of bone tumours in this environment.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: The clinical and histopathological records of patients presenting with diagnosis of bone tumours between 1999 and 2004 and managed at the National Orthopaedic Hospital, Igbobi, (NOHI) Lagos, Nigeria were review and where necessary, new ones were prepared from the paraffin blocks and stained with routine haematoxylin and eosin stain.
  • The clinical data such as the age, sex, presenting signs and symptoms, site distribution of lesions, radiological finding as well as the record of other investigation and management were extracted from the clinical case notes of patients.
  • The male:female ratio for all tumours was 2:1.
  • The commonest benign bone tumours were osteochondroma and giant cell tumour accounting for 52 (67%) of all cases with > 60% in males.
  • The most common primary malignant bone tumour was osteosarcoma, all in males.
  • Four (5.2%) cases of metastatic bone tumours located commonly in the proximal femur and humerus were also recorded.
  • CONCLUSION: Osteochondroma and giant cell tumours are the commonest benign tumours while osteosarcoma is the most common primary bone tumour all occurring in the first two decades of life.

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  • (PMID = 18705432.001).
  • [ISSN] 0189-160X
  • [Journal-full-title] West African journal of medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] West Afr J Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Nigeria
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27. Boneschi V, Parafioriti A, Armiraglio E, Gaiani F, Brambilla L: Primary giant cell tumor of soft tissue of the groin - a case of 46 years duration. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Oct;36 Suppl 1:20-4
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  • [Title] Primary giant cell tumor of soft tissue of the groin - a case of 46 years duration.
  • BACKGROUND: Soft tissue giant cell tumor (GCT-ST) of low malignant potential is an uncommon neoplasm, considered the soft tissue counterpart of giant cell tumor of bone.
  • GCT-ST mainly affects young to middle-age adults and presents as a painless growing mass mainly located in the lower extremities and trunk.
  • Histologically, this tumor is characterized by a mixture of uniformly scattered osteoclast-like multinucleated giant cells intimately admixed with short fascicles of spindled cells.
  • METHODS: The authors report the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical features of an unusual GCT-ST of 46 years duration previously histologically misdiagnosed as Kaposi's sarcoma.
  • RESULTS: Histologically, the tumor was characterized by a multinodular growth pattern with osteoclast-like multinucleated giant cells admixed with spindle cells partially arranged in a storiform pattern, fibrosis and foci of haemorrhage and mature bone.
  • Immunohistochemistry revealed CD68 reactivity of the multinucleated giant cells.
  • CONCLUSION: GCT-ST is a rare neoplasm characterized by benign clinical course if excised adequately, as shown by our case of exceptionally long duration.
  • Emphasis is placed on the importance of differential diagnosis with other giant cell-rich soft tissue neoplasms because clinical behaviour, prognosis and treatment significantly differ.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumors / pathology. Groin / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19222697.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD68 antigen, human
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28. Morii T, Yabe H, Morioka H, Suzuki Y, Anazawa U, Toyama Y: Curettage and allograft reconstruction for giant cell tumours. J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong); 2008 Apr;16(1):75-9
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  • [Title] Curettage and allograft reconstruction for giant cell tumours.
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate treatment outcomes in patients with giant cell tumours after curettage and allograft reconstruction and to identify the risk factors for poor oncological and functional outcome.
  • METHODS: 29 patients with giant cell tumours of bone who underwent curettage and allograft reconstruction were retrospectively reviewed.
  • In 7 patients the tumours recurred (6 within 2 years); the 5-year recurrence-free survival rate was 77%.
  • Tumour in the distal femur was a risk factor for postoperative fracture (p=0.02).
  • We recommend the use of adjuvants and allografts for the management of giant cell tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Bone Transplantation. Curettage. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Orthopedic Procedures. Postoperative Complications. Wound Healing

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  • (PMID = 18453664.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-5536
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of orthopaedic surgery (Hong Kong)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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29. Zhang Z, Zhu B, Sun T: [Case analysis on treatment and recurrence of giant cell tumor of bone]. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Oct;20(10):1007-10
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  • [Title] [Case analysis on treatment and recurrence of giant cell tumor of bone].
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical features, treatment methods, and recurrence factors of giant cell tumor of the bone and to investigate the surgical therapy choice for the tumor around the knees.
  • METHODS: Thirty-eight patients (13 males and 25 females; average age 31.1 years, range 14-59 years) with giant cell tumor of the bone were treated and followed up from January 1993 to January 2005.
  • The intralesional excision (curettage) with the bone grafting was performed on 4 patients; the curettage with some adjuvant treatments (high-speed burring, phenol, alcohol, cement, hydrogen peroxide, 50% ZnCl2, 3% iodine tincture, or bone cement) was used in 26 patients; and resection of the whole tumor was performed on 8 patients.
  • RESULTS: The follow-up of the 38 patients for 12-144 months (average, 67 months) revealed that giant cell tumor of the bone was found around the knees in 29 of the 38 patients (13 at the distal femur, 16 at the proximal tibia), at the proximal femur in 2, at the proximal ulna in 2, at the distal radius in 2, at the sacroiliac area in 2, and at lumbar spine in 1.
  • Of the 38 patients, 4 had a recurrence after simple curettage, 8 had no recurrence after resection of the whole tumor, and 8 of the remaining 26 patients had a recurrence after curettage with some adjuvant treatments.
  • Of the patients with the recurrence, 12 underwent reoperations (8 by the total resection of the recurrent tumor, 4 by the curettage with adjuvant treatments), and there was no recurrence after the reoperation.
  • CONCLUSION: Giant cell tumor of the bone usually recurs around the knee joint, especially at the proximal tibia, usually graded as Grade II or III by the Campanacci's radiological grading system.
  • Simple curettage has a higher recurrence rate; therefore, extensive curettage and resection of the lesions combined with some adjuvant treatments after the correct diagnosis can be used to reduce the high recurrence rate of giant cell tumor of the bone.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • (PMID = 17140075.001).
  • [ISSN] 1002-1892
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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30. Mittal S, Goswami C, Kanoria N, Bhattacharya A: Post-irradiation angiosarcoma of bone. J Cancer Res Ther; 2007 Apr-Jun;3(2):96-9
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  • We report a rare case of high-grade epithelioid angiosarcoma of upper end of right humerus in a 67-year-old male occurring ten years following irradiation for giant cell tumor of the same anatomical site.
  • Disease recurred at the end of one-year follow-up period where upon he underwent wide resection with prosthesis replacement.
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / diagnosis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17998731.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-4138
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and therapeutics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cancer Res Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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31. Lee VN, Nithyananth M, Cherian VM, Amritanand R, Venkatesh K, Sundararaj GD, Raghuram LN: Preoperative embolisation in benign bone tumour excision. J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong); 2008 Apr;16(1):80-3
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  • [Title] Preoperative embolisation in benign bone tumour excision.
  • PURPOSE: To assess the role of preoperative embolisation in benign bone tumour excision.
  • METHODS: 3 men and 3 women aged 19 to 35 (mean 23) years with either a giant cell tumour or an aneurysmal bone cyst in limb girdle sites underwent preoperative embolisation a day prior to wide local excision by the same surgeon.
  • Tumour size, blood loss, wound healing, infection, and tumour recurrence were assessed.
  • No tumour recurred within a minimum 5-year follow-up.
  • CONCLUSION: Preoperative embolisation is useful in the management of vascular and aggressive bone tumours located at limb girdle sites where a tourniquet cannot be used.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Cysts, Aneurysmal / surgery. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Embolization, Therapeutic. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Preoperative Care

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  • (PMID = 18453665.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-5536
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of orthopaedic surgery (Hong Kong)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Orthop Surg (Hong Kong)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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32. Nnodu OE, Giwa SO, Eyesan SU, Abdulkareem FB: Fine needle aspiration cytology of bone tumours--the experience from the National Orthopaedic and Lagos University Teaching Hospitals, Lagos, Nigeria. Cytojournal; 2006;3:16
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  • [Title] Fine needle aspiration cytology of bone tumours--the experience from the National Orthopaedic and Lagos University Teaching Hospitals, Lagos, Nigeria.
  • BACKGROUND: Due to difficulty in confirming clinical suspicions of malignancy in patients presenting with bone tumours, the cost of surgical biopsies where hospital charges are borne almost entirely by patients, competition with bone setters and healing homes with high rate of loss to follow up; we set out to find if sufficient material could be obtained to arrive at reliable tissue diagnosis in patients with clinical and radiological evidence of bone tumours in our hospitals.
  • Of these, 27 were metastases, osteogenic sarcoma 16, giant cell tumour 19, infection 11.
  • CONCLUSION: We conclude that FNAC can be useful in the pre-operative assessment of bone tumours especially where other diagnostic modalities are unavailable.

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  • [Cites] Acta Cytol. 1998 Jul-Aug;42(4):875-82 [9684571.001]
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  • (PMID = 16776844.001).
  • [ISSN] 1742-6413
  • [Journal-full-title] CytoJournal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytojournal
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1526751
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33. Arpornchayanon O, Leerapun T: Effectiveness of intravenous bisphosphonate in treatment of giant cell tumor: a case report and review of the literature. J Med Assoc Thai; 2008 Oct;91(10):1609-12
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  • [Title] Effectiveness of intravenous bisphosphonate in treatment of giant cell tumor: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Giant cell tumor is a benign locally aggressive tumor.
  • Surgical treatment of giant cell tumor at the sacrum is associated with high morbidity, and local recurrence.
  • The authors present a case of giant cell tumor at the sacrum treated with intravenous 4 mg zoledronate every 4 weeks for seven courses followed with curettage and cement implantation.
  • From the present study, the authors demonstrate the effectiveness of zoledronate for treatment of giant cell tumor at the sacrum.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Density Conservation Agents / therapeutic use. Diphosphonates / therapeutic use. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / drug therapy. Imidazoles / therapeutic use. Sacrum / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18972907.001).
  • [ISSN] 0125-2208
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Assoc Thai
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Thailand
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Diphosphonates; 0 / Imidazoles; 6XC1PAD3KF / zoledronic acid
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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34. Diamanti-Kandarakis E, Livadas S, Tseleni-Balafouta S, Lyberopoulos K, Tantalaki E, Palioura H, Giannopoulos A, Kostakis A: Brown tumor of the fibula: unusual presentation of an uncommon manifestation. Report of a case and review of the literature. Endocrine; 2007 Dec;32(3):345-9
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  • [Title] Brown tumor of the fibula: unusual presentation of an uncommon manifestation. Report of a case and review of the literature.
  • Brown tumors are erosive bony lesions caused by rapid osteoclastic activity and peritrabecular fibrosis due to hyperparathyroidism, resulting in a local destructive phenomenon.
  • Although brown tumors are the most pathognomonic sign of hyperparathyroidism, they are very rarely observed at present as a result of early detection of hypercalcemia and elevated parathyroid hormone levels.
  • The rare appearance of this entity in everyday practice is troublesome for both patients and physicians, because whenever it emerges, diagnosis could be mistaken for a giant cell tumor of the bone.
  • In this report we present a case of brown tumor in the fibula with a short literature review, whose aggressive presentation and unawareness of the skeletal findings of hyperparathyroidism puzzled the caring doctors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / diagnosis. Humans. Hyperparathyroidism / complications. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 18246453.001).
  • [ISSN] 1355-008X
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrine
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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35. Matsuo N, Imamura A, Ito R, Sugawara K, Takahashi Y, Kondo N: The correlation between 1H-MR spectroscopy and clinical manifestation with tuberous sclerosis complex. Neuropediatrics; 2007 Jun;38(3):126-9
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  • Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominant neurocutaneous disease.
  • Cortical tubers are one of the standard intracranial hallmarks of TSC, they comprise subependymal hamartomas protruding into the ventricles, cortical and white matter hamartomas, and giant cell tumors.

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  • (PMID = 17985261.001).
  • [ISSN] 0174-304X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuropediatrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuropediatrics
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Protons; 30KYC7MIAI / Aspartic Acid; 997-55-7 / N-acetylaspartate; MU72812GK0 / Creatine; N91BDP6H0X / Choline
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36. Sheikh SS, Amr SS: Mycotic cysts: report of 21 cases including eight pheomycotic cysts from Saudi Arabia. Int J Dermatol; 2007 Apr;46(4):388-92
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  • The clinical impression varied widely including ganglion, sebaceous cyst, giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath, and lipoma.

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  • (PMID = 17442079.001).
  • [ISSN] 0011-9059
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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37. Singh J, James SL, Kroon HM, Woertler K, Anderson SE, Jundt G, Davies AM: Tumour and tumour-like lesions of the patella--a multicentre experience. Eur Radiol; 2009 Mar;19(3):701-12
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  • [Title] Tumour and tumour-like lesions of the patella--a multicentre experience.
  • Fifty-nine cases of lesions presenting in the patella were identified after review of the databases of four European bone tumour registries.
  • The commonest benign neoplasm was giant cell tumour (GCT) (11 cases).
  • Younger patients were more likely to have a benign neoplasm.
  • Lesions in patients less than 40 years of age included giant cell tumour, chondroblastoma, aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC), osteomyelitis, osteoid osteoma and solitary bone cyst.
  • Expansion of the patella with thinning of cortex was seen more commonly in GCT and brown tumour in hyperparathyroidism.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Giant Cell Tumors / pathology. Patella / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Male. Medical Oncology / methods. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Metastasis. Radiology / methods

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  • [ErratumIn] Eur Radiol. 2010 Mar;20(3):763. Jundt, G [added]
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  • (PMID = 18815789.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1084
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
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38. Lee JY, Pho RW, Yeo DS: Central column reconstruction following total resection of a third metacarpal giant cell tumour. J Hand Surg Br; 2005 Dec;30(6):650-5
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  • [Title] Central column reconstruction following total resection of a third metacarpal giant cell tumour.
  • A wide resection of a giant cell tumour involving the entire middle metacarpal is presented.
  • Although independent index and middle finger motion was sacrificed, the approach allowed wide resection for local tumour control, re-established structural integrity, preserved metacarpophalangeal joint motion and allowed early motion.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Bone Transplantation. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Ilium / transplantation. Metacarpus

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  • (PMID = 16140443.001).
  • [ISSN] 0266-7681
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of hand surgery (Edinburgh, Scotland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hand Surg Br
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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39. Szalay K, Antal I, Kiss J, Szendroi M: Comparison of the degenerative changes in weight-bearing joints following cementing or grafting techniques in giant cell tumour patients: medium-term results. Int Orthop; 2006 Dec;30(6):505-9
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  • [Title] Comparison of the degenerative changes in weight-bearing joints following cementing or grafting techniques in giant cell tumour patients: medium-term results.
  • The aim of this retrospective study was to compare and assess the effect of bone grafting and cementing techniques--two common applications used in the treatment of subchondral giant cell tumours of bone (GCTs)--on the development of degenerative changes in the weight-bearing joints of the lower extremity.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Cements / adverse effects. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Bone Transplantation / adverse effects. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Joints / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Disease-Free Survival. Femur / pathology. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Middle Aged. Quality of Life. Recovery of Function. Retrospective Studies. Tibia / pathology. Weight-Bearing

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  • (PMID = 16969579.001).
  • [ISSN] 0341-2695
  • [Journal-full-title] International orthopaedics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Orthop
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Cements
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3172737
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40. Yu X, Liu X, Fu Z: [Reoperation after limb salvage surgery with prosthesis for bone tumor]. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Oct;20(10):1011-3
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  • [Title] [Reoperation after limb salvage surgery with prosthesis for bone tumor].
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the causes and the reoperation therapies after salvage limb surgery with prosthesis for bone tumors.
  • METHODS: The retrospective analysis was performed on 85 patients undergoing the limb salvage operation with prosthetic replacement for tumors from January 1994 to December 2004.
  • All the diagnoses were pathologically confirmed (10 patients with osteosarcoma, 4 with chondrosarcoma, 5 with giant cell tumor of the bone, 2 with osteofibrosarcoma).
  • The common reasons for the reoperation were tumor recurrence in 8 patients, prosthetic loosening in 5, no healing of the incision in 4, joint dislocation in 3, and implant fracture in 1.
  • The amputation and the prosthesis revision were respectively performed on 6 patients, extensive resection of the tumor on 3, the myo-skin flap translocation on 4, internal hemipelvectomy without reconstruction on 1, and open reduction on 1.
  • The other 14 patients had no tumor recurrence or loosening of the prosthesis, and the incisions healed well.
  • CONCLUSION: Tumor recurrence is the most common reason for the reoperation after the limb salvage with prosthesis for tumors, and loosening of the prosthesis is an important reason, too.
  • By the rules of the bone tumor limb savage, the limb salvage operations can also be performed, which can achieve a satisfactory result of the limb function.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Limb Salvage. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Prosthesis Implantation

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  • (PMID = 17140076.001).
  • [ISSN] 1002-1892
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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41. Li N, Guo W, Yang R: [Reconstruction of bone defects with autograft after resection of upper extremity bone]. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Oct;20(10):992-5
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  • OBJECTIVE: To discuss the reconstructive method of the bone defect after resection of the upper extremity bone tumor and to assess the outcome of the autograft to reconstruct the bone defect after the bone tumor resection.
  • METHODS: From August 1998 to March 2004, 16 patients aged 7-45 years suffering from bone tumor of the upper extremity were treated with the wide resection of the bone tumor and the reconstruction of the bone defect by the autograft.
  • The following diagnoses were confirmed by pathological examination: Ewing's sarcoma and osteosarcoma of the proximal humerus in 1 patient each; Ewing's sarcoma of the distal humerus in 2 patients; giant cell tumor in 8 patients, high-grade chondrosarcoma in 2, malignant fibrohistiocytoma in 1; and osteosarcoma in 1 of the distal radius.
  • Of the 12 patients with tumor in the distal radius, 1 was reconstructed with autograft of the iliac bone and 11 with autograft with the fibula.
  • CONCLUSION: Reconstruction of the bone defect with the autograft after the wide resection of the upper extremity bone tumor is an ideal and reliable method for some suitable patients, especially for some children.

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  • (PMID = 17140071.001).
  • [ISSN] 1002-1892
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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42. Bhagat S, Sharma H, Bansal M, Reid R: Presentation and outcome of primary tumors of the patella. J Knee Surg; 2008 Jul;21(3):212-6
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  • [Title] Presentation and outcome of primary tumors of the patella.
  • Demographics, pathology, and outcomes of 7 patellar tumors, including 2 giant cell tumors, 2 chondroblastomas, 1 osteoid osteoma, 1 osteitis fibrosa cystica, and 1 case of myelomatous infiltration, are described.
  • Both patients with giant cell tumors underwent total patellectomy.
  • Patellar tumors represent special management problems because of their subcutaneous location, relationship to the extensor mechanism, and difficulties in interpretation of radiographs.

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  • (PMID = 18686483.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-8506
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of knee surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Knee Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. Burkadze G, Turashvili G: A case of osteoclast-like giant cell tumor of the pancreas associated with borderline mucinous cystic neoplasm. Pathol Oncol Res; 2009 Mar;15(1):129-31
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  • [Title] A case of osteoclast-like giant cell tumor of the pancreas associated with borderline mucinous cystic neoplasm.
  • Grossly, the mass consisted of a multiloculated cystic lesion measuring 11.7 cm in its greatest dimension.
  • Histologically, there were two distinct components: a mucinous, neoplastic epithelial cyst with few foci of moderate atypia, and nodular spindle cell areas containing multinucleated tumor giant cells.
  • Immunohistochemically, the multinucleated giant cells were positive for vimentin, CD68 and CD45, and negative for cytokeratin and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA).
  • The spindle cells of hypercellular stroma were stained for vimentin, but not for EMA or carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA).
  • The histological diagnosis "osteoclast-like giant cell tumor of the pancreas associated with borderline mucinous cystic neoplasm" was made.
  • The patient recovered and is free of disease 4 years after the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cystadenoma, Mucinous / pathology. Giant Cell Tumors / pathology. Osteoclasts / pathology. Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques

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  • (PMID = 18493871.001).
  • [ISSN] 1219-4956
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology oncology research : POR
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Oncol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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44. Kamer S, Anacak Y, Savaş R, Doğanavşargil B, Haydaroğlu A: Giant cell tumor of the bone with an asymptomatic huge solitary lung metastasis; case presentation and literature review. J BUON; 2006 Jan-Mar;11(1):87-90
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor of the bone with an asymptomatic huge solitary lung metastasis; case presentation and literature review.
  • A case concerning a man having giant cell tumor (GCT) of the leg and huge lung metastasis is presented.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 17318959.001).
  • [ISSN] 1107-0625
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of B.U.ON. : official journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J BUON
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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45. Landesberg R, Eisig S, Fennoy I, Siris E: Alternative indications for bisphosphonate therapy. J Oral Maxillofac Surg; 2009 May;67(5 Suppl):27-34
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  • Bisphosphonates are currently used in the treatment of osteoporosis (postmenopausal and steroid-induced), hypercalcemia of malignancy, Paget's disease of bone, multiple myeloma, and skeletally related events associated with metastatic bone disease in breast, prostate, lung, and other cancers.
  • There are, however, numerous other conditions where a decrease in bone remodeling by bisphosphonates might aid in disease management.
  • In this review we present several cases where bisphosphonates have been used as a primary or adjunctive treatment for giant cell lesions of the jaws.
  • Use of bisphosphonate therapy for giant cell tumors of the appendicular skeleton, pediatric osteogenesis imperfecta, fibrous dysplasia, Gaucher's disease, and osteomyelitis will be discussed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Alveolar Bone Loss / drug therapy. Alveolar Bone Loss / etiology. Bone Neoplasms / drug therapy. Dental Implants / adverse effects. Female. Fibrous Dysplasia of Bone / drug therapy. Gaucher Disease / drug therapy. Giant Cell Tumors / drug therapy. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Osteogenesis Imperfecta / drug therapy. Osteomyelitis / drug therapy. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19371812.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5053
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Density Conservation Agents; 0 / Dental Implants; 0 / Diphosphonates
  • [Number-of-references] 105
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46. Ngan KW, Chuang WY, Yeh CJ: Soft tissue recurrence of sacral giant cell tumour of bone as an intra-abdominal mass: an unusual presentation. Pathology; 2008 Apr;40(3):312-3
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  • [Title] Soft tissue recurrence of sacral giant cell tumour of bone as an intra-abdominal mass: an unusual presentation.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / secondary. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 18428057.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
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47. Guo Z, Wang Z, Li J, Li XD: [Reconstruction with a new type of combined reconstruction following excision of periacetabular tumors]. Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2008 Jun 15;46(12):895-9
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  • [Title] [Reconstruction with a new type of combined reconstruction following excision of periacetabular tumors].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reconstructive effect of a new pattern of combined reconstruction after periacetabular tumor resections.
  • METHODS: Between March 2001 and March 2007, tumor resections and new pattern of combined reconstructions which consisted of screw-rod system, acetabular reinforcement shell, antibiotic cement and total hip arthroplasty techniques were performed in 23 patients with periacetabular tumors.
  • Seventeen patients had primary malignant tumors including 7 chondrosarcomas, 4 osteosarcomas, 2 Ewing sarcomas, 2 malignant fibrohistiocytomas, 1 malignant Schwannomas, and 1 synovial sarcoma.
  • Other primary tumors were 2 giant cell tumors and 1 aggressive osteoblastoma.
  • Three metastatic bone tumors were also included in this study, and the original sites were thyroid, breast, and ovary.
  • Three primary benign bone tumors belonged to stage III.
  • 8 months (range, 9-73 months) in the patients with primary tumors.
  • The survival time in 3 patients with metastatic disease were between 9.6 months and 36. 6 months.
  • There were 4 patients who had local recurrence, 5 patients had pulmonary metastases, and 5 patients died of disease.
  • CONCLUSIONS: This new combined reconstruction is an effective way to rebuild pelvic ring and maintain hip function with low complication rate after periacetabular tumor resections.

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  • (PMID = 19035146.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5815
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua wai ke za zhi [Chinese journal of surgery]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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48. Matsubayashi S, Nakashima M, Kumagai K, Egashira M, Naruke Y, Kondo H, Hayashi T, Shindo H: Immunohistochemical analyses of beta-catenin and cyclin D1 expression in giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB): a possible role of Wnt pathway in GCTB tumorigenesis. Pathol Res Pract; 2009;205(9):626-33
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical analyses of beta-catenin and cyclin D1 expression in giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB): a possible role of Wnt pathway in GCTB tumorigenesis.
  • Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is a benign neoplasm but occasionally shows local recurrence, and histologically consists of osteoclast-like giant cells (GC) and stromal mononuclear cells (SC), which are capable of proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation.
  • We performed immunohistochemistry for beta-catenin, cyclin D1, and Ki-67 in 16 GCTB tumors, including 5 recurrent cases that were surgically resected.
  • The nuclear beta-catenin labeling index (LI) in both SC (60.6 vs. 41.8%, p=0.074) and GC (41.7 vs. 20.1%, p=0.095) was higher in recurrent tumors than in primary tumors in all the 4 cases.
  • However, Ki-67 LI in SC (18.8 vs. 19.9%, p=0.851) and cyclin D1 LI in GC (55.4 vs. 70.1%, p=0.225) were not higher in recurrent tumors than in primary tumors.
  • Since cyclin D1 in GC was never associated with the expression of the well-known proliferative marker Ki-67, cyclin D1 expression might play a role in GC formation instead of promoting cell proliferation during GCTB tumorigenesis.
  • Importantly, it was suggested that the nuclear beta-catenin staining level might be associated with tumor recurrence in GCTB.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / metabolism. Cyclin D1 / biosynthesis. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / metabolism. Wnt Proteins / metabolism. beta Catenin / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Female. Gene Expression. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / biosynthesis. Ki-67 Antigen / genetics. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / metabolism. Signal Transduction / physiology. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19324500.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-0631
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
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49. Schindler OS, Cannon SR, Briggs TW, Blunn GW: Use of a novel bone graft substitute in peri-articular bone tumours of the knee. Knee; 2007 Dec;14(6):458-64
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  • [Title] Use of a novel bone graft substitute in peri-articular bone tumours of the knee.
  • We treated three patients with aneurysmal bone cysts and seven with giant cell tumours who presented with a large osteolytic lesion in peri-articular areas of the knee.
  • The average tumour volume was measured at 39.8 cm(3) (range 18 to 65 cm(3)).
  • The tumour cavities were treated with curettage, phenolisation and application of a composite bone graft substitute containing 35% calcium-sulphate hemihydrate and 65% hydroxyapatite granules.
  • Tumour recurrence was noted in two cases.
  • All patients regained close to normal function, with a mean Musculoskeletal Tumour Society Rating Score of 95.1%.
  • Concerns remain as the radio-opaque appearance of the bone graft substitute may potentially delay the detection of tumour recurrence.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bone Cysts, Aneurysmal / surgery. Child. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17869519.001).
  • [ISSN] 0968-0160
  • [Journal-full-title] The Knee
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Knee
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Substitutes; 91D9GV0Z28 / Durapatite; WAT0DDB505 / Calcium Sulfate
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50. Nielsen TO: Discovery research to clinical trial: a ten year journey. Clin Invest Med; 2010;33(6):E342-8
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  • Torsten Nielsen, details successful examples of new scientific insights, diagnostics and clinical trials that have resulted from microarray-based gene expression profiling of sarcomas: TLE1 as a biomarker for synovial sarcoma, histone deacetylase inhibitor therapy for translocation-associated sarcomas of young adults, and CSF1 pathway inhibitors for tenosynovial giant cell tumors.

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  • (PMID = 21134335.001).
  • [ISSN] 1488-2353
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and investigative medicine. Médecine clinique et experimentale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Invest Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] Canada / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / TLE1 protein, human
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51. Puig PE, Guilly MN, Bouchot A, Droin N, Cathelin D, Bouyer F, Favier L, Ghiringhelli F, Kroemer G, Solary E, Martin F, Chauffert B: Tumor cells can escape DNA-damaging cisplatin through DNA endoreduplication and reversible polyploidy. Cell Biol Int; 2008 Sep;32(9):1031-43
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  • [Title] Tumor cells can escape DNA-damaging cisplatin through DNA endoreduplication and reversible polyploidy.
  • Cancer chemotherapy can induce tumor regression followed, in many cases, by relapse in the long-term.
  • When animals bearing an established tumor are treated by cisplatin, the tumor initially undergoes a dramatic shrinkage and is characterized by giant tumor cells that do not proliferate but maintain DNA synthesis.
  • After several weeks of latency, the tumor resumes its progression and consists of small proliferating cells.
  • Similarly, when tumor cells are exposed in vitro to pharmacological concentrations of cisplatin, mitotic activity stops initially but cells maintain DNA duplication.
  • This DNA endoreduplication generates giant polyploid cells that then initiate abortive mitoses and can die through mitotic catastrophe.
  • However, many polyploid cells survive for weeks as non-proliferating mono- or multi-nucleated giant cells which acquire a senescence phenotype.
  • Prolonged observation of these cells sheds light on the delayed emergence of a limited number of extensive colonies which originate from polyploid cells, as demonstrated by cell sorting analysis.
  • Theses colonies are made of small diploid cells which differ from parental cells by stereotyped chromosomal aberrations and an increased resistance to cytotoxic drugs.
  • These data suggest that a multistep pathway, including DNA endoreduplication, polyploidy, then depolyploidization and generation of clonogenic escape cells can account for tumor relapse after initial efficient chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Cisplatin / pharmacology. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. DNA Damage. Gene Duplication / drug effects. Polyploidy. Tumor Escape / drug effects
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Bromodeoxyuridine / metabolism. Cell Aging / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Survival / drug effects. DNA, Neoplasm / biosynthesis. Diploidy. Disease Models, Animal. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / drug effects. Mitosis / drug effects. Phenotype. Rats. Time Factors


52. Kuhnen C, Müller KM, Rabstein S, Kasprzynski A, Herter P: [Tenosynovial giant cell tumor]. Pathologe; 2005 Mar;26(2):96-110
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  • [Title] [Tenosynovial giant cell tumor].
  • [Transliterated title] Tenosynovialer Riesenzelltumor Morphologische, ultrastrukturelle und immunhistochemische Befunde sowie Differenzialdiagnose riesenzellhaltiger Tumoren des Weichgewebes.
  • Morphological, ultrastructural, and immunohistochemical findings of 12 diffuse type-tenosynovial giant cell tumors/pigmented villonodular synovitis are presented compared to 30 localized tenosynovial giant cell tumors (giant cell tumor of tendon sheath).
  • Diffuse-type-tenosynovial giant cell tumor is characterized by a striking vascularisation pattern composed of densely arranged thin-walled, partly slit-like and partly hyalinized small blood vessels within the papillary synovial fronds.
  • These vessels may show abnormal structures with incompletely arranged endothelial cells/pericytes.
  • The fibrohistiocytic tumor cells probably cause considerable compression/distortion or destruction of the small vessels which might be responsible for an increased blood deposition and massive hemosiderosis.
  • Accompanying multinucleated osteoclast-like giant cells seemingly are recruited from circulating blood monocytes.
  • Microhemorrhagic foci with multinucleated giant cells could be detected in 83% of diffuse-type and 67% of localized-type tumors.
  • Apart from the described vessels, typical morphological findings in diffuse-type tenosynovial giant cell tumors included "giant" hemosiderotic granules, (at least 2-3 times the diameter of an erythrocyte) "giant" siderophages, pseudoalveolar clefts and irregularly anastomosing synovial fronds.
  • Neither mitotic rate nor the amount of giant cells/amount of nuclei of giant cells revealed statistically significant differences between localized-type and diffuse-type of tenosynovial giant cell tumor.
  • Immunohistochemically, the diffuse-type exhibited focal expression of CD31 (in 75% of tumors) and calretinin (in 63%) besides CD68-staining.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumors / pathology. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology. Synovial Membrane / pathology. Tendons / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15657685.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-8113
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD
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53. Liao TS, Yurgelun MB, Chang SS, Zhang HZ, Murakami K, Blaine TA, Parisien MV, Kim W, Winchester RJ, Lee FY: Recruitment of osteoclast precursors by stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1) in giant cell tumor of bone. J Orthop Res; 2005 Jan;23(1):203-9
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  • [Title] Recruitment of osteoclast precursors by stromal cell derived factor-1 (SDF-1) in giant cell tumor of bone.
  • Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is a unique bone lesion that is characterized by an excessive number of multinucleated osteoclasts.
  • GCT consists of neoplastic stromal cells, multinucleated osteoclasts and their precursors, thus serving as a naturally occurring human disease model for the study of osteoclastogenesis.
  • It still remains unclear how stromal cells of GCT recruit osteoclast precursors.
  • In the present study, we characterized the cellular components of GCT and confirmed the presence of CD14(+)-monocytes/CD68(+)-macrophages and CD34(+)-hematopoetic stem cells that express CXCR4, a specific receptor for SDF-1; SDF-1 gene expression and presence of SDF-1 protein were confirmed by real time RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry in the GCT tissue and cultured cells.
  • SDF-1 was present at 25-50 ng/ml in the conditioned media from the GCT cultures, which is in the range of physiological chemotactic concentration.
  • Migration of osteoclast precursors was 2.5-fold higher in response to GCT conditioned media compared to the control media; and migration was inhibited by an average of 36% with anti-SDF-1 neutralizing antibody or competing recombinant SDF-1.
  • These results suggest that SDF-1 is one of the significant chemoattractant factors involved in the recruitment of hematopoietic osteoclast precursor cells during tumor-induced osteoclastogenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / pathology. Chemokines, CXC / physiology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology. Osteoclasts / physiology. Stem Cells / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Chemokine CXCL12. Chemotaxis, Leukocyte. Hematopoietic Stem Cells / physiology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Monocytes / immunology. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction

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  • (PMID = 15607894.001).
  • [ISSN] 0736-0266
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of orthopaedic research : official publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Orthop. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CXCL12 protein, human; 0 / Chemokine CXCL12; 0 / Chemokines, CXC
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54. Dridi M, Annabi H, Ben Ghozlen R, Abdelkefi M, Trabelsi M: Giant cell tumour of a phalanx in the foot: a case report. Acta Orthop Belg; 2008 Apr;74(2):273-5
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumour of a phalanx in the foot: a case report.
  • Giant cell tumours are uncommon benign osseous neoplasias with an obscure origin.
  • The authors report a case of giant cell tumour involving a phalangeal bone in the foot and review the presentation, distinctive features and treatment of this tumour when occurring in this location.
  • A 28-year-old female patient was seen with an aggressive giant cell tumour of the first phalangeal bone of the third ray of her left foot.
  • The patient has now been free from disease for 12 years.
  • When giant cell tumour occurs in such a location, it appears to represent a distinct, more aggressive form of tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Toe Phalanges

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  • (PMID = 18564489.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6462
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta orthopaedica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Orthop Belg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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55. Sehli H, Daoud L, Ben Mbarek R, Ghorbel R, Ben Abdelghani K, Charfi H, Cheour I, Tarhouni L, Sellami S: [Osteomalacia and giant cell tumor: a rare case]. Tunis Med; 2008 Sep;86(9):836-8
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  • [Title] [Osteomalacia and giant cell tumor: a rare case].
  • BACKGROUND: Oncogenic octeomalacia is an unusual and rare clinicopathologic syndrome characterized by mesenchymal tumors that apparently produce osteomalacia and biochemical abnormalities consisting of hypophosphatemia and normocalcemia.
  • AIM: We have investigated the mechanism by which a giant cell tumor of bone caused biopsy-proved osteomalacia in a 50-year-old woman.
  • The diagnosis of osteomalacia was retained, associated with a giant cell tumor.
  • The coexistence of giant cell tumor of bone and osteomalacia suggested the diagnosis of oncogenic osteomalacia.
  • Resolution of the biochemical abnormalities of the syndrome after tumor resection, established this diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / complications. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / complications. Osteomalacia / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19472787.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
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56. Grabellus F, von Winterfeld F, Sheu SY, Metz KA, Jahnke K, Schmid KW: Unusual aggressive course of a giant cell tumor of soft tissue during immunosuppressive therapy. Virchows Arch; 2006 Jun;448(6):847-51
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  • [Title] Unusual aggressive course of a giant cell tumor of soft tissue during immunosuppressive therapy.
  • Giant cell tumor of soft tissue with low malignant potential (GCT-ST) is a low-grade, primary soft tissue sarcoma with histological and clinical features similar to giant cell tumor of the bone.
  • The main tumor localizations are the extremities, but it may also occur in the head and neck region.
  • GCT-ST shows a recurrence rate of approximately 15%, but it very rarely metastasizes.
  • We report of a GCT-ST of low malignant potential, which developed under long-term immunosuppression in a patient 12 years after heart transplantation.
  • The tumor presented with an unusual aggressive course and metastatic site: the parotid gland.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumors / secondary. Immunocompromised Host. Immunosuppressive Agents / adverse effects. Parotid Neoplasms / secondary. Postoperative Complications. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Heart Transplantation. Humans. Immunosuppression. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local

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  • [Cites] N Engl J Med. 1995 Jan 5;332(1):19-25 [7990861.001]
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  • (PMID = 16596381.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunosuppressive Agents
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57. Stratil PG, Stacy GS: Multifocal metachronous giant cell tumor in a 15-year-old boy. Pediatr Radiol; 2005 Apr;35(4):444-8
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  • [Title] Multifocal metachronous giant cell tumor in a 15-year-old boy.
  • We report a case of multifocal metachronous giant cell tumor (GCT) that involved the fibula, tibia, and sacrum of a 15-year-old boy.
  • Multifocal GCT of bone presenting in children is an exceedingly rare phenomenon; however, there is evidence that multifocal GCT presents, on average, at a younger age than solitary GCT.
  • Pediatric radiologists should be aware of this when encountering a single lesion with characteristic radiographic features of GCT and when encountering multiple lytic skeletal lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Fibula / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Second Primary / diagnosis. Sacrum / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tibia / pathology

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  • [Cites] J Bone Joint Surg Am. 1977 Dec;59(8):1052-60 [591535.001]
  • [Cites] Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1996 Jan;(322):245-52 [8542701.001]
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  • (PMID = 15480610.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0449
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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58. von Steyern FV, Kristiansson I, Jonsson K, Mannfolk P, Heinegård D, Rydholm A: Giant-cell tumour of the knee: the condition of the cartilage after treatment by curettage and cementing. J Bone Joint Surg Br; 2007 Mar;89(3):361-5
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  • [Title] Giant-cell tumour of the knee: the condition of the cartilage after treatment by curettage and cementing.
  • We reviewed nine patients at a mean period of 11 years (6 to 16) after curettage and cementing of a giant-cell tumour around the knee to determine if there were any long-term adverse effects on the cartilage.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Giant Cell / surgery. Curettage / methods. Knee Joint / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17356150.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-620X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of bone and joint surgery. British volume
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Bone Joint Surg Br
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cartilage Oligomeric Matrix Protein; 0 / Extracellular Matrix Proteins; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / Matrilin Proteins; 0 / TSP5 protein, human
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59. Anagnostopoulos G, Sakorafas GH, Grigoriadis K, Kostopoulos P: Malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the liver: a case report and review of the literature. Mt Sinai J Med; 2005 Jan;72(1):50-2
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  • MFH of the liver is an extremely rare neoplasm, with only 28 cases reported in the international literature since 1985.
  • The tumor was located in the right lobe of the liver and measured 12 ' 8 cm.
  • It consisted of spindle-shaped, pleomorphic, malignant cells in a storiform pattern associated with histiocyte-like cells and giant cells.
  • Most of the tumor cells and giant cells were vimentin and a 1-antichymotrypsin positive.


60. Rose RF, Merchant W, Stables GI, Lyon CL, Platt A: Basal cell carcinoma with a sarcomatous component (carcinosarcoma): a series of 5 cases and a review of the literature. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2008 Oct;59(4):627-32
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  • [Title] Basal cell carcinoma with a sarcomatous component (carcinosarcoma): a series of 5 cases and a review of the literature.
  • Cutaneous carcinosarcomas are rare biphasic malignant tumors with a malignant epithelial component together with malignant stroma.
  • Each tumor had an epithelial component resembling a typical nodular basal cell carcinoma.
  • The stromal components demonstrated atypical spindle cells and tumor giant cells, undifferentiated stroma, or osteoid formation.
  • The recent literature concerning the pathogenesis and prognosis of these unusual tumors is reviewed.

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  • (PMID = 18793937.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 23
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61. Wu S, Shi X, Zhou G: [An analysis on follow-up of the treatment of complicated giant cell tumor of bone]. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Oct;20(10):1004-6
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  • [Title] [An analysis on follow-up of the treatment of complicated giant cell tumor of bone].
  • OBJECTIVE: To discuss the definition of complicated giant cell tumor of the bone and retrospectively analyze the treatment protocols and their therapeutic results so as to provide a clinical basis for reducing the postoperative recurrence of this kind of tumor.
  • METHODS: From April 2001 to April 2005, 22 patients (11 males and 11 females, aged 15-66 years) with complicated giant cell tumor of the bone were treated by the marginal or wide excision.
  • The tumor was located in the distal femur in 10 patients, the proximal tibia in 5, the proximal femur in 2, the proximal humerus in 2, the hip bone in 2, and the distal radius in 1.
  • RESULTS: The analysis on the follow-up (6-48 months, averaged 23 months) of the 22 patients revealed that the complicated factors were as follows: the tumor breaking through the cortex with an extraosseous mass; the tumor having pathologic fracture; the tumor representing more biologically-aggressive lesions; and the tumor having one or more local recurrences.
  • CONCLUSION: The marginal or wide excision of this kind of complicated giant cell tumor of the bone combined with osteoarticular allograft or total arthroplasty can reduce the local recurrence of the tumor and achieve a certain degree of the articular motion function.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery

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  • (PMID = 17140074.001).
  • [ISSN] 1002-1892
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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62. Van Dyck P, Vanhoenacker FM, Vogel J, Venstermans C, Kroon HM, Gielen J, Parizel PM, Bloem JL, De Schepper AM: Prevalence, extension and characteristics of fluid-fluid levels in bone and soft tissue tumors. Eur Radiol; 2006 Dec;16(12):2644-51
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  • [Title] Prevalence, extension and characteristics of fluid-fluid levels in bone and soft tissue tumors.
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence, extension and signal characteristics of fluid-fluid levels in a large series of 700 bone and 700 soft tissue tumors.
  • Out of a multi-institutional database, MRI of 700 consecutive patients with a bone tumor and MRI of 700 consecutive patients with a soft tissue neoplasm were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of fluid-fluid levels.
  • Of 700 patients with a bone tumor, 19 (10 male and 9 female; mean age, 29 years) presented with a fluid-fluid level (prevalence 2.7%).
  • Diagnoses included aneurysmal bone cyst (ten cases), fibrous dysplasia (two cases), osteoblastoma (one case), simple bone cyst (one case), telangiectatic osteosarcoma (one case), "brown tumor" (one case), chondroblastoma (one case) and giant cell tumor (two cases).
  • Of 700 patients with a soft tissue tumor, 20 (9 males and 11 females; mean age, 34 years) presented with a fluid-fluid level (prevalence 2.9%).
  • In our series, the largest reported in the literature to the best of our knowledge, the presence of fluid-fluid levels is a rare finding with a prevalence of 2.7 and 2.9% in bone and soft tissue tumors, respectively.
  • Fluid-fluid levels remain a non-specific finding and can occur in a wide range of bone and soft tissue tumors, both benign and malignant.
  • Therefore, they cannot be considered diagnostic of any particular type of tumor, and the diagnosis should be made on the basis of other radiological and clinical findings.

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  • (PMID = 16612549.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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63. Bharatnur SS, Naik CN, Swethadri GK, Fernandes H, Shekhar JC, Marla NJ: Fine needle aspiration cytology of benign fibrous histiocytoma of bone: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2010 Jan-Feb;54(1):89-91
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  • BACKGROUND; Benign fibrous histiocytoma (BFH) of bone is a very rare tumor, and almost all reported cases were diagnosed after surgical resection by histologic examination.
  • FNA biopsy followed by cytologic examination revealed highly cellular smears with spindle-shaped cells arranged in sheets, papillary fronds and storiform pattern.
  • These cells had a moderate amount of cytoplasm and round to elongated nuclei with inconspicuous nucleoli.
  • Multinucleate giant cells were occasionally seen.
  • A cytologic diagnosis of Giant cell tumor of bone with a BFH component was rendered.

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  • (PMID = 20306998.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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64. Karakida K, Ota Y, Aoki T, Akamatsu T, Kajiwara H, Hirabayashi K: Multiple giant cell tumors in maxilla and skull complicating Paget's disease of bone. Tokai J Exp Clin Med; 2010 Sep;35(3):112-7
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  • [Title] Multiple giant cell tumors in maxilla and skull complicating Paget's disease of bone.
  • Paget's disease of bone (PDB) is a very rare disease in the Asian countries including Japan, although as a bone metabolism disease it is relatively common in Europeans and Americans.
  • An infrequent complication of PDB is the giant cell tumor (GCT).
  • We encountered a case of GCT in the maxilla complicating PDB in a 57-year-old Japanese woman.
  • She developed her first GCT in the right occipital bone 14 years ago, which was resected.
  • Recently, she was found to have a GCT in the maxilla and maxillotomy was performed.
  • The sporadic form of GCT associated with PDB almost always arises in pagetic bone.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / complications. Maxillary Neoplasms / complications. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / complications. Osteitis Deformans / complications. Skull Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 21319038.001).
  • [ISSN] 2185-2243
  • [Journal-full-title] The Tokai journal of experimental and clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tokai J. Exp. Clin. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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65. Pinto AV, Martins PR, Romagnoli GG, Campanelli AP, Terezan AP, Filho ER, Ferreira da Eira A, Kaneno R: Polysaccharide fraction of Agaricus brasiliensis avoids tumor-induced IL-10 production and changes the microenvironment of subcutaneous Ehrlich adenocarcinoma. Cell Immunol; 2009;256(1-2):27-38
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  • [Title] Polysaccharide fraction of Agaricus brasiliensis avoids tumor-induced IL-10 production and changes the microenvironment of subcutaneous Ehrlich adenocarcinoma.
  • Subcutaneous Ehrlich tumor-bearing mice were treated with in situ inoculation of a beta-glucan-rich extract of Agaricus brasiliensis (ATF), which reduced tumor growth.
  • Histopathological analysis showed that the tumor masses of control mice (Ehr) presented giant tumor cells and many mitotic figures whereas the tumor tissue obtained from ATF-treated animals (Ehr-ATF) presented a lower frequency of both mitotic and giant cells, associated with a higher frequency of apoptotic cells than Ehr.
  • Analysis of the lymphoproliferative activity of spleen cells showed that the treatment had a suppressive rather than a stimulatory effect.
  • Spleen cells of the Ehr group produced higher in vitro levels of IL-10 than normal controls and this occurrence was partially avoided by treatment with ATF.
  • Analysis of cytokine production by tumor-infiltrating cells (ELISpot) showed that ATF induced a higher number of IFN-gamma-producing cells at 7 and 14days as well as reduction of IL-10-secreting cells at the latter time.
  • Confocal microscopy analysis showed higher intensity of labeling of CD4+ and Mac-3+ cells in ATF-treated mice.
  • This fraction could not directly lyse either lymphocytes or tumor cells and we speculate that antitumor effect of ATF could be due to induction of a selective migration of immunocompetent cells from the spleen to the tumor site and to the switch of cytokine production.
  • [MeSH-major] Agaricus / chemistry. Carcinoma, Ehrlich Tumor / drug therapy. Carcinoma, Ehrlich Tumor / immunology. Interleukin-10 / biosynthesis. Polysaccharides / pharmacology
  • [MeSH-minor] Angiogenic Proteins / genetics. Animals. Cytokines / biosynthesis. In Vitro Techniques. Interferon-gamma / biosynthesis. Lymphocyte Activation / drug effects. Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating / drug effects. Lymphocytes, Tumor-Infiltrating / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Molecular Structure. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. RNA, Neoplasm / genetics. RNA, Neoplasm / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19243740.001).
  • [ISSN] 1090-2163
  • [Journal-full-title] Cellular immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell. Immunol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenic Proteins; 0 / Cytokines; 0 / Polysaccharides; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm; 130068-27-8 / Interleukin-10; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma
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66. Argani P, Olgac S, Tickoo SK, Goldfischer M, Moch H, Chan DY, Eble JN, Bonsib SM, Jimeno M, Lloreta J, Billis A, Hicks J, De Marzo AM, Reuter VE, Ladanyi M: Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma in adults: expanded clinical, pathologic, and genetic spectrum. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Aug;31(8):1149-60
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  • [Title] Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma in adults: expanded clinical, pathologic, and genetic spectrum.
  • The recently recognized Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), all of which bear gene fusions involving the TFE3 transcription factor gene, comprise at least one-third of pediatric RCC.
  • Previously not described and distinctive clinical presentations included dense tumor calcifications such that the tumor mimicked renal lithiasis, and obstruction of the renal pelvis promoting extensive obscuring xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis.
  • Previously unreported morphologic variants included tumor giant cells, fascicles of spindle cells, and a biphasic appearance that simulated the RCC characterized by a t(6;11)(p21;q12) chromosome translocation.
  • Xp11 translocation RCC can occur in adults, and may be aggressive cancers that require morphologic distinction from clear cell and papillary RCC.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Calcinosis / complications. Calcinosis / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / genetics. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / metabolism. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / pathology. Cytogenetic Analysis. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17667536.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA95785
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors; 0 / TFE3 protein, human
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67. Varshney A, Rao H, Sadh R: Multicentric GCT of tarsal bones in an immature skeleton: a case report with review of literature. J Foot Ankle Surg; 2010 Jul-Aug;49(4):399.e1-4
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  • [Title] Multicentric GCT of tarsal bones in an immature skeleton: a case report with review of literature.
  • Multicentric giant cell tumor of the foot is rare.
  • Multicentric giant cell tumor of the tarsal bones in an immature skeleton is unheard of.
  • We report a case of synchronous multicentric giant cell tumor involving the talus and calcaneum in a 14-year-old boy with open epiphyseal plate for its rarity and successful treatment by curettage and synthetic bone graft.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Calcaneus. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Tarsal Bones

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20554225.001).
  • [ISSN] 1542-2224
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of foot and ankle surgery : official publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Foot Ankle Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Ieni A, Barresi V, Grosso M, Rosa MA, Tuccari G: Lactoferrin immuno-expression in human normal and neoplastic bone tissue. J Bone Miner Metab; 2009;27(3):364-71
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  • Lactoferrin (Lf) expression was investigated by using a Lf monoclonal antibody in 50 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded human bone tumours [10 giant cell tumours (GCTs), 7 osteoid osteomas, 6 ossifying fibromas, 19 enchondromas, 2 chondroblastomas, 2 chondrosarcomas, 2 chondroblastic osteosarcomas, 1 myeloma and 1 adamantinoma] as well as in 8 samples of adult and foetal human normal bone specimens.
  • Lf immuno-expression with a variable ID score was encountered in 19/50 tumours and specifically in 10/10 GCTs, in 5/7 osteoid osteomas, in 2/2 chondroblastomas as well as in the adamantinoma and in the myeloma.
  • Even more, no association was evidenced between Lf immuno-reactivity and the growth fraction of the tumours, reflected by the Ki-67 labelling index.
  • Lf expression in the osteoblastic lineage of bone-forming tumours, together with its presence in the osteoblasts of foetal bone, requires further investigations, although it cannot be ruled out that Lf might be involved in the bone formation in humans, similarly to what has been demonstrated in other species.

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  • (PMID = 19240970.001).
  • [ISSN] 0914-8779
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of bone and mineral metabolism
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Bone Miner. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 3.4.21.- / Lactoferrin
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69. Morgan T, Atkins GJ, Trivett MK, Johnson SA, Kansara M, Schlicht SL, Slavin JL, Simmons P, Dickinson I, Powell G, Choong PF, Holloway AJ, Thomas DM: Molecular profiling of giant cell tumor of bone and the osteoclastic localization of ligand for receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB. Am J Pathol; 2005 Jul;167(1):117-28
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  • [Title] Molecular profiling of giant cell tumor of bone and the osteoclastic localization of ligand for receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB.
  • Giant cell tumor of bone (GCT) is a generally benign, osteolytic neoplasm comprising stromal cells and osteoclast-like giant cells.
  • The osteoclastic cells, which cause bony destruction, are thought to be recruited from normal monocytic pre-osteoclasts by stromal cell expression of the ligand for receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB (RANKL).
  • Using expression profiling, we identified both osteoblast and osteoclast signatures within GCTs, including key regulators of osteoclast differentiation and function such as RANKL, a C-type lectin, osteoprotegerin, and the wnt inhibitor SFRP4.
  • After ex vivo generation of stromal- and osteoclast-enriched cultures, we unexpectedly found that RANKL mRNA and protein were more highly expressed in osteoclasts than in stromal cells, as determined by expression profiling, flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction.
  • The expression patterns of molecules implicated in signaling between stromal cells and monocytic osteoclast precursors were analyzed in both primary and fractionated GCTs.
  • Finally, using array-based comparative genomic hybridization, neither GCTs nor the derived stromal cells demonstrated significant genomic gains or losses.
  • These data raise questions regarding the role of RANKL in GCTs that may be relevant to the development of molecularly targeted therapeutics for this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / genetics. Carrier Proteins / metabolism. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / genetics. Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism. Osteoclasts / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation / physiology. Cell Lineage. DNA Primers. Flow Cytometry. Gene Expression. Gene Expression Profiling. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / genetics. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Leiomyosarcoma / genetics. Liposarcoma / genetics. Nucleic Acid Hybridization. Proteins / analysis. RANK Ligand. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sarcoma, Synovial / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15972958.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9440
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / DNA Primers; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Proteins; 0 / RANK Ligand; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappa B; 0 / TNFRSF11A protein, human; 0 / TNFSF11 protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1603441
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70. Boer K, Jansen F, Nellist M, Redeker S, van den Ouweland AM, Spliet WG, van Nieuwenhuizen O, Troost D, Crino PB, Aronica E: Inflammatory processes in cortical tubers and subependymal giant cell tumors of tuberous sclerosis complex. Epilepsy Res; 2008 Jan;78(1):7-21
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  • [Title] Inflammatory processes in cortical tubers and subependymal giant cell tumors of tuberous sclerosis complex.
  • Cortical tubers and subependymal giant cell tumors (SGCT) are two major cerebral lesions associated with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC).
  • In the present study, we investigated immunocytochemically the inflammatory cell components and the induction of two major pro-inflammatory pathways (the interleukin (IL)-1beta and complement pathways) in tubers and SGCT resected from TSC patients.
  • All lesions were characterized by the prominent presence of microglial cells expressing class II-antigens (HLA-DR) and, to a lesser extent, the presence of CD68-positive macrophages.
  • We also observed perivascular and parenchymal T lymphocytes (CD3(+)) with a predominance of CD8(+) T-cytotoxic/suppressor lymphoid cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / complications. Cerebral Cortex / pathology. Giant Cell Tumors / complications. Inflammation / etiology. Tuberous Sclerosis / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antigens, CD / metabolism. Antigens, CD3 / metabolism. Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic / metabolism. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein / metabolism. HLA-DR Antigens / metabolism. Humans. Infant. Interleukin-1beta / metabolism. Male. Neuroglia / metabolism. Neurons / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins

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  • (PMID = 18023148.001).
  • [ISSN] 0920-1211
  • [Journal-full-title] Epilepsy research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Epilepsy Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, CD3; 0 / Antigens, Differentiation, Myelomonocytic; 0 / CD68 antigen, human; 0 / Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein; 0 / HLA-DR Antigens; 0 / Interleukin-1beta; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / tuberous sclerosis complex 1 protein
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71. Krüger S, Johannisson R, Kausch I, Feller AC: Papillary urothelial bladder carcinoma associated with osteoclast-like giant cells. Int Urol Nephrol; 2005;37(1):61-4
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  • [Title] Papillary urothelial bladder carcinoma associated with osteoclast-like giant cells.
  • We report the case of a papillary urothelial carcinoma associated with osteoclast-like giant cells.
  • A papillary neoplasm was detected by cystoscopy and removed transurethrally.
  • Histological examination revealed a papillary urothelial carcinoma (grade I) associated with multiple stromal giant cells, which displayed morphological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical characteristics of osteoclast-like giant cells.
  • The formation of osteoclast-like giant cells in association with urothelial bladder carcinoma is a rare event, of which only six cases have been reported in the Anglo-American literature.
  • It may cause diagnostic problems because primary giant cell tumor, giant cell carcinoma and foreign body stromal reaction have to be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Papillary / pathology. Giant Cells / pathology. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology. Urothelium / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16132761.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-1623
  • [Journal-full-title] International urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Urol Nephrol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
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72. Lüthje P, Nurmi-Lüthje I: Tenosynovial juxta-articular giant-cell tumour of the knee--an unusual location of the tumour. Acta Orthop Belg; 2006 Dec;72(6):772-4
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  • [Title] Tenosynovial juxta-articular giant-cell tumour of the knee--an unusual location of the tumour.
  • We present a case of a physically active 46 year-old woman who was treated operatively for a juxta-articular tenosynovial giant cell tumour of the knee that caused mechanical symptoms.
  • The tumour was located in the infrapatellar fat pad.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumors / pathology. Patellar Ligament. Synovial Membrane / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17260619.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6462
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta orthopaedica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Orthop Belg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
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73. Muramatsu K, Mine T, Ichihara K: Atypical tenosynovial giant cell tumor of the extensor hallucis longus tendon. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc; 2006 Jul-Aug;96(4):359-61
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  • [Title] Atypical tenosynovial giant cell tumor of the extensor hallucis longus tendon.
  • We present a case of atypical giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath originating from the extensor hallucis longus tendon.
  • The tumor contained multiple nodules and overlay the tendon 16 cm.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging was the most useful preoperative investigation and showed the characteristic appearance of giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath, thus allowing local excision to be planned and executed.
  • We discuss how local recurrence of this tumor could be prevented.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumors / diagnosis. Giant Cell Tumors / surgery. Synovial Membrane. Tendons. Tenosynovitis / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16868332.001).
  • [ISSN] 8750-7315
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Am Podiatr Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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74. Rubin BP: Tenosynovial giant cell tumor and pigmented villonodular synovitis: a proposal for unification of these clinically distinct but histologically and genetically identical lesions. Skeletal Radiol; 2007 Apr;36(4):267-8
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  • [Title] Tenosynovial giant cell tumor and pigmented villonodular synovitis: a proposal for unification of these clinically distinct but histologically and genetically identical lesions.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumors. Soft Tissue Neoplasms. Synovitis, Pigmented Villonodular

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  • [CommentIn] Skeletal Radiol. 2007 Sep;36(9):899-900; author reply 901 [17579851.001]
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  • (PMID = 17225151.001).
  • [ISSN] 0364-2348
  • [Journal-full-title] Skeletal radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skeletal Radiol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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75. Li Y, Liang Q, Wen YQ, Chen LL, Wang LT, Liu YL, Luo CQ, Liang HZ, Li MT, Li Z: Comparative proteomics analysis of human osteosarcomas and benign tumor of bone. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2010 Apr 15;198(2):97-106
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  • [Title] Comparative proteomics analysis of human osteosarcomas and benign tumor of bone.
  • Proteins extracted from osteosarcoma tissue and benign bone tumors, including osteoblastoma, chondroblastoma, and giant cell tumor of bone, were examined using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry analysis and database searches.
  • Aberrant expression of cytoskeletal- and microtubule-associated proteins in osteosarcoma may provide an advantage for tumor invasion and metastasis by affecting the stability of microtubule, which consequently influences the prognosis of patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / metabolism. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Osteoblastoma / metabolism. Osteosarcoma / metabolism. Proteomics / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Bone and Bones / metabolism. Bone and Bones / pathology. Child. Chondroblastoma / metabolism. Chondroblastoma / pathology. Female. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / metabolism. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / pathology. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Proteome / analysis. Proteome / metabolism. Young Adult


76. Nguyen V, Garcia C, Haskell H: Giant cell tumor of soft tissue on the thigh of a 40-year-old woman. Dermatol Online J; 2010;16(3):2
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor of soft tissue on the thigh of a 40-year-old woman.
  • We report a case of giant cell tumor of soft tissue (GCTST) in a 40-year-old woman who presented with a painful fibrous nodule on the thigh.
  • The histological examination revealed multinucleated histiocytes admixed with eosinophils, lymphocytes, and scattered spindle-shaped cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumors / diagnosis. Skin Neoplasms / diagnosis. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thigh

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  • (PMID = 20233559.001).
  • [ISSN] 1087-2108
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology online journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatol. Online J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 9
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77. Knox K, Bitzos I, Granick M, Datiashvili R, Benevenia J, Patterson F: Immediate reconstruction of oncologic hemipelvectomy defects. Ann Plast Surg; 2006 Aug;57(2):184-9
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  • BACKGROUND: Soft tissue and bony tumors of the pelvis are rare, but when they occur, treatment presents both an oncologic surgical and a reconstructive challenge.
  • We performed immediate reconstruction on 11 patients after radical pelvic resections for tumor.
  • Data were gathered regarding the following: tumor type and oncologic history, extent of resection, reconstructive modality, complications, and outcome.
  • RESULTS: All patients underwent radical resection of pelvic masses depending on the tumor type and location.
  • Tumor types included chondrosarcoma (6), Paget osteosarcoma (1), giant cell tumor (1), metastatic uterine carcinoma (2), and invasive squamous cell carcinoma arising in a chronic decubitus ulcer (1).
  • The extent and type of resections vary according to tumor size and location.


78. Saglik Y, Yildiz Y, Atalar H, Gunay C: The use of fibular autograft and ankle arthrodesis for aggressive giant cell tumor in the distal tibia: a case report. Foot Ankle Int; 2008 Apr;29(4):438-41
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  • [Title] The use of fibular autograft and ankle arthrodesis for aggressive giant cell tumor in the distal tibia: a case report.
  • The case describes successful distal tibial resection, fibular autograft, and ankle arthrodesis in two patients who had giant cell tumor in the distal tibia.
  • In conclusion, due to the large resection that is often necessary for aggressive tumors, fibular autograft and ankle arthrodesis may be a useful method in the distal tibia.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Fibula / transplantation. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Reconstructive Surgical Procedures / methods. Tibia / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18442462.001).
  • [ISSN] 1071-1007
  • [Journal-full-title] Foot & ankle international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Foot Ankle Int
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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79. Endres S, Wilke A: Fibrous dysplasia - differential diagnosis of cystic lesions in the proximal femur:a case report. Cases J; 2009;2(1):26
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  • BACKGROUND: We are reporting about the case of a 22-year old woman, who made a first visit as an outpatient with pain that arose in acute form in the area of the left groin.
  • The patient history did not indicate a preceding trauma, or an inflammatory or malignant disease.
  • CASE PRESENTATION: Conventional X-ray showed the image of a cystic lesion in the area of the neck of the thigh [collum femoris] with pathological fracture in the area of the calcar.
  • The MRT produced the diagnosis of an aneurismal bone cyst, in which the presence of juvenile bone cyst or a giant cell tumor could be taken into consideration by differential diagnosis.Owing to the pathological fracture, repair by operation of the lesion was carried out by means of spongioplastic surgery and internal fixation (DHS).

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  • (PMID = 19128514.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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80. Gadegone WM, Salphale YS, Sonwalkar H: Giant cell tumour of the fifth metacarpal. J Hand Surg Eur Vol; 2007 Jun;32(3):360-1
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumour of the fifth metacarpal.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Metacarpal Bones

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  • (PMID = 17321019.001).
  • [ISSN] 1753-1934
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of hand surgery, European volume
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hand Surg Eur Vol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] England
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81. Forsyth RG, De Boeck G, Bekaert S, De Meyer T, Taminiau AH, Uyttendaele D, Roels H, Praet MM, Hogendoorn PC: Telomere biology in giant cell tumour of bone. J Pathol; 2008 Apr;214(5):555-63
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  • [Title] Telomere biology in giant cell tumour of bone.
  • Giant cell tumour of bone (GCTB) is a benign bone tumour known for the unpredictable clinical behaviour of recurrences and, in rare instances, distant metastases.
  • It consists of uniformly distributed osteoclastic giant cells in a background of mononuclear rounded and spindle-shaped cells.
  • GCTB has often been regarded as a polyclonal tumour, but more recently a recurrent specific aberration was reported, which suggests a possible role for disturbed telomere maintenance.
  • Both osteoclastic giant cells and mononuclear cells showed positivity for hTERT and promyelocytic leukaemia body-related antigen.
  • In most mononuclear cells, co-expression was present.
  • Confocal microscopy showed stereometric co-localization of nucleolin with promyelocytic leukaemia body-related antigen in association with telomeres in the spindle-shaped cells. hTERT was more diffusely distributed throughout the nucleus.
  • These findings strongly suggest that these aggregates, while activating telomerase, are part of a structural telomere protective-capping mechanism rather than of a telomere-lengthening mechanism.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / genetics. Giant Cell Tumors / genetics. Telomere / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Male. Microscopy, Confocal. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Nuclear Proteins / metabolism. Osteoclasts / metabolism. Osteoclasts / pathology. Phosphoproteins / metabolism. RNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Telomerase / metabolism. Transcription Factors / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Proteins / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2008 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland
  • (PMID = 18278785.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3417
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / RNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 0 / nucleolin; 143220-95-5 / PML protein, human; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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82. Wijenayaka AK, Colby CB, Atkins GJ, Majewski P: Biomimetic hydroxyapatite coating on glass coverslips for the assay of osteoclast activity in vitro. J Mater Sci Mater Med; 2009 Jul;20(7):1467-73
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  • The osteoclast (OC) is the cell type responsible for the resorption of bone.
  • The activity of this cell is important in the aetiology of a large number of skeletal pathologies, and also for the biocompatibility and osseointegration of orthopaedic implant materials.
  • OC mediated acid hydrolysis of calcium phosphate from the bone matrix offers a prime means of studying the biology and activity of this cell type.
  • Hydroxylation followed by formation of a self assembled monolayer (SAM) using the surfactant triethoxysilylpropyl succinic anhydride (TESPSA), allowed biomimetic deposition of HA-like mineral from a simulated body fluid (SBF).
  • The biocompatibility of the TESPSA SAM-HA coated glass coverslips was tested by culturing human mature OC present in samples of giant cell tumour of bone (GCT).
  • [MeSH-major] Biomimetics / methods. Cell Culture Techniques / methods. Glass / chemistry. Hydroxyapatites / chemistry. Microscopy / instrumentation. Osteoclasts / cytology. Osteoclasts / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Bone Resorption / physiopathology. Cell Adhesion / physiology. Cells, Cultured. Coated Materials, Biocompatible / chemistry. Humans. Image Enhancement / instrumentation. Image Enhancement / methods

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  • (PMID = 19259788.001).
  • [ISSN] 1573-4838
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of materials science. Materials in medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Mater Sci Mater Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
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83. Peng HQ, Darwin P, Papadimitriou JC, Drachenberg CB: Liver metastases of pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma with marked nuclear atypia and pleomorphism diagnosed by EUS FNA cytology: a case report with emphasis on FNA cytological findings. Cytojournal; 2006;3:29
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  • [Title] Liver metastases of pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma with marked nuclear atypia and pleomorphism diagnosed by EUS FNA cytology: a case report with emphasis on FNA cytological findings.
  • BACKGROUND: Acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas is a rare neoplasm.
  • Although this tumor has been well characterized histologically, the morphological patterns in Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology have not been well defined.
  • Unlike ductal adenocarcinomas, endocrine tumors, and solid pseudopapillary tumors of the pancreas with their characteristic FNA cytological features, acinar cell carcinomas pose a particular diagnostic challenge by sharing many cytomorphologic features with endocrine tumors of the pancreas.
  • FNA cytology revealed abundant, loosely cohesive clusters of malignant epithelial cells with vaguely acinar and trabecular formations.
  • Scattered, strikingly large tumor cells with giant nuclei, prominent mitoses and associated necrosis were evident.
  • A pancreatic endocrine tumor was suspected initially, but acinar cell carcinoma of the pancreas was confirmed by immunohistochemistry, cytochemical and ultrastructural studies.
  • CONCLUSION: We describe a case of pancreatic acinar cell carcinoma with unusual cytomorphologic features mimicking an endocrine tumor of pancreas, encountered in endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration of a metastatic liver mass and discuss the diagnostic approach for this unusual pancreatic tumor in fine needle aspiration cytology.

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  • (PMID = 17196112.001).
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  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cytojournal
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84. Togawa Y, Tonouchi A, Chiku T, Sano W, Doki T, Yano K, Uno H, Muronoi T, Kaneoya K, Shinagawa T, Harigaya K, Toyoda A: A case report of undifferentiated carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells of the pancreas and literature review. Clin J Gastroenterol; 2010 Aug;3(4):195-203
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  • [Title] A case report of undifferentiated carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells of the pancreas and literature review.
  • Osteoclast-like giant cell tumors rarely arise in the pancreas.
  • Here we report the case of a 78-year-old woman who was diagnosed with a well-defined 3 cm multilocular mass in the pancreatic body by the use of ultrasonography, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.
  • The rim and the septa of the tumor were well enhanced.
  • Macroscopically, the mass was composed predominantly of a multilocular cystic tumor filled with hemorrhagic necrosis, and partly composed of solid components.
  • A histopathological study showed a proliferation of multinucleated osteoclast-like giant cells and spindle cells.
  • Although the predominant tumor cells were strongly positive for vimentin and CD68 and negative for epithelial markers, there were some sparsely scattered cytokeratin-positive neoplastic glands.
  • Below we review 32 cases of osteoclast-like giant cell tumor of the pancreas that have been reported in English literature since 2000.

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  • (PMID = 26190247.001).
  • [ISSN] 1865-7257
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical journal of gastroenterology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin J Gastroenterol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Osteoclast-like giant cells / Pancreas / Undifferentiated carcinoma
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85. Feng B, Rowe L, Zhang PJ, Khurana JS: Cutaneous sarcomatoid carcinoma with features of giant cell tumor of soft parts--a case report. Am J Dermatopathol; 2008 Aug;30(4):395-7
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  • [Title] Cutaneous sarcomatoid carcinoma with features of giant cell tumor of soft parts--a case report.
  • We report here a previously undescribed tumor in a 72-year-old patient who had a nasal cutaneous sarcomatoid carcinoma.
  • The epithelial component resembles a skin adnexal tumor, and the sarcomatous component resembles a giant cell tumor of soft parts.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Giant Cell Tumors / pathology. Nose Neoplasms / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Am J Dermatopathol. 2009 Feb;31(1):96 [19155738.001]
  • (PMID = 18645315.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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86. Swanger R, Maldjian C, Murali R, Tenner M: Three cases of benign giant cell tumor with unusual imaging features. Clin Imaging; 2008 Sep-Oct;32(5):407-10
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  • [Title] Three cases of benign giant cell tumor with unusual imaging features.
  • OBJECTIVE: Imaging findings for giant cell tumors (GCT) of the spine displaying aggressive characteristics have not been widely reported.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with biopsy-proven GCT were included in the study.
  • CONCLUSION: Acute fracture, subluxation, and extension through the disc space have not been previously described and, while atypical for benign lesions, may in fact be typical for GCT of the spine.
  • [MeSH-major] Fractures, Spontaneous / diagnosis. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / diagnosis. Spinal Cord Compression / diagnosis. Spinal Fractures / diagnosis. Spinal Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18760733.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4499
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical imaging
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Imaging
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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87. Shi X, Wu S, Zhao J: [Limb salvage with osteoarticular allografts after resection of proximal tibia bone]. Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Oct;20(10):966-9
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  • METHODS: From 1998 to 2003, 15 patients (7 males, 8 females; aged 14-56 yr. average 33) with bone tumor of the proximal tibia underwent osteoarticular allografts. among whom 7 had progressive giant cell tumor without any previous chemotherapy; 8 had malignant tumor with previous chemotherapy, including 6 patients with osteosarcoma, 1 with spindle cell sarcoma, and 1 with malignant fibrous histiocytoma.
  • RESULTS: The follow-up for an average of 21 months (range, 3-58 months) revealed that among the 8 patients with malignant tumor of the proximal tibia undergoing chemotherapy, 5 had union of the bone, 3 had no union of the bone; among the 3 patients, 2 had a complication of infection and 1 had a local recurrence.
  • Among the 7 patients with progressive giant cell tumor at the upper part of the tibia, none had infection or local recurrence, but 2 had nonunion of the bone and 2 had joint instability, aided by the knee-aiding system.
  • CONCLUSION: The osteoarticular allograft of the proximal tibia has many advantages in spite of a relatively high rate of complications, and it is the limb salvage of choice for the progressive benign or malignant bone tumors of the proximal tibia.

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  • (PMID = 17140064.001).
  • [ISSN] 1002-1892
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo xiu fu chong jian wai ke za zhi = Zhongguo xiufu chongjian waike zazhi = Chinese journal of reparative and reconstructive surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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88. Rao S, Arcot R, Pai V, Prathiba D: Disseminated malignant fibrous histiocytoma (giant cell rich): a case report. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2007 Oct;50(4):795-7
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  • [Title] Disseminated malignant fibrous histiocytoma (giant cell rich): a case report.
  • Giant cell rich malignant fibrous histiocytoma accounts for 3 -15% of all malignant fibrous histiocytomas.
  • Currently, the nomenclature giant cell malignant fibrous histiocytoma is reserved for undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcomas with prominent osteoclastic giant cells.
  • It is considered to be synonymous with malignant giant cell tumor of soft parts.
  • We report a case of disseminated giant cell malignant fibrous histiocytoma involving the scalp, cervical node, lungs, spine, abdominal wall, base of penis, gluteal cleft, paraspinal region and back.
  • CD68 positivity in tumor cells helped in arriving at the final diagnosis.
  • It is essential to recognize this tumor as a giant cell rich distinct entity and differentiate from other giant cell rich pleomorphic sarcomas since therapeutic and prognostic differences are being appreciated currently.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cells / cytology. Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous / diagnosis. Histiocytoma, Malignant Fibrous / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Wall / pathology. Back / pathology. Biomarkers, Tumor. Histocytochemistry. Humans. Lung / pathology. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Male. Middle Aged. Penis / pathology. Scalp / pathology. Spine / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18306558.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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89. Yamazaki M, Akazawa T, Okawa A, Koda M: Usefulness of three-dimensional full-scale modeling of surgery for a giant cell tumor of the cervical spine. Spinal Cord; 2007 Mar;45(3):250-3
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  • [Title] Usefulness of three-dimensional full-scale modeling of surgery for a giant cell tumor of the cervical spine.
  • OBJECTIVES: To report a case with giant cell tumor (GCT) of C6 vertebra, in which three-dimensional (3-D) full-scale modeling of the cervical spine was useful for preoperative planning and intraoperative navigation.
  • CASE REPORT: A 27-year-old man with a GCT involving the C6 vertebra presented with severe neck pain.
  • The C6 vertebra was collapsed and the tumor had infiltrated around both vertebral arteries (VAs).
  • A single-stage operation combining anterior and posterior surgical procedures was scheduled to resect the tumor and stabilize the spine.
  • Using the model, we were able to identify the anatomic landmarks around the VAs during anterior surgery and to successfully resect the tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: The 3-D full-scale model was useful for simultaneously evaluating the destruction of the vertebral bony structures and the deviations in the courses of the VAs during surgery for GCT involving the cervical spine.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervical Vertebrae / pathology. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Models, Anatomic. Spinal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16835582.001).
  • [ISSN] 1362-4393
  • [Journal-full-title] Spinal cord
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Spinal Cord
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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90. Nahal A, Ajlan A, Alcindor T, Turcotte R: Dedifferentiated giant cell tumour of bone in the form of low-grade fibroblastic osteogenic sarcoma: case report of a unique presentation with follow-up. Curr Oncol; 2010 Aug;17(4):71-6
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  • [Title] Dedifferentiated giant cell tumour of bone in the form of low-grade fibroblastic osteogenic sarcoma: case report of a unique presentation with follow-up.
  • Giant cell tumour (GCT) of bone is a locally aggressive benign tumour.
  • It can, however, undergo dedifferentiation, either de novo or secondarily after local recurrence or radiation.
  • Whether spontaneously occurring or induced by previous irradiation, this malignant transformation is typically defined as a high-grade anaplastic sarcoma devoid of giant cells.
  • Dedifferentiation of GCT into low-grade-appearing sarcoma has not been reported yet.
  • Here, we describe the first case of dedifferentiated GCT in the appearance of low-grade fibroblastic osteogenic sarcoma with distant bone metastases.
  • This disease progression occurred without previous irradiation.
  • We confirm the aggressive behaviour of this tumour despite the deceptively bland appearance of the malignant component.

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  • (PMID = 20697518.001).
  • [ISSN] 1718-7729
  • [Journal-full-title] Current oncology (Toronto, Ont.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2913833
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Giant cell tumour / dedifferentiation / malignancy / osteogenic sarcoma
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91. Fang BD, Zhou SF, Zou AG, Zhuo GB, Gao WY, Xu CY: [Study on the diagnostic value of imageology of giant cell tumour of tendon sheath]. Zhongguo Gu Shang; 2008 Dec;21(12):913-5
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  • [Title] [Study on the diagnostic value of imageology of giant cell tumour of tendon sheath].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the diagnostic value of imageology of giant cell tumour of tendon sheath (GCTS) including X-ray, CT and MRI.
  • And it can clearly show the lesion range and type of GCTTS.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumors / diagnosis. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tendons / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19146160.001).
  • [ISSN] 1003-0034
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo gu shang = China journal of orthopaedics and traumatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Gu Shang
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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92. Chang CY, Lin LF, Lin YS, Peng YJ, Huang WS, Cherng SC: Laryngeal giant cell tumor mimicking thyroid cancer demonstrated by PET/CT. Clin Nucl Med; 2007 May;32(5):390-2
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  • [Title] Laryngeal giant cell tumor mimicking thyroid cancer demonstrated by PET/CT.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumors / diagnosis. Laryngeal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Leydig Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Thyroid Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 17452871.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-9762
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical nuclear medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Nucl Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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93. Denayer E, Devriendt K, de Ravel T, Van Buggenhout G, Smeets E, Francois I, Sznajer Y, Craen M, Leventopoulos G, Mutesa L, Vandecasseye W, Massa G, Kayserili H, Sciot R, Fryns JP, Legius E: Tumor spectrum in children with Noonan syndrome and SOS1 or RAF1 mutations. Genes Chromosomes Cancer; 2010 Mar;49(3):242-52
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  • [Title] Tumor spectrum in children with Noonan syndrome and SOS1 or RAF1 mutations.
  • Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by mutations in PTPN11, KRAS, SOS1, and RAF1.
  • Three patients with SOS1 mutations presented with tumors (embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma, Sertoli cell testis tumor, and granular cell tumors of the skin).
  • One patient with a RAF1 mutation had a lesion suggestive for a giant cell tumor.
  • This is the first report describing different tumor types in NS patients with germ line SOS1 mutations.


94. Ofluoglu O: Aggressive treatment of giant cell tumour with multiple local adjuvants. Acta Orthop Belg; 2008 Dec;74(6):831-6
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  • [Title] Aggressive treatment of giant cell tumour with multiple local adjuvants.
  • The results of aggressive management of giant cell tumour including high speed burr, argon plasma cauterisation and phenolisation were reviewed.
  • Twenty four patients with primary or recurrent tumours were treated with a standardised protocol.
  • These findings support that the combined use of local adjuvants in the treatment of giant cell tumour is a safe and effective way to reduce the rate of local recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery. Laser Coagulation

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  • (PMID = 19205332.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-6462
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta orthopaedica Belgica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Orthop Belg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Belgium
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Bone Cements; 9011-14-7 / Polymethyl Methacrylate
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95. Abdullah A, Abdullah S, Haflah NH, Ibrahim S: Giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath in the knee of an 11-year-old girl. J Chin Med Assoc; 2010 Jan;73(1):47-51
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  • [Title] Giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath in the knee of an 11-year-old girl.
  • Giant cell tumors are commonly found over the flexor tendon sheath of the hand and wrist.
  • However, giant cell tumors in the knee joint are rare, especially in children.
  • The tumor measured 3 x 3.5 x 1.5 cm.
  • Histopathological findings confirmed that it was a tenosynovial giant cell tumor.
  • Because of initial mild symptoms, there was a delay of 2 years from the initial symptoms until tumor excision.
  • [MeSH-major] Giant Cell Tumors / diagnosis. Knee. Soft Tissue Neoplasms / diagnosis. Tendons

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  • (PMID = 20103492.001).
  • [ISSN] 1728-7731
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Chinese Medical Association : JCMA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Chin Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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96. Fernández Mariscal E, Orient López F, López O'Rourke V, Vilarrasa Sauquet R: [Giant cell tumor of the distal humerus]. Med Clin (Barc); 2009 Sep 26;133(11):446
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  • [Title] [Giant cell tumor of the distal humerus].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumor óseo de células gigantes.
  • [MeSH-major] Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / diagnosis. Humerus

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  • (PMID = 19577777.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-7753
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina clínica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Clin (Barc)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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97. Goto T, Kawano H, Akiyama T, Shinoda Y, Okuma T, Kobayashi H, Nemoto T, Funata N: Serum acid phosphatase can be a useful tumour marker for giant cell tumour of bone. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg; 2009 Dec;129(12):1641-4
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  • [Title] Serum acid phosphatase can be a useful tumour marker for giant cell tumour of bone.
  • INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to elucidate the clinical significance of acid phosphatase in giant cell tumour of bone.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Serum acid phosphatase levels were measured in 32 patients with this tumour both preoperatively and postoperatively.
  • RESULTS: Serum acid phosphatase value before surgery was high in 15 patients, whereas it was within normal limits in 17 patients.
  • In addition, there was a statistically significant positive correlation between the tumour volume and the preoperative serum acid phosphatase level.
  • CONCLUSION: It is concluded that serum acid phosphatase is a useful tumour marker for giant cell tumour of bone.
  • [MeSH-major] Acid Phosphatase / blood. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Bone Neoplasms / diagnosis. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19319545.001).
  • [ISSN] 1434-3916
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of orthopaedic and trauma surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Orthop Trauma Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.1.3.2 / Acid Phosphatase
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98. Nakano S, Enishi T, Hasan MY, Hanaoka N, Kawasaki Y, Egawa H, Kinoshita I, Yasui N: Arthroplasty using a custom-made cemented total hip prosthesis for an extensive giant cell tumor of the proximal femur: report of a patient followed up for over 30 years. Arch Orthop Trauma Surg; 2009 Sep;129(9):1171-5
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  • [Title] Arthroplasty using a custom-made cemented total hip prosthesis for an extensive giant cell tumor of the proximal femur: report of a patient followed up for over 30 years.
  • We report the case of a 26-year-old man who had a pathologic transtrochanteric fracture of the left femur due to a grade II giant cell tumor affecting the neck and the trochanteric area.
  • This patient underwent complete resection of the tumor and arthroplasty using a custom-made cemented total hip prosthesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Arthroplasty, Replacement, Hip / methods. Bone Neoplasms / surgery. Femoral Neck Fractures / surgery. Fractures, Spontaneous / surgery. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18839194.001).
  • [ISSN] 1434-3916
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of orthopaedic and trauma surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Orthop Trauma Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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99. Jakobs M, Häupl T, Krenn V, Guenther R: [MMP- and FAP-mediated non-inflammation-related destruction of cartilage and bone in rheumatoid arthritis]. Z Rheumatol; 2009 Oct;68(8):683-94
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  • INTRODUCTION: Due to morphological similarities of high-grade synovitis in rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and mesenchymal, semimalignant tumors and the hypothesis that RA progression is not only inflammation-related, but also determined by tumor-like mechanisms, a comparison was made between expression profiles of RA, giant cell tumor of bone (GCT) and normal synovium (ND).
  • METHODS: Array data of selected genes were validated through immunohistochemical staining of paraffin-embedded and deep frozen tissue samples of GCT, RA and normal synovium.
  • RESULTS: With microarray analysis, CCR1, CCR5, MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, MMP-14 and FAP were found to be significantly upregulated in RA and GCT compared to ND.
  • A significant upregulation in RA and GCT compared to ND could be validated by immunohistochemistry for MMP-1, MMP-9, MMP-14 and FAP.
  • The presence of FAP in RA and in stroma of a semimalignant tumor indicates tumor-like tissue destruction in chronic synovitis associated with RA.

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  • (PMID = 19593575.001).
  • [ISSN] 1435-1250
  • [Journal-full-title] Zeitschrift fur Rheumatologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Z Rheumatol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Receptors, CCR; EC 3.4.21.- / Serine Endopeptidases; EC 3.4.21.- / fibroblast activation protein alpha; EC 3.4.24.- / Gelatinases; EC 3.4.24.- / Matrix Metalloproteinases
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100. Teng HW, Fang GJ, Chen Y, Wang J: [A report of diffuse giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath in total elbow]. Zhongguo Gu Shang; 2010 May;23(5):335-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [A report of diffuse giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath in total elbow].
  • [MeSH-major] Elbow. Giant Cell Tumors / diagnosis. Tendons

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  • (PMID = 20575282.001).
  • [ISSN] 1003-0034
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhongguo gu shang = China journal of orthopaedics and traumatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhongguo Gu Shang
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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