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1. Yap OW, Hendrickson MR, Teng NN, Kapp DS: Mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the cervix: a case report and review of the literature. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 Dec;103(3):1155-8
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the cervix: a case report and review of the literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Malignant mesonephric tumor arising in the uterine cervix is an exceedingly uncommon variant of cervical adenocarcinoma with only 30 well-documented cases in the literature.
  • CASE: We present a case of a 54-year-old woman with postmenopausal vaginal bleeding who was found to have a stage IB mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the cervix.
  • CONCLUSION: At present there is no consensus on a standardized treatment protocol for malignant mesonephric tumors of the cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Mesonephroma / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Middle Aged


2. Erşahin C, Huang M, Potkul RK, Hammadeh R, Salhadar A: Mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the vagina with a 3-year follow-up. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Dec;99(3):757-60
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the vagina with a 3-year follow-up.
  • BACKGROUND: Mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the vagina is exceedingly rare, with only one well-documented case in the literature.
  • Little is known regarding clinical presentation, pathological characteristics, therapy, or prognosis of the vaginal mesonephric adenocarcinoma.
  • The tumor was an adenocarcinoma with ductal and tubular pattern arising in a background of mesonephric remnants.
  • The patient is disease-free 3 years after surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSION: We report the second case of mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the vagina with metastasis to the right fallopian tube and to one paravaginal lymph node.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Mesonephroma / pathology. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16137744.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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3. Fukunaga M, Takahashi H, Yasuda M: Mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix: a case report with immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies. Pathol Res Pract; 2008;204(9):671-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix: a case report with immunohistochemical and ultrastructural studies.
  • A very rare case of mesonephric adenocarcinoma with lobular mesonephric hyperplasia in the uterine cervix of a 46-year-old female is presented.
  • Lobular mesonephric hyperplasia was also observed in the lateral cervical wall and adjacent to the tumor.
  • An ultrastructural analysis showed telolysomes, which were characteristic features of mesonephric epithelium.
  • The patient was alive without disease at 4 months after surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / ultrastructure. Mesonephroma / ultrastructure. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / ultrastructure
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Immunohistochemistry. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Middle Aged


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4. Kato N, Motoyama T: Hepatocyte nuclear factor-1beta(HNF-1beta) in human urogenital organs: its expression and role in embryogenesis and tumorigenesis. Histol Histopathol; 2009 11;24(11):1479-86

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In the human fetus, HNF-1beta expression is common in mesonephric duct derivatives and metanephros (permanent kidneys).
  • Recent microarray analyses have disclosed that HNF-1beta is aberrantly up-regulated in clear cell carcinoma of the ovary, which is a carcinoma of müllerian nature, but which was initially misnamed "mesonephroma".
  • HNF-1beta is also expressed in ovarian endometriosis, which is a probable origin of clear cell carcinoma.
  • On the other hand, HNF-1beta is down-regulated in renal neoplasms, such as chromophobe cell carcinoma.

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  • (PMID = 19760597.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-5848
  • [Journal-full-title] Histology and histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histol. Histopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Spain
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / HNF1B protein, human; 138674-15-4 / Hepatocyte Nuclear Factor 1-beta
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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5. Rabban JT, McAlhany S, Lerwill MF, Grenert JP, Zaloudek CJ: PAX2 distinguishes benign mesonephric and mullerian glandular lesions of the cervix from endocervical adenocarcinoma, including minimal deviation adenocarcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Feb;34(2):137-46
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - A practical manual on visual screening for cervical neoplasia .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] PAX2 distinguishes benign mesonephric and mullerian glandular lesions of the cervix from endocervical adenocarcinoma, including minimal deviation adenocarcinoma.
  • Mesonephric remnants of the cervix are vestiges of the embryonic mesonephric system which typically regresses during female development.
  • Uncommonly, hyperplasia of the mesonephric remnants may occur.
  • The differential diagnosis of exuberant mesonephric hyperplasia includes minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the cervix, a tumor with deceptively bland morphology for which no reliable diagnostic biomarkers currently exist.
  • PAX2 encodes a transcription factor necessary in the development of the Wolffian duct system, and the protein is expressed in several tumors of mesonephric origin, including renal cell carcinoma, Wilm tumor, and nephrogenic adenoma.
  • We hypothesized that PAX2 may also be expressed in mesonephric lesions of the cervix and may distinguish mesonephric hyperplasia from minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the cervix.
  • We demonstrated that PAX2 was strongly and diffusely expressed in mesonephric remnants (6 of 6) and in mesonephric hyperplasia (18 of 18); however, no expression was noted in mesonephric adenocarcinoma (0 of 1).
  • In contrast, only 2 cases of endocervical adenocarcinoma were positive for PAX2 [invasive adenocarcinoma of the minimal deviation type (0 of 5), usual type (1 of 22), and endometrioid type (1 of 1)].
  • Adjacent adenocarcinoma in situ, as well as cases of pure adenocarcinoma in situ (0 of 6), were also PAX2 negative.
  • These results suggest that PAX2 immunoreactivity may be useful to (1) distinguish mesonephric hyperplasia from minimal deviation adenocarcinoma, (2) to distinguish lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia from minimal deviation adenocarcinoma, and (3) to distinguish endocervical tubal metaplasia or cervical endometriosis from endocervical adenocarcinoma in situ.
  • Overall, a strong, diffuse nuclear PAX2 expression pattern in a cervical glandular proliferation predicts a benign diagnosis (positive predictive value 90%, negative predictive value 98%; P<0.001); however, PAX2 should not be interpreted in isolation from the architectural and cytologic features of the lesion as it may be expressed in some stage II endometrial adenocarcinomas involving the cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / diagnosis. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Mesonephros / pathology. Mullerian Ducts / pathology. PAX2 Transcription Factor / metabolism. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Hyperplasia / diagnosis. Hyperplasia / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Neoplasm Staging. Precancerous Conditions / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 20061933.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / PAX2 Transcription Factor; 0 / PAX2 protein, human
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6. Wani Y, Notohara K, Tsukayama C: Mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the uterine corpus: a case report and review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Jul;27(3):346-52
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  • [Title] Mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the uterine corpus: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Mesonephric adenocarcinoma (MA) is a rare tumor of the female genital tract, mainly in the cervix and vagina, which is usually associated with mesonephric remnants or mesonephric hyperplasia.
  • In the uterus corpus, MA is as rare as mesonephric structures, and only a few cases have been previously reported.
  • The tumor was confined to the myometrium and showed strong resemblance to cervical MA despite the absence of mesonephric hyperplasia or remnants.
  • In addition, the ductal pattern simulating endometrioid adenocarcinoma was also noted.
  • Other elements consisted of a retiform pattern, serous adenocarcinoma-like papillary budding, and glomeruloid morphology.
  • Adjuvant chemotherapy was begun for the patient, who is alive with disease 28 months later.
  • We review the previously published cases of MA and discuss the principal differential diagnosis of MA in the uterine corpus.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18580312.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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7. Bifulco G, Mandato VD, Mignogna C, Giampaolino P, Di Spiezio Sardo A, De Cecio R, De Rosa G, Piccoli R, Radice L, Nappi C: A case of mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the vagina with a 1-year follow-up. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2008 Sep-Oct;18(5):1127-31
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  • [Title] A case of mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the vagina with a 1-year follow-up.
  • Mesonephric adenocarcinoma deriving from remnants of vaginal mesonephric ducts is one of the rarest tumors of the female genital tract with only three cases reported till date in international literature.
  • Differential diagnosis from other aggressive tumors is complex and controversies exist in the literature regarding the biological behavior, prognosis, and optimal management strategies of these tumors.
  • A well-capsulated mesonephric adenocarcinoma in a background of vaginal mesonephric remnants was diagnosed.
  • No evidence of lymph node involvement or metastatic disease was observed.
  • The patient did not receive any adjuvant therapy and is alive and clinically free of disease at 1-year follow-up.
  • In spite of the aggressive biological behavior attributed in literature to mesonephric carcinomas, which is probably due to the complex differential diagnosis with other müllerian tumors, the favorable course of our patient further supports the hypothesis that malignant mesonephric carcinomas may not behave aggressively and that radical surgery alone may be curative.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Mesonephroma / pathology. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18028380.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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8. Marquette A, Moerman P, Vergote I, Amant F: Second case of uterine mesonephric adenocarcinoma. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 May-Jun;16(3):1450-4
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Uterine Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Second case of uterine mesonephric adenocarcinoma.
  • A second report of an intramural mesonephric adenocarcinoma of the uterus is presented.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Mesonephroma / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Calbindin 2. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Neoplasm Invasiveness / diagnosis. S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16803547.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G
  • [Number-of-references] 18
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9. Kurshumliu F, Thorns C, Gashi-Luci L: p16INK4A in routine practice as a marker of cervical epithelial neoplasia. Gynecol Oncol; 2009 Oct;115(1):127-31
International Agency for Research on Cancer - Screening Group. diagnostics - Histopathology and cytopathology of the uterine cervix - digital atlas .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In additional immunohistochemical analysis of selected biopsies from our archive, we found that the ratio of positivity for p16(INK4a) increased from 40% in L-SIL/CIN1 to 69.8% in H-SIL/CIN2 to 100% in H-SIL/CIN3 and squamous cell carcinoma.
  • All the cases of cervical adenocarcinoma and mesonephric carcinoma were positive for p16(INK4a).

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  • (PMID = 19596140.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16
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