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6. Desai NR, Gupta S, Said R, Desai P, Dai Q: Choriocarcinoma in a 73-year-old woman: a case report and review of the literature. J Med Case Rep; 2010;4:379
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  • INTRODUCTION: Choriocarcinoma is a highly malignant tumor of trophoblastic origin.
  • A postmenopausal woman presenting with vaginal bleed from a mass and β-human chorionic gonadotrophin elevation should be evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis to rule out the possibilities of a germ cell origin of the tumor or dedifferentiation of an epithelial tumor.
  • Absence of octamer binding transcription factor 3/4, α-fetoprotein and CD-30 staining helps in exclusion of most germ cell tumors.
  • DNA polymorphism studies can be used to differentiate between gestational and non-gestational tumor origin.
  • Finally, the effective first-line therapy for β-human chorionic gonadotrophin-producing high-risk gestational as well as non-gestational trophoblastic tumors is combination chemotherapy (the EMA/CO regimen).
  • Therefore, treatment should be commenced when a potential diagnosis of metastatic trophoblastic tumor is being considered.

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  • (PMID = 21108779.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3002375
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7. Yap KL, Hafez MJ, Mao TL, Kurman RJ, Murphy KM, Shih IeM: Lack of a y-chromosomal complement in the majority of gestational trophoblastic neoplasms. J Oncol; 2010;2010:364508
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  • [Title] Lack of a y-chromosomal complement in the majority of gestational trophoblastic neoplasms.
  • Gestational trophoblastic neoplasms (GTNs) are a rare group of neoplastic diseases composed of choriocarcinomas, placental site trophoblastic tumors (PSTTs) and epithelioid trophoblastic tumors (ETTs).
  • Since these tumors are derivatives of fetal trophoblastic tissue, approximately 50% of GTN cases are expected to originate from a male conceptus and carry a Y-chromosomal complement according to a balanced sex ratio.
  • We found that all cases contained the X-chromosomal complement while only five (10%) of 51 tumors harbored the Y-chromosomal complement.

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  • (PMID = 20182630.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-8469
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2825661
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8. Kalhor N, Ramirez PT, Deavers MT, Malpica A, Silva EG: Immunohistochemical studies of trophoblastic tumors. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Apr;33(4):633-8
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical studies of trophoblastic tumors.
  • Although intermediate trophoblastic tumors (ITTs) are rare forms of trophoblastic neoplasia, their recognition is important as they require distinct therapeutic approaches.
  • We have noted mixed trophoblastic tumors, with a combination of placental site trophoblastic tumor and epithelioid trophoblastic tumor patterns within the same case, and more frequently a combination of ITT with choriocarcinoma, which can create difficulty in the classification of these tumors.
  • The distinction of the ITTs from choriocarcinoma is important because ITTs do not respond as well to chemotherapy as choriocarcinoma.
  • In addition, ITTs can be confused with a variety of malignant neoplasms, the most common of which is poorly differentiated carcinoma of the cervix.
  • Immunohistochemistry is one means of identifying trophoblastic tumors and of distinguishing them from other entities.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / metabolism. Trophoblasts / metabolism. Uterine Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19145204.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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9. Sebire NJ, Lindsay I: Current issues in the histopathology of gestational trophoblastic tumors. Fetal Pediatr Pathol; 2010;29(1):30-44
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  • [Title] Current issues in the histopathology of gestational trophoblastic tumors.
  • Gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) encompasses several entities including complete (CHM) and partial (PHM) hydatidiform mole (HM) and the malignant gestational trophoblastic tumors (GTTs), choriocarcinoma (CC), and placental-site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT), including epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT).
  • In such cases, histopathological confirmation of the precise nature of the pGTN usually is not available.
  • However, GTT also may present clinically with primary or metastatic disease, either following and unrecognized HM or developing from a nonmolar gestation.
  • CC essentially represents malignant trophoblastic tumors with differentiation toward villous trophoblast, with extensive hematogenous spread and high hCG levels, which are highly chemoresponsive.
  • However, PSTTs, represent malignant differentiation toward implantation-site type trophoblast, with lower hCG levels and less response to chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20055562.001).
  • [ISSN] 1551-3823
  • [Journal-full-title] Fetal and pediatric pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fetal Pediatr Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 47
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10. Sergent F, Verspyck E, Lemoine JP, Marpeau L: [Place of surgery in the management of gestational trophoblastic tumors]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil; 2006 Mar;34(3):233-8
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  • [Title] [Place of surgery in the management of gestational trophoblastic tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Place de la chirurgie dans la prise en charge des tumeurs trophoblastiques gestationnelles.
  • Gestational trophoblastic tumors are authentic malignant tumors of the conception.
  • Hysterectomy keeps a certain interest for women who do not wish to preserve their fertility.
  • If chemotherapy must nevertheless be carried out, hysterectomy decreases the necessary number of cures to obtain complete remission of the disease.
  • Surgery is also indispensable to chemoresistant tumors.
  • Other indications for surgery include uncontrollable vaginal or intra-abdominal bleedings and placental site trophoblastic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / drug therapy. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / surgery. Hysterectomy. Uterine Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uterine Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Fertility. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Pregnancy. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Gynecol Obstet Fertil. 2006 Jul-Aug;34(7-8):670 [16807044.001]
  • (PMID = 16513398.001).
  • [ISSN] 1297-9589
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynécologie, obstétrique & fertilité
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol Obstet Fertil
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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11. Desai SR, Dombale VD, Jadhav AJ: Placental site trophoblastic tumor. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2005 Oct;48(4):505-7
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  • [Title] Placental site trophoblastic tumor.
  • Placental site trophoblastic tumor is very rare.
  • It is a gestational trophoblastic neoplasm which follows normal or molar pregnancy.
  • Though several trophoblastic lesions & tumors enter in the differential diagnosis, microscopically the diagnosis is usually straightforward in hysterectomy specimens.
  • [MeSH-major] Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16366112.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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12. El-Shalakany AH, Kamel KM, Ismail AM, Salah L, El-Deen Fahmy SS, El-Deen Ammar E: Estrogen and progesterone receptors and telomerase enzyme immunohistochemical detection in gestational trophoblastic tumors. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 Sep-Oct;16(5):1918-26
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  • [Title] Estrogen and progesterone receptors and telomerase enzyme immunohistochemical detection in gestational trophoblastic tumors.
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate the immunohistochemical detection of telomerase enzyme and estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PGR) in gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) and its clinical significance.
  • Formalin-fixed paraffin blocks for 30 patients (24 with molar pregnancy, 3 with choriocarcinoma, and 3 with placental site trophoblastic tumor) as cases and six products of conception samples from patients with incomplete abortion as controls were included in the study.
  • Significant positive telomerase expression was detected in all gestational trophoblastic tumors (three of six partial moles, 12 of 18 complete moles, three of three choriocarcinomas, and two of three placental site trophoblastic tumors).
  • ER and PGR expression do not show a significantly different pattern in molar tissues, while negative expression is associated with developing GTN.

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  • (PMID = 17009992.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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13. Chohan MO, Rehman T, Cerilli LA, Devers K, Medina-Flores R, Turner P: Metastatic epithelioid trophoblastic tumor involving the spine. Spine (Phila Pa 1976); 2010 Sep 15;35(20):E1072-5
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  • [Title] Metastatic epithelioid trophoblastic tumor involving the spine.
  • OBJECTIVE: We report the first case of epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT) presenting as primary metastasis to the spine.
  • SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: ETT is an extremely rare form of gestational trophoblastic neoplasm with less than 100 cases reported in the literature.
  • CONCLUSION: This first report of metastasis of ETT to the spine adds significant new information to the growing literature of this rare and newly identified tumor.
  • As more number of cases of nervous system involvement with this tumor are reported, crucial information on prognostic factors and treatment regimens will emerge.
  • [MeSH-major] Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / secondary. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology


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4. Ashraf-Ganjooei T, Ghaemmaghami F: Patients with presenting unusual manifestations with gestational trophoblastic neoplasm: case series and review of literatures. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2008 May;277(5):465-70
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  • [Title] Patients with presenting unusual manifestations with gestational trophoblastic neoplasm: case series and review of literatures.
  • Early recognition of gestational trophoblastic neoplasms (GTN) will maximize the chances of cure with chemotherapy but some patients present with many different symptoms months or even years after the causative pregnancy making diagnosis difficult.
  • Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of GTN in any reproductive age woman with bizarre central nervous system symptoms, gastrointestinal symptoms or radiographic evidence of metastatic tumor of unknown primary origin.
  • We reported two cases of metastatic gestational trophoblastic neoplasms with bizarre pulmonary symptoms, one patient with small bowel metastasis, and two patients with brain metastasis presenting with unusual manifestations.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Digestive System Neoplasms / diagnosis. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / diagnosis. Splenic Neoplasms / diagnosis


15. Hemalatha AL, Kumar DB, Sumanth D, Abhishek MG, Shashidhar HB: Placental site trophoblastic tumour: a case report. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2007 Jul;50(3):581-3
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  • [Title] Placental site trophoblastic tumour: a case report.
  • Placental site trophoblastic tumour (PSTT) is a rare form of trophoblastic disease accounting for < 2% of all gestational trophoblastic neoplasms.
  • Excessive intermediate trophoblastic activity is the most important diagnostic criterion of this tumour originating from non villous trophoblast.
  • But the possibility of a PSTT should be considered when there is excessive intermediate trophoblastic activity despite the presence of chorionic villi as in the present case.
  • This case report highlights the unusual features like rarity of the tumour (< 2%), occurrence following spontaneous abortion which happens only in a minority of cases, and presence of chorionic villi in the tumour despite the fact that the tumour is of non villous trophoblastic origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17883144.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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16. Zhao J, Xiang Y, Wan XR, Cui QC, Yang XY: Clinical and pathologic characteristics and prognosis of placental site trophoblastic tumor. J Reprod Med; 2006 Dec;51(12):939-44
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  • [Title] Clinical and pathologic characteristics and prognosis of placental site trophoblastic tumor.
  • OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical and pathologic characteristics of placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) cases and to discuss the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of PSTT.
  • RESULTS: Between 2000 and 2005, 635 patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasms were treated at PUMCH, 11 with PSTT (1.73%).
  • [MeSH-major] Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17253041.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-7758
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Reprod Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin
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17. Lo C, Low I, Tan AL, Baranyai J: Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor: a case report. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 May-Jun;16(3):1473-6
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  • [Title] Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor: a case report.
  • Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor is a rare and distinctive pathologic entity within the complex family of gestational trophoblastic disease.
  • We describe a case of epithelioid trophoblastic tumor occurring in a 34-year-old woman, who presented with a large uterine tumor 3 years following an uncomplicated pregnancy.
  • The distinguishing features from other intermediate trophoblastic tumors and tumor-like lesions are discussed.
  • [MeSH-major] Epithelioid Cells. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16803553.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
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18. Pariyar J: Gestational trophoblastic disease in Nepalese women managed in B. P. Koirala Memorial Cancer Hospital. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):e16570
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  • [Title] Gestational trophoblastic disease in Nepalese women managed in B. P. Koirala Memorial Cancer Hospital.
  • : e16570 Background: Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) is potentially curable disease.
  • RESULTS: A total of 45 cases of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) were received from 26 districts of Nepal.
  • There were 17 cases (37.8%) of hydatidiform mole, 6 were invasive mole (13.35%), 4 of persistent gestational trophoblastic tumour (8.8%) and 22 patients (48.8%) of choriocarcinoma.
  • Theca Leuteal cyst was present in 11 (24.5%), 17 (37.8%) cases had lung metastasis, 4 (8.9%) had brain metastasis and another 4 (8.9%) had disseminated disease detecteted radiologically.
  • Five (11.1%) cases with disseminated disease and high WHO risk score left the hospital against medical advice.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Early diagnosis of disease and proper management strongly influences the outcome of GTD.

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  • (PMID = 27961513.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Eiholm S, Langhoff JL, Palle C: [Epithelioid trophoblastic tumour]. Ugeskr Laeger; 2010 Oct 18;172(42):2904-5
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  • [Title] [Epithelioid trophoblastic tumour].
  • [Transliterated title] Epiteloid trofoblasttumor.
  • Epithelioid trophoblastic tumour is a rare gestational trophoblastic disease.
  • It is important to avoid misdiagnosis, as this tumour is primarily treated by surgery rather than chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Pregnancy. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21040666.001).
  • [ISSN] 1603-6824
  • [Journal-full-title] Ugeskrift for laeger
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ugeskr. Laeg.
  • [Language] dan
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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20. Xiang Y, Wan XR, Sun ZJ, Yang XY: [Etopside, methotrexate, kengshengmycin/etopside, cisplatin chemotherapy for chemorefractory gestational trophoblastic tumour]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2005 Feb;40(2):79-82
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  • [Title] [Etopside, methotrexate, kengshengmycin/etopside, cisplatin chemotherapy for chemorefractory gestational trophoblastic tumour].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the results of etopside, methotrexate, kengshengmycin/etopside, cisplatin (EMA/EP) chemotherapy in patients with chemorefractory gestational trophoblastic tumour.
  • METHODS: Fifteen patients with chemorefractory gestational trophoblastic tumour were treated by EMA/EP chemotherapy schedule.
  • RESULTS: Twelve of the fifteen cases were choriocarcinoma, and the other three were metastatic placental site trophoblastic tumour (PSTT).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The EMA/EP regimen is an effective treatment for chemorefractory gestational trophoblastic tumour, and the chemotherapeutic results can be further improved while combined with surgery and arterial infusion chemotherapy in the selected patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / drug therapy. Uterine Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Combined Modality Therapy. Dactinomycin / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Schedule. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Leukopenia / etiology. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pregnancy. Treatment Outcome. Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / drug therapy. Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / pathology. Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15840283.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-567X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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21. Xue Y, Zhang J, Wu TX, An RF: Combination chemotherapy for high-risk gestational trophoblastic tumour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2006;(3):CD005196
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  • [Title] Combination chemotherapy for high-risk gestational trophoblastic tumour.
  • BACKGROUND: Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) includes gestational trophoblastic tumour and hydatidiform mole.
  • Many women of reproductive age are affected by this disease although its incidence differs by geographical location.
  • A number of chemotherapy regimens are used for treating the disease, such as methotrexate, actinomycin D and cyclophosphamide (MAC), methotrexate, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, melphalan, hydroxyurea and vincristine (CHAMOC), etoposide, methotrexate and actinomycin (EMA) plus cyclophosphamide and vincristine (CO) (EMA-CO), etoposide, methotrexate and actinomycin (EMA) plus etoposide and cisplatin(EP) (EMA-EP).
  • The efficacy of these drugs has not been systematically reviewed.
  • Patients with placental-site trophoblastic tumour (PSTT), who had received chemotherapy in the previous two weeks, or patients with chemotherapy intolerance were excluded.
  • Meta-analysis was not performed and the review was conducted as a narrative review.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Dactinomycin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Hydatidiform Mole / drug therapy. Hydroxyurea / administration & dosage. Leucovorin / administration & dosage. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Pregnancy. Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / drug therapy. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • [UpdateIn] Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;(2):CD005196 [19370618.001]
  • (PMID = 16856085.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-493X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Cochrane database of systematic reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cochrane Database Syst Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; X6Q56QN5QC / Hydroxyurea; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; CHAMOMA protocol
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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22. Deng L, Yan X, Zhang J, Wu T: Combination chemotherapy for high-risk gestational trophoblastic tumour. Cochrane Database Syst Rev; 2009;(2):CD005196
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Combination chemotherapy for high-risk gestational trophoblastic tumour.
  • BACKGROUND: Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) includes gestational trophoblastic tumour and hydatidiform mole.
  • Many women of reproductive age are affected by this disease although its incidence differs by geographical location.
  • A number of chemotherapy regimens are used for treating the disease, such as methotrexate, actinomycin D and cyclophosphamide (MAC), methotrexate, actinomycin D, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, melphalan, hydroxyurea and vincristine (CHAMOC), etoposide, methotrexate and actinomycin (EMA) plus cyclophosphamide and vincristine (CO) (EMA-CO), etoposide, methotrexate and actinomycin (EMA) plus etoposide and cisplatin(EP) (EMA-EP).
  • The efficacy of these drugs has not been systematically reviewed.
  • Patients with placental-site trophoblastic tumour (PSTT), who had received chemotherapy in the previous two weeks, or patients with chemotherapy intolerance were excluded.
  • Meta-analysis was not performed and the review was conducted as a narrative review.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Dactinomycin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Hydatidiform Mole / drug therapy. Hydroxyurea / administration & dosage. Melphalan / administration & dosage. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Pregnancy. Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / drug therapy. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • [UpdateIn] Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;1:CD005196 [23440800.001]
  • [UpdateOf] Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;(3):CD005196 [16856085.001]
  • (PMID = 19370618.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-493X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Cochrane database of systematic reviews
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cochrane Database Syst Rev
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q41OR9510P / Melphalan; X6Q56QN5QC / Hydroxyurea; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; MAC combination
  • [Number-of-references] 42
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23. Vijay RK, Kaduthodil MJ, Bottomley JR, Abdi S: Metastatic gestational trophoblastic tumour presenting as spontaneous subcapsular renal haematoma. Br J Radiol; 2008 Sep;81(969):e234-7
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  • [Title] Metastatic gestational trophoblastic tumour presenting as spontaneous subcapsular renal haematoma.
  • To our knowledge, presentation of gestational trophoblastic tumour (GTT) with such symptoms has not been described in the recent literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Choriocarcinoma / diagnosis. Flank Pain / etiology. Hematoma / diagnosis. Kidney Neoplasms / secondary. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18769012.001).
  • [ISSN] 1748-880X
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 11
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24. Allan RW, Algood CB, Shih IeM: Metastatic epithelioid trophoblastic tumor in a male patient with mixed germ-cell tumor of the testis. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Dec;33(12):1902-5
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  • [Title] Metastatic epithelioid trophoblastic tumor in a male patient with mixed germ-cell tumor of the testis.
  • This report describes a rare case of a concurrent epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT) and a teratoma in a para-aortic lymph node from a 39-year-old male patient with the initial diagnosis of testicular malignant mixed germ-cell tumor.
  • Microscopically, the metastatic lesion contained a teratoma component and dispersed small nests of cohesive chorionic-type intermediate trophoblastic cells, closely resembling gestational ETT in female patients.
  • Demonstration of ETT as one of the histologic manifestations of recurrent testicular germ-cell tumors should encourage pathologists to recognize this unique feature in assessing posttreatment mixed germ-cell neoplasm.
  • Furthermore, this case represents a unique opportunity to understand the pathobiology of trophoblastic neoplasms arising from germ-cell tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Embryonal / secondary. Choriocarcinoma, Non-gestational / secondary. Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Teratoma / secondary. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / secondary

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  • (PMID = 19898219.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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25. El-Lamie IK, El Sayed HM, Badawie AG, Bayomi WA, El-Ghazaly HA, Khalaf-Allah AE, El-Mahallawy MN, El-Lamie KI: Evolution of treatment of high-risk metastatic gestational trophoblastic tumors: Ain Shams University experience. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 Mar-Apr;16(2):866-74
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  • [Title] Evolution of treatment of high-risk metastatic gestational trophoblastic tumors: Ain Shams University experience.
  • The aim of the current study is to evaluate the different treatment modalities used in the management of high-risk metastatic gestational trophoblastic tumors (GTT) between June 1992 and December 2004 at the Gynecologic Oncology Unit, Ain Shams University.
  • Forty-two patients (60%) were diagnosed within 4 months of the occurrence of the disease, and 28 (40%) were diagnosed after more than 4 months.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uterine Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16681775.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 18D0SL7309 / Chlorambucil; 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; EMA-CO protocol; MDC protocol; PEA-M regimen
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31. Li J, Shi Y, Wan X, Yao W, Zhou C, Qian H: Intratumoral blood flow analysis in epithelioid trophoblastic tumors. J Ultrasound Med; 2009 Dec;28(12):1709-14
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  • [Title] Intratumoral blood flow analysis in epithelioid trophoblastic tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this series was to describe the transvaginal color pulsed Doppler sonographic features of epithelioid trophoblastic tumors (ETTs) and to evaluate whether there were specific sonographic criteria to accurately distinguish them from other lesions.
  • Doppler indices, including the Pourcelot resistive index (RI), pulsatility index (PI), and peak systolic to diastolic velocity (S/D) ratio from blood flow signals within the tumors were calculated from each waveform sample by using the software of the ultrasound machines.
  • [MeSH-major] Epithelioid Cells / ultrasonography. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / blood supply. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / ultrasonography. Neovascularization, Pathologic / ultrasonography. Perfusion Imaging / methods. Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color / methods

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  • (PMID = 19933486.001).
  • [ISSN] 1550-9613
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of ultrasound in medicine : official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ultrasound Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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32. Chakrabarti BK, Mondal NR, Chatterjee T: Gestational trophoblastic tumor at a tertiary level cancer center: a retrospective study. J Reprod Med; 2006 Nov;51(11):875-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Gestational trophoblastic tumor at a tertiary level cancer center: a retrospective study.
  • OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively analyze gestational trophoblastic disease at a tertiary level cancer center.
  • STUDY DESIGN: Thirty-six cases of gestational trophoblastic tumor at a tertiary level cancer hospital during the period 1996-2004 were studied.
  • CONCLUSION: Gestational trophoblastic tumors have an excellent prognosis if diagnosed and treated in time, and the potential for childbearing can be maintained.
  • [MeSH-major] Chorionic Gonadotropin / blood. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease

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  • (PMID = 17165433.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-7758
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Reprod Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin
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33. Takekawa Y, Yamamoto T, Sakakibara M, Kimura M, Yoshii R, Yamashita Y: Cytologic findings of epithelioid trophoblastic tumor of the uterus: a case report. Acta Cytol; 2010 May-Jun;54(3):345-8
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  • [Title] Cytologic findings of epithelioid trophoblastic tumor of the uterus: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT) is a rare entity within trophoblastic tumors.
  • The tumor was present in the uterine corpus, measuring 3 x 2.5 x 2.5 cm.
  • Histologically, it was composed of mainly mononuclear tumor cell nests resembling intermediate trophoblastic cells with zones of hyaline material.
  • Immunohistochemically, the tumor was positive for cytokeratin and placental alkaline phosphatase but negative for hCG and human placental lactogen.
  • The tumor was subsequently diagnosed as ETT.
  • [MeSH-major] Trophoblastic Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20518425.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0 / GPI-Linked Proteins; 0 / Isoenzymes; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase; EC 3.1.3.1 / alkaline phosphatase, placental
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34. Vrettou E, Hytiroglou P, Sikas N, Soultoyannis I, Goodman ZD: Hepatic adenocarcinoma expressing inhibin in a young patient on oral contraceptives. Virchows Arch; 2005 May;446(5):560-5
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  • A case of primary hepatic carcinoma is reported, which occurred in a 24-year-old woman with a 10-year history of oral contraceptive use, and demonstrated unique morphologic and immunohistochemical features.
  • The tumor was located in the left hepatic lobe, measured 14 cm at its widest, and showed histologic heterogeneity.
  • The tumor cells were negative for markers that would be suggestive of hepatocytic or neuroendocrine differentiation.
  • Interestingly, they were positive for inhibin, a protein that is known to be expressed in sex cord-stromal tumors of the ovary, trophoblastic neoplasms and adrenal cortical tumors, but not in hepatic tumors.
  • However, no definite evidence of gonadal stromal, trophoblastic, or adrenocortical differentiation was identified on extensive immunohistochemical work-up.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Contraceptives, Oral, Combined / administration & dosage. Inhibins / analysis. Liver Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15815932.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CA-19-9 Antigen; 0 / Carcinoembryonic Antigen; 0 / Contraceptives, Oral, Combined; 0 / KRT7 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-7; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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35. Savage P, Seckl M, Short D: Practical issues in the management of low-risk gestational trophoblast tumors. J Reprod Med; 2008 Oct;53(10):774-80
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  • [Title] Practical issues in the management of low-risk gestational trophoblast tumors.
  • Using data primarily from Charing Cross Hospital in London, we examined the organization and funding of patients' care and follow-up, the value of second evacuations, the indications for treatment escalation and the results of treating patients with persistent low levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) following a molar pregnancy.
  • Outcome analysis of patients with low-risk gestational trophoblastic tumor (GTT) treated with methotrexate/folinic acid indicates that hCG levels in excess of500 IU/L at 7 weeks after starting are an accurate predictor of impending methotrexate resistance.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / therapeutic use. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chorionic Gonadotropin / blood. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / drug therapy. Hydatidiform Mole / drug therapy. Uterine Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Female. Humans. Leucovorin / therapeutic use. Methotrexate / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Pregnancy. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19004403.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-7758
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Reprod Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; Q573I9DVLP / Leucovorin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
  • [Number-of-references] 38
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36. Aoki D, Hirasawa A, Susumu N: [Diagnostic significance of tumor markers for gynecologic malignancies]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2005 Mar;32(3):411-6
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  • [Title] [Diagnostic significance of tumor markers for gynecologic malignancies].
  • Gynecologic malignancies include ovarian cancer, uterine cervical cancer, endometrial cancer, and trophoblastic neoplasms.
  • With ovarian tumors, due to their location within the abdominal cavity, it is difficult to make a preoperative pathological diagnosis of cancer without laparotomy.
  • From this point of view, the use of tumor markers that consist of carbohydrate antigens, such as CA 125, in addition to diagnostic imaging are useful in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer.
  • At present, there are no useful tumor markers for endometrial cancer that exhibit both high sensitivity and specificity, although CA 125 is often used in clinical practice.
  • Finally, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) serves as an ideal tumor marker for trophoblastic disease; however, the incidence of trophoblastic neoplasms has decreased dramatically with the incorporation of strict clinical management of post-molar disease as well as with the overall decrease in the number of pregnancies.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Genital Neoplasms, Female / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, Neoplasm / blood. CA-125 Antigen / blood. CA-19-9 Antigen / blood. Chorionic Gonadotropin / blood. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / blood. Female. Humans. Pregnancy. Serpins / blood. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15791829.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CA-125 Antigen; 0 / CA-19-9 Antigen; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 0 / Serpins; 0 / squamous cell carcinoma-related antigen
  • [Number-of-references] 10
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37. Mao TL, Kurman RJ, Jeng YM, Huang W, Shih IeM: HSD3B1 as a novel trophoblast-associated marker that assists in the differential diagnosis of trophoblastic tumors and tumorlike lesions. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Feb;32(2):236-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] HSD3B1 as a novel trophoblast-associated marker that assists in the differential diagnosis of trophoblastic tumors and tumorlike lesions.
  • Trophoblastic tumors and tumorlike lesions can be confused with a variety of nontrophoblastic tumors; therefore, a trophoblast-associated marker that is expressed in all types of trophoblastic lesions is useful in differential diagnosis.
  • In this report, we assessed the potential of hydroxyl-delta-5-steroid dehydrogenase (HSD3B1), an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative conversion of delta-5-3 beta-hydroxy steroids to the delta-4-3-keto configuration and that is involved in steroid hormone synthesis, as a diagnostic trophoblastic marker.
  • First, the gene expression profile of HSD3B1 was analyzed in silica using serial analysis of gene expression in the database deposited in the public domain and found that HSD3B1 was not expressed in 159 libraries of breast, lung, colorectal, pancreatic, ovarian carcinomas, and a wide variety of normal adult and fetal tissues.
  • HSD3B1 immunoreactivity was detected in intermediate trophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast in 21 early placentas, 18 complete hydatidiform moles, 67 trophoblastic tumors, including placental site trophoblastic tumors, epithelioid trophoblastic tumors, and choriocarcinomas, and 28 tumorlike lesions including placental site nodules and exaggerated placental site.
  • HSD3B1 immunoreactivity was diffuse and intense in the majority of trophoblastic lesions with the exception of a few choriocarcinomas.
  • In conclusion, as compared with other trophoblastic markers, HSD3B1 is highly specific and sensitive, being expressed in all types of trophoblastic lesions but not in a variety of nontrophoblastic tumors of the uterus, lung, and breast.
  • [MeSH-major] 3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Placenta Diseases / diagnosis. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Trophoblasts / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18223326.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 1.1.- / 3-Hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenases
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38. Aoki Y, Kase H, Kashima K, Yahata T, Tanaka K: Placental site trophoblastic tumor presenting as subaponeurotic metastasis. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2005 Mar-Apr;15(2):385-8
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  • [Title] Placental site trophoblastic tumor presenting as subaponeurotic metastasis.
  • Cases of metastatic placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) have a very poor prognosis because these tumors tend to be less sensitive to chemotherapy than other types of gestational trophoblastic disease.
  • We describe the case of a 25-year-old woman who presented with occipital tumor and abnormal vaginal bleeding.
  • Hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and occipital tumor removal revealed a primary PSTT in the uterus, with ovarian and occipital subaponeurotic metastases.
  • Fifteen months later, she had a recurrent subaponeurotic occipital tumor invading the cranium and underwent tumor removal along with cranial bone followed by local irradiation.
  • The patient, however, had a left parietal subaponeurotic tumor, invading the dura mater, and received local irradiation.
  • However, multiple organ metastases were found, and she died of the disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bone Neoplasms / secondary. Occipital Bone / pathology. Placenta Diseases / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / secondary. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15823131.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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39. Lewin SN, Aghajanian C, Moreira AL, Soslow RA: Extrauterine epithelioid trophoblastic tumors presenting as primary lung carcinomas: morphologic and immunohistochemical features to resolve a diagnostic dilemma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Dec;33(12):1809-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Extrauterine epithelioid trophoblastic tumors presenting as primary lung carcinomas: morphologic and immunohistochemical features to resolve a diagnostic dilemma.
  • Our objective was to describe the clinicopathologic features of epithelioid trophoblastic tumors (ETTs) in a series of patients who presented with elevated beta-human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) levels and extrauterine lesions resembling primary lung carcinomas.
  • When reproductive-age women present with elevated beta-hCG levels, a pulmonary lesion, and no apparent intrauterine disease, primary pulmonary ETT should be considered.
  • Correlating clinical indices with specific morphologic and immunohistochemical features can ensure diagnostic accuracy and appropriate treatment for favorable outcomes.
  • [MeSH-major] Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Immunohistochemistry. Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / blood. Diagnosis, Differential. Endometrium / pathology. Female. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Middle Aged. Pneumonectomy. Predictive Value of Tests. Pregnancy. Thoracoscopy. Treatment Outcome. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 19773636.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human
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40. Foulmann K, Guastalla JP, Caminet N, Trillet-Lenoir V, Raudrant D, Golfier F, Schott AM: What is the best protocol of single-agent methotrexate chemotherapy in nonmetastatic or low-risk metastatic gestational trophoblastic tumors? A review of the evidence. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 Jul;102(1):103-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] What is the best protocol of single-agent methotrexate chemotherapy in nonmetastatic or low-risk metastatic gestational trophoblastic tumors? A review of the evidence.
  • OBJECTIVE: Gestational trophoblastic diseases (GTD), a group of rare placenta disorders, have a varying potential for invasion, either local, or remote under the form of metastases, and are definitely cured by chemotherapy in 85 to 99% of cases.
  • Single-agent methotrexate is the usual primary treatment for women with low-risk trophoblastic tumors (TT), yet various regimens are currently used worldwide.
  • RESULTS: We selected 18 original studies on the efficacy and tolerance of methotrexate used alone or in association with folinic acid for the treatment of nonmetastatic or low-risk metastatic trophoblastic tumors.
  • It was not possible to perform a meta-analysis due to the lack of controlled clinical trials.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / administration & dosage. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / drug therapy. Methotrexate / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 16624388.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
  • [Number-of-references] 33
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41. Vencken PM, Ewing PC, Zweemer RP: Epithelioid trophoblastic tumour: a case report and review of the literature. J Clin Pathol; 2006 Dec;59(12):1307-8
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  • [Title] Epithelioid trophoblastic tumour: a case report and review of the literature.
  • Epithelioid trophoblastic tumour (ETT) is an unusual type of trophoblastic tumour, which can cause difficulties in diagnosis and (as a consequence) in treatment.
  • The literature suggests that surgery should be the treatment of choice for ETT as it is not responsive to chemotherapeutic agents, used in the treatment of other types of gestational trophoblastic diseases.
  • This case report describes a rare case of an atypical trophoblastic tumour, with problematic differential diagnosis.
  • Hence, it is important to consider the occurrence of ETTs, although rare, in patients with atypical cervical or endometrial cancer, and in patients diagnosed with a gestational trophoblastic tumour, who do not respond to appropriate chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Trophoblastic Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology. Plasmacytoma / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Cites] Am J Surg Pathol. 2000 Nov;24(11):1558-62 [11075860.001]
  • [Cites] Gynecol Oncol. 2002 Apr;85(1):204-8 [11925147.001]
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  • (PMID = 17142572.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 8
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1860538
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42. Behtash N, Karimi Zarchi M: Placental site trophoblastic tumor. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2008 Jan;134(1):1-6
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  • [Title] Placental site trophoblastic tumor.
  • Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a rare neoplasm that rises from intermediate trophoblasts and commonly presents with low and variable concentration of HCG immunoactivity in serum, which can be difficult to differentiate from early stage choriocarcinoma/gestational trophoblastic neoplasm (GTN) or quiescent gestational trophoblastic disease.
  • There is a wide clinical spectrum of presentation and behavior ranging from a benign condition to an aggressive disease with fatal outcome.
  • Nontrophoblastic malignancies such as germ cell tumors or other tumors secreting low HCG must also be considered in the differential diagnosis.
  • This article reviews the literatures on this rare but fatal disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17701427.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1335
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 48
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43. Piura B, Shaco-Levy R: [Placental site trophoblastic tumor]. Harefuah; 2007 Jan;146(1):62-7, 77
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  • [Title] [Placental site trophoblastic tumor].
  • Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a rare form of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) that originates from the implantation site intermediate trophoblast.
  • More than half of the patients present with disease limited to the uterus and the remainder present with disease extension beyond the uterus.
  • The most important adverse prognostic factor is disease extension beyond the uterus.
  • Systemic multi-agent chemotherapy is administered in the presence of disease extension beyond the uterus and considered in the presence of other adverse prognostic factors.
  • [MeSH-major] Placenta / pathology. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / pathology. Trophoblasts / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17294852.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-7768
  • [Journal-full-title] Harefuah
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Harefuah
  • [Language] heb
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Israel
  • [Number-of-references] 20
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44. Urabe S, Fujiwara H, Miyoshi H, Arihiro K, Soma H, Yoshihama I, Mineo S, Kudo Y: Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor of the lung. J Obstet Gynaecol Res; 2007 Jun;33(3):397-401
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  • [Title] Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor of the lung.
  • Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT) is a rare type of gestational trophoblastic disease and only 25 cases have been reported so far.
  • It was first proposed by Mazur and Kurman in 1994 as an unusual type of trophoblastic tumor that is distinct from placental site trophoblastic tumor and choriocarcinoma and has features resembling carcinoma.
  • Because no tumor lesions were detected in the uterus, the patient was suspected of having metastatic choriocarcinoma with multiple lesions in the lung accompanied by an elevated level of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG).
  • Microscopically, the tumor showed hemorrhagic necrotic foci and was composed of mainly mononuclear tumor cells and some giant tumor cells resembling trophoblastic cells.
  • In the ultrastructure, the tumor cells contained large nuclei and rich organella with desmosomes and well-formed filaments.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung / pathology. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Reproductive History. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17578376.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-8076
  • [Journal-full-title] The journal of obstetrics and gynaecology research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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45. Golfier F, Labrousse C, Frappart L, Mathian B, Guastalla JP, Trillet-Lenoir V, Hajri T, Schott AM, Raudrant D: [Evaluation of treatment relating to gestational trophoblastic tumor registered to the French Trophoblastic Disease Reference Center (TDRC) in Lyon from 1999 to 2005]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil; 2007 Mar;35(3):205-15
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Evaluation of treatment relating to gestational trophoblastic tumor registered to the French Trophoblastic Disease Reference Center (TDRC) in Lyon from 1999 to 2005].
  • [Transliterated title] Evaluation de la prise en charge des tumeurs trophoblastiques gestationnelles enregistrées au Centre de référence des maladies trophoblastiques de Lyon de 1999 à 2005.
  • OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was both to analyse if gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) registered to the French Trophoblastic Disease Reference Center (TDRC) in Lyon (France) were managed according to the FIGO criteria for diagnosis of GTN and if chemotherapy was adapted to the 2000 FIGO prognostic scoring system.
  • One third (n=54) of the patients therefore had a premature or erroneous diagnosis of a tumor, when the treatment started.
  • DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Non respect of FIGO criteria for the diagnosis of GTN can lead to erroneous diagnosis of tumors.
  • Identification of lung or vaginal metastasis or diagnosis of invasive mole should not automatically justify the diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia if the decrease in HCG occurs properly.
  • Respect of FIGO criteria for the diagnosis of GTN and adaptation of chemotherapy to 2000 FIGO scoring are necessary to avoid inadequate treatment of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / diagnosis. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / drug therapy. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. France. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Pregnancy. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome


46. Ghaemmaghami F, Behtash N, Ayatollahi H, Hanjani P: Successful treatment of two patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasm presenting with emergent neurologic symptoms. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 Mar-Apr;16(2):937-40
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  • [Title] Successful treatment of two patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasm presenting with emergent neurologic symptoms.
  • The objective of this study is to present the successful treatment of two young patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasms (GTN) presenting with emergent neurologic symptoms without any gynecological problems.
  • Case 1, a 22-year-old patient, was admitted to an infectious disease ward, with admitting diagnosis of encephalitis due to neurologic symptoms.
  • Case 2, a 33-year-old patient, underwent craniotomy due to hemorrhagic brain tumor in the neurosurgery department.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / therapy. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / therapy

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  • (PMID = 16681792.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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47. Whitney KA: Placental site trophoblastic tumor. Am J Nurs; 2009 Dec;109(12):32-7; quiz 38
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  • [Title] Placental site trophoblastic tumor.
  • This case reminds nurses that positive pregnancy tests can result from medical conditions other than pregnancy, including various cancers, such as placental site trophoblastic tumor, the focus of this article.
  • [MeSH-major] Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site. Uterine Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 19935163.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7488
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of nursing
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Nurs
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human
  • [Number-of-references] 17
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48. Harvey RA, Pursglove HD, Schmid P, Savage PM, Mitchell HD, Seckl MJ: Human chorionic gonadotropin free beta-subunit measurement as a marker of placental site trophoblastic tumors. J Reprod Med; 2008 Aug;53(8):643-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Human chorionic gonadotropin free beta-subunit measurement as a marker of placental site trophoblastic tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the utility of free human chorionic gonadotropin beta-subunit (hCGbeta) proportion of total hCG measurement to distinguish placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) from more common forms of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD).
  • STUDY DESIGN: Serum samples collected from PSTT, persistent trophoblastic disease (PTD) and choriocarcinoma patients were used for retrospective analysis of free hCGbeta-subunit.
  • RESULTS: The percentage of free hCGbeta was significantly greater in serum from 18 PSTT patients, yielding a median value of 45.5% than in a combined GTD group of 49 PTD and 12 choriocarcinoma patients.
  • Choriocarcinoma patients had significantly higher hCGbeta measurements than PTD patients and were not well distinguished from PSTT patients.
  • CONCLUSION: Our findings show that an elevated proportion of free hCGbeta-subunit is a helpful but not definitive test to discriminate PSTT from other forms of GTD.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / blood. Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18773632.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-7758
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Reprod Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Department of Health / /
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human
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49. Raza A, Ahmad Z, Muzzaffar S: Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) with metastases to lungs and adrenal glands. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak; 2006 Feb;16(2):150-1
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) with metastases to lungs and adrenal glands.
  • Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a rare type of gestational trophoblastic disease and three quarters of cases follow a normal pregnancy.
  • It has 10 to 20% mortality rate when not treated properly.
  • We present report of a case of placental site trophoblastic tumor with metastases to left adrenal gland and both lungs.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenal Gland Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic. Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / secondary. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology


50. Piura B, Rabinovich A, Meirovitz M, Shaco-Levy R: Placental site trophoblastic tumor: report of four cases and review of literature. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2007 Jan-Feb;17(1):258-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Placental site trophoblastic tumor: report of four cases and review of literature.
  • Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a rare variant of gestational trophoblastic disease that originates from the implantation site intermediate trophoblast.
  • Three patients presented with disease confined to the uterus and one patient with disease extension beyond the uterus.
  • Overall, three patients received chemotherapy; one had EP/EMA as adjuvant chemotherapy, one had EMA/CO for rising levels of serum beta-hCG and one had BEP then VIP for recurrent disease.
  • The three patients with disease confined to the uterus have remained after treatment alive and with no evidence of disease, whereas the one patient with disease extension beyond the uterus died of disease despite surgery and aggressive chemotherapy.
  • It is concluded that disease extension beyond the uterus is the most important adverse prognostic factor.
  • [MeSH-major] Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / therapy. Uterine Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17291263.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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51. Fadare O, Parkash V, Carcangiu ML, Hui P: Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor: clinicopathological features with an emphasis on uterine cervical involvement. Mod Pathol; 2006 Jan;19(1):75-82
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  • [Title] Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor: clinicopathological features with an emphasis on uterine cervical involvement.
  • We report on the clinical and histological features of five cases of epithelioid trophoblastic tumor, with an emphasis on its involvement of the uterine cervix.
  • Pathologically, the tumor involved endocervix in three cases and involved uterine corpus in another two.
  • All five tumors were invasive, nodular lesions consisting of epithelioid intermediate trophoblastic cells that were mononuclear with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, along with zones of hyaline material and necrotic debris.
  • Immunohistochemically, all five tumors displayed focal positivity for human placental lactogen and hCG.
  • Three patients survived the tumor with no recurrences or metastases with follow-up periods of 3, 7 and 16 years.
  • One patient died of tumor metastasis 8 months after the diagnosis.
  • In summary, with its unusual ability to simulate an invasive squamous cell carcinoma and other epithelioid neoplasms, epithelioid trophoblastic tumor frequently poses a diagnostic challenge, especially when involving the uterine cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervix Uteri / pathology. Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chorionic Gonadotropin / analysis. Chorionic Gonadotropin / blood. DNA-Binding Proteins. Female. Genes, Tumor Suppressor. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Ki-67 Antigen / analysis. Phosphoproteins / analysis. Placental Lactogen / analysis. Pregnancy. Prognosis. Trans-Activators / analysis. Transcription Factors. Tumor Suppressor Proteins

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  • (PMID = 16258513.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Phosphoproteins; 0 / TP63 protein, human; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Proteins; 9035-54-5 / Placental Lactogen
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52. Yang JJ, Xiang Y, Yang XY, Wan XR: Emergency craniotomy in patients with intracranial metastatic gestational trophoblastic tumor. Int J Gynaecol Obstet; 2005 Apr;89(1):35-8
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  • [Title] Emergency craniotomy in patients with intracranial metastatic gestational trophoblastic tumor.
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the diagnosis, management and prognosis of intracranial metastases of gestational trophoblastic tumor (GTT) patients who had emergency craniotomy.
  • RESULTS: Of the thirteen patients who had undergone surgery combined with multiagent chemotherapy, seven got complete remission (CR), five got partial remission (PR), and one died of progress of the disease (PD).
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / surgery. Craniotomy. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15777896.001).
  • [ISSN] 0020-7292
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynaecology and obstetrics: the official organ of the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int J Gynaecol Obstet
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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53. Ohmaru T, Yamakawa H, Netsu S, Nokubi M, Konno R: Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) with multiple metastases and extremely poor prognosis. Int J Clin Oncol; 2009 Oct;14(5):452-6
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  • [Title] Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) with multiple metastases and extremely poor prognosis.
  • Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a rare type of gestational trophoblastic disease.
  • There is a wide clinical spectrum of presentation and behavior ranging from a benign condition to an aggressive disease with a fatal outcome.
  • PSTT limited to the uterus is in a good prognosis group, but PSTT with metastasis is a lethal disease.
  • The mitotic count of the tumor cells was quite high (23/10 high-power fields).
  • It would have been difficult to remove the tumor by surgery because of the tumor size and its invasion, so we suggested chemotherapy.
  • During the sixth cycle of EMA/CO, the disease became drug-resistant and she died 8 months after the first symptom.
  • [MeSH-major] Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / secondary. Uterine Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Biopsy. Cell Differentiation. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Dactinomycin / administration & dosage. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Fatal Outcome. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Mitotic Index. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Pregnancy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Treatment Failure. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 19856056.001).
  • [ISSN] 1437-7772
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; EMA-CO protocol
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54. Park SG, Chang JY, Kim SH, Bang D: Cutaneous metastasis of choriocarcinoma: a case report. J Korean Med Sci; 2005 Aug;20(4):683-6
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  • Choriocarcinoma is one of the malignant tumors of trophoblastic cells characterized by the secretion of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) (1-3).
  • Cutaneous metastasis is a rare presentation of choriocarcinoma but a poor prognostic sign because it is associated only with widespread disease (3-5).
  • She has suffered from Behcet's disease since 1999.
  • [MeSH-major] Choriocarcinoma / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / secondary. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Cites] Cutis. 1987 Feb;39(2):119-21 [3829718.001]
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  • (PMID = 16100467.001).
  • [ISSN] 1011-8934
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Korean medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Korean Med. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2782171
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55. Murhekar KM, Anuratha JN, Majhi U, Rajkumar T: Expression of human chorionic gonadotropin beta in gastric carcinoma: A retrospective immunohistochemical study. Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol; 2009 Jul;30(3):99-102
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  • CONTEXT: Beta Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (βHCG), a marker of the trophoblastic neoplasm, is also secreted by non-trophoblastic neoplasms including gastric carcinomas.
  • Its role in disease progression remains unclear.
  • AIM: To investigate the incidence of βHCG positivity in gastric carcinomas and correlate its presence with the biological behavior of the tumor.
  • Tumors with diffuse reactivity to βHCG were considered as positive.
  • Using the Cox proportional hazards model, the time till the onset of development of an adverse outcome after surgery (defined as death, local or distant metastasis) was compared between the bHCG positive and negative tumors.
  • The median disease-free survival after surgery was not different among βHCG positive and negative tumors.
  • Risk of an adverse outcome after surgery was significantly associated with the stage of the tumor (Hazard ratio=2.9, 95% confidence interval: 1.1-7.4).

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  • (PMID = 20838545.001).
  • [ISSN] 0975-2129
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of medical and paediatric oncology : official journal of Indian Society of Medical & Paediatric Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Med Paediatr Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2930296
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; gastric carcinoma / immunohistochemistry / prognosis / βHCG
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56. Cole LA, Khanlian SA, Kohorn EI: Evolution of the human brain, chorionic gonadotropin and hemochorial implantation of the placenta: insights into origins of pregnancy failures, preeclampsia and choriocarcinoma. J Reprod Med; 2008 Aug;53(8):549-57
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  • It is also of note that human CG-H drives invasion by gestational trophoblastic neoplasms that have been described only in humans.
  • [MeSH-major] Biological Evolution. Brain / embryology. Chorionic Gonadotropin / physiology. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / physiology. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / physiopathology

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  • (PMID = 18773617.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-7758
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Reprod Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 0 / glycosylated HCG
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57. Zhang Y, Xiang Y, Ren T, Wan XR, Yang XY: [Study on the indication of surgical resection of pulmonary metastasis of malignant trophoblastic tumor]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2005 Feb;40(2):83-6
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  • [Title] [Study on the indication of surgical resection of pulmonary metastasis of malignant trophoblastic tumor].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the indication of lung lobectomy in patients of malignant trophoblastic tumor with lung metastasis.
  • METHODS: Data on a total of 629 cases of malignant trophoblastic tumor of stage III-IV in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 1990 to 2003 were reviewed.
  • Among them, there were 17 cases whose pathological results were hemorrhage and necrotic tissue without trophoblastic cells (negative pathological results), while trophoblastic cells could still be detected in 12 cases of resected lung specimens (positive pathological results).
  • Twenty-five cases of choriocarcinoma with normal serum beta-hCG but residual pulmonary nodules after chemotherapy were followed up, five cases had progress of disease (PD) and 20 were SD.
  • Progression of disease after multiple chemotherapy courses should be treated with lung lobectomy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / blood. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / surgery. Uterine Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 15840284.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-567X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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58. Petersson F, Grossmann P, Vanecek T, Coric M, Cacic M, Hes O, Michal M: Testicular germ cell tumor composed of placental site trophoblastic tumor and teratoma. Hum Pathol; 2010 Jul;41(7):1046-50
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  • [Title] Testicular germ cell tumor composed of placental site trophoblastic tumor and teratoma.
  • Histologic examination showed a malignant germ cell tumor with a unique and hitherto unpublished combination of placental site trophoblastic tumor and teratoma.
  • Testicular tubules adjacent to the tumor contained intratubular germ cell neoplasia.
  • All cells of placental site trophoblastic tumor were immunohistochemically cytokeratin 7, 18, and pancytokeratin positive and cytokeratin 20, S-100 protein, alpha-fetoprotein, placental alkaline phosphatase, p63, OCT3/4, Nanog, and calretinin negative.
  • Ten percent of the placental site trophoblastic tumor stained with hCG, 30% with epithelial membrane antigen and human placental lactogen, and 80% with inhibin antibodies.
  • FISH study showed a gain on the short arm of chromosome 12 in the placental site trophoblastic tumor, proving that this component is of germ cell origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Teratoma / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20381116.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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59. Kunz J, Bannwart F: [Placental site trophoblastic tumor: case report and review of literature]. Praxis (Bern 1994); 2008 Apr 2;97(7):387-94
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  • [Title] [Placental site trophoblastic tumor: case report and review of literature].
  • [Transliterated title] Placental site trophoblastic tumor--Ein Fallbericht und Literaturübersicht.
  • Histology revealed a placental site trophoblastic tumour (PSTT).
  • This is a rare tumour with malignant potential, whose prognosis depends on the stage of the primary tumour, the period of time between the last pregnancy and onset of disease, the patient's age, and the rate of mitosis, and whose progress cannot be assessed using the WHO Prognostic Index Score for Gestational Trophoblastic Disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Cesarean Section. Endosonography. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / ultrasonography. Placenta Diseases / ultrasonography. Postoperative Complications / ultrasonography. Uterine Neoplasms / ultrasonography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Cervix Uteri / pathology. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Inhibins / analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Pancreatin / analysis. Pregnancy. Reoperation. Uterine Rupture / surgery. Uterus / pathology


60. Wan XR, Xiang Y, Yang XY, Wu Y, Liu N, Chen L, Dong RF: [Efficacy of FAEV regimen in treatment of high-risk drug-resistant gestational trophoblastic tumor]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2006 Feb;41(2):88-90
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  • [Title] [Efficacy of FAEV regimen in treatment of high-risk drug-resistant gestational trophoblastic tumor].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of floxuridine, actinomycin D, etoposide, vincristine (FAEV) regimen in treatment of high-risk drug-resistant gestational trophoblastic tumor (GTT).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / blood. Dactinomycin / administration & dosage. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Floxuridine / administration & dosage. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pregnancy. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 16640854.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-567X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 039LU44I5M / Floxuridine; 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide
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61. Xu XJ, Lou FL, Zhang MM, Pan ZM: [Low-dose spiral CT versus standard dose CT in detection of pulmonary metastasis from gestational trophoblastic tumor]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2006 May;28(5):377-80
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  • [Title] [Low-dose spiral CT versus standard dose CT in detection of pulmonary metastasis from gestational trophoblastic tumor].
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to investigate whether low-dose spiral chest CT scan can replace standard-dose CT scan in detecting pulmonary metastases for patients with gestational trophoblastic tumor (GTT).
  • A metastasis by CT image was defined as a nodule within lung parenchyma that could not be attributed to a pulmonary vessel.
  • Moreover, the risk score of the patients was not affected either.
  • The positive predictive value for different sizes of lesion was 80.71% (all sizes), 73.82% (5 mm), 88.86% (5 - 10 mm), and 98.48% (> or = 10 mm), respectively.
  • CONCLUSION: Low-dose chest CT can replace the standard-dose chest CT as a screening and follow-up examination to assess the change in pulmonary metastasis for patients with gestational trophoblastic tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / radiography. Lung Neoplasms / radiography. Tomography, Spiral Computed / methods. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17045006.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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62. Cole LA, Khanlian SA, Muller CY, Giddings A, Kohorn E, Berkowitz R: Gestational trophoblastic diseases: 3. Human chorionic gonadotropin-free beta-subunit, a reliable marker of placental site trophoblastic tumors. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 Aug;102(2):160-4
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  • [Title] Gestational trophoblastic diseases: 3. Human chorionic gonadotropin-free beta-subunit, a reliable marker of placental site trophoblastic tumors.
  • OBJECTIVES: Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) commonly presents with low and variable concentration of hCG immunoreactivity in serum which can be difficult to differentiate from early stage choriocarcinoma/gestational trophoblastic neoplasm (GTN) or quiescent gestational trophoblastic disease (quiescent GTD).
  • Nontrophoblastic malignancies such as germ cell tumors or other tumors secreting low hCG must also be considered in the differential diagnosis.
  • While this finding needs to be confirmed by larger studies, it would be reasonable to measure hCG-free beta-subunit(%) whenever the diagnosis of PSTT is considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Choriocarcinoma / blood. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / blood. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / blood. Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / blood. Uterine Neoplasms / blood

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  • (PMID = 16631918.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human
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63. Schulz-Bischof K, Scheidel P: [Metastatic placental site trophoblastic tumor. Diagnosis after pneumothorax]. Pathologe; 2007 May;28(3):229-34
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  • [Title] [Metastatic placental site trophoblastic tumor. Diagnosis after pneumothorax].
  • Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a rare, mostly benign tumor, which in 10-15% of cases shows a malignant behavior.
  • This finding was incidental in an atypical lung-resection due to pneumothorax.
  • The literature on this rare tumor entity is reviewed especially in terms of differential diagnosis, biological behavior and association with a pneumothorax.
  • [MeSH-major] Placenta / pathology. Pneumothorax / etiology. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / pathology. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17431627.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-8113
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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64. Kurdoglu M, Bayram I, Kolusari A, Erten R, Adali E, Bulut G, Yildizhan R, Kurdoglu Z, Kucukaydin Z, Sahin HG: Expression of laminin receptor 1 in gestational trophoblastic diseases and normal placenta and its relationship with the development of postmolar tumors. Gynecol Oncol; 2009 Aug;114(2):306-9
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  • [Title] Expression of laminin receptor 1 in gestational trophoblastic diseases and normal placenta and its relationship with the development of postmolar tumors.
  • OBJECTIVES: To investigate the expression of laminin receptor 1 (LR1), a non-integrin-type laminin receptor, in gestational trophoblastic diseases and normal first-trimester placenta, since it may play a role in controlling trophoblast invasion in normal and molar pregnancies.
  • METHODS: Paraffin sections from 24 gestational age controlled normal first-trimester placentas, 47 partial moles, 56 complete moles, 3 invasive moles, 4 gestational choriocarcinomas, and 1 placental-site trophoblastic tumor were studied immunohistochemically for expression of LR1.
  • Complete and partial moles, invasive moles, choriocarcinomas, and placental-site tumors did not differ from each other with respect to staining intensity.
  • Strong immunostaining for LR1 in decidual cells, cytotrophoblasts, syncytiotrophoblasts, and extracellular matrix cells of partial and complete moles was not significantly correlated with the development of persistent postmolar gestational trophoblastic tumors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: LR1 may be important in the pathogenesis of gestational trophoblastic diseases.
  • The increased expression of LR1 in decidual cells of partial and complete moles may not influence the development of persistent gestational trophoblastic tumor.
  • Since they are seen rarely, multicentric studies should be planned to study LR1 expression in invasive moles and gestational trophoblastic neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / metabolism. Placenta / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Choriocarcinoma / metabolism. Choriocarcinoma / pathology. Female. Humans. Hydatidiform Mole / metabolism. Hydatidiform Mole / pathology. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Paraffin Embedding. Pregnancy. Receptors, Laminin / biosynthesis

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  • (PMID = 19481788.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Lamr1 protein, human; 0 / Receptors, Laminin
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65. Hui P, Wang HL, Chu P, Yang B, Huang J, Baergen RN, Sklar J, Yang XJ, Soslow RA: Absence of Y chromosome in human placental site trophoblastic tumor. Mod Pathol; 2007 Oct;20(10):1055-60
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  • [Title] Absence of Y chromosome in human placental site trophoblastic tumor.
  • Placental site trophoblastic tumor is a neoplasm of extravillous intermediate trophoblast at the implantation site, preceded in the majority of cases by a female gestational event.
  • Our pilot investigation suggested that the development of this tumor might require a paternally derived X chromosome and the absence of a Y chromosome.
  • Twenty cases of placental site trophoblastic tumor were included in this study.
  • Genotyping at 15 polymorphic loci was informative and paternal alleles were present in all tumors, confirming the trophoblastic origin of the tumors.
  • The presence of an X chromosome and the absence of a Y chromosome were observed in all tumors.
  • These results confirm a unique pathogenetic mechanism in placental site trophoblastic tumor, involving an exclusion of the Y chromosome from the genome and, therefore, a tumor arising from the trophectoderm of a female conceptus.
  • As epigenetic regulations of imprinting during X chromosome inactivation are of significant biological implications, placental site trophoblastic tumor may provide an important model for studying the sex chromosome biology and the proliferative advantage conferred by the paternal X chromosome.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomes, Human, X. Chromosomes, Human, Y. Placenta / pathology. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / genetics. Uterine Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] DNA Methylation. DNA, Neoplasm / analysis. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Gene Silencing. Genes, Y-Linked. Genomic Imprinting. Genotype. Humans. Male. Polymorphism, Genetic. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 17643092.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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66. Hussein MR: Analysis of p53, BCL-2 and epidermal growth factor receptor protein expression in the partial and complete hydatidiform moles. Exp Mol Pathol; 2009 Aug;87(1):63-9
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  • BACKGROUND: Hydatidiform moles are gestational trophoblastic neoplasms that include both partial and complete moles.
  • Apoptosis plays important roles in the normal placental morphogenesis and in the pathogenesis of the gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.
  • TP53 is a tumor suppressor gene (pro-apoptotic molecule) that maintains genomic stability either by inducing cell-cycle arrest or apoptosis.
  • Trophoblastic tissue from first trimester terminations of pregnancy (non-molar tissue, 20 specimens) served as a control group.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The prominent expression of both EGF-R and BCL-2 (indicators of cell proliferation/survival) in the molar trophoblast suggests their involvement in the development of these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Hydatidiform Mole / metabolism. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 / metabolism. Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor / metabolism. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / metabolism. Uterine Neoplasms / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19348791.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-0945
  • [Journal-full-title] Experimental and molecular pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Exp. Mol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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67. Noh HT, Lee KH, Lee MA, Ko YB, Hwang SH, Son SK: Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor of paracervix and parametrium. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2008 Jul-Aug;18(4):843-6
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  • [Title] Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor of paracervix and parametrium.
  • Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT) is an unusual variant of gestational trophoblastic tumor that is closely related to choriocarcinoma and placental site trophoblastic tumor but shows different morphologic and immunohistochemical features.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Pelvic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17944924.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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68. Zwischenberger BA, Boren T: Placental site trophoblastic tumor presenting as a friable cervical mass. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2010;31(5):570-2
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  • [Title] Placental site trophoblastic tumor presenting as a friable cervical mass.
  • PURPOSE OF INVESTIGATION: Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a rare variant of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) and primarily composed of intermediate trophoblasts.
  • [MeSH-major] Cervix Uteri / radiography. Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / radiography. Uterine Neoplasms / radiography
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Pregnancy. Tomography, X-Ray Computed


69. Feng FZ, Xiang Y, Cao Y, Li L, Wan XR, Yang XY: [Efficacy of surgical management combined with chemotherapy in the treatment of drug-resistant gestational trophoblastic neoplasm]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2008 Oct;43(10):728-31
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  • [Title] [Efficacy of surgical management combined with chemotherapy in the treatment of drug-resistant gestational trophoblastic neoplasm].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of surgical management combined with chemotherapy in the treatment of drug-resistant gestational trophoblastic neoplasm (GTN) patients, and investigate factors influencing the outcome of the surgery combined with chemotherapy.
  • Therefore, surgical management should not be performed for these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / drug therapy. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / surgery. Uterine Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uterine Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / blood. Combined Modality Therapy. Dactinomycin / administration & dosage. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Hysterectomy. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pregnancy. Retrospective Studies. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19087536.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-567X
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua fu chan ke za zhi
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil
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70. Orel V, Kozarenko T, Galachin K, Romanov A, Morozoff A: Nonlinear analysis of digital images and Doppler measurements for trophoblastic tumor. Nonlinear Dynamics Psychol Life Sci; 2007 Jul;11(3):309-31
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  • [Title] Nonlinear analysis of digital images and Doppler measurements for trophoblastic tumor.
  • Taking into consideration spatial irregularity and heterogeneity of internal structures of tumor cells, we examined deterministic chaos of trophoblastic tumor for organ, cellular, molecular levels on digital images and their Doppler measurements of blood flow.
  • Nonlinear analysis of cell images for chorionic villi and tumor supressor gene p16 evidenced the tendency of increase in spatial chaos for patients with choriocarcinoma.
  • The concept of deterministic chaos is hierarchical for the host during trophoblastic disease.

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  • (PMID = 17572987.001).
  • [ISSN] 1090-0578
  • [Journal-full-title] Nonlinear dynamics, psychology, and life sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nonlinear Dynamics Psychol Life Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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71. Cole LA, Khanlian SA, Muller CY: Blood test for placental site trophoblastic tumor and nontrophoblastic malignancy for evaluating patients with low positive human chorionic gonadotropin results. J Reprod Med; 2008 Jul;53(7):457-64
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  • [Title] Blood test for placental site trophoblastic tumor and nontrophoblastic malignancy for evaluating patients with low positive human chorionic gonadotropin results.
  • OBJECTIVE: To examine utility of measurement of proportions of free beta-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in diagnosis of placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) and nontrophoblastic neoplasm in patients with persistent low hCG levels and patients with history of gestational trophoblastic diseases.
  • STUDY DESIGN: The USA hCG Reference Service measured proportions of free beta-subunit in 128 cases, 45 with active invasive trophoblastic disease and 83 questionable cases with persistent low hCG levels, with or without history of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD).
  • RESULTS: High proportions of free beta-subunit (> 30% of total hCG) were identified in 18 of 128 cases, all suspected of having PSTT or nontrophoblastic neoplasm, which was reported to referring physicians.
  • Within 2 months of testing, hysterectomy or tumor biopsy led to histologic proof of PSTT in 13 of the 18 cases and biopsy led to proof of nontrophoblastic neoplasm in 5 of the 18 cases.
  • CONCLUSION: We confirm use of proportion of free beta-subunit (> 30%) as a seemingly absolute test for identifying PSTT and nontrophoblastic neoplasms.
  • [MeSH-major] Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / blood. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / blood. Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / blood. Uterine Neoplasms / blood

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  • (PMID = 18720919.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-7758
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Reprod Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human
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72. Palmer JE, Macdonald M, Wells M, Hancock BW, Tidy JA: Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor: a review of the literature. J Reprod Med; 2008 Jul;53(7):465-75
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  • [Title] Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor: a review of the literature.
  • OBJECTIVE: To identify common characteristics and provide suggestions for future reporting and management of epithelioid trophoblastic tumors (ETTs).
  • A total of 13% were reported as dead from disease, though duration of follow-up was variable (range, 1-39 months).
  • Most reported cases lack long-term follow-up, and disease recurrence in ETT can be late and complex.
  • Data centralization in these rare tumors may be beneficial in identifying relevant prognostic parameters.
  • [MeSH-major] Epithelioid Cells. Trophoblastic Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 18720920.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-7758
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Reprod Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 32
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73. Wan X, Xiang Y, Yang X, Wu Y, Liu N, Chen L, Dong R: Efficacy of the FAEV regimen in the treatment of high-risk, drug-resistant gestational trophoblastic tumor. J Reprod Med; 2007 Oct;52(10):941-4
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  • [Title] Efficacy of the FAEV regimen in the treatment of high-risk, drug-resistant gestational trophoblastic tumor.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of the FAEV regimen (floxuridine, actinomycin D, etoposide, vincristine) in the treatment of high-risk, drug-resistant gestational trophoblastic tumor (GTT).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Chorionic Gonadotropin / blood. Dactinomycin / administration & dosage. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Floxuridine / administration & dosage. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Middle Aged. Pregnancy. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 17977170.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-7758
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Reprod Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 039LU44I5M / Floxuridine; 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide
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74. Allison KH, Love JE, Garcia RL: Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor: review of a rare neoplasm of the chorionic-type intermediate trophoblast. Arch Pathol Lab Med; 2006 Dec;130(12):1875-7
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  • [Title] Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor: review of a rare neoplasm of the chorionic-type intermediate trophoblast.
  • We present a brief review of epithelioid trophoblastic tumor, a rare trophoblastic neoplasm derived from chorionic-type intermediate trophoblastic cells that typically presents in reproductive-age women between 1 and 18 years following a previous gestation.
  • Areas of necrosis and mitotic activity (0-9 mitoses per 10 high-power fields) are additional features of this neoplasm.
  • Inhibin-alpha is typically expressed, as well as focal, more variable expression of other trophoblastic markers including beta-human chorionic gonadotropin, human placental lactogen, placental alkaline phosphate, and Mel-CAM (CD148).
  • The clinical behavior of this rare form of gestational trophoblastic disease is difficult to predict.
  • Although most cases follow a benign course following resection, there is a potential for metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Keratins / analysis. Membrane Proteins / analysis. Mitosis. Necrosis. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 17149967.001).
  • [ISSN] 1543-2165
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
  • [Number-of-references] 12
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75. Went PT, Dirnhofer S, Stallmach T, Taverna C, Singer G: Placental site trophoblastic tumor of the mediastinum. Hum Pathol; 2005 May;36(5):581-4
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  • [Title] Placental site trophoblastic tumor of the mediastinum.
  • Choriocarcinoma has been described as the most frequent subtype of mediastinal germ cell tumors showing trophoblastic differentiation.
  • We report a unique case of a placental site trophoblastic tumor, which developed in the mediastinum of a 14-year-old boy 2 years after the resection of a mature teratoma.
  • The recurrent tumor was composed of a grossly hemorrhagic and necrotic mass.
  • The typical morphologic features included vessel wall infiltration by the neoplastic cells with fibrinoid deposits and geographic necroses within the tumor masses.
  • Characteristic diffuse positivity for melanoma cell adhesion molecule and human leucocyte antigen G was found on immunohistochemical investigation, confirming the diagnosis of placental site trophoblastic tumor.
  • The outcome of this rare tumor is similar to the reported poor clinical outcome in patients with mediastinal choriocarcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15948127.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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76. Tam KF, Chau MT, Chan YM, Ng TY, Wong LC, Ngan HY: Hepatic arteriogram for gestational trophoblastic tumor: is it useful? Cancer Invest; 2005;23(8):677-82
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  • [Title] Hepatic arteriogram for gestational trophoblastic tumor: is it useful?
  • The presence of liver metastasis will be staged as IV in the FIGO 1992 Gestational Trophoblastic Tumor (GTT) staging.
  • Outcome measures including mortality, drug resistance and recurrence of disease, as well as treatment with and without the HAG result were compared.
  • Seventeen (5.5 percent) of the 309 patients died of the disease and 7 (41.2 percent) of them had liver metastasis.
  • Three (27.3 percent) of the 11 patients who had USG features of liver metastasis died of the disease; mortality is significantly higher than those without USG features of metastasis (Chi-square test, P < 0.05).
  • HAG evidence of liver metastasis did not correlate with patient mortality.
  • HAG was not an appropriate investigation in the management of GTT.
  • [MeSH-major] Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / diagnosis. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / pathology. Liver Neoplasms / blood supply. Liver Neoplasms / secondary
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Angiography. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pregnancy. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16377586.001).
  • [ISSN] 0735-7907
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer investigation
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Invest.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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77. Okumura M, Fushida K, Rezende WW, Schultz R, Zugaib M: Sonographic appearance of gestational trophoblastic disease evolving into epithelioid trophoblastic tumor. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol; 2010 Aug;36(2):249-51
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  • [Title] Sonographic appearance of gestational trophoblastic disease evolving into epithelioid trophoblastic tumor.
  • Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor is a distinctive but rare trophoblastic tumor.
  • It derives from intermediate trophoblastic cells of the chorion laeve and is usually associated with a previous gestational event.
  • Three months later gestational trophoblastic disease was suspected because of persistent vaginal bleeding and high levels of beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG).
  • Transvaginal ultrasound revealed irregular echolucent lacunae within the myometrium, some of them filled with low-resistance, turbulent blood flow on Doppler examination, emphasizing the diagnosis of gestational trophoblastic disease.
  • A diagnosis of tumor of intermediate trophoblastic cells was suspected and total hysterectomy was performed.
  • On pathological examination, the histological and immunohistochemical features were characteristic of epithelioid trophoblastic tumor.
  • Most reported cases of epithelioid trophoblastic tumor have solitary nodules with sharp margins, which is consistent with our ultrasound findings.
  • Ultrasound may be helpful in differentiating epithelioid trophoblastic tumor from placental-site trophoblastic tumor, another tumor of intermediate trophoblastic cells, which shows infiltrative growth insinuating between muscle fibers.
  • [MeSH-major] Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / ultrasonography. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Uterine Neoplasms / ultrasonography

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  • (PMID = 20069561.001).
  • [ISSN] 1469-0705
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrasound in obstetrics & gynecology : the official journal of the International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human
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78. Milingos D, Doumplis D, Savage P, Seckl M, Lindsay I, Smith JR: Placental site trophoblastic tumor with an ovarian metastasis. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2007 Jul-Aug;17(4):925-7
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  • [Title] Placental site trophoblastic tumor with an ovarian metastasis.
  • Placental site trophoblastic tumors (PSTT) are the rarest form of gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD).
  • The case highlights the possibility of ovarian metastases despite normal preoperative imaging and confirms the value of multidisciplinary management of this rare illness.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary. Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 17343608.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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79. Chu D, Shih IeM, Knezevich M, Sheth S: Uterine epithelioid trophoblastic tumor in an African green monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus). J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci; 2007 Mar;46(2):92-6
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  • [Title] Uterine epithelioid trophoblastic tumor in an African green monkey (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus).
  • A uterine mass was detected on physical exam in a multiparous African green monkey as an incidental finding, and the well-circumscribed mass was removed via hysterectomy.
  • Histologically, the mass consisted of sheets, nests, and cords of uniform intermediate trophoblastic cells with eosinophilic or clear cytoplasm.
  • These neoplastic cells aggregated around blood vessels, forming islands of viable tumor cells amid extensive areas of coagulative necrosis with calcification in a 'geographic' pattern of necrosis.
  • Immunohistochemistry of the trophoblastic cells revealed strong and diffuse staining for pancytokeratin AE1/3 and p63, with weak and moderate staining for human placental lactogen and placental alkaline phosphatase, respectively.
  • Overall, the histologic and immunohistochemical features of this tumor were consistent with those of epithelioid trophoblastic tumor.
  • This rare tumor type has not been reported previously to occur in African green monkeys.
  • [MeSH-major] Cercopithecus aethiops. Monkey Diseases / diagnosis. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / veterinary. Uterine Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 17343360.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-6109
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science : JAALAS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Assoc. Lab. Anim. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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80. Liang Y, Chen XD, Lü BJ, Shi HY, Zhang XF: [Clinicopathologic analysis of uterine epithelioid trophoblastic tumor]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2009 Sep;38(9):590-3
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Clinicopathologic analysis of uterine epithelioid trophoblastic tumor].
  • OBJECTIVE: To study the clinicopathologic features, immunophenotype, differential diagnosis and prognosis of uterine epithelioid trophoblastic tumor(ETT).
  • The pathologic characteristics and immunophenotype of the tumors were analyzed by histological examination and immunohistochemistry of CK18, p63, inhibin-alpha, HCG, HPL, PLAP and Ki-67.
  • RESULTS: The overall prevalence of ETT was 0.48% among all the gestational trophoblastic diseases patients received in the same period.
  • Histologically, the tumor showed an invasive, nodular growth consisting of uniform mononuclear trophoblastic cells.
  • There were zones of hyaline material in the tumour nests.
  • Two patients died of the tumour relapse: one died after 1 year with the tumor having a high mitotic activity (averagely 15 mitotic figures per 10 high-power fields), and the other died of lung metastasis 2 years after the diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSIONS: ETT is a rare trophoblastic disease with distinct clinicopathological features and immunostaining patterns.
  • [MeSH-major] Inhibins / metabolism. Keratin-18 / metabolism. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Alkaline Phosphatase / metabolism. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Chorionic Gonadotropin / metabolism. Epithelioid Cells / pathology. Female. Follow-Up Studies. GPI-Linked Proteins / metabolism. Humans. Hysterectomy. Isoenzymes / metabolism. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Membrane Proteins / metabolism. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Placental Lactogen / metabolism. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 20079186.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CKAP4 protein, human; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin; 0 / GPI-Linked Proteins; 0 / Isoenzymes; 0 / Keratin-18; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / inhibin-alpha subunit; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; 9035-54-5 / Placental Lactogen; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase; EC 3.1.3.1 / alkaline phosphatase, placental
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81. Qian JH, Ye DF, Xie X: [Clinical analysis of 13 cases of gestational trophoblastic tumor misdiagnosed as ectopic pregnancy]. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi; 2005 Feb;40(2):91-4
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  • [Title] [Clinical analysis of 13 cases of gestational trophoblastic tumor misdiagnosed as ectopic pregnancy].
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical-pathological features, diagnosis and therapy of gestational trophoblastic tumor (GTT) misdiagnosed as ectopic pregnancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / diagnosis. Pregnancy, Ectopic / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Amenorrhea / etiology. Amenorrhea / pathology. Choriocarcinoma / diagnosis. Choriocarcinoma / pathology. Choriocarcinoma / therapy. Combined Modality Therapy. Cyclophosphamide / administration & dosage. Dactinomycin / administration & dosage. Diagnostic Errors. Drug Administration Schedule. Female. Humans. Hydatidiform Mole, Invasive / diagnosis. Hydatidiform Mole, Invasive / pathology. Hydatidiform Mole, Invasive / therapy. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging / standards. Pregnancy. Retrospective Studies


82. Dotto J, Hui P: Lack of genetic association between exaggerated placental site reaction and placental site trophoblastic tumor. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Oct;27(4):562-7
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  • [Title] Lack of genetic association between exaggerated placental site reaction and placental site trophoblastic tumor.
  • Sharing similar cytological and immunohistochemical features with the tumor cells of placental site trophoblastic tumor, a biological link between the 2 lesions can be speculated.
  • Because placental site trophoblastic tumor has a unique sex chromosomal requirement in its genome that requires a paternal X chromosome (i.e. a female antecedent gestation), we investigated whether EPS carries the similar genetic profile by DNA genotypic analysis.
  • The genetic profile of all cases demonstrated unique paternal alleles to that of the paired maternal tissue, confirming the trophoblastic origin of EPS.
  • Therefore, EPS is a trophoblastic lesion that can arise from either male or female gestations.
  • The assignment of sex chromosomes in our study (XY, 55% and XX, 45%) does not support a neoplastic association between placental site trophoblastic tumor and EPS.
  • [MeSH-major] Placenta / physiology. Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / genetics. Trophoblasts / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] DNA, Neoplasm / chemistry. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Genes, X-Linked. Humans. Microsatellite Repeats. Polymerase Chain Reaction. Pregnancy. Sex Chromosomes

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  • [ErratumIn] Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2008 Jan;28(1):102. Jorge, Dotto [corrected to Dotto, Jorge]
  • (PMID = 18753963.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA, Neoplasm
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83. Mousavi SA, Behnamfar F: Gestational trophoblastic tumor with liver metastasis after misoprostol abortion. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2009 Apr;279(4):587-90
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  • [Title] Gestational trophoblastic tumor with liver metastasis after misoprostol abortion.
  • Serious complications like gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) are uncommon and mostly nonmetastatic.
  • CONCLUSION: Follow up of patients after medical abortion by means of single serum hCG measurement is highly recommended for early diagnosis of complications including gestational trophoblastic tumor.
  • EMA-CO regimen seems to be an effective and safe treatment for liver metastatic gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / drug therapy. Liver Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18762963.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0711
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Abortifacient Agents, Nonsteroidal; 0E43V0BB57 / Misoprostol; 1CC1JFE158 / Dactinomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate; EMA-CO protocol
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84. Machtinger R, Gotlieb WH, Korach J, Fridman E, Apter S, Goldenberg M, Ben-Baruch G: Placental site trophoblastic tumor: outcome of five cases including fertility preserving management. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Jan;96(1):56-61
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  • [Title] Placental site trophoblastic tumor: outcome of five cases including fertility preserving management.
  • INTRODUCTION: Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a rare variant of gestational trophoblastic disease that has been re-described during the 1970s.
  • Instead of standard hysterectomy followed by chemotherapy, when indicated, one patient underwent fertility preserving management using hysteroscopic resection of the tumor followed by chemotherapy.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The combination of operative hysteroscopy and chemotherapy in women with localized disease, who want to preserve their fertility, can be a possible treatment option in highly selected patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / therapy. Uterine Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15589580.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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85. Wang S, An R, Han X, Zhu K, Xue Y: Combination chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil, methotrexate and etoposide for patients with high-risk gestational trophoblastic tumors: a report based on our 11-year clinical experiences. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 Dec;103(3):1105-8
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  • [Title] Combination chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil, methotrexate and etoposide for patients with high-risk gestational trophoblastic tumors: a report based on our 11-year clinical experiences.
  • OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy, toxicity, and survival of patients with high-risk gestational trophoblastic tumors (GTTs) treated with the 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), methotrexate (MTX) and etoposide (VP-16) regimen.
  • All 5 patients who developed resistance were treated with multidrug regimen of etoposide, methotrexate, and actionmycin D alternating with cyclophosphamide and vincristine (the EMA/CO); 4 were salvaged and 1 died of refractory disease.
  • With mean follow up of 37 months, neither relapse nor secondary tumor was observed.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / drug therapy. Uterine Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] China. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Fluorouracil / administration & dosage. Humans. Methotrexate / administration & dosage. Neoplasm Staging. Survival Analysis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16870237.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; U3P01618RT / Fluorouracil; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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86. Moodley M: Placental site trophoblastic tumor with antecedent molar pregnancy in association with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2008 Jul-Aug;18(4):860-1
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  • [Title] Placental site trophoblastic tumor with antecedent molar pregnancy in association with human immunodeficiency virus infection.
  • The occurrence of placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is rare.


87. Yeasmin S, Nakayama K, Katagiri A, Ishikawa M, Iida K, Nakayama N, Miyazaki K: Exaggerated placental site mimicking placental site trophoblastic tumor: case report and literature review. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2010;31(5):586-9
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  • [Title] Exaggerated placental site mimicking placental site trophoblastic tumor: case report and literature review.
  • Exaggerated placental site is defined as a non-neoplastic trophoblastic lesion featuring exuberant infiltration into the endometrium and myometrium by intermediate trophoblasts and syncytiotrophoblasts.
  • We encountered a case of reactive exaggerated placental site seven months following normal pregnancy that clinically mimicked placental site trophoblastic tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / pathology. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / pathology. Trophoblasts / pathology. Uterine Diseases / pathology


88. Baergen RN, Rutgers JL, Young RH, Osann K, Scully RE: Placental site trophoblastic tumor: A study of 55 cases and review of the literature emphasizing factors of prognostic significance. Gynecol Oncol; 2006 Mar;100(3):511-20
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  • [Title] Placental site trophoblastic tumor: A study of 55 cases and review of the literature emphasizing factors of prognostic significance.
  • OBJECTIVE: The placental site trophoblastic tumor is a rare form of gestational trophoblastic disease.
  • METHODS: The clinical, gross and histopathological features of 55 cases and 180 cases in the literature were analyzed for their effect on survival and in relation to tumor stage.
  • The tumors occurred on an average of 34 months after the last known gestation.
  • The tumors were on average 5 cm in greatest dimension and were composed microscopically of infiltrative sheets of intermediate (extravillous) trophoblastic cells.
  • Eight patients (15%) died from metastatic tumor, and nine additional patients had metastases or a recurrence but were alive at last contact.
  • Only stage and clear cytoplasm were independent predictors of overall survival, while stage and age were the only independent predictors of time to recurrence or disease-free survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Pregnancy. Prognosis. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16246400.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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89. Nagai Y, Kamoi S, Matsuoka T, Hata A, Jobo T, Ogasawara T, Aoki Y, Ohira S, Okamoto T, Nakamoto T, Kanda K, Matsui H: Impact of p53 immunostaining in predicting advanced or recurrent placental site trophoblastic tumors: a study of 12 cases. Gynecol Oncol; 2007 Sep;106(3):446-52
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Impact of p53 immunostaining in predicting advanced or recurrent placental site trophoblastic tumors: a study of 12 cases.
  • OBJECTIVES: To identify an indicator that can predict tumor cell spread beyond the uterine corpus.
  • Two cases of epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT) were included as reference cases.
  • RESULTS: Age, the interval from the latest pregnancy, serum hCG/hPL levels, tumor size, mitotic figures, Ki-67 labeling indices, and bcl-2 did not discriminate NCG from CG.
  • CEACAM1 and CEA-related antigens as determined by polyclonal anti-CEA antibodies were specifically stained in PSTT cells, but they could not discriminate groups. p53 was positive in PSTT cells in NCG (6/6, 100%), while it was positive in only one case of CG (1/6, 16.7%), indicating a possible usefulness of p53 immunostaining in predicting an invasive or recurrent propensity of PSTT cells (p=0.015).
  • CONCLUSIONS: This finding also suggests the importance of p53 function in the biology of PSTT cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / chemistry. Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / pathology. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / analysis. Uterine Neoplasms / chemistry. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Cell Growth Processes / physiology. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Predictive Value of Tests. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 17544490.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / TP53 protein, human; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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90. Marbaix E, Defrère S, Duc KH, Lousse JC, Dehoux JP: Non-gestational malignant placental site trophoblastic tumor of the ovary in a 4-year-old rhesus monkey. Vet Pathol; 2008 May;45(3):375-8
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  • [Title] Non-gestational malignant placental site trophoblastic tumor of the ovary in a 4-year-old rhesus monkey.
  • We report a case of ovarian malignant intermediate-type trophoblastic tumor in a clinically normal, nonpregnant 4-year-old rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta).
  • The tumor was histologically identified as predominantly composed of intermediate trophoblastic cells, without prominent hemorrhages and the classic bilaminar pattern of cyto- and syncytiotrophoblastic cells characteristic of choriocarcinoma.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis showed the presence of placental lactogen hormone in many tumor cells and chorionic gonadotropin in a few multinucleated cells consistent with syncytiotrophoblastic differentiation.
  • In the absence of previous and present pregnancy, this neoplasm has to be considered as a nongestational malignant placental site trophoblastic tumor of the ovary.
  • [MeSH-major] Choriocarcinoma / veterinary. Monkey Diseases / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / veterinary. Trophoblastic Neoplasms / veterinary
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Female. Macaca mulatta. Necrosis. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Placenta / pathology. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 18487497.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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91. Zhang D, Ding Z, Qian J, Xie X, Wang Y: Two rare cases of methotrexate-induced pneumonitis and pleurisy in patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasms. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2008;29(4):390-2
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  • [Title] Two rare cases of methotrexate-induced pneumonitis and pleurisy in patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasms.
  • Pulmonary toxicity of methotrexate in patients with a gestational trophoblastic neoplasm (GTN) has rarely been reported before.
  • Their symptoms, such as fever, chest pain, acute nonproductive cough, dyspnea and hypoxemia did not respond to antibiotics immediately.
  • [MeSH-major] Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic / adverse effects. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / drug therapy. Methotrexate / adverse effects. Pleurisy / chemically induced. Pneumonia / chemically induced

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  • (PMID = 18714577.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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92. Alifrangis C, Seckl MJ: Genetics of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia: an update for the clinician. Future Oncol; 2010 Dec;6(12):1915-23
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  • [Title] Genetics of gestational trophoblastic neoplasia: an update for the clinician.
  • Gestational trophoblastic disease is a spectrum of disorders ranging from premalignant hydatidiform moles through to malignant invasive moles, choriocarcinoma and rare placental site trophoblastic tumor.
  • The latter are often collectively referred to as gestational trophoblastic tumors or neoplasia (GTN).
  • Although most women can expect to be cured of their disease, many interesting questions arise in the management of gestational trophoblastic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm / genetics. Female. Humans. Molecular Targeted Therapy / trends. Pregnancy

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  • (PMID = 21142864.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8301
  • [Journal-full-title] Future oncology (London, England)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Future Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
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93. Matscheski A, Richter DU, Hartmann AM, Effmert U, Jeschke U, Kupka MS, Abarzua S, Briese V, Ruth W, Kragl U, Piechulla B: Effects of phytoestrogen extracts isolated from rye, green and yellow pea seeds on hormone production and proliferation of trophoblast tumor cells Jeg3. Horm Res; 2006;65(6):276-88
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  • [Title] Effects of phytoestrogen extracts isolated from rye, green and yellow pea seeds on hormone production and proliferation of trophoblast tumor cells Jeg3.
  • OBJECTIVES: In this study, we tested the effects of crude phytoestrogen extracts from rye (Secale cereale), green pea (Pisum sativum) and yellow pea seeds (Pisum sativum cv.) on cell proliferation and the production of progesterone in trophoblast tumor cells of the cell line Jeg3.
  • Isolated extracts were incubated in different concentrations with trophoblast tumor cells.
  • RESULTS: Cell proliferation is significantly inhibited by potential phytoestrogens isolated from rye, green and yellow pea seeds in trophoblast tumor cells of the cell line Jeg3.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid. Estrogen Receptor alpha / metabolism. Estrogen Receptor beta / metabolism. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Inhibitory Concentration 50. Isoflavones / isolation & purification. Lignans / isolation & purification. Mass Spectrometry. Peas / chemistry. Receptors, Progesterone / metabolism. Secale / chemistry. Seeds / chemistry

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 16612104.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0163
  • [Journal-full-title] Hormone research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Horm. Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Estrogen Receptor beta; 0 / Isoflavones; 0 / Lignans; 0 / Phytoestrogens; 0 / Plant Extracts; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone; 4TI98Z838E / Estradiol
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94. Price JM, Hancock BW, Tidy J, Everard J, Coleman RE: Screening for central nervous system disease in metastatic gestational trophoblastic neoplasia. J Reprod Med; 2010 Jul-Aug;55(7-8):301-4
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  • [Title] Screening for central nervous system disease in metastatic gestational trophoblastic neoplasia.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the Sheffield Trophoblastic Tumour Centre protocol for central nervous system (CNS) involvement in high-risk patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia (GTN) and determine the impact of brain imaging and lumbar puncture (LP) results on subsequent clinical care.
  • STUDY DESIGN: The trophoblastic tumor database was searched for patients fitting any of the following criteria registered between January 1, 1988, and December 31, 2008: hCG levels > 50,000 IU/L, high risk, > or = 2 for metastases.
  • Placental site trophoblastic tumors (PSTTs) were excluded, and all patients with signs or symptoms suggestive of CNS involvement were investigated.
  • Patients were to have computed tomography (CT) scan of the head and, if not contraindicated, LP to determine the ratio of cerebrospinal fluid to blood hCG level.
  • Only 2 cases had no clinical evidence of CNS disease-both had very-high-risk choriocarcinoma.
  • No diagnosis of CNS disease was made on LP alone.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Brain Neoplasms / secondary. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology


95. Kelly T, Alvis C, Abedalthagafi M, Barnes W: Diagnostic evaluation of metastatic placental site trophoblastic tumor. Obstet Gynecol; 2009 Aug;114(2 Pt 2):465-8
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  • [Title] Diagnostic evaluation of metastatic placental site trophoblastic tumor.
  • BACKGROUND: Placental site trophoblastic tumor, a type of gestational trophoblastic disease, is a rare tumor composed of intermediate trophoblasts.
  • She was diagnosed with Stage 3 metastatic placental site trophoblastic tumor 12 years after her most recent pregnancy.
  • CONCLUSION: Placental site trophoblastic tumor is an unusual malignancy that may present remotely from antecedent gestational events.
  • The relatively slow growth rate of this tumor may explain the lack of PET findings in our case.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / diagnosis. Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / diagnosis. Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / secondary. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19622963.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-7844
  • [Journal-full-title] Obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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96. Fisher RA, Savage PM, MacDermott C, Hook J, Sebire NJ, Lindsay I, Seckl MJ: The impact of molecular genetic diagnosis on the management of women with hCG-producing malignancies. Gynecol Oncol; 2007 Dec;107(3):413-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • OBJECTIVES: The diagnosis of a gestational trophoblastic tumour (GTT) should be considered in all women presenting with a malignancy and an elevated human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) level.
  • However, some non-gestational tumours can exhibit trophoblastic differentiation and so make establishing the definitive diagnosis difficult.
  • The objective of this study is to demonstrate the clinical value of distinguishing these two diagnoses by genetic analysis in patient care at a major GTT treatment centre.
  • METHODS: Between 1994 and 2005, fluorescent microsatellite genotyping was used to examine the genetic origin of 35 cases of metastatic hCG-producing tumours with trophoblastic differentiation, three cases of atypical uterine tumours, three cases of uterine choriocarcinoma with a very long interval and one atypical ovarian tumour.
  • We illustrate the clinical value of this diagnostic technique by presenting five individual cases in which molecular genetic results helped determine the appropriate clinical management.
  • [MeSH-major] Choriocarcinoma, Non-gestational / genetics. Choriocarcinoma, Non-gestational / therapy. Chorionic Gonadotropin / biosynthesis. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / genetics. Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17942145.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin
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97. Dehaghani AS, Kashef MA, Ghaemenia M, Sarraf Z, Khaghanzadeh N, Fattahi MJ, Ghaderi A: PDCD1, CTLA-4 and p53 gene polymorphism and susceptibility to gestational trophoblastic diseases. J Reprod Med; 2009 Jan;54(1):25-31
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] PDCD1, CTLA-4 and p53 gene polymorphism and susceptibility to gestational trophoblastic diseases.
  • OBJECTIVE: Gestational trophoblastic neoplasms (also termed gestational trophoblastic diseases [GTDs]) encompass a spectrum of interrelated tumors originating from trophoblasts.
  • Considering the role of PDCD1, CTLA-4 and p53 genes in immune regulation and tumor progression, we explored the association of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) corresponding to each gene and GTDs.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD / genetics. Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins / genetics. Choriocarcinoma / genetics. Genetic Predisposition to Disease / genetics. Hydatidiform Mole / genetics. Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. CTLA-4 Antigen. Case-Control Studies. Female. Gene Frequency. Humans. Odds Ratio. Pregnancy. Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor. Tumor Suppressor Protein p53 / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19263877.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-7758
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Reprod Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / CTLA-4 Antigen; 0 / CTLA4 protein, human; 0 / PDCD1 protein, human; 0 / Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53
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98. Nizam K, Haider G, Memon N, Haider A: Gestational trophoblastic disease: experience at Nawabshah Hospital. J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad; 2009 Jan-Mar;21(1):94-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Gestational trophoblastic disease: experience at Nawabshah Hospital.
  • BACKGROUND: Gestational Trophoblastic Disease (GTD) is a heterogeneous group of diseases that includes partial and complete hydatidiform mole, invasive mole, choriocarcinoma and placental site trophoblastic tumour.
  • The malignant potential of this disease is higher in South East Asia in comparison to western countries.
  • METHODS: The case records of all the gestational trophoblastic cases during study period were analysed regarding their history, clinical examination, investigations, treatment and follow-up.
  • RESULTS: There were a total of 1056 Obstetric admissions during the study period, which included 30 cases of trophoblastic disease with a frequency of GTD was 28 per 1000 live births.
  • Of these 30 cases, 21 (70%) patients had hydatidiform mole, 7 (23.3%) patients had invasive disease and 2 (6.6%) patients had choriocarcinoma.
  • Among all patients, 29 (96.7%) fully recovered and 1 (3.3%) died because of extensive disease; metastasis extending up to brain.
  • The disease was common in extremes of ages, low para and grand multiparous women.
  • Hydatidiform mole was the commonest type of trophoblastic disease in these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Gestational Trophoblastic Disease / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Choriocarcinoma / diagnosis. Choriocarcinoma / epidemiology. Choriocarcinoma / therapy. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / blood. Female. Humans. Hydatidiform Mole / diagnosis. Hydatidiform Mole / epidemiology. Hydatidiform Mole / therapy. Hydatidiform Mole, Invasive / diagnosis. Hydatidiform Mole, Invasive / epidemiology. Hydatidiform Mole, Invasive / therapy. Incidence. Pakistan / epidemiology. Pregnancy. Retrospective Studies. Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / diagnosis. Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / epidemiology. Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / therapy. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / epidemiology. Uterine Neoplasms / therapy. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20364752.001).
  • [ISSN] 1025-9589
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad : JAMC
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human
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99. Arroyo MR, Podda A, Cao D, Rodriguez MM: Placental site trophoblastic tumor in the ovary of a young child with isosexual precocious puberty. Pediatr Dev Pathol; 2009 Jan-Feb;12(1):73-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Placental site trophoblastic tumor in the ovary of a young child with isosexual precocious puberty.
  • The authors report a unique case of a primary ovarian placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) in a 30-month-old girl who presented with isosexual precocious puberty of 1 month duration.
  • The tumor was confined to the ovary as proven by the preoperative staging workup and the exploratory laparotomy.
  • Microscopically, it was composed of intermediate trophoblastic cells with angioinvasive growth and deposition of fibrinoid material.
  • The tumor cells were diffusely positive for human leukocyte antigen G, melanoma cell adhesion molecule (CD146), and cytokeratins (AE1/AE3, CK18, and CAM 5.2).
  • The patient remains disease-free at 24-months follow-up.
  • We propose that tumors morphologically identical to uterine PSTT may rarely occur as gonadal germ cell tumors in children.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / complications. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Puberty, Precocious / etiology. Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / complications. Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18671454.001).
  • [ISSN] 1093-5266
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric and developmental pathology : the official journal of the Society for Pediatric Pathology and the Paediatric Pathology Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Dev. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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100. Köbel M, Pohl G, Schmitt WD, Hauptmann S, Wang TL, Shih IeM: Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase is required for migration and invasion of placental site trophoblastic tumor. Am J Pathol; 2005 Sep;167(3):879-85
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase is required for migration and invasion of placental site trophoblastic tumor.
  • Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a gestational neoplasm derived from the extravillous (intermediate) trophoblast of the implantation site.
  • In this report, we demonstrate that PSTTs expressed the activated (phosphorylated) form of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in 84% of cases, whereas the normal extravillous trophoblastic cells did not.
  • IST-2 cells expressed HLA-G and Mel-CAM but not E-cadherin, an immunophenotype characteristic of PSTT.
  • IST-2 cells were highly motile and invasive in culture as compared to choriocarcinoma JEG-3 cells and normal extravillous trophoblastic cells.
  • In contrast, neither compound had any effect on normal extravillous trophoblastic cells or JEG-3 cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Movement. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism. Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / pathology. Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / physiopathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Benzamides / pharmacology. Case-Control Studies. Cells, Cultured. Enzyme Activation. Female. Flavonoids / pharmacology. Humans. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Pregnancy. Protein Kinase Inhibitors / pharmacology. Trophoblasts / enzymology

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  • (PMID = 16127165.001).
  • [ISSN] 0002-9440
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 2-(2-amino-3-methoxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one; 0 / 2-(2-chloro-4-iodophenylamino)-N-cyclopropylmethoxy-3,4-difluorobenzamide; 0 / Benzamides; 0 / Flavonoids; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1698728
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