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1. Daoud G, Rassart E, Masse A, Lafond J: Src family kinases play multiple roles in differentiation of trophoblasts from human term placenta. J Physiol; 2006 Mar 15;571(Pt 3):537-53
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  • However, little is known about the expression of SFKs in human term placenta and their implication in trophoblast differentiation.
  • Surprisingly, inhibition of SFKs by 4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl) pyrazolo[3,4-d] pyrimidine (PP2) or herbimycin A had different effects on trophoblast differentiation.
  • In summary, this study showed that SFKs play different roles in trophoblast differentiation, probably depending on SFK members activated.
  • Thus, this study increases our knowledge and understanding of pathology related to impaired trophoblast differentiation such as pre-eclampsia and trophoblast neoplasm.

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  • (PMID = 16410281.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-3751
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of physiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Physiol. (Lond.)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AG 1879; 0 / Benzoquinones; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 0 / Lactams, Macrocyclic; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyrimidines; 0 / Quinones; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 1W306TDA6S / Rifabutin; 70563-58-5 / herbimycin; 9035-54-5 / Placental Lactogen; DH2M523P0H / Genistein; EC 2.7.10.2 / src-Family Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1805791
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2. Noh HT, Lee KH, Lee MA, Ko YB, Hwang SH, Son SK: Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor of paracervix and parametrium. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2008 Jul-Aug;18(4):843-6
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  • [Title] Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor of paracervix and parametrium.
  • Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT) is an unusual variant of gestational trophoblastic tumor that is closely related to choriocarcinoma and placental site trophoblastic tumor but shows different morphologic and immunohistochemical features.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Pelvic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17944924.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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3. Vencken PM, Ewing PC, Zweemer RP: Epithelioid trophoblastic tumour: a case report and review of the literature. J Clin Pathol; 2006 Dec;59(12):1307-8
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  • [Title] Epithelioid trophoblastic tumour: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Epithelioid trophoblastic tumour (ETT) is an unusual type of trophoblastic tumour, which can cause difficulties in diagnosis and (as a consequence) in treatment.
  • The literature suggests that surgery should be the treatment of choice for ETT as it is not responsive to chemotherapeutic agents, used in the treatment of other types of gestational trophoblastic diseases.
  • This case report describes a rare case of an atypical trophoblastic tumour, with problematic differential diagnosis.
  • Hence, it is important to consider the occurrence of ETTs, although rare, in patients with atypical cervical or endometrial cancer, and in patients diagnosed with a gestational trophoblastic tumour, who do not respond to appropriate chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Trophoblastic Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Plasmacytoma / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17142572.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 8
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1860538
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4. Zhao J, Xiang Y, Wan XR, Cui QC, Yang XY: Clinical and pathologic characteristics and prognosis of placental site trophoblastic tumor. J Reprod Med; 2006 Dec;51(12):939-44
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  • [Title] Clinical and pathologic characteristics and prognosis of placental site trophoblastic tumor.
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical and pathologic characteristics of placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) cases and to discuss the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of PSTT.
  • RESULTS: Between 2000 and 2005, 635 patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasms were treated at PUMCH, 11 with PSTT (1.73%).
  • [MeSH-major] Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17253041.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-7758
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Reprod Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin
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5. Afshar A, Ayatollahy H, Lotfinejad S: A rare metastasis in the hand: a case of cutaneous metastasis of choriocarcinoma to the small finger. J Hand Surg Am; 2007 Mar;32(3):393-6
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  • Gestational choriocarcinoma is a malignant epithelial neoplasm of trophoblastic cells derived from any form of a previously normal or abnormal pregnancy.
  • Choriocarcinoma is a rapidly invasive, widely metastasizing, malignant neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Choriocarcinoma / secondary. Fingers. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Amputation. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Chorionic Gonadotropin / blood. Combined Modality Therapy. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 17336850.001).
  • [ISSN] 0363-5023
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of hand surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Hand Surg Am
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin
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6. Mao TL, Seidman JD, Kurman RJ, Shih IeM: Cyclin E and p16 immunoreactivity in epithelioid trophoblastic tumor--an aid in differential diagnosis. Am J Surg Pathol; 2006 Sep;30(9):1105-10
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  • [Title] Cyclin E and p16 immunoreactivity in epithelioid trophoblastic tumor--an aid in differential diagnosis.
  • Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT) is a relatively uncommon trophoblastic tumor that can be confused with several trophoblastic and nontrophoblastic lesions, notably the placental site nodule and invasive squamous carcinoma of the cervix.
  • Other trophoblastic lesions were also evaluated.
  • Using an H-score based on both percentage of positively stained cells and immunointensity, we found that ETTs demonstrated a much higher cyclin E staining score than placental site nodules (P<0.0001) permitting distinction of ETTs and placental site nodules with a sensitivity of 94.7% at a specificity of 91.7% using a cutoff H-score value of >40.
  • Only two placental site nodules had scores above the cutoff and both showed morphologic features that placed them in an intermediate position between a typical placental site nodule and an ETT, so-called "atypical PSN.
  • " p16 immunoreactivity, was not detected in any of the ETTs and placental site nodules, whereas it was strongly and diffusely positive in the vast majority of cervical squamous carcinomas examined (83/87 cases) (P<0.001).
  • The majority of other types of trophoblastic lesions showed diffuse and intense nuclear immunoreactivity for cyclin E whereas none were positive for p16.
  • [MeSH-major] Cyclin E / analysis. Genes, p16. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / diagnosis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Placenta / chemistry. Pregnancy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16931955.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin E
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7. El Fekih L, Hassene H, Fenniche S, Ben Abdelghaffar H, Belhabib D, Megdiche ML: Pulmonary metastases revealing choriocarcinoma. Tunis Med; 2010 Jan;88(1):49-51
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  • BACKGROUND: Uterin choriocarcinoma is a trophoblastic tumour characterised by high metastasis potential.
  • Pleuropulmonary metastasis can reveal rarely the neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Choriocarcinoma / secondary. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / blood. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20415215.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human
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8. Dotto J, Hui P: Lack of genetic association between exaggerated placental site reaction and placental site trophoblastic tumor. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Oct;27(4):562-7
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  • [Title] Lack of genetic association between exaggerated placental site reaction and placental site trophoblastic tumor.
  • Sharing similar cytological and immunohistochemical features with the tumor cells of placental site trophoblastic tumor, a biological link between the 2 lesions can be speculated.
  • Because placental site trophoblastic tumor has a unique sex chromosomal requirement in its genome that requires a paternal X chromosome (i.e. a female antecedent gestation), we investigated whether EPS carries the similar genetic profile by DNA genotypic analysis.
  • The genetic profile of all cases demonstrated unique paternal alleles to that of the paired maternal tissue, confirming the trophoblastic origin of EPS.
  • Therefore, EPS is a trophoblastic lesion that can arise from either male or female gestations.
  • The assignment of sex chromosomes in our study (XY, 55% and XX, 45%) does not support a neoplastic association between placental site trophoblastic tumor and EPS.
  • [MeSH-major] Placenta / physiology. Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / genetics. Trophoblasts / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] DNA, Neoplasm / chemistry. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Genes, X-Linked. Humans. Microsatellite Repeats. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Pregnancy. Sex Chromosomes

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  • [ErratumIn] Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2008 Jan;28(1):102. Jorge, Dotto [corrected to Dotto, Jorge]
  • (PMID = 18753963.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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9. Ashraf-Ganjooei T, Ghaemmaghami F: Patients with presenting unusual manifestations with gestational trophoblastic neoplasm: case series and review of literatures. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2008 May;277(5):465-70
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  • [Title] Patients with presenting unusual manifestations with gestational trophoblastic neoplasm: case series and review of literatures.
  • Early recognition of gestational trophoblastic neoplasms (GTN) will maximize the chances of cure with chemotherapy but some patients present with many different symptoms months or even years after the causative pregnancy making diagnosis difficult.
  • Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of GTN in any reproductive age woman with bizarre central nervous system symptoms, gastrointestinal symptoms or radiographic evidence of metastatic tumor of unknown primary origin.
  • We reported two cases of metastatic gestational trophoblastic neoplasms with bizarre pulmonary symptoms, one patient with small bowel metastasis, and two patients with brain metastasis presenting with unusual manifestations.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Digestive System Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Splenic Neoplasms / diagnosis


10. Yap KL, Hafez MJ, Mao TL, Kurman RJ, Murphy KM, Shih IeM: Lack of a y-chromosomal complement in the majority of gestational trophoblastic neoplasms. J Oncol; 2010;2010:364508
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  • [Title] Lack of a y-chromosomal complement in the majority of gestational trophoblastic neoplasms.
  • Gestational trophoblastic neoplasms (GTNs) are a rare group of neoplastic diseases composed of choriocarcinomas, placental site trophoblastic tumors (PSTTs) and epithelioid trophoblastic tumors (ETTs).
  • Since these tumors are derivatives of fetal trophoblastic tissue, approximately 50% of GTN cases are expected to originate from a male conceptus and carry a Y-chromosomal complement according to a balanced sex ratio.
  • We found that all cases contained the X-chromosomal complement while only five (10%) of 51 tumors harbored the Y-chromosomal complement.

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  • (PMID = 20182630.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-8469
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2825661
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11. Gregorie CJ, Wiesen JL, Magner WJ, Lin AW, Tomasi TB: Restoration of immune response gene induction in trophoblast tumor cells associated with cellular senescence. J Reprod Immunol; 2009 Jul;81(1):25-33
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  • [Title] Restoration of immune response gene induction in trophoblast tumor cells associated with cellular senescence.
  • Trophoblast cells and many cancer cells that harbor foreign antigens may evade immunity by epigenetic silencing of key immune response genes, including MHC class I and II and CD40.
  • We show here that pre-treatment of trophoblast cells and certain cancer cells with agents that activate stress pathways (Ras oncogene, PMA or H2O2) and induce senescence can substantially enhance the induction of immune response genes (MHC class II, CD40, MICA, MICB) by HDACi and restore a vigorous IFN-gamma response in trophoblast cells and tumor cells.

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  • (PMID = 19493573.001).
  • [ISSN] 1872-7603
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of reproductive immunology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Reprod. Immunol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA124971-01A2; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD 17013; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016056; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA16056; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA124971-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 124971; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD017013-19; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / R01 HD017013; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD017013-19; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA124971
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD40; 0 / Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors; 0 / Hydroxamic Acids; 3X2S926L3Z / trichostatin A; 82115-62-6 / Interferon-gamma
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS134208; NLM/ PMC2731570
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12. Kurdoglu M, Bayram I, Kolusari A, Erten R, Adali E, Bulut G, Yildizhan R, Kurdoglu Z, Kucukaydin Z, Sahin HG: Expression of laminin receptor 1 in gestational trophoblastic diseases and normal placenta and its relationship with the development of postmolar tumors. Gynecol Oncol; 2009 Aug;114(2):306-9
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  • [Title] Expression of laminin receptor 1 in gestational trophoblastic diseases and normal placenta and its relationship with the development of postmolar tumors.
  • OBJECTIVES: To investigate the expression of laminin receptor 1 (LR1), a non-integrin-type laminin receptor, in gestational trophoblastic diseases and normal first-trimester placenta, since it may play a role in controlling trophoblast invasion in normal and molar pregnancies.
  • METHODS: Paraffin sections from 24 gestational age controlled normal first-trimester placentas, 47 partial moles, 56 complete moles, 3 invasive moles, 4 gestational choriocarcinomas, and 1 placental-site trophoblastic tumor were studied immunohistochemically for expression of LR1.
  • Complete and partial moles, invasive moles, choriocarcinomas, and placental-site tumors did not differ from each other with respect to staining intensity.
  • Strong immunostaining for LR1 in decidual cells, cytotrophoblasts, syncytiotrophoblasts, and extracellular matrix cells of partial and complete moles was not significantly correlated with the development of persistent postmolar gestational trophoblastic tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: LR1 may be important in the pathogenesis of gestational trophoblastic diseases.
  • The increased expression of LR1 in decidual cells of partial and complete moles may not influence the development of persistent gestational trophoblastic tumor.
  • Since they are seen rarely, multicentric studies should be planned to study LR1 expression in invasive moles and gestational trophoblastic neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / metabolism. Placenta / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Choriocarcinoma / metabolism. Choriocarcinoma / pathology. Female. Humans. Hydatidiform Mole / metabolism. Hydatidiform Mole / pathology. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Paraffin Embedding. Pregnancy. Receptors, Laminin / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19481788.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Lamr1 protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Laminin
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13. Copeland JW, Stanek J: Dizygotic twin pregnancy with a normal fetus and a nodular embryo associated with a partial hydatidiform mole. Pediatr Dev Pathol; 2010 Nov-Dec;13(6):476-80
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  • Careful pathologic examination of vanishing twins and their placentas may disclose an unexpected PHM, which can be associated, albeit infrequently, with persistent gestational trophoblastic disease or a trophoblastic tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Hydatidiform Mole / pathology. Placenta / pathology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / pathology. Twins, Dizygotic. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology


14. Sebire NJ, Lindsay I: Current issues in the histopathology of gestational trophoblastic tumors. Fetal Pediatr Pathol; 2010;29(1):30-44
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  • [Title] Current issues in the histopathology of gestational trophoblastic tumors.
  • Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) encompasses several entities including complete (CHM) and partial (PHM) hydatidiform mole (HM) and the malignant gestational trophoblastic tumors (GTTs), choriocarcinoma (CC), and placental-site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT), including epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT).
  • In such cases, histopathological confirmation of the precise nature of the pGTN usually is not available.
  • However, GTT also may present clinically with primary or metastatic disease, either following and unrecognized HM or developing from a nonmolar gestation.
  • CC essentially represents malignant trophoblastic tumors with differentiation toward villous trophoblast, with extensive hematogenous spread and high hCG levels, which are highly chemoresponsive.
  • However, PSTTs, represent malignant differentiation toward implantation-site type trophoblast, with lower hCG levels and less response to chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20055562.001).
  • [ISSN] 1551-3823
  • [Journal-full-title] Fetal and pediatric pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fetal Pediatr Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 47
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15. Allan RW, Algood CB, Shih IeM: Metastatic epithelioid trophoblastic tumor in a male patient with mixed germ-cell tumor of the testis. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Dec;33(12):1902-5
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  • [Title] Metastatic epithelioid trophoblastic tumor in a male patient with mixed germ-cell tumor of the testis.
  • This report describes a rare case of a concurrent epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT) and a teratoma in a para-aortic lymph node from a 39-year-old male patient with the initial diagnosis of testicular malignant mixed germ-cell tumor.
  • Microscopically, the metastatic lesion contained a teratoma component and dispersed small nests of cohesive chorionic-type intermediate trophoblastic cells, closely resembling gestational ETT in female patients.
  • Demonstration of ETT as one of the histologic manifestations of recurrent testicular germ-cell tumors should encourage pathologists to recognize this unique feature in assessing posttreatment mixed germ-cell neoplasm.
  • Furthermore, this case represents a unique opportunity to understand the pathobiology of trophoblastic neoplasms arising from germ-cell tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Embryonal / secondary. Choriocarcinoma, Non-gestational / secondary. Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Teratoma / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 19898219.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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16. Desai SR, Dombale VD, Jadhav AJ: Placental site trophoblastic tumor. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2005 Oct;48(4):505-7
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  • [Title] Placental site trophoblastic tumor.
  • Placental site trophoblastic tumor is very rare.
  • It is a gestational trophoblastic neoplasm which follows normal or molar pregnancy.
  • Though several trophoblastic lesions & tumors enter in the differential diagnosis, microscopically the diagnosis is usually straightforward in hysterectomy specimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16366112.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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17. Huang W, Li L, Yu DQ, Huang YL, Liu Y, Chen XQ, Tang BJ, Xu H, Ma G, Dong LH, Li L, Qiu Y, Bai H, Nong WZ, Li L, Zeng DY, Jiang FY, Lan Y, Ye Y, Tang XZ, Wang DX, Li HZ, Pan YB, Mo AX, Wu XY, Lei ZY, Zhou GP, Liu C, Su QH: [Constitutive characteristics and change trend of gynecological malignant tumors in 8009 hospitalized patients in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2007 Jan;42(1):22-5
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  • [Title] [Constitutive characteristics and change trend of gynecological malignant tumors in 8009 hospitalized patients in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the constitutive characteristics and the change trend of gynecologic malignant tumors in hospitalized patients in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region over the recent 20 years.
  • METHODS: Clinical data of 8009 in-patients who suffered from gynecologic malignant tumors in 23 hospitals from 1985 to 2004 in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region were analyzed, with respect to the tumor types and change trend. RESULTS:.
  • (1) The leading 4 types of malignant tumors were cervical cancers, ovarian cancers, endometrial cancers, and malignant trophoblastic tumors according to the constitutive ratios of the tumors.
  • While the constitutive ratio of malignant trophoblastic tumors dropped year by year.
  • The changes of ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer, vulvar and vaginal carcinomas, and sarcoma of the uterus were not obvious (P > 0.05). (2) The occurring age of cervical cancers became younger obviously, from > or = 60 years old dropped to < 40 years old. (3) Cervical cancers were found mainly in urban residents in the former 10 years, the constitutive ratio being 67.1%; while in the latter 10 years it gradually shifted to rural residents, accounting for 52.6% of the total gynecological tumors. (4) Patients were usually at stages II, III, IV when they visited a doctor for their diseases.
  • Especially for ovarian cancer, malignant trophoblastic tumors, sarcoma of the uterus, these patients were in the intermediate or advanced stage when they were diagnosed, mainly because of lack of obvious symptoms.
  • CONCLUSIONS: We should strengthen the screening program of cervical cancer, and pay more attention to prevention and control of other gynecological reproductive organ tumors at the same time.
  • On the other hand, we should explore better tumor markers, new methods of diagnosis and treatment to improve early diagnosis and treatment of gynecologic malignant tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Neoplasms, Female / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. China / epidemiology. Endometrial Neoplasms / epidemiology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Ovarian Neoplasms / epidemiology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Retrospective Studies. Time Factors. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / epidemiology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / epidemiology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17331416.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-567X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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18. Agrawal A, Agrawal CS, Kumar A, Kumar M, Yadav R: Spontaneous acute subdural haemorrhage, cerebral and pulmonary metastases in a complete mole. Singapore Med J; 2007 Jul;48(7):e186-9
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  • However, either persistent trophoblastic disease or a frank trophoblastic tumour can follow a complete hydatidiform mole.
  • To our knowledge, acute subdural haematoma, as a complication of cerebral metastases, following treatment for hydatidiform mole has not been reported.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / blood. Hematoma, Subdural / etiology. Hydatidiform Mole / secondary. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / radiography. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / pathology. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / radiography. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 17609811.001).
  • [ISSN] 0037-5675
  • [Journal-full-title] Singapore medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Singapore Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Singapore
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human
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19. Marbaix E, Defrère S, Duc KH, Lousse JC, Dehoux JP: Non-gestational malignant placental site trophoblastic tumor of the ovary in a 4-year-old rhesus monkey. Vet Pathol; 2008 May;45(3):375-8
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  • [Title] Non-gestational malignant placental site trophoblastic tumor of the ovary in a 4-year-old rhesus monkey.
  • We report a case of ovarian malignant intermediate-type trophoblastic tumor in a clinically normal, nonpregnant 4-year-old rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).
  • The tumor was histologically identified as predominantly composed of intermediate trophoblastic cells, without prominent hemorrhages and the classic bilaminar pattern of cyto- and syncytiotrophoblastic cells characteristic of choriocarcinoma.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis showed the presence of placental lactogen hormone in many tumor cells and chorionic gonadotropin in a few multinucleated cells consistent with syncytiotrophoblastic differentiation.
  • In the absence of previous and present pregnancy, this neoplasm has to be considered as a nongestational malignant placental site trophoblastic tumor of the ovary.
  • [MeSH-major] Choriocarcinoma / veterinary. Monkey Diseases / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / veterinary. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Female. Macaca mulatta. Necrosis. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Placenta / pathology. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 18487497.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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20. Lurain JR: Gestational trophoblastic disease I: epidemiology, pathology, clinical presentation and diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic disease, and management of hydatidiform mole. Am J Obstet Gynecol; 2010 Dec;203(6):531-9
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  • [Title] Gestational trophoblastic disease I: epidemiology, pathology, clinical presentation and diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic disease, and management of hydatidiform mole.
  • Gestational trophoblastic disease includes hydatidiform mole (complete and partial) and gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (invasive mole, choriocarcinoma, placental site trophoblastic tumor, and epithelioid trophoblastic tumor).
  • The epidemiology, pathology, clinical presentation, and diagnosis of each of these trophoblastic disease variants are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / drug therapy. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology


21. Tuy BE, Obafemi AA, Beebe KS, Patterson FR: Case report: elevated serum beta human chorionic gonadotropin in a woman with osteosarcoma. Clin Orthop Relat Res; 2008 Apr;466(4):997-1001
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  • It also is secreted by gestational trophoblastic tumors, gonadal tumors, and even various nongonadal tumors, including bone and soft tissue sarcomas, as a paraneoplastic syndrome.
  • Positive immunohistochemical staining of the biopsy specimen established the tumor cells as the source of beta human chorionic gonadotropin.
  • [MeSH-major] Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / blood. Femoral Neoplasms / diagnosis. Osteosarcoma / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18288544.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-921X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical orthopaedics and related research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Orthop. Relat. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2504678
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22. Sebire NJ, Foskett M, Fisher RA, Lindsay I, Seckl MJ: Persistent gestational trophoblastic disease is rarely, if ever, derived from non-molar first-trimester miscarriage. Med Hypotheses; 2005;64(4):689-93
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  • [Title] Persistent gestational trophoblastic disease is rarely, if ever, derived from non-molar first-trimester miscarriage.
  • Traditional epidemiologic data suggest that persistent gestational trophoblastic disease (pGTD), may follow, and be derived from, either molar pregnancy, non-molar term pregnancy or first-trimester non-molar miscarriage.
  • We examined a database of cases of possible or probable hydatidiform moles and proven pGTD derived from the Regional Trophoblastic Disease Unit, Charing Cross Hospital, London.
  • There were therefore no cases identified on the database of the trophoblastic disease unit of pGTD requiring treatment in whom the trophoblastic tumour could be genetically proven to have arisen from the preceding first trimester non-molar HA.
  • We suggest that the risk of pGTD developing from a histologically confirmed non-molar HA is less than 1 in 50,000 and that the majority of pGTD cases previously reported to have been caused by a non-molar miscarriage probably represent disease due to an unrecognised early molar pregnancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Abortion, Spontaneous. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / etiology. Pregnancy Trimester, First


23. Zhao J, Xiang Y, Wan XR, Feng FZ, Cui QC, Yang XY: Molecular genetic analyses of choriocarcinoma. Placenta; 2009 Sep;30(9):816-20
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  • BACKGROUND: Choriocarcinoma is a highly malignant trophoblastic neoplasm.
  • Antecedent pregnancy prior to choriocarcinoma is not always its causative pregnancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Choriocarcinoma, Non-gestational / genetics. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / genetics. Hydatidiform Mole / genetics. Uterine Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19647314.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-3102
  • [Journal-full-title] Placenta
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Placenta
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9007-49-2 / DNA
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24. Massart C, Lucas C, Rioux-Leclercq N, Fergelot P, Pouvreau-Quillien V, Volatron AC: Importance of the detection method for intact dimeric human chorionic gonadotropin without interference with the free human chorionic gonadotropin beta subunit for pregnancy exclusion before liver transplantation in a woman with cholangiocarcinoma. Clin Chem Lab Med; 2005;43(8):886-9
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  • Assay of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is mainly used for the detection and monitoring of pregnancy, and for the follow-up of trophoblastic tumors.
  • The serum free beta-hCG subunit (hCGbeta) is also a tumor marker in many non-trophoblastic tumors, including gastrointestinal cancers.
  • The same discrepancy was obtained in follow-up of the patient after liver transplantation. hCGbeta assay and immunohistochemical staining revealed tumor cell secretion of hCGbeta.


25. Ou-Yang RJ, Hui P, Yang XJ, Zynger DL: Expression of glypican 3 in placental site trophoblastic tumor. Diagn Pathol; 2010;5:64
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  • [Title] Expression of glypican 3 in placental site trophoblastic tumor.
  • Although GPC3 expression has been studied in non-neoplastic placental tissue, its presence in gestational trophoblastic diseases has not been previously explored.
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of GPC3 in placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT), a very rare gestational trophoblastic neoplasm which may be morphologically confused with non-trophoblastic tumors, and to assess its possible utility as a diagnostic marker.
  • Other uterine tumors and non-neoplastic tissues were negative.
  • GPC3 may be a useful adjunct immunohistochemical marker in differentiating PSTT from non-trophoblastic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Glypicans / analysis. Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / chemistry. Uterine Neoplasms / chemistry
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Predictive Value of Tests. Pregnancy. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 20868507.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / GPC3 protein, human; 0 / Glypicans
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2954974
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26. Jeschke U, Richter DU, Möbius BM, Briese V, Mylonas I, Friese K: Stimulation of progesterone, estradiol and cortisol in trophoblast tumor bewo cells by glycodelin A N-glycans. Anticancer Res; 2007 Jul-Aug;27(4A):2101-8
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  • [Title] Stimulation of progesterone, estradiol and cortisol in trophoblast tumor bewo cells by glycodelin A N-glycans.
  • BACKGROUND: The immunosuppressive protein glycodelin A (GdA) is secreted by a large number of gynaecological tumors.
  • Trophoblast tumor cells produce a variety of steroid hormones and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG).
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chorionic carcinoma cells of the cell line BeWo (1 x 10(6) cells/ml) were cultivated in the presence of 25 mmol/ml glycodelin A and 25 mmol/ml glycodelin A N-glycans RH-3, RH-4 and RH-5 for up to 72 h.
  • GdA N-glycans did not stimulate hCG production in BeWo cells.
  • A significant increase in E2 secretion was observed in BeWo cells incubated with glycodelin A and glycodelin A N-glycans (RH-3: 2.6% E2 increase compared to control, p = 0.401; RH-4: 8.9% increase, p = 0.012; RH-5: 4% increase, p = 0.017; glycodelin: 7.7% increase, p = 0.017).
  • Although an increase in progesterone secretion was observed in BeWo cells incubated with glycodelin A (9.0%) and glycodelin A N-glycans (RH-3: 16.2%, RH-4: 2.8%, RH-5: 8.7%) compared to controls, these differences were not statistically significant.
  • CONCLUSION: Estradiol, cortisol and progesterone are hormone markers for BeWo trophoblast tumor cells.
  • The results suggest that GdA with its distinct glycosylation modulates the hormone production of trophoblast tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Estradiol / metabolism. Glycoproteins / metabolism. Hydrocortisone / metabolism. Pregnancy Proteins / metabolism. Progesterone / metabolism. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / metabolism. Uterine Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Chorionic Gonadotropin / metabolism. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Female. Humans. Polysaccharides / metabolism. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 17649829.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0 / Glycoproteins; 0 / PAEP protein, human; 0 / Polysaccharides; 0 / Pregnancy Proteins; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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27. Shafqat G, Iqbal F, Rizvi F: Chorioangioma of the placenta with hydrops foetalis. J Pak Med Assoc; 2009 Jun;59(6):411-2
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  • Chorioangioma, the non trophoblastic tumour, constitutes the commonest benign growth of the placenta.
  • Sonography including colour Doppler imaging provides the best modality not only for its diagnosis but also the foetal status.

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  • (PMID = 19534382.001).
  • [ISSN] 0030-9982
  • [Journal-full-title] JPMA. The Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pak Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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28. Abboud P, Brohet A, Mansour G, Kraiem J, Houareau LG, Lorenzato M, Birembaut P: [Gestational trophoblastic diseases: a retrospective study from 1997 to 2003]. J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris); 2005 Apr;34(2):148-53
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  • [Title] [Gestational trophoblastic diseases: a retrospective study from 1997 to 2003].
  • [Transliterated title] Maladies trophoblastiques gestationnelles: étude rétrospective de 1997 a 2003.
  • BACKGROUND: Trophoblastic diseases correspond to a very heterogeneous group of rare pathology in young women which fertility should be preserved.
  • PATIENT AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study from 1997 to 2003, including all patients with molar pregnancy or trophoblatic tumor in our department of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
  • RESULTS: Fifteen patients were identified with 9 molar pregnancies, 5 trophoblastic tumors and 1 placental tumor of implantation site.
  • The outcome was favorable for 14, and one patient died from her metastatic disease.
  • Persistent gestational disease is more rare and problematic with potential metastatic dissemination.
  • CONCLUSION: Persistent gestational disease should be managed in a highly specialized centre, as developed in the Lyon University Hospital.
  • [MeSH-major] Gestational Trophoblastic Disease

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  • (PMID = 16108111.001).
  • [ISSN] 0368-2315
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de gynécologie, obstétrique et biologie de la reproduction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Gynecol Obstet Biol Reprod (Paris)
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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29. Foulmann K, Guastalla JP, Caminet N, Trillet-Lenoir V, Raudrant D, Golfier F, Schott AM: What is the best protocol of single-agent methotrexate chemotherapy in nonmetastatic or low-risk metastatic gestational trophoblastic tumors? A review of the evidence. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 Jul;102(1):103-10
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  • [Title] What is the best protocol of single-agent methotrexate chemotherapy in nonmetastatic or low-risk metastatic gestational trophoblastic tumors? A review of the evidence.
  • OBJECTIVE: Gestational trophoblastic diseases (GTD), a group of rare placenta disorders, have a varying potential for invasion, either local, or remote under the form of metastases, and are definitely cured by chemotherapy in 85 to 99% of cases.
  • Single-agent methotrexate is the usual primary treatment for women with low-risk trophoblastic tumors (TT), yet various regimens are currently used worldwide.
  • RESULTS: We selected 18 original studies on the efficacy and tolerance of methotrexate used alone or in association with folinic acid for the treatment of nonmetastatic or low-risk metastatic trophoblastic tumors.
  • It was not possible to perform a meta-analysis due to the lack of controlled clinical trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / drug therapy. Methotrexate / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 16624388.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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30. Gan MF, Yu CK, Lu HS, Yang PN: [Uterine epithelioid trophoblast tumor: report of a case]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2007 Aug;36(8):570-1
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  • [Title] [Uterine epithelioid trophoblast tumor: report of a case].
  • [MeSH-major] Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Neoplasms / secondary. Abdominal Neoplasms / surgery. Abdominal Wall. Antiporters / metabolism. Choriocarcinoma / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Pregnancy. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 17980112.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antiporters
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31. Henningsen AK, Maroun LL, Havsteen H, Svare J: Massive fetomaternal hemorrhage caused by an intraplacental choriocarcinoma: a case report. Case Rep Med; 2010;2010:767218
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  • Background. Intraplacental choriocarcinoma is a rare but highly malignant trophoblastic neoplasm.
  • Neither mother nor child showed signs of metastatic disease.
  • The tumor had infiltrated the maternal basal plate.

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  • (PMID = 20204132.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-9635
  • [Journal-full-title] Case reports in medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Case Rep Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2831481
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32. Fatnassi R, Slimene F, Dhouibi S, Karray T, Negra R: [Uterin choriocarcinoma revealed by pulmonary metastasis. A case report]. Tunis Med; 2005 Oct;83(10):645-7
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  • Uterine choriocarcinoma is a rare trophoblastic tumor, characterized by its metastatic potentiality and its sensitivity to chemotherapy.
  • Pulmonary metastases are frequent, but they rarely reveal the disease.
  • The disease occurred after a normal delivery and was revealed by a pulmonary metastasis.
  • [MeSH-major] Choriocarcinoma / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16370220.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
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33. Lo C, Low I, Tan AL, Baranyai J: Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor: a case report. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 May-Jun;16(3):1473-6
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  • [Title] Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor: a case report.
  • Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor is a rare and distinctive pathologic entity within the complex family of gestational trophoblastic disease.
  • We describe a case of epithelioid trophoblastic tumor occurring in a 34-year-old woman, who presented with a large uterine tumor 3 years following an uncomplicated pregnancy.
  • The distinguishing features from other intermediate trophoblastic tumors and tumor-like lesions are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Epithelioid Cells. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16803553.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
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34. Behtash N, Karimi Zarchi M: Placental site trophoblastic tumor. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2008 Jan;134(1):1-6
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  • [Title] Placental site trophoblastic tumor.
  • Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a rare neoplasm that rises from intermediate trophoblasts and commonly presents with low and variable concentration of HCG immunoactivity in serum, which can be difficult to differentiate from early stage choriocarcinoma/gestational trophoblastic neoplasm (GTN) or quiescent gestational trophoblastic disease.
  • There is a wide clinical spectrum of presentation and behavior ranging from a benign condition to an aggressive disease with fatal outcome.
  • Nontrophoblastic malignancies such as germ cell tumors or other tumors secreting low HCG must also be considered in the differential diagnosis.
  • This article reviews the literatures on this rare but fatal disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17701427.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1335
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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35. Xu ML, Yang B, Carcangiu ML, Hui P: Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor: comparative genomic hybridization and diagnostic DNA genotyping. Mod Pathol; 2009 Feb;22(2):232-8
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  • [Title] Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor: comparative genomic hybridization and diagnostic DNA genotyping.
  • Arising from the putative chorionic-type intermediate trophoblast, epithelioid trophoblastic tumor is a recent addition to the spectrum of gestational trophoblastic diseases.
  • Frequently, the tumor involves the uterine cervix and is misdiagnosed as invasive squamous-cell carcinoma.
  • The pathogenesis of the tumor is poorly understood, and its molecular analysis is essentially lacking.
  • This study was designed to explore chromosomal alterations in epithelioid trophoblastic tumor and to use DNA genotyping to demonstrate its trophoblastic origin, therefore separating the tumor from its mimics of the maternal origin.
  • Five cases of epithelioid trophoblastic tumors were included in this study and paired DNA samples from the tumor and normal tissue were extracted from paraffin-embedded archival materials.
  • DNA genotyping was informative in four epithelioid trophoblastic tumor involving anatomic locations including the cervix (two cases), endomyometrium (one case) and lung (metastatic, one case).
  • All four cases were found to have unique paternal alleles, confirming the trophoblastic nature of the tumors.
  • In summary, chromosomal alterations detectable by conventional comparative genomic hybridization are not features of epithelioid trophoblastic tumors.
  • In difficult cases, the presence of the paternal alleles demonstrated by DNA genotyping is a powerful diagnostic application in separating an epithelioid trophoblastic tumor from its maternal mimics, particularly the far more common squamous-cell carcinoma of the uterine cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Comparative Genomic Hybridization. Endometrial Neoplasms / genetics. Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genetic Testing. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / genetics. Lung Neoplasms / genetics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / genetics


36. Horn LC, Einenkel J, Vogel M: [Histopathology of gestational trophoblastic disease. An update]. Pathologe; 2009 Jul;30(4):313-23
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  • [Title] [Histopathology of gestational trophoblastic disease. An update].
  • The differential diagnosis of villous forms of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) includes hydropic abortion, complete and partial hytatidiform mole and placental mesenchymal dysplasia.
  • This and downregulation of HSP-27 might contribute to the high chemosensitivity, compared to placental site (PSTT) and epitheloid trophoblastic tumor (ETT).
  • The morphologic prediction of the behaviour of PSTT is not well established.
  • Recent molecular data suggest a neoplastic transformation of (cyto-) trophoblastic stem cells, within the pathogenesis of (non-villous) GTD.
  • [MeSH-major] Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / pathology. Hydatidiform Mole / pathology. Placenta Diseases / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Abortion, Induced / statistics & numerical data. Adult. Cell Division. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Mitotic Index. Myometrium / pathology. Necrosis. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 19575256.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ki-67 Antigen
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37. Theliade JE, Skovby AM, Kirk V, Parvaiz I, Holmvang L: [Choriocarcinoma causing a pulmonary embolus]. Ugeskr Laeger; 2008 Jan 28;170(5):353
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  • Trophoblast tumors are rare, but unspecific symptoms from lungs, liver, kidney or brain warrant control of S-hCG in women, even when pregnancy has not been recognized or menopause has been reached.
  • [MeSH-major] Choriocarcinoma / complications. Pulmonary Embolism / etiology. Uterine Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 18252168.001).
  • [ISSN] 1603-6824
  • [Journal-full-title] Ugeskrift for laeger
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ugeskr. Laeg.
  • [Language] dan
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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38. Shih IeM: Trophogram, an immunohistochemistry-based algorithmic approach, in the differential diagnosis of trophoblastic tumors and tumorlike lesions. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2007 Jun;11(3):228-34
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  • [Title] Trophogram, an immunohistochemistry-based algorithmic approach, in the differential diagnosis of trophoblastic tumors and tumorlike lesions.
  • Recent histopathologic and molecular studies of trophoblastic cells in the normal placenta and in a variety of trophoblastic diseases have revealed that the latter recapitulate the differentiation of normal trophoblast in the early developing placenta.
  • This new knowledge, especially the identification and characterization of the protein markers expressed in human trophoblast, not only helps elucidate the pathogenesis of trophoblastic lesions but also provides a repertoire of immunohistochemical markers that may facilitate the diagnosis of various trophoblastic diseases.
  • This article reviews the recent advances in the trophoblast-associated markers that have been reported to be useful in the differential diagnosis of trophoblastic tumors and tumorlike lesions.
  • The trophogram may prove to be useful in assisting the differential diagnosis of various trophoblastic diseases in diagnostic pathology.
  • [MeSH-major] Algorithms. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / genetics. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Chorionic Gonadotropin / genetics. Chorionic Gonadotropin / metabolism. Cyclin E / genetics. Cyclin E / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Immunohistochemistry / methods. Ki-67 Antigen / genetics. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Membrane Proteins / genetics. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Placental Lactogen / genetics. Placental Lactogen / metabolism. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 17498600.001).
  • [ISSN] 1092-9134
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0 / Cyclin E; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 9035-54-5 / Placental Lactogen
  • [Number-of-references] 28
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39. Tartakover-Matalon S, Mizrahi A, Epstein G, Shneifi A, Drucker L, Pomeranz M, Fishman A, Radnay J, Lishner M: Breast cancer characteristics are modified by first trimester human placenta: in vitro co-culture study. Hum Reprod; 2010 Oct;25(10):2441-54
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  • BACKGROUND: Pregnant women with breast cancer present with a more advanced disease compared with non-pregnant women.
  • Trophoblast/tumor implantations share the same biochemical mediators, while only the first is stringently controlled.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Placenta / pathology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / pathology. Pregnancy Trimester, First
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis. Cell Adhesion. Cell Cycle. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement. Cell Proliferation. Coculture Techniques. Female. Humans. Matrix Metalloproteinases / analysis. Pregnancy. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis


40. Kerkmeijer LG, Wielsma S, Massuger LF, Sweep FC, Thomas CM: Recurrent gestational trophoblastic disease after hCG normalization following hydatidiform mole in The Netherlands. Gynecol Oncol; 2007 Jul;106(1):142-6
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  • [Title] Recurrent gestational trophoblastic disease after hCG normalization following hydatidiform mole in The Netherlands.
  • OBJECTIVES: To determine the risk for recurrent trophoblastic disease after spontaneous normalization of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) levels in patients with hydatidiform mole and to determine the risk for tumor relapse after apparent remission following chemotherapy in patients with low- and high-risk persistent trophoblastic disease.
  • Of the 265 patients, one patient (0.38%) subsequently required chemotherapeutic treatment for recurrent trophoblastic disease (95% confidence interval 0.0% to 2.1%).
  • HCG levels did not decline to normal (<2.0 ng/ml) spontaneously in 90 patients; those patients were subsequently treated.
  • In contrary, in order to assure sustained remission, the relapse rates after chemotherapy in the current study emphasize the need for surveillance of trophoblastic tumor patients even after complete remission has apparently been achieved.
  • [MeSH-major] Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / blood. Hydatidiform Mole / blood. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / blood. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / blood. Uterine Neoplasms / blood


41. Shi YF, Li JQ, Zheng W, Chen XJ, Qiao YH, Hao M, Zhou CW, Hu YL, Wan GM, Sha YC, Zheng X: [Survey of gestational trophoblastic disease incidence among 3.6 million pregnancies in China]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2005 Feb;40(2):76-8
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  • [Title] [Survey of gestational trophoblastic disease incidence among 3.6 million pregnancies in China].
  • OBJECTIVE: To survey incidence of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) in China and to provide useful information for prevention and better treatment of the disease.
  • There were 9,194 cases (64.6%) of hydatidiform, 3,452 cases (24.3%) of invasive mole, 1521 cases (10.7%) of choriocarcinoma, 55 cases (0.4%) of placenta-site trophoblastic tumor, respectively.
  • [MeSH-major] Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / epidemiology. Uterine Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. China / epidemiology. Choriocarcinoma / diagnosis. Choriocarcinoma / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Hydatidiform Mole / diagnosis. Hydatidiform Mole / epidemiology. Incidence. Pregnancy. Retrospective Studies. Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / diagnosis. Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 15840282.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-567X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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42. Conner KB, Cohen PR: Cutaneous metastasis of breast carcinoma presenting as alopecia neoplastica. South Med J; 2009 Apr;102(4):385-9
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  • Other primary tumors whose metastases presented as neoplasm-related hair loss each occurred in one individual with gastric carcinoma, colon carcinoma, cervical carcinoma, and trophoblastic tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Alopecia / pathology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Scalp / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary

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  • [CommentIn] South Med J. 2009 Apr;102(4):343-4 [19279541.001]
  • (PMID = 19279538.001).
  • [ISSN] 1541-8243
  • [Journal-full-title] Southern medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] South. Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. Kalhor N, Ramirez PT, Deavers MT, Malpica A, Silva EG: Immunohistochemical studies of trophoblastic tumors. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Apr;33(4):633-8
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical studies of trophoblastic tumors.
  • Although intermediate trophoblastic tumors (ITTs) are rare forms of trophoblastic neoplasia, their recognition is important as they require distinct therapeutic approaches.
  • We have noted mixed trophoblastic tumors, with a combination of placental site trophoblastic tumor and epithelioid trophoblastic tumor patterns within the same case, and more frequently a combination of ITT with choriocarcinoma, which can create difficulty in the classification of these tumors.
  • The distinction of the ITTs from choriocarcinoma is important because ITTs do not respond as well to chemotherapy as choriocarcinoma.
  • In addition, ITTs can be confused with a variety of malignant neoplasms, the most common of which is poorly differentiated carcinoma of the cervix.
  • Immunohistochemistry is one means of identifying trophoblastic tumors and of distinguishing them from other entities.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / metabolism. Trophoblasts / metabolism. Uterine Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19145204.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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44. Hussein MR: Analysis of p53, BCL-2 and epidermal growth factor receptor protein expression in the partial and complete hydatidiform moles. Exp Mol Pathol; 2009 Aug;87(1):63-9
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  • BACKGROUND: Hydatidiform moles are gestational trophoblastic neoplasms that include both partial and complete moles.
  • Apoptosis plays important roles in the normal placental morphogenesis and in the pathogenesis of the gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.
  • TP53 is a tumor suppressor gene (pro-apoptotic molecule) that maintains genomic stability either by inducing cell-cycle arrest or apoptosis.
  • Trophoblastic tissue from first trimester terminations of pregnancy (non-molar tissue, 20 specimens) served as a control group.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The prominent expression of both EGF-R and BCL-2 (indicators of cell proliferation/survival) in the molar trophoblast suggests their involvement in the development of these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Hydatidiform Mole / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism. Uterine Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19348791.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-0945
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and molecular pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Mol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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45. Nieves L, Hoffman J, Allen G, Currie J, Sorosky JI: Placental-site trophoblastic tumor with PET scan-detected surgically treated lung metastasis. Int J Clin Oncol; 2008 Jun;13(3):263-5
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  • [Title] Placental-site trophoblastic tumor with PET scan-detected surgically treated lung metastasis.
  • Metastatic placental-site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) continues to be a diagnostic and management dilemma due to its relative resistance to chemotherapy and the difficulties in diagnosing such a rare tumor.
  • Surgery may have a role in salvaging a patient with persistent PET-positive disease after chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Positron-Emission Tomography. Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / secondary. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18553238.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
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46. El-Lamie IK, El Sayed HM, Badawie AG, Bayomi WA, El-Ghazaly HA, Khalaf-Allah AE, El-Mahallawy MN, El-Lamie KI: Evolution of treatment of high-risk metastatic gestational trophoblastic tumors: Ain Shams University experience. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 Mar-Apr;16(2):866-74
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  • [Title] Evolution of treatment of high-risk metastatic gestational trophoblastic tumors: Ain Shams University experience.
  • The aim of the current study is to evaluate the different treatment modalities used in the management of high-risk metastatic gestational trophoblastic tumors (GTT) between June 1992 and December 2004 at the Gynecologic Oncology Unit, Ain Shams University.
  • Forty-two patients (60%) were diagnosed within 4 months of the occurrence of the disease, and 28 (40%) were diagnosed after more than 4 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uterine Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16681775.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 18D0SL7309 / Chlorambucil; 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; EMA-CO protocol; MDC protocol; PEA-M regimen
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47. Ueda SM, Mao TL, Kuhajda FP, Vasoontara C, Giuntoli RL, Bristow RE, Kurman RJ, Shih IeM: Trophoblastic neoplasms express fatty acid synthase, which may be a therapeutic target via its inhibitor C93. Am J Pathol; 2009 Dec;175(6):2618-24
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  • [Title] Trophoblastic neoplasms express fatty acid synthase, which may be a therapeutic target via its inhibitor C93.
  • Fatty acid synthase (FASN) is an emerging tumor-associated marker and a promising antitumor therapeutic target.
  • In this study, we analyzed the expression of FASN in normal and molar placentas, as well as gestational trophoblastic neoplasia, and assessed the effects of a new FASN inhibitor, C93, on cellular proliferation and apoptosis in choriocarcinoma cells.
  • Using a FASN-specific monoclonal antibody, we found that FASN immunoreactivity was detected in the cytotrophoblast and intermediate (extravillous) trophoblast of normal and molar placentas, as well as in placental site nodules.
  • All choriocarcinomas (n = 33), 90% of epithelioid trophoblastic tumors (n = 20), and 60% of placental site trophoblastic tumors (n = 10) exhibited FASN positivity.
  • Cell cycle progression was not affected by the inhibitor.
  • In summary, the data indicate that FASN is expressed in the majority of gestational trophoblastic neoplasias, and is essential for choriocarcinoma cells to survive and escape from apoptosis.
  • FASN inhibitors such as C93 warrant further investigation as targeted therapeutic agents for metastatic and chemoresistant gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.

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  • (PMID = 19893031.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-2191
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA129080; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA129080
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; EC 2.3.1.85 / Fatty Acid Synthases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2789637
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48. Aoki D, Hirasawa A, Susumu N: [Diagnostic significance of tumor markers for gynecologic malignancies]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2005 Mar;32(3):411-6
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  • [Title] [Diagnostic significance of tumor markers for gynecologic malignancies].
  • Gynecologic malignancies include ovarian cancer, uterine cervical cancer, endometrial cancer, and trophoblastic neoplasms.
  • With ovarian tumors, due to their location within the abdominal cavity, it is difficult to make a preoperative pathological diagnosis of cancer without laparotomy.
  • From this point of view, the use of tumor markers that consist of carbohydrate antigens, such as CA 125, in addition to diagnostic imaging are useful in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer.
  • At present, there are no useful tumor markers for endometrial cancer that exhibit both high sensitivity and specificity, although CA 125 is often used in clinical practice.
  • Finally, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) serves as an ideal tumor marker for trophoblastic disease; however, the incidence of trophoblastic neoplasms has decreased dramatically with the incorporation of strict clinical management of post-molar disease as well as with the overall decrease in the number of pregnancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Genital Neoplasms, Female / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Neoplasm / blood. CA-125 Antigen / blood. CA-19-9 Antigen / blood. Chorionic Gonadotropin / blood. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / blood. Female. Humans. Pregnancy. Serpins / blood. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15791829.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0 / CA-19-9 Antigen; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 0 / Serpins; 0 / squamous cell carcinoma-related antigen
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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49. Berger P, Sturgeon C: Human chorionic gonadotropin isoforms and their epitopes: diagnostic utility in pregnancy and cancer. Expert Opin Med Diagn; 2008 Dec;2(12):1347-64
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  • BACKGROUND: Clinical management of pregnancy, pregnancy-related disorders and trophoblastic tumors is dependent on immunoassay measurements of the complex analyte human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG).

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  • (PMID = 23496782.001).
  • [ISSN] 1753-0059
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert opinion on medical diagnostics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Opin Med Diagn
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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50. Okumura M, Fushida K, Rezende WW, Schultz R, Zugaib M: Sonographic appearance of gestational trophoblastic disease evolving into epithelioid trophoblastic tumor. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol; 2010 Aug;36(2):249-51
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  • [Title] Sonographic appearance of gestational trophoblastic disease evolving into epithelioid trophoblastic tumor.
  • Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor is a distinctive but rare trophoblastic tumor.
  • It derives from intermediate trophoblastic cells of the chorion laeve and is usually associated with a previous gestational event.
  • Three months later gestational trophoblastic disease was suspected because of persistent vaginal bleeding and high levels of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG).
  • Transvaginal ultrasound revealed irregular echolucent lacunae within the myometrium, some of them filled with low-resistance, turbulent blood flow on Doppler examination, emphasizing the diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic disease.
  • A diagnosis of tumor of intermediate trophoblastic cells was suspected and total hysterectomy was performed.
  • On pathological examination, the histological and immunohistochemical features were characteristic of epithelioid trophoblastic tumor.
  • Most reported cases of epithelioid trophoblastic tumor have solitary nodules with sharp margins, which is consistent with our ultrasound findings.
  • Ultrasound may be helpful in differentiating epithelioid trophoblastic tumor from placental-site trophoblastic tumor, another tumor of intermediate trophoblastic cells, which shows infiltrative growth insinuating between muscle fibers.
  • [MeSH-major] Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / ultrasonography. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Uterine Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 20069561.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-0705
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human
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51. Vrettou E, Hytiroglou P, Sikas N, Soultoyannis I, Goodman ZD: Hepatic adenocarcinoma expressing inhibin in a young patient on oral contraceptives. Virchows Arch; 2005 May;446(5):560-5
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  • A case of primary hepatic carcinoma is reported, which occurred in a 24-year-old woman with a 10-year history of oral contraceptive use, and demonstrated unique morphologic and immunohistochemical features.
  • The tumor was located in the left hepatic lobe, measured 14 cm at its widest, and showed histologic heterogeneity.
  • The tumor cells were negative for markers that would be suggestive of hepatocytic or neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • Interestingly, they were positive for inhibin, a protein that is known to be expressed in sex cord-stromal tumors of the ovary, trophoblastic neoplasms and adrenal cortical tumors, but not in hepatic tumors.
  • However, no definite evidence of gonadal stromal, trophoblastic, or adrenocortical differentiation was identified on extensive immunohistochemical work-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Contraceptives, Oral, Combined / administration & dosage. Inhibins / analysis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15815932.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-19-9 Antigen; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Contraceptives, Oral, Combined; 0 / KRT7 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-7; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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52. Giusti AM, Terron A, Belluco S, Scanziani E, Carcangiu ML: Ovarian epithelioid trophoblastic tumor in a cynomolgus monkey. Vet Pathol; 2005 Mar;42(2):223-6
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  • [Title] Ovarian epithelioid trophoblastic tumor in a cynomolgus monkey.
  • Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT) is an unusual type of trophoblastic tumor, with features resembling carcinoma.
  • Histologically, the mass in the ovary and lung metastases were characterized by nests of epithelioid cells, with intermingled, occasional, multinucleate tumor cells consistent with syncytiotrophoblasts and moderate amount of eosinophilic, hyaline-like material.
  • Immunohistochemically, the tumor cells were diffusely positive for cytokeratins (AE1/AE3) and inhibin-alpha, but only focal immunoreactivity was observed for human chorionic gonadotropin, whereas placental alkaline phosphatase was always negative.
  • On the basis of morphology and immunohistochemical reactivity, tumor cells were identified as intermediate trophoblast.
  • [MeSH-major] Macaca fascicularis. Monkey Diseases / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / veterinary. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Female. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Ovary / pathology. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 15753478.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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53. Alifrangis C, Seckl MJ: Genetics of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia: an update for the clinician. Future Oncol; 2010 Dec;6(12):1915-23
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  • [Title] Genetics of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia: an update for the clinician.
  • Gestational trophoblastic disease is a spectrum of disorders ranging from premalignant hydatidiform moles through to malignant invasive moles, choriocarcinoma and rare placental site trophoblastic tumor.
  • The latter are often collectively referred to as gestational trophoblastic tumors or neoplasia (GTN).
  • Although most women can expect to be cured of their disease, many interesting questions arise in the management of gestational trophoblastic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Humans. Molecular Targeted Therapy / trends. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 21142864.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8301
  • [Journal-full-title] Future oncology (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Future Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
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54. Dehaghani AS, Kashef MA, Ghaemenia M, Sarraf Z, Khaghanzadeh N, Fattahi MJ, Ghaderi A: PDCD1, CTLA-4 and p53 gene polymorphism and susceptibility to gestational trophoblastic diseases. J Reprod Med; 2009 Jan;54(1):25-31
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  • [Title] PDCD1, CTLA-4 and p53 gene polymorphism and susceptibility to gestational trophoblastic diseases.
  • OBJECTIVE: Gestational trophoblastic neoplasms (also termed gestational trophoblastic diseases [GTDs]) encompass a spectrum of interrelated tumors originating from trophoblasts.
  • Considering the role of PDCD1, CTLA-4 and p53 genes in immune regulation and tumor progression, we explored the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) corresponding to each gene and GTDs.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / genetics. Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins / genetics. Choriocarcinoma / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease / genetics. Hydatidiform Mole / genetics. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. CTLA-4 Antigen. Case-Control Studies. Female. Gene Frequency. Humans. Odds Ratio. Pregnancy. Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19263877.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-7758
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Reprod Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / CTLA-4 Antigen; 0 / CTLA4 protein, human; 0 / PDCD1 protein, human; 0 / Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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55. Zhou J, Chen SL, Xing FQ, Pang ZJ, Li B, Zhou WQ, Fu X, Ding YQ: [Association of the novel hydatidiform mole-related gene F10 with the invasiveness of trophoblastic tumor]. Di Yi Jun Yi Da Xue Xue Bao; 2005 Feb;25(2):171-3
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  • [Title] [Association of the novel hydatidiform mole-related gene F10 with the invasiveness of trophoblastic tumor].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the expressions of the novel gene F10 associated with hydatidiform mole in different trophoblastic tumors and explore the relation of F10 expression with the invasiveness of malignant trophoblastic tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: The expression of F10 gene may relate to the occurrence and invasiveness of trophoblastic tumor, with possible involvement in the invasion or malignant changes of trophoblastic cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Genes, Neoplasm / genetics. Hydatidiform Mole / genetics. Hydatidiform Mole, Invasive / genetics. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / genetics. Uterine Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 15698997.001).
  • [ISSN] 1000-2588
  • [Journal-full-title] Di 1 jun yi da xue xue bao = Academic journal of the first medical college of PLA
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Di Yi Jun Yi Da Xue Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] China
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56. Park SG, Chang JY, Kim SH, Bang D: Cutaneous metastasis of choriocarcinoma: a case report. J Korean Med Sci; 2005 Aug;20(4):683-6
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  • Choriocarcinoma is one of the malignant tumors of trophoblastic cells characterized by the secretion of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) (1-3).
  • Cutaneous metastasis is a rare presentation of choriocarcinoma but a poor prognostic sign because it is associated only with widespread disease (3-5).
  • She has suffered from Behcet's disease since 1999.
  • [MeSH-major] Choriocarcinoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16100467.001).
  • [ISSN] 1011-8934
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Korean Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2782171
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57. Matscheski A, Richter DU, Hartmann AM, Effmert U, Jeschke U, Kupka MS, Abarzua S, Briese V, Ruth W, Kragl U, Piechulla B: Effects of phytoestrogen extracts isolated from rye, green and yellow pea seeds on hormone production and proliferation of trophoblast tumor cells Jeg3. Horm Res; 2006;65(6):276-88
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  • [Title] Effects of phytoestrogen extracts isolated from rye, green and yellow pea seeds on hormone production and proliferation of trophoblast tumor cells Jeg3.
  • OBJECTIVES: In this study, we tested the effects of crude phytoestrogen extracts from rye (Secale cereale), green pea (Pisum sativum) and yellow pea seeds (Pisum sativum cv.) on cell proliferation and the production of progesterone in trophoblast tumor cells of the cell line Jeg3.
  • Isolated extracts were incubated in different concentrations with trophoblast tumor cells.
  • RESULTS: Cell proliferation is significantly inhibited by potential phytoestrogens isolated from rye, green and yellow pea seeds in trophoblast tumor cells of the cell line Jeg3.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid. Estrogen Receptor alpha / metabolism. Estrogen Receptor beta / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Inhibitory Concentration 50. Isoflavones / isolation & purification. Lignans / isolation & purification. Mass Spectrometry. Peas / chemistry. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism. Secale / chemistry. Seeds / chemistry

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16612104.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0163
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Estrogen Receptor beta; 0 / Isoflavones; 0 / Lignans; 0 / Phytoestrogens; 0 / Plant Extracts; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol
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58. Wang F, Huang H, Kang X, Chen B, Li Y: Telomerase activity and the subunit of telomerase in hydatidiform mole and their relationship with the development of postmolar tumor. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2006;27(5):473-6
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  • [Title] Telomerase activity and the subunit of telomerase in hydatidiform mole and their relationship with the development of postmolar tumor.
  • METHODS: Telomerase activity human telomerase (hTERT) and human telomerase (hTR) expression were analyzed in the initial uterine evacuation specimen of 63 hydatidiform moles (HMs), 42 normal human placental tissues, 17 malignant gestational trophoblastic tumors, primary cultures of normal villi and JAR cell lines by use of the polymerase chain reaction-based telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methods.
  • RESULTS: Telomerase activity was 100% in primary cultures of normal villi and JAR cell lines and in less than 60-day early placental villi, while only 9.1% in greater than 60-day placental villi, 27% in HMs and 58% in malignant trophoblastic tumors.
  • High levels of hTR could be found in all groups. hTR expression was detected in all cases of < 60-day placental villi, in 72.7% > 60-day placental villi, in 87.3% in HMs and 100% in malignant trophoblastic tumors.
  • Telomerase activity was associated with serum hCG levels but not related to other clinical risk factors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Telomerase activity may be correlated with the development of trophoblastic tumors, and hTERT may be a useful diagnostic marker for detecting the existence of malignant trophoblastic cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Chorionic Villi / enzymology. Hydatidiform Mole / enzymology. Placenta / enzymology. Telomerase / metabolism. Uterine Neoplasms / enzymology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line. Cells, Cultured / enzymology. Female. Genetic Markers. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / enzymology. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / genetics. Humans. Pregnancy. RNA / metabolism. Ribonucleases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17139981.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Genetic Markers; 63231-63-0 / RNA; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase; EC 3.1.- / Ribonucleases
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59. Mao TL, Kurman RJ, Huang CC, Lin MC, Shih IeM: Immunohistochemistry of choriocarcinoma: an aid in differential diagnosis and in elucidating pathogenesis. Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Nov;31(11):1726-32
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  • Microscopically, these 2 types of cells are intimately associated with each other, forming a characteristic biphasic plexiform pattern, however, the nature of these 2 types of trophoblastic cells is not well understood.
  • In this study, we used immunohistochemistry for several trophoblastic markers to analyze the trophoblastic subpopulations in 36 gestational choriocarcinomas.
  • Eighty-one specimens including placenta, complete mole, placental site nodule, epithelioid trophoblastic tumor, and placental site trophoblastic tumor were analyzed.
  • This distribution was similar to that in normal placentas, where MUC-4 and HLA-G are expressed in the trophoblastic cells of the trophoblastic columns and implantation site.
  • In choriocarcinoma, mononucleate trophoblastic cells showed moderate immunoreactivity for Mel-CAM, a specific marker for implantation site intermediate trophoblast, in 78% of the cases.
  • The MUC-4, HLA-G, and Mel-CAM-positive trophoblastic cells were larger than cytotrophoblastic cells, with more abundant cytoplasm, consistent with the morphology of intermediate trophoblast.
  • In contrast, 31% of the choriocarcinomas contained a very small proportion (<5%) of mononucleate trophoblastic cells compatible with cytotrophoblast that was positive for nuclear beta-catenin, a cytotrophoblast-associated marker.
  • These results suggest that choriocarcinoma is composed predominantly of a mixture of syncytiotrophoblast and intermediate trophoblast with only a small proportion of cytotrophoblast.
  • The presence of nuclear beta-catenin staining in the cytotrophoblast of choriocarcinoma is consistent with the view that choriocarcinoma develops from transformed cytotrophoblastic cells which are presumably the cancer stem cells that differentiate into either intermediate trophoblast or syncytiotrophoblast.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Choriocarcinoma / diagnosis. Immunohistochemistry. Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / diagnosis. Trophoblasts / chemistry. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18059230.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD146; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / HLA Antigens; 0 / HLA-G Antigens; 0 / Histocompatibility Antigens Class I; 0 / MCAM protein, human; 0 / MUC4 protein, human; 0 / Mucin-4; 0 / Mucins; 0 / beta Catenin
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60. Saker A, Benachi A, Bonnefont JP, Munnich A, Dumez Y, Lacour B, Paterlini-Brechot P: Genetic characterisation of circulating fetal cells allows non-invasive prenatal diagnosis of cystic fibrosis. Prenat Diagn; 2006 Oct;26(10):906-16
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  • OBJECTIVES: Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an autosomal recessive disease due to mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene.
  • The purpose of this study was to develop a molecular method to characterise both paternal and maternal CFTR alleles in DNA from circulating fetal cells (CFCs) isolated by ISET (isolation by size of epithelial tumour/trophoblastic cells).
  • METHODS: The molecular protocol was defined by developing the F508del mutation analysis and addressing it both to single trophoblastic cells, isolated by ISET and identified by short tandem repeats (STR) genotyping, and to pooled trophoblastic genomes, thus avoiding the risk of allele drop out (ADO).


61. Wang S, An R, Han X, Zhu K, Xue Y: Combination chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil, methotrexate and etoposide for patients with high-risk gestational trophoblastic tumors: a report based on our 11-year clinical experiences. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 Dec;103(3):1105-8
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  • [Title] Combination chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil, methotrexate and etoposide for patients with high-risk gestational trophoblastic tumors: a report based on our 11-year clinical experiences.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy, toxicity, and survival of patients with high-risk gestational trophoblastic tumors (GTTs) treated with the 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), methotrexate (MTX) and etoposide (VP-16) regimen.
  • All 5 patients who developed resistance were treated with multidrug regimen of etoposide, methotrexate, and actionmycin D alternating with cyclophosphamide and vincristine (the EMA/CO); 4 were salvaged and 1 died of refractory disease.
  • With mean follow up of 37 months, neither relapse nor secondary tumor was observed.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uterine Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] China. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16870237.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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62. Yang JW, Choi SO, Kim BR, Kim YS, Yoo JM, Eom MS, Han BG: Nephrotic syndrome associated with invasive mole: a case report. Nephrol Dial Transplant; 2010 Jun;25(6):2023-6
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  • Gestational trophoblastic disease describes a number of gynaecological tumours that originate in the trophoblast layer, including hydatidiform mole (complete or partial), placental site trophoblastic tumour, choriocarcinoma and gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN).
  • However, histologic examinations in our case did not reveal evidence of MGN.
  • Clinical features and pathologic findings were consistent with minimal change disease associated with an invasive mole.
  • [MeSH-major] Hydatidiform Mole, Invasive / complications. Nephrosis, Lipoid / etiology. Uterine Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 20237056.001).
  • [ISSN] 1460-2385
  • [Journal-full-title] Nephrology, dialysis, transplantation : official publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nephrol. Dial. Transplant.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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63. Siu MK, Yeung MC, Zhang H, Kong DS, Ho JW, Ngan HY, Chan DC, Cheung AN: p21-Activated kinase-1 promotes aggressive phenotype, cell proliferation, and invasion in gestational trophoblastic disease. Am J Pathol; 2010 Jun;176(6):3015-22
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  • [Title] p21-Activated kinase-1 promotes aggressive phenotype, cell proliferation, and invasion in gestational trophoblastic disease.
  • Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) includes hydatidiform mole (HM), which can develop persistent gestational trophoblastic neoplasia requiring chemotherapy; choriocarcinoma, which is a frankly malignant tumor; placental site trophoblastic tumor; and epithelioid trophoblastic tumor. p21-Activated kinases (PAKs) promote malignant tumor progression.
  • By real-time PCR, PAK1 mRNA was significantly higher in HMs, particularly metastatic HMs (P = 0.046) and HMs that developed persistent disease (P = 0.011), when compared with normal placentas.
  • In addition, HMs that developed persistent disease displayed higher PAK1 immunoreactivity than those that regressed (P = 0.016), and elevated PAK1 immunoreactivity was observed in placental site trophoblastic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Proliferation. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease. Isoenzymes / metabolism. p21-Activated Kinases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20413688.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-2191
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Isoenzymes; EC 2.7.11.1 / p21-Activated Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2877861
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64. Takekawa Y, Yamamoto T, Sakakibara M, Kimura M, Yoshii R, Yamashita Y: Cytologic findings of epithelioid trophoblastic tumor of the uterus: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2010 May-Jun;54(3):345-8
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  • [Title] Cytologic findings of epithelioid trophoblastic tumor of the uterus: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT) is a rare entity within trophoblastic tumors.
  • The tumor was present in the uterine corpus, measuring 3 x 2.5 x 2.5 cm.
  • Histologically, it was composed of mainly mononuclear tumor cell nests resembling intermediate trophoblastic cells with zones of hyaline material.
  • Immunohistochemically, the tumor was positive for cytokeratin and placental alkaline phosphatase but negative for hCG and human placental lactogen.
  • The tumor was subsequently diagnosed as ETT.
  • [MeSH-major] Trophoblastic Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20518425.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0 / GPI-Linked Proteins; 0 / Isoenzymes; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase; EC 3.1.3.1 / alkaline phosphatase, placental
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65. Yang HT, Yang SM, Liao SL, Wang W, Meng LL: [Intermediate trophoblastic tumor in omentum]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2007 Apr;36(4):277-8
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  • [Title] [Intermediate trophoblastic tumor in omentum].
  • [MeSH-major] Omentum / pathology. Peritoneal Neoplasms / pathology. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Keratin-18 / metabolism. Mucin-1 / metabolism. Pregnancy. Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / pathology. Vimentin / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17706126.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Keratin-18; 0 / Mucin-1; 0 / Vimentin
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66. Desai NR, Gupta S, Said R, Desai P, Dai Q: Choriocarcinoma in a 73-year-old woman: a case report and review of the literature. J Med Case Rep; 2010;4:379
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  • INTRODUCTION: Choriocarcinoma is a highly malignant tumor of trophoblastic origin.
  • A postmenopausal woman presenting with vaginal bleed from a mass and β-human chorionic gonadotrophin elevation should be evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis to rule out the possibilities of a germ cell origin of the tumor or dedifferentiation of an epithelial tumor.
  • Absence of octamer binding transcription factor 3/4, α-fetoprotein and CD-30 staining helps in exclusion of most germ cell tumors.
  • DNA polymorphism studies can be used to differentiate between gestational and non-gestational tumor origin.
  • Finally, the effective first-line therapy for β-human chorionic gonadotrophin-producing high-risk gestational as well as non-gestational trophoblastic tumors is combination chemotherapy (the EMA/CO regimen).
  • Therefore, treatment should be commenced when a potential diagnosis of metastatic trophoblastic tumor is being considered.

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  • (PMID = 21108779.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3002375
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67. Lee Y, Kim KR, McKeon F, Yang A, Boyd TK, Crum CP, Parast MM: A unifying concept of trophoblastic differentiation and malignancy defined by biomarker expression. Hum Pathol; 2007 Jul;38(7):1003-13
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  • [Title] A unifying concept of trophoblastic differentiation and malignancy defined by biomarker expression.
  • Several trophoblast phenotypes, including cytotrophoblast, syncytiotrophoblast, and extravillous trophoblast, emerge during gestation.
  • To clarify the lineage relationship between these subtypes, we profiled p63 localization in developing and term placental tissue, as well as in trophoblastic tumors, using antibodies specific to full-length (TAp63) and one against all p63 isoforms (TAp63 and DeltaNp63).
  • Localization of p63 was compared with that of biomarkers of proliferation and trophoblastic differentiation, including mib-1, inhibin, and MelCAM.
  • In early gestation, p63 was localized principally to villous cytotrophoblast after contact with the villous mesenchyme, absent in the trophoblast columns, and early implantation trophoblast.
  • In the maturing placenta, intraplacental perivillous fibrin correlated with the emergence of a p63-positive "transitional" (vacuolated) extravillous trophoblast from cytotrophoblast, which differentiated further into a "mature" p63-negative extravillous trophoblast.
  • The immunophenotypic patterns seen in the immature and mature placenta permit the resolution of all trophoblastic phenotypes within 3 lineage pathways of cytotrophoblast differentiation, including cytotrophoblast-to-trophoblast column/implantation site, cytotrophoblast-to-syncytiotrophoblast, and cytotrophoblast-to-mature extravillous trophoblast.
  • In the latter pathway, a transitional (vacuolated) p63-positive extravillous trophoblast emerges from and links cytotrophoblast to mature extravillous trophoblast in intraplacental fibrin, chorionic membrane, and basal plate.
  • The placental trophoblast is thus resolved within this continuum of differentiation.
  • Terms such as transitional and mature extravillous trophoblast are proposed to reflect the differentiation phases of this unique epithelium. p63 staining patterns in trophoblastic tumors reflect timing of neoplastic transformation during trophoblastic differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Membrane Proteins / analysis. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / metabolism. Trophoblasts / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17397906.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD146; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; EC 6.3.2.19 / MIB1 ligase, human; EC 6.3.2.19 / Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases
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68. Palmer JE, Macdonald M, Wells M, Hancock BW, Tidy JA: Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor: a review of the literature. J Reprod Med; 2008 Jul;53(7):465-75
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  • [Title] Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor: a review of the literature.
  • OBJECTIVE: To identify common characteristics and provide suggestions for future reporting and management of epithelioid trophoblastic tumors (ETTs).
  • A total of 13% were reported as dead from disease, though duration of follow-up was variable (range, 1-39 months).
  • Most reported cases lack long-term follow-up, and disease recurrence in ETT can be late and complex.
  • Data centralization in these rare tumors may be beneficial in identifying relevant prognostic parameters.
  • [MeSH-major] Epithelioid Cells. Trophoblastic Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 18720920.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-7758
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Reprod Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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69. Mao TL, Kurman RJ, Jeng YM, Huang W, Shih IeM: HSD3B1 as a novel trophoblast-associated marker that assists in the differential diagnosis of trophoblastic tumors and tumorlike lesions. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Feb;32(2):236-42
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  • [Title] HSD3B1 as a novel trophoblast-associated marker that assists in the differential diagnosis of trophoblastic tumors and tumorlike lesions.
  • Trophoblastic tumors and tumorlike lesions can be confused with a variety of nontrophoblastic tumors; therefore, a trophoblast-associated marker that is expressed in all types of trophoblastic lesions is useful in differential diagnosis.
  • In this report, we assessed the potential of hydroxyl-delta-5-steroid dehydrogenase (HSD3B1), an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative conversion of delta-5-3 beta-hydroxy steroids to the delta-4-3-keto configuration and that is involved in steroid hormone synthesis, as a diagnostic trophoblastic marker.
  • First, the gene expression profile of HSD3B1 was analyzed in silica using serial analysis of gene expression in the database deposited in the public domain and found that HSD3B1 was not expressed in 159 libraries of breast, lung, colorectal, pancreatic, ovarian carcinomas, and a wide variety of normal adult and fetal tissues.
  • HSD3B1 immunoreactivity was detected in intermediate trophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast in 21 early placentas, 18 complete hydatidiform moles, 67 trophoblastic tumors, including placental site trophoblastic tumors, epithelioid trophoblastic tumors, and choriocarcinomas, and 28 tumorlike lesions including placental site nodules and exaggerated placental site.
  • HSD3B1 immunoreactivity was diffuse and intense in the majority of trophoblastic lesions with the exception of a few choriocarcinomas.
  • In conclusion, as compared with other trophoblastic markers, HSD3B1 is highly specific and sensitive, being expressed in all types of trophoblastic lesions but not in a variety of nontrophoblastic tumors of the uterus, lung, and breast.
  • [MeSH-major] 3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Placenta Diseases / diagnosis. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Trophoblasts / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18223326.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 1.1.- / 3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases
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70. Urabe S, Fujiwara H, Miyoshi H, Arihiro K, Soma H, Yoshihama I, Mineo S, Kudo Y: Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor of the lung. J Obstet Gynaecol Res; 2007 Jun;33(3):397-401
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  • [Title] Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor of the lung.
  • Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT) is a rare type of gestational trophoblastic disease and only 25 cases have been reported so far.
  • It was first proposed by Mazur and Kurman in 1994 as an unusual type of trophoblastic tumor that is distinct from placental site trophoblastic tumor and choriocarcinoma and has features resembling carcinoma.
  • Because no tumor lesions were detected in the uterus, the patient was suspected of having metastatic choriocarcinoma with multiple lesions in the lung accompanied by an elevated level of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG).
  • Microscopically, the tumor showed hemorrhagic necrotic foci and was composed of mainly mononuclear tumor cells and some giant tumor cells resembling trophoblastic cells.
  • In the ultrastructure, the tumor cells contained large nuclei and rich organella with desmosomes and well-formed filaments.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Reproductive History. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17578376.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-8076
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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71. Murhekar KM, Anuratha JN, Majhi U, Rajkumar T: Expression of human chorionic gonadotropin beta in gastric carcinoma: A retrospective immunohistochemical study. Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol; 2009 Jul;30(3):99-102
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  • CONTEXT: Beta Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (βHCG), a marker of the trophoblastic neoplasm, is also secreted by non-trophoblastic neoplasms including gastric carcinomas.
  • Its role in disease progression remains unclear.
  • AIM: To investigate the incidence of βHCG positivity in gastric carcinomas and correlate its presence with the biological behavior of the tumor.
  • Tumors with diffuse reactivity to βHCG were considered as positive.
  • Using the Cox proportional hazards model, the time till the onset of development of an adverse outcome after surgery (defined as death, local or distant metastasis) was compared between the bHCG positive and negative tumors.
  • The median disease-free survival after surgery was not different among βHCG positive and negative tumors.
  • Risk of an adverse outcome after surgery was significantly associated with the stage of the tumor (Hazard ratio=2.9, 95% confidence interval: 1.1-7.4).

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  • (PMID = 20838545.001).
  • [ISSN] 0975-2129
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of medical and paediatric oncology : official journal of Indian Society of Medical & Paediatric Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2930296
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; gastric carcinoma / immunohistochemistry / prognosis / βHCG
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72. Cole LA, Khanlian SA, Kohorn EI: Evolution of the human brain, chorionic gonadotropin and hemochorial implantation of the placenta: insights into origins of pregnancy failures, preeclampsia and choriocarcinoma. J Reprod Med; 2008 Aug;53(8):549-57
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  • It is also of note that human CG-H drives invasion by gestational trophoblastic neoplasms that have been described only in humans.
  • [MeSH-major] Biological Evolution. Brain / embryology. Chorionic Gonadotropin / physiology. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / physiology. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 18773617.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-7758
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Reprod Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 0 / glycosylated HCG
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73. Schneider AE, Talmon GA: Simultaneous bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax following high-dose chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation for mantle cell lymphoma without evidence of pulmonary disease. Int J Clin Oncol; 2010 Dec;15(6):635-7
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  • [Title] Simultaneous bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax following high-dose chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation for mantle cell lymphoma without evidence of pulmonary disease.
  • Simultaneous bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax (SBSP) during high-dose chemotherapy has been described in patients with pulmonary involvement by malignancy, including sarcoma, trophoblastic tumor, non-seminomatous testicular cancer, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • We present a case of SBSP developing in a patient 11 days after a high-dose chemotherapy preparative regimen and stem cell transplantation without underlying pulmonary disease or evidence of lung lesions.


74. Jorens PG, Van Marck E, Snoeckx A, Parizel PM: Nonthrombotic pulmonary embolism. Eur Respir J; 2009 Aug;34(2):452-74
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  • Nonthrombotic pulmonary embolism (NTPE) is defined as embolisation to the pulmonary circulation of different cell types (adipocytes, haematopoietic, amniotic, trophoblastic or tumour), bacteria, fungi, foreign material or gas.
  • They range from very dramatic acute presentations such as acute respiratory distress syndrome to signs observed late in the disease course.
  • [MeSH-minor] Amniotic Fluid / metabolism. Biopsy. Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid. Echinococcosis / complications. Fats / metabolism. Female. Gases. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / metabolism. Humans. Lung Neoplasms / complications. Male. Pregnancy. Sepsis / complications. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • [CommentIn] Eur Respir J. 2009 Dec;34(6):1498-9 [19948920.001]
  • [CommentIn] Eur Respir J. 2010 Jan;35(1):224 [20044467.001]
  • (PMID = 19648522.001).
  • [ISSN] 1399-3003
  • [Journal-full-title] The European respiratory journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Respir. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fats; 0 / Gases
  • [Number-of-references] 315
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75. Chohan MO, Rehman T, Cerilli LA, Devers K, Medina-Flores R, Turner P: Metastatic epithelioid trophoblastic tumor involving the spine. Spine (Phila Pa 1976); 2010 Sep 15;35(20):E1072-5
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  • [Title] Metastatic epithelioid trophoblastic tumor involving the spine.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report the first case of epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT) presenting as primary metastasis to the spine.
  • SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: ETT is an extremely rare form of gestational trophoblastic neoplasm with less than 100 cases reported in the literature.
  • CONCLUSION: This first report of metastasis of ETT to the spine adds significant new information to the growing literature of this rare and newly identified tumor.
  • As more number of cases of nervous system involvement with this tumor are reported, crucial information on prognostic factors and treatment regimens will emerge.
  • [MeSH-major] Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / secondary. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology


76. Burke B, Sebire NJ, Moss J, Hodges MD, Seckl MJ, Newlands ES, Fisher RA: Evaluation of deletions in 7q11.2 and 8p12-p21 as prognostic indicators of tumour development following molar pregnancy. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 Nov;103(2):642-8
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  • [Title] Evaluation of deletions in 7q11.2 and 8p12-p21 as prognostic indicators of tumour development following molar pregnancy.
  • OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have identified loss of chromosomal regions 7p12-q11.2 and 8p12-p21 in choriocarcinoma suggesting that suppressor genes involved in tumour development may be located within these regions.
  • Our objectives were to refine the regions of loss and evaluate these deletions as prognostic indicators of trophoblastic tumour development following molar pregnancy.
  • METHODS: Fluorescent microsatellite genotyping was used to perform deletion mapping in a series of thirty-nine gestational trophoblastic tumours (GTT) including both choriocarcinoma and placental site trophoblastic tumours.
  • CONCLUSIONS: While we have defined a minimal interval in 8p12-p21 in which tumour suppressor genes involved in GTT are likely to be located, the data suggest that deletions in 7q11.2 or 8p12-p21 are unlikely to be useful prognostic indicators in the management of patients with molar pregnancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Deletion. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 7 / genetics. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 8 / genetics. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / genetics. Hydatidiform Mole / genetics. Uterine Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16806440.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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77. Jiang J, Nan FF, Yang XS, Zhang YZ, Wang B, Kong BH: [Combination chemotherapy with etoposide and cisplatin for high-risk, chemorefractory and recurrent gestational trophoblastic neoplasia]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2007 Sep;42(9):595-9
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  • [Title] [Combination chemotherapy with etoposide and cisplatin for high-risk, chemorefractory and recurrent gestational trophoblastic neoplasia].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of combination chemotherapy with etoposide and cisplatin (EP) regimen on the patients with high-risk, chemorefractory and recurrent gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN).
  • METHODS: Thirty-nine patients with gestational trophoblastic tumors were analyzed retrospectively, 25 of 39 patients were of high-risk, 9 patients were chemorefractory and 5 patients were recurrent.
  • Clinical response, toxicity, the occurrence of secondary tumors of all patients, and the fertility of 30 patients whose fertility function was preserved were investigated.
  • None of the women developed secondary tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / drug therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Uterine Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chorionic Gonadotropin / blood. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / adverse effects. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Leukopenia / chemically induced. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Outcome. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Vomiting / chemically induced. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 17983513.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-567X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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78. Zhang Y, Xiang Y, Ren T, Wan XR, Yang XY: [Study on the indication of surgical resection of pulmonary metastasis of malignant trophoblastic tumor]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2005 Feb;40(2):83-6
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  • [Title] [Study on the indication of surgical resection of pulmonary metastasis of malignant trophoblastic tumor].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the indication of lung lobectomy in patients of malignant trophoblastic tumor with lung metastasis.
  • METHODS: Data on a total of 629 cases of malignant trophoblastic tumor of stage III-IV in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 1990 to 2003 were reviewed.
  • Among them, there were 17 cases whose pathological results were hemorrhage and necrotic tissue without trophoblastic cells (negative pathological results), while trophoblastic cells could still be detected in 12 cases of resected lung specimens (positive pathological results).
  • Twenty-five cases of choriocarcinoma with normal serum beta-hCG but residual pulmonary nodules after chemotherapy were followed up, five cases had progress of disease (PD) and 20 were SD.
  • Progression of disease after multiple chemotherapy courses should be treated with lung lobectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / blood. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / surgery. Uterine Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15840284.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-567X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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79. Wells M: The pathology of gestational trophoblastic disease: recent advances. Pathology; 2007 Feb;39(1):88-96
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  • [Title] The pathology of gestational trophoblastic disease: recent advances.
  • When inundated with numerous specimens of products of conception as the consequence of miscarriage, it is all too easy for histopathologists to forget that the biology of trophoblast and the events of early placental implantation continue to fascinate because of the inherently invasive properties of the non-villous (extravillous) trophoblast.
  • However, unlike the invasion of a malignant tumour, the invasion of trophoblast is controlled.
  • However, it is in the field of gestational trophoblastic disease that diagnostic acumen is most called for.
  • There are several problematic areas that give rise to diagnostic error; e.g., the diagnosis of early complete mole as partial mole, the over-diagnosis of hydatidiform mole in tubal pregnancy and the diagnosis of placental site non-villous trophoblast as placental site trophoblastic tumour or choriocarcinoma, particularly if associated with atypia, as frequently observed in complete mole.
  • Persistent trophoblastic disease (PTD) is a clinical not a histopathological diagnosis and the role of the histopathologist once a diagnosis of PTD has been made is limited.
  • Tumours of the non-villous trophoblast are placental site trophoblastic tumour and the more recently recognised epithelioid trophoblastic tumour.
  • The role of immunohistochemistry in the elucidation of trophoblastic lesions is discussed pragmatically.
  • [MeSH-major] Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / pathology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Pregnancy. Trophoblasts / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17365825.001).
  • [ISSN] 0031-3025
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 66
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80. Zavadil M, Feyereisl J, Safár P, Pán M, Turyna R: [Syndrome of persistent low levels of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG)]. Ceska Gynekol; 2006 Mar;71(2):136-42
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  • SETTING: Center for Trophoblastic Disease in Czech Republic, Institute for Care of Mother and Child, Prague, Institute of Postgraduate medical education, IPVZ, Prague METHODS: An analysis of the syndrome of persistent low levels of hCG recorded in CTN in 29 women in the years 1979-2005 by the immunoluminesence method which can quantitatively assess variable levels of hCG in blood and urine.
  • 3. PLL-Q Quiescent with trophoblastic disease in history, of trophoblastic origin.
  • 4. PLL-U Undetermined, in history without trophoblastic disease, but in the past with physiological or pathological pregnancy.
  • Assuming also to be of trophoblastic origin.
  • All types of PLL lead in practice to the wrong diagnosis of trophoblastic disease and to a high percentage (40-80%) of needless chemotherapy and operations.
  • The percentage of developing malignant trophoblastic tumors after PLL-Q and PLL-U is unclear.
  • PLL-Q and PLL-U are considered as a marker of persistent trophoblastic invasion.
  • Its detection by visualization methods in any organ localization before it turns into a limited solid tumor is excluded by it microscopic dissociative structure.
  • PLL of hypophysial origin, 3.PLL quiescent with trophoblastic disease in the history, 4.
  • PLL undetermined, in history without trophoblastic disease.
  • In the last two items mentioned above we assume to be of trophoblastic origin.
  • Their morphological base is persistent trophoblastic invasion.
  • The syndrome of PLL often leads to the wrong diagnosis of trophoblastic disease and to needless chemotherapy and operations.
  • The percentage of PLL turned into malignant trophoblastic disease is unknown and ranges from 7-25% and requires monitoring in an accredited, national center for trophoblastic disease.

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  • (PMID = 16649415.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-7832
  • [Journal-full-title] Ceska gynekologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ceska Gynekol
  • [Language] CZE
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin
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81. Riadh BT, Abdellatif C, Wissal H, Leila A, Taher M, Abdelhamid K: Clinical analysis and management of gestational trophoblastic diseases: a 90 cases study. Int J Biomed Sci; 2009 Dec;5(4):321-5
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  • [Title] Clinical analysis and management of gestational trophoblastic diseases: a 90 cases study.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to identify the incidence, diagnosis, therapeutic and histological particularities of molar pregnancies and to evaluate our management of gestational trophoblastic tumors (GTT) according to the recommendations of FIGO.

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  • (PMID = 23675154.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-9702
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of biomedical science : IJBS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Biomed Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3614797
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; chemotherapy / gestational trophoblastic tumors / human chorionic gonadotropin / hydatiform mole / ultrasonography
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82. Yürüyen M, Yildiz O, Papila C, Tuzuner N: Gestational choriocarcinoma diagnosed with spontaneous splenic rupture after pregnancy induced by in vitro fertilization: a case report. Cases J; 2009;2:7518
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  • Gestational choriocarcinoma is a highly malignant tumor of trophoblastic cells with a propensity to metastasize to various sites including lungs, vagina, brain, liver, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract, in descending order of frequency.
  • Our case probably represents the first case of metastatic choriocarcinoma developed after in vitro fertilization, whether associted with or not, which was cured successfully after chemotherapy.

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  • (PMID = 19829989.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2740022
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83. Lewin SN, Aghajanian C, Moreira AL, Soslow RA: Extrauterine epithelioid trophoblastic tumors presenting as primary lung carcinomas: morphologic and immunohistochemical features to resolve a diagnostic dilemma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Dec;33(12):1809-14
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  • [Title] Extrauterine epithelioid trophoblastic tumors presenting as primary lung carcinomas: morphologic and immunohistochemical features to resolve a diagnostic dilemma.
  • Our objective was to describe the clinicopathologic features of epithelioid trophoblastic tumors (ETTs) in a series of patients who presented with elevated beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) levels and extrauterine lesions resembling primary lung carcinomas.
  • When reproductive-age women present with elevated beta-hCG levels, a pulmonary lesion, and no apparent intrauterine disease, primary pulmonary ETT should be considered.
  • Correlating clinical indices with specific morphologic and immunohistochemical features can ensure diagnostic accuracy and appropriate treatment for favorable outcomes.
  • [MeSH-major] Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Immunohistochemistry. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Endometrium / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Middle Aged. Pneumonectomy. Predictive Value of Tests. Pregnancy. Thoracoscopy. Treatment Outcome. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 19773636.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human
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84. Eiholm S, Langhoff JL, Palle C: [Epithelioid trophoblastic tumour]. Ugeskr Laeger; 2010 Oct 18;172(42):2904-5
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  • [Title] [Epithelioid trophoblastic tumour].
  • [Transliterated title] Epiteloid trofoblasttumor.
  • Epithelioid trophoblastic tumour is a rare gestational trophoblastic disease.
  • It is important to avoid misdiagnosis, as this tumour is primarily treated by surgery rather than chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Pregnancy. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21040666.001).
  • [ISSN] 1603-6824
  • [Journal-full-title] Ugeskrift for laeger
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ugeskr. Laeg.
  • [Language] dan
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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85. Valentin L: Imaging in gynecology. Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol; 2006 Dec;20(6):881-906
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  • This chapter summarizes the diagnostic performance (sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios) of ultrasound, computer tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of various gynecological diseases and tumors.
  • Positron emission tomography is not discussed.
  • Imaging in infertility, in the diagnosis of Mullerian duct anomalies and in gynecological oncology (staging of gynecological cancers, diagnosis of recurrence of gynecological cancer, diagnosis of trophoblastic tumors) is not dealt with.
  • Ultrasound is the first-line imaging method for discrimination between viable intrauterine pregnancy, miscarriage and tubal pregnancy in women with bleeding and/or pain in early pregnancy, for discrimination between benign and malignant adnexal masses and for making a specific diagnosis in adnexal tumors (e.g. dermoid cyst, endometrioma, hemorrhagic corpus luteum, etc.
  • [MeSH-minor] Abortion, Spontaneous / ultrasonography. Adnexal Diseases / ultrasonography. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Pelvic Pain / ultrasonography. Pregnancy. Pregnancy Trimester, First. Pregnancy, Ectopic / ultrasonography. Sensitivity and Specificity. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods. Uterine Hemorrhage / ultrasonography. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16904942.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-6934
  • [Journal-full-title] Best practice & research. Clinical obstetrics & gynaecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Best Pract Res Clin Obstet Gynaecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 172
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86. Kubota S, Amino N: [Thyrotoxicosis due to trophoblastic tumor]. Nihon Rinsho; 2006 May 28;Suppl 1:282-4
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  • [Title] [Thyrotoxicosis due to trophoblastic tumor].
  • [MeSH-major] Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic. Thyrotoxicosis / etiology. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / complications. Uterine Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 16776145.001).
  • [ISSN] 0047-1852
  • [Journal-full-title] Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nippon Rinsho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin
  • [Number-of-references] 15
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87. Sebire NJ, Fisher RA, Williams S, Prendergast G, Savage P, Seckl M: Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression in gestational trophoblastic disease: implications for development of immunotherapeutic approaches. J Reprod Med; 2008 Oct;53(10):789-92
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  • [Title] Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase expression in gestational trophoblastic disease: implications for development of immunotherapeutic approaches.
  • OBJECTIVE: To examine the immunoexpression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) in gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN), including hydatidiform moles and gestational trophoblastic tumors.
  • STUDY DESIGN: GTN cases were identified from a referral center for trophoblastic disease, and sections were immunostained with anti-IDO antibody and classified as positive or negative for trophoblast staining relative to normal chorionic villi.
  • RESULTS: Fifty-two cases were included: 10 nonmolar hydropic miscarriages (HA), 11 partial moles (PHM), 9 complete moles (CHM), 15 choriocarcinoma cases (CC) and 7 placental site trophoblastic tumors (PSTT).
  • All HA, PHM and CHM demonstrated IDO staining; 2 of 15 CC were strongly positive, 6 demonstrated focal positivity (< 10% of tumor cells), and the remainder were negative.
  • CONCLUSION: Hydatidiform moles express IDO, but the majority of gestational trophoblastic tumors, despite arising from villous or nonvillous trophoblast, do not express this enzyme, suggesting that IDO-mediated immunoregulation is unlikely to be a major component of the malignant phenotype in these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / enzymology. Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3,-Dioxygenase / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor. Choriocarcinoma / enzymology. Choriocarcinoma / genetics. Female. Humans. Hydatidiform Mole / enzymology. Hydatidiform Mole / genetics. Hydatidiform Mole / pathology. Immunohistochemistry. Immunotherapy / methods. Pregnancy. Uterine Neoplasms / enzymology. Uterine Neoplasms / genetics. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19004406.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-7758
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Reprod Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Indoleamine-Pyrrole 2,3,-Dioxygenase
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88. Collier K, Schink C, Young AM, How K, Seckl M, Savage P: Successful treatment with etoposide phosphate in patients with previous etoposide hypersensitivity. J Oncol Pharm Pract; 2008 Mar;14(1):51-5
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  • Four patients had curable malignancies with trophoblast tumors or germ cell tumors and two were receiving palliative chemotherapy for other malignancies.
  • The 4 patients with curable malignancies all remain disease free, while the 2 palliative patients obtained significant control of their disease.
  • Patients with previous etoposide hypersensitivity can safely be treated with etoposide phosphate and do not need any additional hypersensitivity prophylaxis.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Anti-Allergic Agents / therapeutic use. Anti-Inflammatory Agents / therapeutic use. Chlorpheniramine / therapeutic use. Female. Humans. Hydrocortisone / therapeutic use. Infusions, Intravenous. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18337441.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-1552
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oncology pharmacy practice : official publication of the International Society of Oncology Pharmacy Practitioners
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Oncol Pharm Pract
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Anti-Allergic Agents; 0 / Anti-Inflammatory Agents; 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Organophosphorus Compounds; 3U6IO1965U / Chlorpheniramine; 528XYJ8L1N / etoposide phosphate; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; WI4X0X7BPJ / Hydrocortisone
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89. Horn LC, Vogel M, Schmidt D, Ulrich U, Mitglieder der Organgruppe Uterus der Arbeitsgemeinschaft Gynäkologische Onkologie (AGO): [Trophoblastic tumor registry of the German Gynecological Oncology Working Group (AGO)]. Pathologe; 2009 Jul;30(4):324-5
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  • [Title] [Trophoblastic tumor registry of the German Gynecological Oncology Working Group (AGO)].
  • [MeSH-major] Trophoblastic Neoplasms / epidemiology. Uterine Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Breast Neoplasms / epidemiology. Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Germany / epidemiology. Humans. Hyperplasia. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Ovarian Neoplasms / epidemiology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Registries. Societies, Medical. Vaginal Neoplasms / epidemiology. Vaginal Neoplasms / pathology. Vulvar Neoplasms / epidemiology. Vulvar Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19513715.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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90. Cole LA, Laidler LL, Muller CY: USA hCG reference service, 10-year report. Clin Biochem; 2010 Aug;43(12):1013-22
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  • INTRODUCTION: The USA hCG Reference Service has been dealing with cases of persistent low levels of hCG and gestational trophoblastic diseases for 10years.
  • RESULTS: The USA hCG Reference Service has identified 83 cases of false-positive hCG, 71 cases of aggressive gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD), 52 cases of minimally invasive GTD, 168 cases of quiescent GTD and 22 cases of placenta site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT).
  • In addition, 103 cases of pituitary hCG have been identified, 60 cases of nontrophoblastic tumor, 4 cases of inherited hCG and 2 cases of Munchausen's syndrome.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. False Positive Reactions. Female. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / blood. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / urine. Humans. Pregnancy. Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / blood. Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / urine

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  • [Copyright] 2010 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20493830.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-2933
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin
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91. Petignat P, Laurini R, Goffin F, Bruchim I, Bischof P: Expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and mutant p53 is increased in hydatidiform mole as compared with normal placenta. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 Jul-Aug;16(4):1679-84
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  • Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are group of enzymes thought to play an important role in trophoblastic and tumor invasion.
  • The aim of our study was to investigate the trophoblastic expression of MMPs and p53 in normal trophoblast and hydatidiform moles (HM).
  • MMP-2 and mutp53 are overexpressed in HM as compared with normal trophoblast and might participate in the invasive behavior of the HM.
  • [MeSH-major] Hydatidiform Mole / metabolism. Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 / metabolism. Placenta / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. DNA / genetics. DNA / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques. Mutation / genetics. Ploidies. Pregnancy. Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 / metabolism. Trophoblasts / metabolism. Uterine Neoplasms / metabolism. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16884384.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 9007-49-2 / DNA; EC 3.4.24.24 / Matrix Metalloproteinase 2
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92. Shih IeM: Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia--pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targets. Lancet Oncol; 2007 Jul;8(7):642-50
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  • [Title] Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia--pathogenesis and potential therapeutic targets.
  • Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia comprises a unique group of human neoplastic diseases that derive from fetal trophoblastic tissues and represent semiallografts in patients.
  • This group is composed of choriocarcinoma, placental-site trophoblastic tumour, and epithelioid trophoblastic tumour, and many forms are derived from the precursor lesions, hydatidiform moles.
  • Although most patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia are cured by chemotherapy and tumour resection, some patients suffer from metastatic diseases that are refractory to conventional chemotherapy.
  • Therefore, new therapeutic regimens are needed to reduce the toxic effects associated with current chemotherapy and to salvage the occasional non-operable patients with recurrent and chemoresistant disease.
  • Until the fundamental biology of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia becomes more clearly understood, development of a new treatment will remain empirical.
  • This review will briefly summarise the recent advances in understanding the molecular aetiology of this group of diseases and highlight the molecules that can be potentially used for therapeutic targets to treat metastatic gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / antagonists & inhibitors. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 17613426.001).
  • [ISSN] 1470-2045
  • [Journal-full-title] The Lancet. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 74
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93. Li J, Shi Y, Wan X, Yao W, Zhou C, Qian H: Intratumoral blood flow analysis in epithelioid trophoblastic tumors. J Ultrasound Med; 2009 Dec;28(12):1709-14
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  • [Title] Intratumoral blood flow analysis in epithelioid trophoblastic tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this series was to describe the transvaginal color pulsed Doppler sonographic features of epithelioid trophoblastic tumors (ETTs) and to evaluate whether there were specific sonographic criteria to accurately distinguish them from other lesions.
  • Doppler indices, including the Pourcelot resistive index (RI), pulsatility index (PI), and peak systolic to diastolic velocity (S/D) ratio from blood flow signals within the tumors were calculated from each waveform sample by using the software of the ultrasound machines.
  • [MeSH-major] Epithelioid Cells / ultrasonography. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / blood supply. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / ultrasonography. Neovascularization, Pathologic / ultrasonography. Perfusion Imaging / methods. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color / methods

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  • (PMID = 19933486.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-9613
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ultrasound Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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94. Gao TY, Yu YH: [Expression of TM4SF9 in human trophoblasts]. Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao; 2008 Jun;28(6):1080-2
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  • RESULTS: TM4SF9 was expressed in the cytotroblasts but not in the syncytiotrophoblast of normal villi.
  • CONCLUSION: TM4SF9 expression in the trophoblasts may relate to their invasiveness and play an important role in the metastasis of trophoblastic tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Membrane Proteins / biosynthesis. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / metabolism. Trophoblasts / metabolism. Uterine Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18583270.001).
  • [ISSN] 1673-4254
  • [Journal-full-title] Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Tetraspanins; 0 / Tspan5 protein, mouse
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95. Alazzam M, Hancock BW, Tidy J: Role of hysterectomy in managing persistent gestational trophoblastic disease. J Reprod Med; 2008 Jul;53(7):519-24
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  • [Title] Role of hysterectomy in managing persistent gestational trophoblastic disease.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate incidence, indications and outcomes of hysterectomy for gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) and compare outcomes for patients who underwent primary hysterectomy with outcomes for those who underwent adjuvant hysterectomy.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Using the Sheffield Trophoblastic Tumour Centre database (January 1, 1986, until June 30, 2007), patients who underwent hysterectomy were identified, along with age, antecedent pregnancy, diagnosis date, hysterectomy date and chemotherapy and pathologic findings.
  • Choriocarcinoma was the most frequent pathology (23), followed by invasive mole (10) and placental site trophoblastic tumor (9).
  • Thirty-one patients needed chemotherapy after hysterectomy, 93.5% are in remission, 7 relapsed, 3 were cured and 4 died of disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / surgery. Hysterectomy / statistics & numerical data

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  • (PMID = 18720927.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-7758
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Reprod Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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96. Zhang HJ, Xue WC, Siu MK, Liao XY, Ngan HY, Cheung AN: P63 expression in gestational trophoblastic disease: correlation with proliferation and apoptotic dynamics. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 Mar;28(2):172-8
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  • [Title] P63 expression in gestational trophoblastic disease: correlation with proliferation and apoptotic dynamics.
  • Gestational trophoblastic disease encompasses a heterogeneous family of lesions with different malignant potential that arise from various trophoblast subpopulations.
  • This study investigated the expression of p63 isoforms in various trophoblastic diseases and correlated with clinical progress, proliferation, and apoptotic activities.
  • 4A4 and anti-p40 antibodies were applied to assess expressions of total and DeltaNp63 isoforms in 20 placentas, 62 hydatidiform moles, 9 choriocarcinomas, 5 placenta site trophoblastic tumors, and 2 epithelioid trophoblastic tumors immunohistochemically.
  • Epithelioid trophoblastic tumors displayed the highest p63 indices (45%-80%) whereas immunoreactivity was only focal in choriocarcinoma (0%-5.62%) and was essentially absent in placenta site trophoblastic tumors.
  • There was no significant correlation between p63 indices and subsequent development of trophoblastic neoplasia in hydatidiform moles (P>0.05).
  • Our results indicate that DeltaNp63, the dominant isoforms expressed in trophoblasts, display heterogeneous expression patterns in relation to trophoblast subtypes.
  • We also demonstrate for the first time the possible role of p63 in the pathogenesis of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) through its interaction with p53-dependent proliferation and apoptotic activities.
  • [MeSH-major] Apoptosis / physiology. Membrane Proteins / biosynthesis. Pregnancy Complications / pathology. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Proliferation. Female. Gene Expression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Pregnancy. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / biosynthesis


97. Chiu PM, Feng HC, Benbrook DM, Ngan HY, Khoo US, Xue WC, Tsao SW, Chan KW, Cheung AN: Effect of all-trans retinoic acid on tissue dynamics of choriocarcinoma cell lines: an organotypic model. J Clin Pathol; 2006 Aug;59(8):845-50
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  • AIM: To investigate the tissue dynamic and cellular invasion effects of ATRA in choriocarcinoma (CCA), an aggressive trophoblastic tumour, by using a three-dimensional organotypic culture model system and cell invasion assay, respectively.
  • [MeSH-minor] Apoptosis / drug effects. Cell Differentiation / drug effects. Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Movement / drug effects. Cell Proliferation / drug effects. Dose-Response Relationship, Drug. Humans. In Situ Nick-End Labeling / methods. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16461808.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 5688UTC01R / Tretinoin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1860458
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98. Fischer I, Schulze S, Kuhn C, Friese K, Walzel H, Markert UR, Jeschke U: Inhibiton of RET and JAK2 signals and upregulation of VEGFR3 phosphorylation in vitro by galectin-1 in trophoblast tumor cells BeWo. Placenta; 2009 Dec;30(12):1078-82
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Inhibiton of RET and JAK2 signals and upregulation of VEGFR3 phosphorylation in vitro by galectin-1 in trophoblast tumor cells BeWo.
  • BACKGROUND: Galectin-1 (gal-1), a member of the mammalian beta-galactoside-binding proteins, binds to cell surface glycoproteins (Mucin-1) on trophoblast cells.
  • As tyrosine phosphorylation is a major mechanism that controls multiple biological processes including cell differentiation, survival and proliferation, the aim of this study was to examine which human receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) were phosphorylated in trophoblast cells by gal-1.
  • [MeSH-major] Galectin 1 / pharmacology. Janus Kinase 2 / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret / metabolism. Signal Transduction / drug effects. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / pathology. Trophoblasts / drug effects. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-3 / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation / physiology. Cell Line, Tumor. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Phosphorylation / drug effects. Protein Array Analysis. Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19900702.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-3102
  • [Journal-full-title] Placenta
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Placenta
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Galectin 1; 0 / LGALS1 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-ret; EC 2.7.10.1 / RET protein, human; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor Protein-Tyrosine Kinases; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-3; EC 2.7.10.2 / JAK2 protein, human; EC 2.7.10.2 / Janus Kinase 2
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99. Orel V, Kozarenko T, Galachin K, Romanov A, Morozoff A: Nonlinear analysis of digital images and Doppler measurements for trophoblastic tumor. Nonlinear Dynamics Psychol Life Sci; 2007 Jul;11(3):309-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Nonlinear analysis of digital images and Doppler measurements for trophoblastic tumor.
  • Taking into consideration spatial irregularity and heterogeneity of internal structures of tumor cells, we examined deterministic chaos of trophoblastic tumor for organ, cellular, molecular levels on digital images and their Doppler measurements of blood flow.
  • Nonlinear analysis of cell images for chorionic villi and tumor supressor gene p16 evidenced the tendency of increase in spatial chaos for patients with choriocarcinoma.
  • The concept of deterministic chaos is hierarchical for the host during trophoblastic disease.

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  • (PMID = 17572987.001).
  • [ISSN] 1090-0578
  • [Journal-full-title] Nonlinear dynamics, psychology, and life sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nonlinear Dynamics Psychol Life Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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100. Hotakainen K, Lintula S, Jarvinen R, Paju A, Stenman J, Rintala E, Stenman UH: Overexpression of human chorionic gonadotropin beta genes 3, 5 and 8 in tumor tissue and urinary cells of bladder cancer patients. Tumour Biol; 2007;28(1):52-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Overexpression of human chorionic gonadotropin beta genes 3, 5 and 8 in tumor tissue and urinary cells of bladder cancer patients.
  • OBJECTIVE: Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is a marker of trophoblastic tumors, and the serum concentration of the free beta-subunit (hCGbeta) is an independent prognostic marker in several nontrophoblastic cancers. hCGbeta is encoded by six genes, of which the type II genes (hCGbeta 3/9, 5 and 8) are thought to be upregulated in relation to type I genes (hCGbeta 6/7) in cancer.
  • METHOD: We developed a novel quantitative RT-PCR method for the quantification of the relative expression levels of the two groups of hCGbeta genes and analyzed 28 bladder tumors and 15 urine samples.
  • The expression level was increasing with higher stage (p = 0.014) and grade (p = 0.001) and tended to be higher in relapsing tumors (p = 0.059).
  • [MeSH-major] Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Genes, Neoplasm / genetics. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Biomarkers, Tumor / urine. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. DNA, Neoplasm / metabolism. Female. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Prognosis. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reproducibility of Results. Urine / cytology

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  • (PMID = 17139196.001).
  • [ISSN] 1010-4283
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumour biology : the journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumour Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 0 / DNA, Neoplasm; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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