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11. Carver BS, Sheinfeld J: Germ cell tumors of the testis. Ann Surg Oncol; 2005 Nov;12(11):871-80
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  • [Title] Germ cell tumors of the testis.
  • The multidisciplinary approach to the management of germ cell tumors of the testis has resulted in survival rates of > 90% overall.
  • This review summarizes the principal management of germ cell tumors of the testis, highlighting the indications for surgery, controversies surrounding the integration of surgery, and alternative management strategies.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma. Testicular Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Seminoma / radiotherapy

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  • (PMID = 16184443.001).
  • [ISSN] 1068-9265
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 82
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12. Do HJ, Lee WY, Lim HY, Oh JH, Kim DK, Kim JH, Kim T, Kim JH: Two potent transactivation domains in the C-terminal region of human NANOG mediate transcriptional activation in human embryonic carcinoma cells. J Cell Biochem; 2009 Apr 15;106(6):1079-89
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  • [Title] Two potent transactivation domains in the C-terminal region of human NANOG mediate transcriptional activation in human embryonic carcinoma cells.
  • The core embryonic stem cell transcription factors Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog are expressed in germ cell tumors (GCTs) and have been proposed to play a regulatory role in tumorigenesis.
  • Nanog is a novel homeobox-containing transcription factor that is expressed in pluripotent cells as well as GCTs.
  • To understand the molecular and functional role of human NANOG (hNANOG) in germ cells, mutagenesis of the C-terminal domain (CD) of hNANOG and transient transfection assays in NCCIT human embryonic carcinoma cells were carried out to identify critical transactivation motifs.
  • The results of the current study contribute to a better understanding of the complicated molecular machinery of stem cell transcription factors and their role in unregulated proliferation in germ cell tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Embryonal Carcinoma Stem Cells / physiology. Homeodomain Proteins / metabolism. Transcriptional Activation
  • [MeSH-minor] Amino Acid Sequence. Animals. Cell Line. Genes, Reporter. Humans. Mice. Molecular Sequence Data. Protein Structure, Tertiary. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / genetics. Recombinant Fusion Proteins / metabolism. Sequence Alignment

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 19229867.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-4644
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cellular biochemistry
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cell. Biochem.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / NANOG protein, human; 0 / Nanog protein, mouse; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins
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13. Kaur H, Bagga R, Saha SC, Gainder S, Srinivasan R, Adhya AK, Dhaliwal LK: Juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the ovary presenting with pleural effusion and ascites. Int J Clin Oncol; 2009 Feb;14(1):78-81
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  • [Title] Juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the ovary presenting with pleural effusion and ascites.
  • Juvenile granulosa cell tumor (GCT) is a rare tumor, and the majority (90%) are reported in the prepubertal or under-30-year age group, in contrast to the adult type, which is more common in the fifth decade.
  • Being solid tumors, they may be associated with ascites and pleural effusion (Meigs' syndrome), which resolve after surgical removal of the tumor.
  • Tumor markers for GCT are still investigational (inhibin) and of not much use in making a preoperative diagnosis, unlike in the case of germ cell tumors.
  • However, lymph node sampling is advocated for complete staging of these tumors, as a significant number of recurrences are reported in the retroperitoneum, as well as in incompletely staged patients.
  • In the present patient, because of the association of Meigs' syndrome, a preoperative diagnosis of benign tumors such as fibroma/thecoma was also considered.
  • We report this rare tumor with an aim of reviewing the diagnosis and management from the reported literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Ascites / etiology. Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Meigs Syndrome / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Pleural Effusion, Malignant / etiology

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  • (PMID = 19225930.001).
  • [ISSN] 1341-9625
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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4. Sirachainan N, Wongruangsri S, Kajanachumpol S, Pakakasama S, Visudtibhan A, Nuchprayoon I, Lusawat A, Phudhicharoenrat S, Shuangshoti S, Hongeng S: Folate pathway genetic polymorphisms and susceptibility of central nervous system tumors in Thai children. Cancer Detect Prev; 2008;32(1):72-8
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  • [Title] Folate pathway genetic polymorphisms and susceptibility of central nervous system tumors in Thai children.
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes encoding enzymes of the folate pathway predispose to any CNS tumors in Thai children.
  • METHODS: In the present case-control study, we investigated these polymorphisms in genomic DNA from peripheral blood mononuclear cells in 73 Thai children with various types of central nervous system tumors and in 205 age and sex matched controls.
  • RESULTS: Thirty-one out of 73 patients were diagnosed with glial tumors (astrocytoma, oigodendroglioma and ependymoma), 28 with embryonal CNS tumors (medulloblastoma, pinealoblastoma and primitive neuroectodermal tumor), 13 with germ cell tumors and 1 with meningioma.
  • We found that the homozygous CC allele of MTHFR A1298C conferred an increased risk of embryonal CNS tumors (OR: 3.9; 95% CI: 1.3-11.4, p=0.02).
  • CONCLUSION: Our findings thus suggest that folate metabolism may play a role in the pathogenesis of certain specific subtypes of pediatric brain tumor in Thai children, especially embryonal CNS tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Central Nervous System Neoplasms / genetics. Folic Acid / genetics. Folic Acid / metabolism. Polymorphism, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 18406541.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1500
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer detection and prevention
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Detect. Prev.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Membrane Transport Proteins; 0 / Reduced Folate Carrier Protein; 0 / SLC19A1 protein, human; 935E97BOY8 / Folic Acid; EC 1.5.1.20 / Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (NADPH2); EC 2.1.1.13 / 5-Methyltetrahydrofolate-Homocysteine S-Methyltransferase; EC 2.1.1.45 / Thymidylate Synthase
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15. Treiyer A, Blanc G, Stark E, Haben B, Treiyer E, Steffens J: Prepubertal testicular tumors: frequently overlooked. J Pediatr Urol; 2007 Dec;3(6):480-3
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  • [Title] Prepubertal testicular tumors: frequently overlooked.
  • OBJECTIVE: Prepubertal testicular tumors are fundamentally distinct from their adult counterparts.
  • We reviewed our 10-year, two-institution experience with respect to diagnosis and treatment.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of all testicular tumors diagnosed between 1996 and 2006 in males younger than 14 years.
  • RESULTS: Of 15 primary testicular tumors, eight (53%) were germ-cell tumors (three teratomas, two yolk sac tumors, one seminoma, one embryonic carcinoma and one choriocarcinoma), four (27%) tumor-like lesions (epidermoid cysts), two (13%) gonadal stromal tumors (a Leydig and a Sertoli cell tumor), and one (7%) gonadoblastoma with gonadal dysgenesis.
  • All boys were presented with a painless scrotal mass and four (27%) of them with elevated tumor markers.
  • At a mean 4-year follow-up no patient has presented with recurrent tumor in the residual or contralateral testicle.
  • Postoperative physical examination and scrotal ultrasound were obtained in 14 patients at a median follow-up of 48.2 months, and there was no evidence of tumor progression.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Benign teratoma and epidermoid cysts were the most common prepubertal testicular tumors.
  • Any suspicion of a testicular tumor warrants an inguinal approach to prevent scrotal violation of the tumor.
  • Our limited experience with testis-sparing procedures supports the current trends that organ-confined surgery should be performed for benign lesions such as teratoma, Leydig cell tumor and epidermoid cysts based on frozen biopsy findings.

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  • (PMID = 18947799.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4898
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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16. Heaney JD, Nadeau JH: Testicular germ cell tumors in mice: new ways to study a genetically complex trait. Methods Mol Biol; 2008;450:211-31
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  • [Title] Testicular germ cell tumors in mice: new ways to study a genetically complex trait.
  • Testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) are the most common cancer affecting young men.

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  • (PMID = 18370062.001).
  • [ISSN] 1064-3745
  • [Journal-full-title] Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Methods Mol. Biol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA119623-02S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / F32 CA119623-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / F32 CA119623-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA119623-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA119623-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / F32 CA119623-02S1
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Goel RK, Norman RW, Gupta R: Dystrophic calcified nodule of the testicle: a case report. Can Urol Assoc J; 2007 Nov;1(4):402-3
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  • We report the case of a 29-year-old man who presented with generalized right testicular pain.
  • A right radical orchiectomy was performed identifying a 1.8 x 0.8 x 0.9-cm intratesticular calcific lesion with no evidence of intratubular germ cell tumour and negative tumour markers.

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  • (PMID = 18542828.001).
  • [ISSN] 1911-6470
  • [Journal-full-title] Canadian Urological Association journal = Journal de l'Association des urologues du Canada
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can Urol Assoc J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2422998
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18. Iş G, Taş S, Corapcioğlu F, Fayda M: Is it destiny or just migration pathway theory? Familial germ cell tumor with the same histopathologic subtype in a father and son. Pediatr Neurosurg; 2009;45(2):160
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  • [Title] Is it destiny or just migration pathway theory? Familial germ cell tumor with the same histopathologic subtype in a father and son.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Movement. Fathers. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / genetics. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Nuclear Family. Pinealoma / genetics. Pinealoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Humans. Male. Testicular Neoplasms / etiology. Testicular Neoplasms / genetics. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentOn] Pediatr Neurosurg. 2006;42(1):38-44 [16357500.001]
  • (PMID = 19321956.001).
  • [ISSN] 1423-0305
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Neurosurg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comment; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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19. Farmakis D, Pectasides M, Pectasides D: Recent advances in conventional-dose salvage chemotherapy in patients with cisplatin-resistant or refractory testicular germ cell tumors. Eur Urol; 2005 Sep;48(3):400-7
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  • [Title] Recent advances in conventional-dose salvage chemotherapy in patients with cisplatin-resistant or refractory testicular germ cell tumors.
  • Testicular germ cell tumors represent the most frequent malignancy in young males aged 20-35 years.
  • The current conventional-dose salvage regimens of reference are the vinblastine-ifosfamide-cisplatin or etoposide-ifosfamide-cisplatin combinations, which are expected to cure approximately 25% of non-seminomatous germ-cell tumour patients.
  • Newer cytotoxic drugs, such as gemcitabine and oxaliplatin have also been proved effective, while other agents, such as temozolamide, or targeted therapies, such as trastuzumab in cases over-expressing HER2/neu (20% of relapsing germ-cell tumors) are currently under evaluation.
  • Seminomas have generally a better prognosis than non-seminomatous tumors and salvage therapy is expected to cure about 50% of all cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Camptothecin / administration & dosage. Camptothecin / analogs & derivatives. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / administration & dosage. Deoxycytidine / analogs & derivatives. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Male. Organoplatinum Compounds / administration & dosage. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Salvage Therapy. Vinblastine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 15964136.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-2838
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 04ZR38536J / oxaliplatin; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 7673326042 / irinotecan; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide; XT3Z54Z28A / Camptothecin
  • [Number-of-references] 47
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20. Rexer H: [Darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp) as supportive therapy in patients with germ cell tumors]. Urologe A; 2006 Aug;45(8):1017-8
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  • [Title] [Darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp) as supportive therapy in patients with germ cell tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp) als Supportivtherapie bei Patienten mit Keimzelltumoren.
  • [MeSH-major] Anemia / prevention & control. Erythropoietin / analogs & derivatives. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 16896758.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-2592
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Urologe. Ausg. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologe A
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase III; Journal Article; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Hematinics; 11096-26-7 / Erythropoietin; 15UQ94PT4P / Darbepoetin alfa
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21. Miocinovic R, Abaza R: Testicular seminoma presenting with duodenal perforation: a case report. J Med Case Rep; 2008;2:294
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  • INTRODUCTION: Testicular neoplasms metastasizing to the retroperitoneum rarely involve the upper gastrointestinal tract.
  • CONCLUSION: Germ cell tumor diagnosis should be considered when an ulcerating small bowel mass is identified in a young man.

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  • (PMID = 18782436.001).
  • [ISSN] 1752-1947
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of medical case reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Med Case Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2546414
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22. Kumar R, Shandal V, Shamim SA, Halanaik D, Malhotra A: Clinical applications of PET and PET/CT in pediatric malignancies. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther; 2010 May;10(5):755-68
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  • The common childhood cancers are leukemia, CNS tumors, lymphomas, soft-tissue tumors (such as rhabdomyosarcoma and fibrosarcoma), neuroblastoma, malignant bone tumors, germ cell tumors with neoplasms of gonads and hepatic tumors.
  • PET and PET/CT has been found to be useful in, for example, CNS tumors, lymphomas, soft-tissue tumors, neuroblastoma, malignant bone tumors and germ cell tumors.
  • PET/CT has a limited role in early diagnosis, however, it plays an important role in initial staging, treatment response evaluation and detection of metastatic disease in these cancers.
  • PET/CT has a limited role in detection of lesions smaller than 5 mm, well-differentiated tumors and tumors with low metabolic rate.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms / diagnosis. Neoplasms / therapy. Positron-Emission Tomography / trends. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / trends
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Child. Clinical Trials as Topic / methods. Clinical Trials as Topic / trends. Humans. Neoplasm Staging / methods

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  • (PMID = 20470007.001).
  • [ISSN] 1744-8328
  • [Journal-full-title] Expert review of anticancer therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 67
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23. Mathew RM, Vandenberghe R, Garcia-Merino A, Yamamoto T, Landolfi JC, Rosenfeld MR, Rossi JE, Thiessen B, Dropcho EJ, Dalmau J: Orchiectomy for suspected microscopic tumor in patients with anti-Ma2-associated encephalitis. Neurology; 2007 Mar 20;68(12):900-5
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  • [Title] Orchiectomy for suspected microscopic tumor in patients with anti-Ma2-associated encephalitis.
  • OBJECTIVE: To report the presence of microscopic neoplasms of the testis in men with anti-Ma2-associated encephalitis (Ma2-encephalitis) and to discuss the clinical implications.
  • RESULTS: Among 25 patients with Ma2-encephalitis younger than 50 years, 19 had germ-cell tumors, and 6 had no evidence of cancer.
  • 1) demonstration of anti-Ma2 antibodies in association with MRI or clinical features compatible with Ma2-encephalitis, 2) life-threatening or progressive neurologic deficits, 3) age < 50 years, 4) absence of other tumors, and 5) new testicular enlargement or risk factors for germ-cell tumors, mainly cryptorchidism or ultrasound evidence of testicular microcalcifications.
  • All orchiectomy specimens showed intratubular-germ cell neoplasms unclassified type (IGCNU) and other abnormalities including microcalcifications, atrophy, fibrosis, inflammatory infiltrates, or hypospermatogenesis.
  • Ma2 was expressed by neoplastic cells in three of three patients examined.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In young men with Ma2-encephalitis, 1) the disorder should be attributed to a germ-cell neoplasm of the testis unless another Ma2-expressing tumor is found, 2) negative tumor markers, ultrasound, body CT, or PET do not exclude an intratubular germ-cell neoplasm of the testis, and 3) if no tumor is found, the presence of the five indicated criteria should prompt consideration of orchiectomy.

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  • [CommentIn] Neurology. 2007 Aug 14;69(7):709; author reply 709-10 [17698799.001]
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  • (PMID = 17151337.001).
  • [ISSN] 1526-632X
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R56 CA089054; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01CA089054; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA089054-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA089054-05; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA089054
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Autoantibodies; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ma2 antigen; 0 / Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS24644; NLM/ PMC1909749
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24. Murugan P, Siddaraju N, Sridhar E, Soundararaghavan J, Habeebullah S: Unusual ovarian malignancies in ascitic fluid: a report of 2 cases. Acta Cytol; 2010 Jul-Aug;54(4):611-7
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  • BACKGROUND: Ovarian tumors of germ cell and sex-cord stromal derivation rarely exfoliate malignant cells in serous effusions.
  • A precise tissue diagnosis in these cases may be possible on serous body fluid cytology with a combined clinical and cytopathologic approach.
  • CASES: Ascitic fluid samples from 2 young women aged 23 and 25 years presenting with abdominal mass were cytologically analyzed, with relevant histochemical and immunohistochemical stains performed on cell block/histologic sections.
  • However, subsequent histopathologic examination showed them to be yolk sac tumor (YST) and juvenile granulosa cell tumor (JGCT).
  • Following histopathologic diagnosis, cytologic materials were reviewed, which revealed certain features such as hyaline globules in YST and distinct tubular structures in JGCT.
  • These cytologic findings in view of the younger age of the patients should have prompted the correct diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSION: This study emphasizes the importance of a combined clinical and cytologic approach when dealing with serous body fluid materials from uncommon ovarian malignancies such as YST and JGCT.
  • This simple and systematic approach is of great practical value in identifying certain cytomorphologic features that may aid in correct diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Ascites / pathology. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / pathology. Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Hyalin / metabolism. Immunohistochemistry. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20715666.001).
  • [ISSN] 0001-5547
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta cytologica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Cytol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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25. Oosterhuis JW, Stoop H, Honecker F, Looijenga LH: Why human extragonadal germ cell tumours occur in the midline of the body: old concepts, new perspectives. Int J Androl; 2007 Aug;30(4):256-63; discussion 263-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Why human extragonadal germ cell tumours occur in the midline of the body: old concepts, new perspectives.
  • Hypotheses on the origin and distribution of extragonadal germ cell tumours (GCTs) and teratomas are briefly reviewed and revisited in the light of (i) new developments in the classification of GCTs, (ii) data on genomic imprinting of these neoplasms and (iii) the recent finding that germ cells can be derived from mouse and human embryonal stem (ES) cells.
  • Only the Type I (infantile teratomas/yolk sac tumours) and Type II GCTs (seminomatous tumours and non-seminomas) occur in the gonads and extragonadal localizations.
  • The data on genomic imprinting lend support to the hypothesis that they are derived from germ cells.
  • These precursor cells could have differentiated from ES cells in extragonadal localizations.
  • Their distribution along the midline of the body is still best explained by the migration of primitive germ cells during development.
  • The narrower distribution of the Type II than the Type I GCTs is probably due to the more strict conditions for survival and proliferation of primordial germ cells (PGCs)/gonocytes from which the Type II tumours originate, when compared with the precursor cells of Type I tumours, probably primitive germ cells closer to the ES cell.
  • The known niches in which the Type II tumours develop have in common that they contain feeder cells expressing stem cell factor (SCF) - the ligand for the SCF receptor c-KIT, involved in proliferation and survival of PGCs/gonocytes - and contain GBY including the gene TSPY.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Embryonic Stem Cells / pathology. Embryonic Stem Cells / physiology. Genomic Imprinting. Humans. Male. Mice. Organ Specificity. Seminoma / genetics. Seminoma / pathology. Teratoma / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / genetics. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17705807.001).
  • [ISSN] 0105-6263
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of andrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Androl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
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26. Kaufmann S, Sauter M, Schmitt M, Baumert B, Best B, Boese A, Roemer K, Mueller-Lantzsch N: Human endogenous retrovirus protein Rec interacts with the testicular zinc-finger protein and androgen receptor. J Gen Virol; 2010 Jun;91(Pt 6):1494-502
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  • The normal functions of these, if any, are unknown, but some HERV proteins have been implicated in cancers, in particular germ-cell cancers.
  • For instance, it has been documented that (i) patients with germ-cell tumours frequently produce antibodies against HERV proteins;.
  • (ii) transgenic mice expressing HERV-K (HML-2) rec are prone to testicular carcinoma in situ; and (iii) Rec can bind and suppress a guardian of germline stem-cell pluripotency, the promyelocytic leukaemia zinc-finger protein (PLZF).
  • Interactions occurred via the N- and C-terminal domains of Rec and the C-terminal DNA-binding zinc-finger domain of TZFP (aa 375-450).
  • The most intensely studied function of TZFP is that of a co-repressor of the activated androgen receptor (AR).
  • Thus, HERV-K (HML-2) Rec may function as an oncoprotein by de-repressing oncogenic transcription factors such as AR.

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  • (PMID = 20147518.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-2099
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of general virology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Gen. Virol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / AR protein, human; 0 / ERVK-6 protein, human endogenous retrovirus; 0 / Receptors, Androgen; 0 / Repressor Proteins; 0 / TZFP protein, human; 0 / Viral Envelope Proteins
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27. Ueno S, Hirakawa H, Matsuda H, Tei E, Kaneko A, Ohta Y, Kajiwara H: A case of neonatal mature teratoma transformed to malignancy in the neck extending to the mouth floor. Tokai J Exp Clin Med; 2009 Dec;34(4):130-4
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  • Puncture and marsupialisation of the cyst could not relieve her symptom and the tumor was resected in three occasions and was diagnosed as mature teratoma without malignant component.
  • Biopsied specimen demonstrated the mass to be germ cell tumor with embryonal carcinoma and yolk sac tumor component.
  • Head and neck teratomas in children are mostly benign amenable to curative excision but its rarity and site and size of the tumor make its treatment challenging.
  • There exists a relationship between the age at diagnosis and outcome of a patient with teratoma and head and neck teratomas in neonate are mostly benign but should be removed completely as soon as the patient condition is stabilized to reduce the risk of malignant change.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic. Head and Neck Neoplasms / secondary. Mouth Floor / pathology. Mouth Neoplasms / secondary. Teratoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 21319013.001).
  • [ISSN] 2185-2243
  • [Journal-full-title] The Tokai journal of experimental and clinical medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tokai J. Exp. Clin. Med.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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28. Savic D, Stankovic ZB, Djukic M, Mikovic Z, Djuricic S: Torsion of malignant ovarian tumors in childhood and adolescence. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab; 2008 Nov;21(11):1073-8
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  • [Title] Torsion of malignant ovarian tumors in childhood and adolescence.
  • AIM: To investigate the frequency of torsion of malignant ovarian tumors in children and adolescents.
  • Presentation, tumor markers and pathology reports were evaluated.
  • We reviewed the literature on torsion of malignant ovarian tumors.
  • Histological findings of torsioned masses showed 69 non-neoplasms and 23 tumors, including five malignant.
  • Origin of the malignant disease included four germ cell tumors and one sex-cord stromal tumor.
  • The morphology index score for malignant tumors was > or = 7 in all five patients.
  • Tumor markers were elevated in 12 patients, including four of the patients with malignant tumors.
  • We found tumor origin for 11 previous reported patients with torsion of malignant ovarian tumor, including seven germ cell and four granulosa cell tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: Torsion of malignant ovarian tumors in pediatric and adolescent patients occurs very rarely, but it is nevertheless possible at any stage of disease.
  • The most common torsioned malignant ovarian tumors were of germ cell origin, in both premenarchal and postmenarchal girls.
  • A torsioned adnexal mass with index > or = 7 needs to be considered as a potential malignant tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / complications. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / complications. Ovarian Neoplasms / complications. Torsion Abnormality / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Menarche / physiology. Neoplasm Staging. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19189702.001).
  • [ISSN] 0334-018X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric endocrinology & metabolism : JPEM
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Endocrinol. Metab.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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29. Lakmichi MA, Niang L, Tligui M, Traxer O, Cussenot O, Gattegno B, Thibault P, Sebe P: [Infertility and testicular seminoma]. Presse Med; 2007 Dec;36(12 Pt 1):1753-5
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  • The patient underwent testicular biopsies for infertility, which showed an intratubular germ cell tumor.
  • Tumor markers (beta HCG, alpha FP, LDH) were normal.
  • [MeSH-major] Infertility, Male / diagnosis. Seminoma. Testicular Neoplasms
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Biopsy. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / therapeutic use. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Orchiectomy. Sperm Count. Testis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17560758.001).
  • [ISSN] 0755-4982
  • [Journal-full-title] Presse medicale (Paris, France : 1983)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Presse Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
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30. Fritzsche FR, Kristiansen G, Frauenfelder T, Opitz I, Bode P, Moch H, Montani M: Large mixed germ cell tumor in a young patient presenting as an intrapulmonary mass. Pathol Res Pract; 2009;205(8):572-8
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  • [Title] Large mixed germ cell tumor in a young patient presenting as an intrapulmonary mass.
  • We present the case of a 26-year-old man with a bland medical history, who presented to the general practitioner because of severe cough and dyspnea.
  • The chest X-ray revealed a massive organ-displacing tumor in the right chest not delineable from the mediastinum.
  • The subsequent needle core biopsy was diagnostic for a mixed germ cell tumor comprising immature teratoma and seminoma.
  • After an initially good response to chemotherapy, tumor markers and tumor size were progressive.
  • The right-sided pneumonectomy revealed an intrapulmonary tumor with cystic and solid components, hemorrhage, and necrosis with a tumor diameter of 18cm.
  • Histology confirmed a teratoma with mature and immature components accompanied by residual seminomatous tumor cells.
  • We describe this exceptional large intrapulmonary germ cell tumor and discuss the spectrum of such rare tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / pathology. Seminoma / pathology. Teratoma / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease Progression. Fatal Outcome. Humans. Male. Radiography, Thoracic. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 19201104.001).
  • [ISSN] 1618-0631
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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31. Skotheim RI, Autio R, Lind GE, Kraggerud SM, Andrews PW, Monni O, Kallioniemi O, Lothe RA: Novel genomic aberrations in testicular germ cell tumors by array-CGH, and associated gene expression changes. Cell Oncol; 2006;28(5-6):315-26
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  • [Title] Novel genomic aberrations in testicular germ cell tumors by array-CGH, and associated gene expression changes.
  • INTRODUCTION: Testicular germ cell tumors of adolescent and young adult men (TGCTs) generally have near triploid and complex karyotypes.
  • We analyzed 17 TGCTs, three precursor lesions, and the embryonal carcinoma cell lines, NTERA2 and 2102Ep, by comparative genomic hybridization microarrays (array-CGH), and integrated the data with transcriptome profiles of the same samples.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosome Aberrations. Chromosomes, Human, Pair 12 / genetics. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genome, Human / genetics. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / genetics. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis / methods. Testicular Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. DNA, Neoplasm / genetics. Gene Dosage. Gene Expression Profiling. Genes, Neoplasm. Humans. Male. Nucleic Acid Hybridization. Reproducibility of Results. Up-Regulation / genetics


32. Isolan GR, Krayenbühl N, Mahmoud M, Al-Mefty O: A hemangioblastoma in the pineal region: case report. Neurosurgery; 2007 Aug;61(2):E423; discussion E423
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  • Pineal region tumors comprise approximately 1% of central nervous system neoplasms.
  • A wide variety of tumors can affect this region, the most common being germ cell tumors, gliomas, and pineal cell tumors.
  • CLINICAL PRESENTATION: We describe the case of a patient with a symptomatic hemangioblastoma in the pineal region with no clinical criteria for von Hippel-Lindau disease.
  • INTERVENTION: A lateral suboccipital infratentorial supracerebellar approach was used to remove the tumor, which was attached to the quadrigeminal plate.
  • This case emphasizes the importance of the differential diagnosis of hemangioblastomas located in this region.
  • These tumors can be safely removed through surgery.

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  • (PMID = 17762728.001).
  • [ISSN] 1524-4040
  • [Journal-full-title] Neurosurgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neurosurgery
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. Kim DS, Shim KW, Kim TG, Chang JH, Park YG, Choi JU: Pineal cavernous malformations: report of two cases. Yonsei Med J; 2005 Dec 31;46(6):851-8
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  • Pineal hemorrhage only occurs in rare cases, and this known to have several different causes such as germ cell tumors, pineal cysts and vascular malformations, including the cavernous malformations.
  • Although the diagnosis of pineal cavernous malformation is not easy because of the extreme rareness of this condition, the presence of this lesion can be suspected based on its typical radiological findings. Case 1.
  • We operated and totally removed the tumor and the hemorrhages via an occipital-transtentorial approach. Case 2.
  • We operated and totally removed the tumor and the hemorrhages via an occipital-transtentorial approach.
  • In this study, we describe our experiences for the diagnosis of cavernous malformations in the pineal region with special emphasis on the radiological aspects and the clinical course of this disease.
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Angiography. Diplopia / diagnosis. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Male. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 16385664.001).
  • [ISSN] 0513-5796
  • [Journal-full-title] Yonsei medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Yonsei Med. J.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2810602
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34. Lin DW: Does RPLND improve outcomes in men with intermediate-risk and high-risk germ cell tumors? Nat Clin Pract Urol; 2007 Dec;4(12):654-5
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  • [Title] Does RPLND improve outcomes in men with intermediate-risk and high-risk germ cell tumors?

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  • [CommentOn] BJU Int. 2007 May;99(5):993-7 [17437432.001]
  • (PMID = 17971805.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-4289
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. Oldenburg J, Wahlqvist R, Fosså SD: Late relapse of germ cell tumors. World J Urol; 2009 Aug;27(4):493-500
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  • [Title] Late relapse of germ cell tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: To assess the main characteristics of late relapsing malignant germ cell tumors (MGCTs).
  • These tumors are rare and occur by definition 2 years or later after successful treatment.
  • Referral of late relapsing patients to high-volume institutions ensures the best chances of cure and enables multimodal treatment, and contributes to increased knowledge of tumor biology as well experience with the clinical course of these patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / surgery. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / surgery. Seminoma / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male. Teratoma / drug therapy. Teratoma / secondary. Teratoma / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19373473.001).
  • [ISSN] 1433-8726
  • [Journal-full-title] World journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] World J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 58
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36. Gilbert DC, Chandler I, McIntyre A, Goddard NC, Gabe R, Huddart RA, Shipley J: Clinical and biological significance of CXCL12 and CXCR4 expression in adult testes and germ cell tumours of adults and adolescents. J Pathol; 2009 Jan;217(1):94-102
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  • [Title] Clinical and biological significance of CXCL12 and CXCR4 expression in adult testes and germ cell tumours of adults and adolescents.
  • Interaction between the chemokine CXCL12 (SDF1) and the G-protein coupled receptor CXCR4 is responsible for the maintenance of adult stem cell niches and is known to play an important role in utero in the migration of primordial germ cells.
  • We demonstrate expression of CXCL12 by Sertoli cells and confirm CXCR4 expression by the germ cell population of the adult human testes.
  • We identify consistent expression of CXCR4 mRNA and protein in testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) that accounts for their patterns of relapse in sites of known CXCL12 expression.
  • Extragonadal primary germ cell tumours express CXCR4 and their sites of occurrence are coincident with areas of known CXCL12 expression in utero.
  • We show that CXCL12 stimulates the invasive migration of a TGCT cell line in vitro in a CXCR4-dependent fashion and activates ERK.
  • This may be through the loss of CXCL12 gradients that might otherwise attract cells away from the primary tumour.
  • Our observations support a role for CXCL12/CXCR4 in the adult germ cell population and demonstrate pathological function in germ cell tumour development and metastasis that may have clinical utility.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Chemokine CXCL12 / metabolism. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / metabolism. Receptors, CXCR4 / metabolism. Testicular Neoplasms / metabolism. Testis / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Chemotaxis. Disease-Free Survival. Enzyme Activation. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1 / metabolism. Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3 / metabolism. Neoplasm Invasiveness. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism. Prognosis. Recurrence. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18839394.001).
  • [ISSN] 1096-9896
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U122861331
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CXCL12 protein, human; 0 / CXCR4 protein, human; 0 / Chemokine CXCL12; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Receptors, CXCR4; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3
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37. McIntyre A, Summersgill B, Grygalewicz B, Gillis AJ, Stoop J, van Gurp RJ, Dennis N, Fisher C, Huddart R, Cooper C, Clark J, Oosterhuis JW, Looijenga LH, Shipley J: Amplification and overexpression of the KIT gene is associated with progression in the seminoma subtype of testicular germ cell tumors of adolescents and adults. Cancer Res; 2005 Sep 15;65(18):8085-9
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  • [Title] Amplification and overexpression of the KIT gene is associated with progression in the seminoma subtype of testicular germ cell tumors of adolescents and adults.
  • We have previously identified amplification at 4q12 in testicular germ cell tumors of adolescents and adults centered around the KIT gene encoding a tyrosine kinase transmembrane receptor.
  • Analysis of primary testicular germ cell tumors totaling 190 cases revealed 21% of the seminoma subtype with an increased copy number of KIT whereas this change was rarely found in the nonseminomas.
  • Increased copy number of KIT was not found in the putative precursor lesion, carcinoma in situ (CIS), adjacent to tumor with this change.
  • [MeSH-major] Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / genetics. Seminoma / genetics. Seminoma / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / genetics. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16166280.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2
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38. Korkola JE, Houldsworth J, Dobrzynski D, Olshen AB, Reuter VE, Bosl GJ, Chaganti RS: Gene expression-based classification of nonseminomatous male germ cell tumors. Oncogene; 2005 Jul 28;24(32):5101-7
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  • [Title] Gene expression-based classification of nonseminomatous male germ cell tumors.
  • Male adult germ cell tumors (GCTs) comprise two major histologic groups: seminomas and nonseminomas.
  • Nonseminomatous GCTs (NSGCTs) can be further divided into embryonal carcinoma (EC), teratoma (T), yolk sac tumor (YS), and choriocarcinoma (CC) on the basis of the lineage differentiation that they exhibit.
  • NSGCTs frequently present as mixed tumors consisting of two or more histological subtypes, often limiting correlative studies of clinical and molecular features to histology.
  • We sought to develop a molecular classifier that could predict the predominant histologic subtype within mixed NSGCT tumor samples.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Genital Neoplasms, Male / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Humans. Male. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Seminoma / genetics. Teratoma / genetics. Testicular Neoplasms / genetics. Transcription, Genetic


39. Shinagare AB, Jagannathan JP, Ramaiya NH, Hall MN, Van den Abbeele AD: Adult extragonadal germ cell tumors. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2010 Oct;195(4):W274-80
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  • [Title] Adult extragonadal germ cell tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to describe the key imaging features of primary and metastatic extragonadal germ cell tumors in adults.
  • CONCLUSION: Extragonadal germ cell tumors primarily affect men during the third and fourth decades of life.
  • Their imaging characteristics are nonspecific, and extragonadal germ cell tumors should always be included in the differential diagnosis of a midline anterior mediastinal or retroperitoneal mass.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Female. Humans. Male. Mediastinal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Middle Aged. Positron-Emission Tomography. Tomography, X-Ray Computed. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 20858789.001).
  • [ISSN] 1546-3141
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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40. Feldman DR, Bosl GJ: Curing germ cell tumors after failure of high-dose chemotherapy: progress through clinical trials. Nat Clin Pract Oncol; 2007 Sep;4(9):508-9
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  • [Title] Curing germ cell tumors after failure of high-dose chemotherapy: progress through clinical trials.

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  • [CommentOn] J Clin Oncol. 2007 Feb 10;25(5):513-6 [17290059.001]
  • (PMID = 17637730.001).
  • [ISSN] 1743-4262
  • [Journal-full-title] Nature clinical practice. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Nat Clin Pract Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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41. De Backer A, Madern GC, Wolffenbuttel KP, Oosterhuis JW, Hakvoort-Cammel FG, Hazebroek FW: Testicular germ cell tumors in children: management and outcome in a series of 20 patients. J Pediatr Urol; 2006 Jun;2(3):197-201
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  • [Title] Testicular germ cell tumors in children: management and outcome in a series of 20 patients.
  • Testicular germ cell tumors occurring during childhood are extremely rare.
  • This study reports the clinical presentation, pathological diagnosis, treatment methods and outcome in a series of 20 boys, aged between 3.5 months and 16 years (median: 1.5 years; 19 were prepubertal), who were treated between 1963 and 2003.
  • Histologically, mature teratoma was present in seven, immature teratoma in four and yolk sac tumor in nine.
  • Of the 11 teratomas, 10 were treated by orchiectomy and one by testis-sparing tumor excision only.
  • The nine patients with yolk sac tumor were managed by orchiectomy, in two plus retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy, and in eight plus chemotherapy.
  • One patient is in remission for 10 months, seven are alive with no evidence of disease for 5.5-23 years, and one patient died from a T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 2 years after the end of treatment of the testicular tumor.
  • This study confirms the excellent cure rates obtained in children with testicular germ cell tumor, provided diagnosis is prompt and treatment accurate.

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  • (PMID = 18947609.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4898
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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42. Tanaka K, Hara I, Takenaka A, Kawabata G, Fujisawa M: Incidence of local and port site recurrence of urologic cancer after laparoscopic surgery. Urology; 2008 Apr;71(4):728-34
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  • No patients without a histologic diagnosis of cancer were included in this study.
  • The histologic type of both testicular cancers was mixed germ cell tumor, with one occurring in a renal hilar lymph node and the other in a paraaortic lymph node and kidney.
  • The histologic type of the renal cell carcinoma was papillary renal cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid features (Stage pT3aN1), and it occurred in a retrocaval lymph node.
  • The histologic type of the bladder cancer was transitional cell carcinoma, Grade 3, Stage pT4aN0, and it presented as peritoneal carcinomatosis 11 months postoperatively.
  • [MeSH-major] Laparoscopy / adverse effects. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / epidemiology. Neoplasm Seeding. Urologic Neoplasms / pathology. Urologic Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18279936.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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43. Lim ST, Levine AM: Non-AIDS-Defining Cancers and HIV Infection. Curr Infect Dis Rep; 2005 May;7(3):227-234
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  • These include Hodgkin's disease, anal carcinoma, lung cancer, nonmelanomatous skin cancer, and testicular germ cell tumors, among others.

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  • (PMID = 15847726.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-3847
  • [Journal-full-title] Current infectious disease reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Curr Infect Dis Rep
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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44. Pentheroudakis G, Mauri D, Kostadima L, Golfinopoulos V, Alexiou G, Karakatsanis A, Pavlidis N: "Juvenile" oncology--a missing subspecialty. The experience of a reference cancer centre. Clin Transl Oncol; 2006 Jun;8(6):444-9
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  • [Title] "Juvenile" oncology--a missing subspecialty. The experience of a reference cancer centre.
  • INTRODUCTION: Despite unique tumor epidemiology and a higher cancer incidence compared to pediatric patients, adolescents and young adults have not been receiving specialized, multidisciplinary, centralized care.
  • METHODS: Cohort of 150 patients aged 15-30 treated for malignant tumors of lymphoid and solid organs from 1986 to 2002.
  • RESULTS: Patients aged 15-19 commonly had lymphomas, germ cell tumors and pediatric sarcomas, whereas those aged 20-30 experienced germ cell tumors, lymphomas, melanomas and epithelial tumors more often.
  • [MeSH-major] Cancer Care Facilities / statistics & numerical data. Medical Oncology. Neoplasms / epidemiology. Pediatrics
  • [MeSH-minor] Academic Medical Centers / statistics & numerical data. Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Diagnosis-Related Groups. Female. Greece / epidemiology. Hospitals, University / statistics & numerical data. Humans. Incidence. Interdisciplinary Communication. Male. Patient Care Team. Postoperative Complications / epidemiology. Quality of Life. Radiotherapy / adverse effects. Referral and Consultation. Retrospective Studies. Social Support. Survival Analysis. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 16790398.001).
  • [ISSN] 1699-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical & translational oncology : official publication of the Federation of Spanish Oncology Societies and of the National Cancer Institute of Mexico
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Transl Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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45. Pectasides D, Pectasides E, Constantinidou A, Aravantinos G: Stage I testicular seminoma: management and controversies. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol; 2009 Jul;71(1):22-8
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  • Seminomas constitute more than half of testicular germ-cell tumours and 70-80% of patients with seminoma present with clinical stage I disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Seminoma / therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19046898.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0461
  • [Journal-full-title] Critical reviews in oncology/hematology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Crit. Rev. Oncol. Hematol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 65
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46. Newsom-Davis T, Poulter D, Gray R, Ameen M, Lindsay I, Papanikolaou K, Butler-Manuel S, Christmas T, Townsend P, Seckl M: Case report: malignant teratoma of the uterine corpus. BMC Cancer; 2009;9:195
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  • BACKGROUND: Teratomas are the commonest germ cell tumours and are most frequently found in the testes and ovary.
  • CONCLUSION: In this report we discuss the aetiology, diagnosis and management of uterine teratomas, and review previous case studies.
  • [MeSH-major] Teratoma / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Hysterectomy. Lymphatic Diseases / etiology. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Metastasis. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 19538751.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2407
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2709639
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47. Casey RG, Aktar M, Hegarty P, Butler M, Thornhill JA: A prospective 10 year audit of a single Irish centre's experience of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for metastatic testis cancer. Surgeon; 2008 Oct;6(5):294-6
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  • [Title] A prospective 10 year audit of a single Irish centre's experience of retroperitoneal lymph node dissection for metastatic testis cancer.
  • BACKGROUND: Retro-peritoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND) following chemotherapy is critical in advanced germ cell tumours with residual retro-peritoneal masses.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The decision to perform post-chemotherapy RPLND depends on the possibility of viable tumour or teratoma and surgical morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Node Excision. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Disease Progression. Humans. Ireland. Length of Stay / statistics & numerical data. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Medical Audit. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prospective Studies. Retroperitoneal Space / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18939377.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-666X
  • [Journal-full-title] The surgeon : journal of the Royal Colleges of Surgeons of Edinburgh and Ireland
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Surgeon
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Scotland
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48. Ong TA, Winkler MH, Savage PM, Seckl MJ, Christmas TJ: Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection after chemotherapy in patients with elevated tumour markers: indications, histopathology and outcome. BJU Int; 2008 Jul;102(2):198-202
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  • [Title] Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection after chemotherapy in patients with elevated tumour markers: indications, histopathology and outcome.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the factors affecting outcome and the pathological findings in patients who had retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (pcRPLND) after chemotherapy with elevated tumour markers, as such patients have an unfavourable prognosis, with further salvage chemotherapy being the usual treatment of choice.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Information on the preoperative treatment, tumour markers, histopathology and outcome data of the patients who had pcRPLND were extracted from the hospital databases.
  • In 48 patients the tumour markers were elevated at the time of surgery, they were on a 'rising trend' in 26 (54%) and 'downward or stable' trend in 22 (46%).
  • The overall incidence of active germ cell tumour, differentiated teratoma and necrosis in the resected specimens was 58%, 25% and 17%, respectively.
  • The favourable prognostic factors assessed by univariate analysis were elevation of alpha-fetoprotein alone, complete resection of residual disease, histological finding of differentiated teratoma in the resected tissues and normalization of tumour markers after pcRPLND.
  • By multivariate analysis the only statistically significant independent survival factor was the normalization of the tumour markers after pcRPLND.
  • CONCLUSION: For selected patients with elevated tumour markers after chemotherapy, RPLND can offer a significant chance of cure with no need for further chemotherapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / metabolism. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Salvage Therapy / methods. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18294302.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-410X
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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49. Stremmel C, Passlick B: [Surgery of mediastinal tumors]. Chirurg; 2008 Jan;79(1):9-10, 12-7
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  • [Title] [Surgery of mediastinal tumors].
  • Thymomas, lymphomas, and germ cell tumors are the most frequent lesions of the anterior mediastinum, whereas endodermal (bronchogenic) cysts and lymphomas are the most frequent lesions of the middle mediastinum.
  • In the posterior mediastinum, neurogenic tumors and soft-tissue sarcomas are the most frequent.
  • Depending on tumor location, mediastinoscopy, mediastinotomy, and thoracoscopy are the preferred diagnostic methods.
  • Thoracoscopy should be performed only in patients with myasthenia gravis and with very small tumors.
  • Surgical treatment is highly recommended in patients with locally recurrent tumors.
  • The importance of surgical treatment of germ cell tumors is determined by a negative concentration of beta-HCG and alpha-fetoprotein and in cases of residual tumor after chemotherapy.
  • Ninety-eight percent of neurogenic tumors in adults are benign and usually resected via thoracoscopy or thoracotomy, depending on location and size.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymphoma / surgery. Mediastinal Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Thymoma / surgery. Thymus Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Child. Female. Humans. Incidence. Male. Mediastinoscopy. Mediastinum / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Radiography. Thoracoscopy. Thoracotomy

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  • (PMID = 18058077.001).
  • [ISSN] 0009-4722
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift fur alle Gebiete der operativen Medizen
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chirurg
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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50. Shrivastava CP, Devgarha S, Ahlawat V: Mediastinal tumors: a clinicopathological analysis. Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann; 2006 Apr;14(2):102-4
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  • [Title] Mediastinal tumors: a clinicopathological analysis.
  • Between January 1993 and June 2003, 106 patients underwent surgical treatment of a mediastinal mass.
  • Histopathologically, 41 (39%) patients had thymic pathology, 31 (29%) had lymphoma, 14 (13%) had germ cell tumors, 12 (11%) had neurofibroma, 4 (4%) had ganglioneuroma, 2 (2%) had bronchogenic cyst, and 1 each had thymic cyst and mesothelioma.
  • [MeSH-major] Mediastinal Neoplasms / pathology. Mediastinal Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16551814.001).
  • [ISSN] 1816-5370
  • [Journal-full-title] Asian cardiovascular & thoracic annals
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Asian Cardiovasc Thorac Ann
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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51. Koulouris CR, Penson RT: Ovarian stromal and germ cell tumors. Semin Oncol; 2009 Apr;36(2):126-36
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  • [Title] Ovarian stromal and germ cell tumors.
  • Cancers arising from the stromal and germ cell layers of the ovary are rare, heterogeneous, difficult to study, and require specialized multidisciplinary management.
  • These tumors more commonly present in younger patients and have a high cure rate.
  • They are associated with serum markers that are informative for diagnosis and surveillance.
  • Most patients with germ cell tumors require adjuvant chemotherapy with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP), as well as careful surveillance.
  • The rarity of these tumors makes basic scientific advances more challenging.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal. Ovarian Neoplasms. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Humans. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19332247.001).
  • [ISSN] 0093-7754
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 78
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52. Palmer RD, Murray MJ, Saini HK, van Dongen S, Abreu-Goodger C, Muralidhar B, Pett MR, Thornton CM, Nicholson JC, Enright AJ, Coleman N, Children's Cancer and Leukaemia Group: Malignant germ cell tumors display common microRNA profiles resulting in global changes in expression of messenger RNA targets. Cancer Res; 2010 Apr 01;70(7):2911-23
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  • [Title] Malignant germ cell tumors display common microRNA profiles resulting in global changes in expression of messenger RNA targets.
  • Despite their extensive clinical and pathologic heterogeneity, all malignant germ cell tumors (GCT) are thought to originate from primordial germ cells.
  • We profiled 615 microRNAs (miRNA) in pediatric malignant GCTs, controls, and GCT cell lines (48 samples in total) and re-analyzed available miRNA expression data in adult gonadal malignant GCTs.
  • The most significant differentially expressed miRNAs in malignant GCTs were all from the miR-371-373 and miR-302 clusters (adjusted P < 0.00005), which were overexpressed regardless of histologic subtype [yolk sac tumor (YST)/seminoma/embryonal carcinoma (EC)], site (gonadal/extragonadal), or patient age (pediatric/adult).
  • [MeSH-major] MicroRNAs / biosynthesis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / genetics. RNA, Messenger / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Child. Cluster Analysis. Down-Regulation. Female. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis. Seminoma / genetics. Seminoma / metabolism. Testicular Neoplasms / genetics. Testicular Neoplasms / metabolism. Transcription, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 20332240.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U105359875; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / ; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / U.1053.00.002(59875); United Kingdom / Cancer Research UK / / ; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G9900837; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0700089; United Kingdom / Wellcome Trust / /
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / MicroRNAs; 0 / RNA, Messenger
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3000593; NLM/ UKMS28624
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53. Zhou JF, Bai CM, Yang D, Chen SC: [Clinical analysis of primary mediastinal germ cell tumors]. Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi; 2007 Jul;29(7):531-4
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  • [Title] [Clinical analysis of primary mediastinal germ cell tumors].
  • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical and pathological features, optimal treatment and prognostic factor in primary mediastinal germ cell tumors (PMGCT).
  • RESULTS: All the 29 patients were male with a mean age of 26.1 +/- 9.6 years at diagnosis.
  • All tumors were originated from the anterior mediastinum with a mean diameter of 16.0 +/- 5.2 cm.
  • Cox multivariate analysis indicated that limited mediastinal disease at diagnosis (P = 0.004) and the use of cisplatin-based combined chemotherapy (P = 0.005) were independent good prognostic factors of PMNSGCT.
  • CONCLUSION: Primary mediastinal nonseminoma constitutes the most of primary mediastinal germ cell tumors.
  • Cisplatin-based combined chemotherapy may be the most effective for the treatment of primary mediastinal germ cell tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Mediastinal Neoplasms / therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Seminoma / therapy

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  • (PMID = 18069635.001).
  • [ISSN] 0253-3766
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua zhong liu za zhi [Chinese journal of oncology]
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Taxoids; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide; BEP protocol; TIP regimen
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54. Guerrero-Vázquez S, Armesto-Pérez V, Macía-Suárez D, Branas-Fernández FM: [Simultaneous suprasellar and pineal germinoma: a case report]. Rev Neurol; 2008 Apr 1-15;46(7):411-5
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  • [Transliterated title] Germinoma pineal y supraselar sincrónico: a propósito de un caso.
  • INTRODUCTION: Tumours in the pineal region are rare (0.3-2.7%) and most of the ones that do occur are germ cell tumours, of which germinoma is the most frequent.
  • The main aim of this study is to review the differential diagnosis of neoplasias in the pineal region.
  • CASE REPORT: Here we report the case of a 20-year-old male who was admitted to hospital due to irregularities affecting the field of vision, with clinical signs and symptoms of panhypopituitarism and normal levels of tumour markers in blood and cerebrospinal fluid.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Magnetic resonance imaging plays a decisive role in establishing the diagnosis and therapy plan.
  • The patient's medical record (age, sex or tumour markers) must also be taken into consideration.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / diagnosis. Germinoma / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / diagnosis. Pineal Gland
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Pituitary Gland

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  • (PMID = 18389460.001).
  • [ISSN] 1576-6578
  • [Journal-full-title] Revista de neurologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Rev Neurol
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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55. Beck SD: Management options for stage 1 nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis. Indian J Urol; 2010 Jan-Mar;26(1):72-5
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  • [Title] Management options for stage 1 nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis.
  • Management of clinical stage I non seminomatous germ cell tumor includes surveillance, primary chemotherapy and retroperitoneal lymph node dissection.
  • Stratifying clinical stage I disease to high-and low-risk groups for harboring micrometastic retroperitoneal disease (pathologic stage B) is based on pathologic characteristics of the primary tumor.

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  • (PMID = 20535290.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-3824
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of urology : IJU : journal of the Urological Society of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2878443
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection / stage 1 / testis cancer
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56. Corvin S, Sturm W, Kuczyk M, Anastasiadis AG, Stenzl A: Laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy in the management of low-stage testicular cancer: technique and results. Minim Invasive Ther Allied Technol; 2005;14(2):52-6
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  • In conclusion, laparoscopic RPLND is a safe method for the management of low-stage germ cell tumors with minimal invasiveness and excellent clinical results.

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  • (PMID = 16754617.001).
  • [ISSN] 1364-5706
  • [Journal-full-title] Minimally invasive therapy & allied technologies : MITAT : official journal of the Society for Minimally Invasive Therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Minim Invasive Ther Allied Technol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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57. Walsh TJ, Davies BJ, Croughan MS, Carroll PR, Turek PJ: Racial differences among boys with testicular germ cell tumors in the United States. J Urol; 2008 May;179(5):1961-5
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  • [Title] Racial differences among boys with testicular germ cell tumors in the United States.
  • PURPOSE: There are marked racial differences in the incidence of testicular germ cell tumors among United States men, with whites having 5 times the incidence of blacks and 3 times that of Asians.
  • Testicular germ cell tumors in boys are rare, and limited racial classification by cancer registries has made attempts to discern racial patterns difficult.
  • We hypothesize that recent diversification of race data by cancer registries may allow for more accurate racial classification, and that there are racial differences in the incidence of testicular germ cell tumors in prepubertal boys.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified all cases of histologically confirmed testicular germ cell cancer in boys 0 to 14 years old between 1992 and 2004 through the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program.
  • Variables analyzed included age, tumor histology and year of diagnosis.
  • RESULTS: A total of 695 cases of testicular germ cell tumors were diagnosed among boys of all races, with an overall incidence of 6.3 per 1 million person-years.
  • Testicular germ cell tumors were 1.4-fold more likely to develop in Asian/Pacific Islanders compared to whites (RR 1.4, 95% CI 1.1 to 1.8).
  • Increased rates among Asian/Pacific Islanders were constant across all age strata, in cases of yolk sac tumor/embryonal, teratoma and seminoma, and were maintained from 1992 to 2004.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Asian/Pacific Islander boys are more likely to have testicular germ cell tumors compared to whites.
  • Similar to adults, race appears to have a significant role in the incidence of testicular germ cell tumors among prepubertal boys.
  • [MeSH-major] Continental Population Groups / statistics & numerical data. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / ethnology. Testicular Neoplasms / ethnology

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  • [ErratumIn] J Urol. 2008 Sep;180(3):1192-3
  • (PMID = 18355842.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-3792
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / K12 HD053943012
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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58. Luzzi L, Campione A, Gorla A, Vassallo G, Bianchi A, Biggi A, Terzi A: Role of fluorine-flurodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in preoperative assessment of anterior mediastinal masses. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg; 2009 Sep;36(3):475-9
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  • RESULTS: There were 13 thymomas (six LRT and seven HRT), three lymphomas and three other primitive thymic tumours (one paraganglioma, two non-seminomatous germ cell tumours).
  • The SUV in LRT was also significantly lower with respect to lymphoma, 12.4+/-4 (p=0.001), and the other primitive anterior mediastinal tumours, 8+/-0.8 (p=0.001).
  • [MeSH-major] Mediastinal Neoplasms / radiography. Mediastinal Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biopsy. Female. Fluorine Radioisotopes. Fluorodeoxyglucose F18. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Positron-Emission Tomography / methods. Preoperative Care / methods. Radiopharmaceuticals. Thymoma / pathology. Thymoma / radiography. Thymoma / radionuclide imaging. Thymoma / surgery. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology. Thymus Neoplasms / radiography. Thymus Neoplasms / radionuclide imaging. Thymus Neoplasms / surgery. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods

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  • (PMID = 19501523.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-734X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery : official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Fluorine Radioisotopes; 0 / Radiopharmaceuticals; 0Z5B2CJX4D / Fluorodeoxyglucose F18
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59. Ahmed HU, Arya M, Muneer A, Mushtaq I, Sebire NJ: Testicular and paratesticular tumours in the prepubertal population. Lancet Oncol; 2010 May;11(5):476-83
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  • [Title] Testicular and paratesticular tumours in the prepubertal population.
  • Prepubertal testicular and paratesticular tumours are a rare group of tumours, distinct from postpubertal paediatric and adult tumours of this region.
  • Tumours within this group are testicular germ-cell tumours (such as benign teratoma, epidermoid cyst and malignant yolk-sac tumours) and stromal tumours (such as juvenile granulosa-cell, Leydig-cell, and Sertoli-cell tumours).
  • Paratesticular tumours can be benign (lipoma, leiomyoma, haemangioma) or malignant (rhabdomyosarcoma, melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy).
  • Because of their rarity, centralised pathology and treatment, and national collaborative clinical trials have been important in establishing the optimum management of malignant tumours in this group.
  • We provide an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the clinical presentation, imaging, pathology, and clinical management of prepubertal paratesticular and testicular tumours.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Neoplasms, Male / diagnosis. Genital Neoplasms, Male / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Child. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / epidemiology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / epidemiology. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy

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  • [Copyright] 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • [CommentIn] Lancet Oncol. 2010 Sep;11(9):814 [20816371.001]
  • (PMID = 20434716.001).
  • [ISSN] 1474-5488
  • [Journal-full-title] The Lancet. Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Lancet Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G0701302; United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / G1002509
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 62
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60. Cheung WY, Demers A, Hossain D, Owen T, Ahmed S, Czaykowski PM: Appropriateness of testicular cancer management: a population-based cohort study. Can J Urol; 2007 Jun;14(3):3542-50
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  • RESULTS: Seventy-eight men were identified with 80 testicular cancers: 46 (59%) patients had 48 seminomas and 32 (41%) had non-seminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT).
  • One or more pre-operative tumor markers were missing or unavailable in 41 (52%) cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Testicular Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Combined Modality Therapy. Humans. Male. Manitoba / epidemiology. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Orchiectomy. Population Surveillance. Retrospective Studies. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17594744.001).
  • [ISSN] 1195-9479
  • [Journal-full-title] The Canadian journal of urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Can J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Canada
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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61. Neyer M, Peschel R, Akkad T, Springer-Stöhr B, Berger A, Bartsch G, Steiner H: Long-term results of laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph-node dissection for clinical stage I nonseminomatous germ-cell testicular cancer. J Endourol; 2007 Feb;21(2):180-3
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  • [Title] Long-term results of laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph-node dissection for clinical stage I nonseminomatous germ-cell testicular cancer.
  • PURPOSE: To report the long-term oncologic outcome and morbidity of laparoscopic retroperitoneal lymph-node dissection (L-RPLND) in clinical stage I nonseminomatous testicular germ-cell tumors (NSGCT) from a single institution.
  • None of the patients died because of tumor progression.

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  • (PMID = 17338618.001).
  • [ISSN] 0892-7790
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of endourology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Endourol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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62. Hersmus R, de Leeuw BH, Wolffenbuttel KP, Drop SL, Oosterhuis JW, Cools M, Looijenga LH: New insights into type II germ cell tumor pathogenesis based on studies of patients with various forms of disorders of sex development (DSD). Mol Cell Endocrinol; 2008 Sep 10;291(1-2):1-10
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  • [Title] New insights into type II germ cell tumor pathogenesis based on studies of patients with various forms of disorders of sex development (DSD).
  • Patients with specific variants of this disorder have an elevated risk for the development of so-called type II germ cell cancers, i.e., the seminomatous and nonseminatous tumors, referred to as germ cell tumors (GCTs).
  • A prerequisite for type II GCT formation is the presence of a specific part of the Y chromosome (referred to as the GBY region), with the TSPY gene being the most likely candidate.
  • Also the octamer binding transcription factor OCT3/4 is consistently expressed in all type II GCTs with pluripotent potential, as well as in the precursor lesions carcinoma in situ (CIS) in case of a testis and gonadoblastoma (GB) in the DSD gonad.
  • The actual risk for malignant transformation in individual DSD patients is hard to predict, because of confusing terminology referring to the different forms of DSD, and unclear criteria for identification of the presence of malignant germ cells, especially in young patients.
  • This is specifically due to the phenomenon of delay of germ cell maturation, which might result in over diagnosis.
  • To allow optimal understanding of the pathogenesis of this type of cancers, first normal gonadal development, especially regarding the germ cell lineage, will be discussed, after which type II GCTs will be introduced.
  • Subsequently, the relationship between type II GCTs and DSD will be described, resulting in a number of new insights into the development of the precursor lesions of these tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Disorders of Sex Development / complications. Disorders of Sex Development / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / etiology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Sexual Development / physiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Germ Cells / physiology. Humans. Male. Risk Factors. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18403106.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-7207
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular and cellular endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Number-of-references] 87
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63. Marina N, London WB, Frazier AL, Lauer S, Rescorla F, Cushing B, Malogolowkin MH, Castleberry RP, Womer RB, Olson T: Prognostic factors in children with extragonadal malignant germ cell tumors: a pediatric intergroup study. J Clin Oncol; 2006 Jun 1;24(16):2544-8
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors in children with extragonadal malignant germ cell tumors: a pediatric intergroup study.
  • PURPOSE: To investigate prognostic factors for pediatric extragonadal malignant germ cell tumors (PEMGCT).
  • There were 30 stage I/II, 61 stage III, and 74 stage IV tumors; primary sites included 88 sacrococcygeal, 39 thoracic, and 38 others.
  • Patients > or = 12 years of age with thoracic tumors had six times the risk of death compared with patients younger than 12 years with other primaries.
  • There is a significant interaction between age and primary site, suggesting that patients > or = 12 years of age with thoracic tumors are a biologically distinct group.
  • [MeSH-major] Germinoma / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Age Factors. Analysis of Variance. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Child. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors. Survival Analysis. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16735707.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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64. Bandarchi B, Ma L, Marginean C, Hafezi S, Zubovits J, Rasty G: D2-40, a novel immunohistochemical marker in differentiating dermatofibroma from dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Mod Pathol; 2010 Mar;23(3):434-8
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  • D2-40 identifies a 40-kDa O-linked sialoglycoprotein present on a variety of tissues including testicular germ cell tumors as well as lymphatic endothelium.
  • All 56 (100%) cases of dermatofibroma demonstrated strong and diffuse immunoreactivity to D2-40 in the spindle cells and stroma.
  • Similarly, factor XIIIa showed strong and diffuse positivity in the spindle cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Dermatofibrosarcoma / diagnosis. Histiocytoma, Benign Fibrous / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Antigens, CD34 / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Factor XIIIa / analysis. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Mice. Stromal Cells / chemistry. Stromal Cells / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20062007.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Antigens, CD34; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / monoclonal antibody D2-40; EC 2.3.2.13 / Factor XIIIa
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65. Kondagunta GV, Bacik J, Bajorin D, Dobrzynski D, Sheinfeld J, Motzer RJ, Bosl GJ: Etoposide and cisplatin chemotherapy for metastatic good-risk germ cell tumors. J Clin Oncol; 2005 Dec 20;23(36):9290-4
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  • [Title] Etoposide and cisplatin chemotherapy for metastatic good-risk germ cell tumors.
  • PURPOSE: To assess response, overall survival, and relapse-free survival of patients with good-risk metastatic germ cell tumor (GCT) by International Germ Cell Consensus Classification Group (IGCCCG) criteria treated with four cycles of etoposide and cisplatin (EP).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2006 Jun 1;24(16):2597-8; author reply 2598-9 [16735718.001]
  • (PMID = 16361627.001).
  • [ISSN] 0732-183X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5T32-CA-09207-26
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; VP-P protocol
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66. Kesic V: Fertility after the treatment of gynecologic tumors. Recent Results Cancer Res; 2008;178:79-95
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  • [Title] Fertility after the treatment of gynecologic tumors.
  • Fertility-sparing surgery may be safe in early ovarian cancer of certain histological subtypes such as ovarian tumors of low malignant potential, malignant ovarian germ cell tumors, and ovarian sex cord stromal tumors.
  • Gynecologic surgery and hemotherapy can have an impact not only on fertility, but also on the course of a next pregnancy (increased risk of miscarriage and premature delivery, etc.
  • [MeSH-major] Fertility / physiology. Infertility, Female / prevention & control. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic. Pregnancy Outcome

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  • (PMID = 18080446.001).
  • [ISSN] 0080-0015
  • [Journal-full-title] Recent results in cancer research. Fortschritte der Krebsforschung. Progrès dans les recherches sur le cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Recent Results Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 64
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67. Alston RD, Rowan S, Eden TO, Moran A, Birch JM: Cancer incidence patterns by region and socioeconomic deprivation in teenagers and young adults in England. Br J Cancer; 2007 Jun 4;96(11):1760-6
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  • The incidence of leukaemia, lymphoma, central nervous system tumours, soft tissue sarcomas, gonadal germ cell tumours, melanoma and carcinomas varied by region (P<0.01, all groups) but bone tumour incidence did not.
  • Lymphomas, central nervous system tumours and gonadal germ cell tumours all had higher incidence in less deprived census wards (P<0.01), while chronic myeloid leukaemia and carcinoma of the cervix had higher incidence in more deprived wards (P<0.01).
  • [MeSH-major] Geography. Neoplasms / epidemiology. Neoplasms / etiology. Psychosocial Deprivation
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Bone Neoplasms / epidemiology. Brain Neoplasms / epidemiology. Carcinoma / epidemiology. England / epidemiology. Female. Humans. Incidence. Leukemia / epidemiology. Lymphoma / epidemiology. Male. Melanoma / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / epidemiology. Sarcoma / epidemiology. Socioeconomic Factors

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  • (PMID = 17505509.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2359909
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68. De Giorgi U, Demirer T, Wandt H, Taverna C, Siegert W, Bornhauser M, Kozak T, Papiani G, Ballardini M, Rosti G, Solid Tumor Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation: Second-line high-dose chemotherapy in patients with mediastinal and retroperitoneal primary non-seminomatous germ cell tumors: the EBMT experience. Ann Oncol; 2005 Jan;16(1):146-51
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  • [Title] Second-line high-dose chemotherapy in patients with mediastinal and retroperitoneal primary non-seminomatous germ cell tumors: the EBMT experience.
  • BACKGROUND: Results of second-line chemotherapy in patients with extragonadal non-seminomatous germ cell tumor (NSGCT) appear inferior to results in testicular NSGCT.

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  • (PMID = 15598952.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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69. Jahnke K, Kraemer DF, Knight KR, Fortin D, Bell S, Doolittle ND, Muldoon LL, Neuwelt EA: Intraarterial chemotherapy and osmotic blood-brain barrier disruption for patients with embryonal and germ cell tumors of the central nervous system. Cancer; 2008 Feb 1;112(3):581-8
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  • [Title] Intraarterial chemotherapy and osmotic blood-brain barrier disruption for patients with embryonal and germ cell tumors of the central nervous system.
  • BACKGROUND: The rate of durable responses in embryonal and certain germ cell tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) is unsatisfactory.
  • The median OS was 2.8 years for all patients, 2.5 years for supratentorial and disseminated primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNETs, n = 29), 1.7 years for medulloblastomas (n = 12), and 5.4 years for germ cell tumors (n = 13).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Blood-Brain Barrier / physiopathology. Central Nervous System Neoplasms / drug therapy. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 18072268.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS33618; United States / NINDS NIH HHS / NS / NS44687
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; YL5FZ2Y5U1 / Methotrexate
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70. Lau SK, Chang KL: OCT4: a sensitive and specific immunohistochemical marker for metastatic germ cell tumors. Adv Anat Pathol; 2006 Mar;13(2):76-9
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  • [Title] OCT4: a sensitive and specific immunohistochemical marker for metastatic germ cell tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Antibodies, Monoclonal / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Unknown Primary / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Embryonal / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Embryonal / metabolism. Choriocarcinoma / diagnosis. Choriocarcinoma / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Neuroectodermal Tumors / diagnosis. Neuroectodermal Tumors / metabolism. Seminoma / diagnosis. Seminoma / metabolism. Teratoma / diagnosis. Teratoma / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 16670461.001).
  • [ISSN] 1072-4109
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in anatomic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Anat Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / OKT4A monoclonal antibody
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71. Jankilevich G, Mendizabal J, Massa MA, Pedernera A, Galmes M, Spizzamiglio N: [Mediastinal sarcoidal reaction in follow up for seminoma]. Medicina (B Aires); 2006;66(6):552-4
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  • [Transliterated title] Reaccion sarcoidal mediastinal en el seguimiento de un paciente con seminoma.
  • Testicular germ cell tumors constitute a model for curable neoplasia.
  • Long-term complications are well-known and follow-up includes not only awareness of relapse, but also of the development of secondary tumors and treatment sequelae.
  • A 28 year-old patient who, on clinical follow up of a semi-nomatous tumor, presented mediastinal lymph nodes on CT scan and chest x-ray, without evidence of disease in pelvis or abdomen is presented.
  • His other testicle was normal and he had negative tumor markers.
  • During follow-up of patients with testicular germ cell tumors, the presence of mediastinal lymph nodes requires a histological diagnosis and sarcoidosis should be considered as differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Mediastinal Diseases / etiology. Sarcoidosis / etiology. Seminoma / complications. Testicular Neoplasms / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Metastasis / pathology. Male. Mediastinum / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 17240627.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-7680
  • [Journal-full-title] Medicina
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Medicina (B Aires)
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Argentina
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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72. Zivanovic O, Sheinfeld J, Abu-Rustum NR: Retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (RPLND). Gynecol Oncol; 2008 Nov;111(2 Suppl):S66-9
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  • Pelvic and paraaortic lymph nodes are common sites of metastases from gynecologic malignancies and may act as a sanctuary of chemoresistant tumor cells in some patients.
  • Furthermore, RPLND is an important aspect of post-chemotherapy debulking surgery for nonseminomatous germ cell tumors, which is the counterpart of the ovarian immature teratoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Genital Neoplasms, Female / pathology. Genital Neoplasms, Female / surgery. Lymph Node Excision / methods. Lymph Nodes / anatomy & histology. Lymph Nodes / surgery

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  • (PMID = 18789513.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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73. Chua TC, Koong HN: Curative pulmonary metastasectomy for non-seminomatous germ cell tumor of the testis. ANZ J Surg; 2010 May;80(5):380-1
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  • [Title] Curative pulmonary metastasectomy for non-seminomatous germ cell tumor of the testis.
  • [MeSH-major] Lung Neoplasms / secondary. Lung Neoplasms / surgery. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / secondary. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Pneumonectomy. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20557524.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-2197
  • [Journal-full-title] ANZ journal of surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] ANZ J Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Letter
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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74. Haibin Z, Yue J, Yaxian X: Primary yolk sac tumor of the omentum: a case report and literature review. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2010;31(6):682-4
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  • [Title] Primary yolk sac tumor of the omentum: a case report and literature review.
  • BACKGROUND: Yolk sac tumor (YST) is the second most common malignant ovarian germ cell tumor, while a YST arising in the omentum is an exceedingly rare malignancy.
  • CASE: A 44-year-old woman was admitted with a history of abdominal distension of a month's duration.
  • The case of omental YST must be seriously considered once the tumor shows omentum thickening with elevated AFP serum levels.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / diagnosis. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / therapy. Omentum / surgery. Peritoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis. Peritoneal Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 21319517.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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75. Rustin GJ, Mead GM, Stenning SP, Vasey PA, Aass N, Huddart RA, Sokal MP, Joffe JK, Harland SJ, Kirk SJ, National Cancer Research Institute Testis Cancer Clinical Studies Group: Randomized trial of two or five computed tomography scans in the surveillance of patients with stage I nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis: Medical Research Council Trial TE08, ISRCTN56475197--the National Cancer Research Institute Testis Cancer Clinical Studies Group. J Clin Oncol; 2007 Apr 10;25(11):1310-5
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  • [Title] Randomized trial of two or five computed tomography scans in the surveillance of patients with stage I nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis: Medical Research Council Trial TE08, ISRCTN56475197--the National Cancer Research Institute Testis Cancer Clinical Studies Group.
  • PURPOSE: Surveillance is a standard management approach for stage I nonseminomatous germ cell tumors (NSGCT).
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnostic imaging. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Tomography, X-Ray Computed / utilization
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Australia / epidemiology. Chi-Square Distribution. Disease Progression. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. New Zealand / epidemiology. Norway / epidemiology. Prognosis. Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic. United Kingdom / epidemiology

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  • [CommentIn] J Clin Oncol. 2007 Apr 10;25(11):1308-9 [17416850.001]
  • (PMID = 17416851.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Databank-accession-numbers] ISRCTN/ ISRCTN56475197
  • [Grant] United Kingdom / Medical Research Council / / MC/ U122861331
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] United States
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76. Rondinelli PI, Osório CA, Lopes LF: [Primary intracranial germ cell tumors in children: evaluation of fourteen cases]. Arq Neuropsiquiatr; 2005 Sep;63(3B):832-6
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  • [Title] [Primary intracranial germ cell tumors in children: evaluation of fourteen cases].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumores de células germinativas intracranianos na infância: avaliação de 14 casos.
  • This study evaluates the diagnosis, therapy and survival of 14 patients with primary intracranial germ cell tumors during the period from 1991 to 2001.
  • The tumor was in pineal and hypothalamic region in 10 cases, suprasellar in 3 cases, and in the cerebral parenchyma in 1 case.
  • Histologically there were 1 embryonal carcinoma, 5 germinomas, 2 mature teratomas, 1 immature teratoma and 5 mixed germ cell tumors.
  • Treatment differed among the patients according to the type of tumor.
  • Three patients died after tumor progression or relapse and one patient died from another condition.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16258665.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-282X
  • [Journal-full-title] Arquivos de neuro-psiquiatria
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arq Neuropsiquiatr
  • [Language] por
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Brazil
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77. Browne CM, Hime GR, Koopman P, Loveland KL: Genetic basis of human testicular germ cell cancer: insights from the fruitfly and mouse. Cell Tissue Res; 2005 Oct;322(1):5-19
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  • [Title] Genetic basis of human testicular germ cell cancer: insights from the fruitfly and mouse.
  • The prevalence of tumours of the germ line is increasing in the male population.
  • We examine the contribution of genetic mutations to the development of germ line tumours in this review.
  • In particular, we concentrate on fly and mouse experimental systems in order to demonstrate that mutations in some conserved genes cause pathologies typical of certain human germ cell tumours, whereas other mutations elicit phenotypes that are unique to the experimental model.
  • Despite these experimental systems being imperfect, we show that they are useful models of human testicular germ cell tumourigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Drosophila. Mice. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / genetics. Testicular Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 16094543.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-766X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell and tissue research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Tissue Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.10.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
  • [Number-of-references] 162
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78. Villano JL, Propp JM, Porter KR, Stewart AK, Valyi-Nagy T, Li X, Engelhard HH, McCarthy BJ: Malignant pineal germ-cell tumors: an analysis of cases from three tumor registries. Neuro Oncol; 2008 Apr;10(2):121-30
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  • [Title] Malignant pineal germ-cell tumors: an analysis of cases from three tumor registries.
  • The exact incidence of pineal germ-cell tumors is largely unknown.
  • The tumors are rare, and the number of patients with these tumors, as reported in clinical series, has been limited.
  • The goal of this study was to describe pineal germ-cell tumors in a large number of patients, using data from available brain tumor databases.
  • Three different databases were used: Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database (1973-2001); Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS; 1997-2001); and National Cancer Data Base (NCDB; 1985-2003).
  • Tumors were identified using the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, third edition (ICD-O-3), site code C75.3, and categorized according to histology codes 9060-9085.
  • A total of 1,467 cases of malignant pineal germ-cell tumors were identified: 1,159 from NCDB, 196 from SEER, and 112 from CBTRUS.
  • All three databases showed a male predominance for pineal germ-cell tumors (>90%), and >72% of patients were Caucasian.
  • The majority of tumors (73%-86%) were germinomas, and patients with germinomas had the highest survival rate (>79% at 5 years).
  • The proportions of malignant pineal germ-cell tumors and intracranial germ-cell tumors are in range with previous studies.
  • Survival rates for malignant pineal germ-cell tumors are lower than results from recent treatment trials for intracranial germ-cell tumors, and patients that received radiation therapy in the treatment plan either with surgery or alone survived the longest.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Pinealoma / epidemiology. Pinealoma / therapy. Registries

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  • (PMID = 18287340.001).
  • [ISSN] 1522-8517
  • [Journal-full-title] Neuro-oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Neuro-oncology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2613814
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79. Gilbert DC, Norman AR, Nicholl J, Dearnaley DP, Horwich A, Huddart RA: Treating stage I nonseminomatous germ cell tumours with a single cycle of chemotherapy. BJU Int; 2006 Jul;98(1):67-9
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  • [Title] Treating stage I nonseminomatous germ cell tumours with a single cycle of chemotherapy.
  • OBJECTIVE: To estimate the rate of relapse in men with stage I nonseminomatous germ cell tumours (NSGCT) of the testis treated with one cycle of chemotherapy instead of the usual two cycles.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Between 1992 and 1996, 22 men with stage I NSGCT who had normalized tumour markers after orchidectomy and negative findings on computed tomography, and who were at moderate risk of relapse, were treated with one cycle of platinum-containing chemotherapy (bleomycin and etoposide with either cisplatin or carboplatin).
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Male. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / etiology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16831145.001).
  • [ISSN] 1464-4096
  • [Journal-full-title] BJU international
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BJU Int.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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80. May M, Finkbeiner Y, Gunia S, Seehafer M, Knörig J, Hetzer R: Metastasizing testicular germ-cell tumor with infiltration of the right heart: indication for primary metastasectomy. Heart Vessels; 2006 Jan;21(1):63-5
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  • [Title] Metastasizing testicular germ-cell tumor with infiltration of the right heart: indication for primary metastasectomy.
  • The case of a 42-year-old male patient with a testicular germ cell tumor extending into the superior caval vein, the left brachiocephalic vein, and the right heart, which manifested as a mild form of pulmonary embolization, is presented.
  • Due to the perceived high risk of continuous embolization and the urgent need to begin systemic chemotherapy, a complete cardiac tumor resection was performed, utilizing a cardiopulmonary bypass, followed by a simultaneous orchiectomy.
  • Histology revealed a 61-cm long vascular tumor as a metastasis of a yolk sac tumor originating from the left testis.
  • There were no postoperative complications, and the patient is alive and without tumor recurrence 12 months after four cycles of systemic chemotherapy according to the PEB (cisplatin, etoposide, bleomycin) scheme.
  • We conclude that in this special case aggressive surgical management following chemotherapy was very effective in controlling the disseminated testicular tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Endodermal Sinus Tumor / secondary. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / surgery. Heart Neoplasms / secondary. Heart Neoplasms / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16440152.001).
  • [ISSN] 0910-8327
  • [Journal-full-title] Heart and vessels
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Heart Vessels
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol
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81. Lotz JP, Bui B, Gomez F, Théodore C, Caty A, Fizazi K, Gravis G, Delva R, Peny J, Viens P, Duclos B, De Revel T, Curé H, Gligorov J, Guillemaut S, Ségura C, Provent S, Droz JP, Culine S, Biron P, Groupe d'Etudes des Tumeurs Uro-Génitales (GETUG): Sequential high-dose chemotherapy protocol for relapsed poor prognosis germ cell tumors combining two mobilization and cytoreductive treatments followed by three high-dose chemotherapy regimens supported by autologous stem cell transplantation. Results of the phase II multicentric TAXIF trial. Ann Oncol; 2005 Mar;16(3):411-8
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  • [Title] Sequential high-dose chemotherapy protocol for relapsed poor prognosis germ cell tumors combining two mobilization and cytoreductive treatments followed by three high-dose chemotherapy regimens supported by autologous stem cell transplantation. Results of the phase II multicentric TAXIF trial.
  • BACKGROUND: High-dose chemotherapy (HD-CT) is able to circumvent platinum resistance of resistant/refractory germ-cell tumors (GCTs), but expectancy of cure remains low.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with relapsed poor-prognosis GCTs were scheduled to receive two cycles combining epirubicin and paclitaxel (Taxol) followed by three consecutive HD-CT supported by stem cell transplantation [one course combining cyclophosphamide, 3 g/m(2) + thiotepa, 400 mg/m(2), followed by two ICE regimens (ifosfamide, 10 g/m(2), carboplatin, AUC 20, etoposide, 1500 mg/m(2))].

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  • (PMID = 15659420.001).
  • [ISSN] 0923-7534
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Clinical Trial, Phase II; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 3Z8479ZZ5X / Epirubicin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide
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82. Ra YJ, Bae MJ, Kim YS, Choi KU: Difficulties in diagnosis and treatment of thymic adenocarcinoma producing beta-human chorionic gonadotropin in anterior mediastinum. Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg; 2010 Jul;11(1):114-6
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  • [Title] Difficulties in diagnosis and treatment of thymic adenocarcinoma producing beta-human chorionic gonadotropin in anterior mediastinum.
  • Since the beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) level was increased to 20.46 mIU/ml on the preoperative blood test, incisional biopsy was performed through a Chamberlain incision to rule out the mediastinal germ cell tumors.
  • On the pathological examination after the second operation, the tumor was diagnosed as thymic adenocarcinoma producing beta-hCG, and the tumor had originated from the thymus.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / secondary. Adenocarcinoma / surgery. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human / blood. Mediastinal Neoplasms / secondary. Mediastinal Neoplasms / surgery. Thoracic Surgical Procedures. Thymus Neoplasms / pathology. Thymus Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 20421278.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-9285
  • [Journal-full-title] Interactive cardiovascular and thoracic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chorionic Gonadotropin, beta Subunit, Human
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83. Albers P: Surgery is an essential part of salvage treatment in refractory germ cell tumors. Eur Urol; 2006 Nov;50(5):893-4
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  • [Title] Surgery is an essential part of salvage treatment in refractory germ cell tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Salvage Therapy / methods

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  • [CommentOn] Eur Urol. 2006 Nov;50(5):1032-8; discussion 1038-9 [16757095.001]
  • (PMID = 16753254.001).
  • [ISSN] 0302-2838
  • [Journal-full-title] European urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comment; Editorial
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 04ZR38536J / oxaliplatin; 0W860991D6 / Deoxycytidine; B76N6SBZ8R / gemcitabine; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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84. Kempkensteffen C, Hinz S, Jäger T, Weikert S, Krause H, Schostak M, Christoph F, Strenziok R, Miller K, Schrader M: [Expression levels of the IAP antagonists XAF1, Smac/DIABLO and HtrA2 in testicular germ cell tumours]. Aktuelle Urol; 2008 Nov;39(6):436-41
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  • [Title] [Expression levels of the IAP antagonists XAF1, Smac/DIABLO and HtrA2 in testicular germ cell tumours].
  • [Transliterated title] Expression der pro-apoptotischen Apoptoseinhibitor-(IAP)Antagonisten XAF1, Smac/DIABLO und HtrA2 in Keimzelltumoren des Hodens.
  • We examined the mRNA-expression of these pro-apoptotic parameters in testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT) and normal testicular tissue and correlated their expression levels to clinicopathological tumour features.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Real-time RT-PCR was used to quantify the mRNA-expression of XAF1, Smac/DIABLO and HtrA2 in normal testicular tissue (n = 18), carcinoma in situ (n = 4), seminomas (n = 64), and non-seminomatous germ cell tumors (n = 35).
  • Moreover, XAF1 and HtrA2 expression levels gradually increased with progression of clinical tumour stage in seminoma patients (p = 0.001 and p = 0.018), their expression levels being strongly intercorrelated (Spearman rho correlation coefficient: 0.674; p < 0.001).
  • Regarding the additional correlation of XAF1 and HtrA2 expression with clinical tumour stage in seminoma patients, it appears reasonable to further evaluate these three IAP antagonists as molecular parameters for the prediction of treatment response and prognosis of TGCT patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic / genetics. Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins / antagonists & inhibitors. Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins / genetics. Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins / genetics. Mitochondrial Proteins / genetics. Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / genetics. Serine Endopeptidases / genetics. Testicular Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 18979398.001).
  • [ISSN] 1438-8820
  • [Journal-full-title] Aktuelle Urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Aktuelle Urol
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DIABLO protein, human; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Mitochondrial Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / XAF1 protein, human; EC 3.4.21.- / Omi serine protease; EC 3.4.21.- / Serine Endopeptidases
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85. Lee JW, Yang WS, Chung SY, Kang JH, Cho B, Kim HK, Kim KM, Jeong DC: Aggressive systemic mastocytosis after germ cell tumor of the ovary: C-KIT mutation documentation in both disease states. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol; 2007 Jun;29(6):412-5
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  • [Title] Aggressive systemic mastocytosis after germ cell tumor of the ovary: C-KIT mutation documentation in both disease states.
  • We report a case of aggressive systemic mastocytosis in a 3-year-old girl, who had undergone treatment for ovarian germ cell tumor during the previous 8 months.
  • On diagnosis of systemic mastocytosis, she was treated with interferon-alpha and steroids.
  • Point mutations of the C-KIT gene, previously implicated in the genesis of mastocytosis, were discovered not only in the bone marrow and the peripheral blood of the patient, but also in the tissue of the previously diagnosed germ cell tumor as well.
  • [MeSH-major] Mastocytosis, Systemic / genetics. Mutation. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit / genetics


86. Fakhr IM, Khalil el-SA, El-Baradie TS, Shaalan MA, Shalaby LM, Nassif SL, Farahat IG: The role of surgical management in pediatric germ cell tumors (GCTs), NCI case series. J Egypt Natl Canc Inst; 2008 Mar;20(1):70-9
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  • [Title] The role of surgical management in pediatric germ cell tumors (GCTs), NCI case series.
  • PURPOSE: To review the experience of a tertiary referral center in pediatric germ cell tumors (GCTs) in the last 8 years and to investigate the impact of surgery and site of disease on prognosis.
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the cases of pediatric germ cell tumors at National Cancer Institute over an 8 years period.
  • Data concerning diagnosis, surgery and medical decisions were reviewed and analyzed for all patients.
  • Yolk sac tumor and malignant teratoma were the commonest histologic subtypes in our series.
  • CONCLUSION: The initial surgical approach to malignant GCTs at all sites should be complete resection when possible; the morbidity of extensive surgical resection should be weighed carefully against the good tumor control with chemotherapy.
  • The site of primary disease plays a role in the prognosis of pediatric germ cell tumors with the extragonadal pelvic tumors being the worst regarding resectability.
  • Good tumor response can be achieved with surgery and chemotherapy even for advanced stage and metastatic disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Lymphatic Metastasis. Male. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 19847284.001).
  • [ISSN] 1110-0362
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Egyptian National Cancer Institute
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Egypt Natl Canc Inst
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
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87. Hoei-Hansen CE, Almstrup K, Nielsen JE, Brask Sonne S, Graem N, Skakkebaek NE, Leffers H, Rajpert-De Meyts E: Stem cell pluripotency factor NANOG is expressed in human fetal gonocytes, testicular carcinoma in situ and germ cell tumours. Histopathology; 2005 Jul;47(1):48-56
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  • [Title] Stem cell pluripotency factor NANOG is expressed in human fetal gonocytes, testicular carcinoma in situ and germ cell tumours.
  • AIMS: NANOG is a key regulator of embryonic stem cell (ESC) self-renewal and pluripotency.
  • Our recent genome-wide gene expression profiling study of the precursor of testicular germ cell tumours, carcinoma in situ testis (CIS), showed close similarity between ESC and CIS, including high NANOG expression.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: We detected abundant expression of NANOG in CIS and in CIS-derived testicular tumours with marked differences; seminoma and embryonal carcinoma were strongly positive, differentiated somatic elements of teratoma were negative.
  • CONCLUSIONS: NANOG is a new marker for testicular CIS and germ cell tumours and the high level of NANOG along with OCT-4 are determinants of the stem cell-like pluripotency of the preinvasive CIS cell.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. DNA-Binding Proteins / analysis. Germinoma / pathology. Homeodomain Proteins / analysis. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Alkaline Phosphatase. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Child. Child, Preschool. Fetus. GPI-Linked Proteins. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Gestational Age. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. In Situ Hybridization. Isoenzymes / analysis. Male. Octamer Transcription Factor-3. RNA, Messenger / genetics. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Transcription Factor AP-2. Transcription Factors / analysis

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  • (PMID = 15982323.001).
  • [ISSN] 0309-0167
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / GPI-Linked Proteins; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Isoenzymes; 0 / NANOG protein, human; 0 / Octamer Transcription Factor-3; 0 / POU5F1 protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Transcription Factor AP-2; 0 / Transcription Factors; EC 3.1.3.1 / Alkaline Phosphatase; EC 3.1.3.1 / alkaline phosphatase, placental
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88. Alexander EJ, White IM, Horwich A: Update on management of seminoma. Indian J Urol; 2010 Jan-Mar;26(1):82-91
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  • Testicular germ cell tumors and, in particular, seminomas are exquisitely radiation and chemotherapy-sensitive and most presentations are highly curable.

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  • (PMID = 20535292.001).
  • [ISSN] 1998-3824
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of urology : IJU : journal of the Urological Society of India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2878445
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Carboplatin / chemotherapy / orchidectomy / radiotherapy / seminoma / surgery / surveillance / testicular germ cell tumors
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89. Perimenis P, Athanasopoulos A, Geraghty J, Macdonagh R: Retroperitoneal seminoma with 'burned out' phenomenon in the testis. Int J Urol; 2005 Jan;12(1):115-6
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  • The rare 'burned out' phenomenon in germ cell tumors is known as the presence of an extragonadal germ cell tumor without traces of neoplasm in the testis.
  • This condition is different and less common from the primary extragonadal germ cell malignancies.
  • These malignancies are treated surgically with or without adjuvant chemotherapy or radiotherapy and their prognosis is better than that of other types of primary extragonadal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Node Excision. Seminoma / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 15661068.001).
  • [ISSN] 0919-8172
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of urology : official journal of the Japanese Urological Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
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90. Biró K: [Detection of ototoxic effect of cisplatin with otoacoustic emission in testicular cancer patients]. Magy Onkol; 2009 Sep;53(3):279-83
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  • In the study for acute hearing loss ten males with different histological types of testicular germ cell tumor were examined with TOAE (transiently evoked otoacoustic emission), before the 1st and after the 5th day of their 1st cycle of cytostatic therapy.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / adverse effects. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Hearing Loss / chemically induced. Otoacoustic Emissions, Spontaneous / drug effects. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19793694.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-0244
  • [Journal-full-title] Magyar onkologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Magy Onkol
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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91. Haddad LB, Laufer MR: Thrombocytosis associated with malignant ovarian lesions within a pediatric/adolescent population. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol; 2008 Oct;21(5):243-6
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  • RESULTS: We found that there is an increase in thrombocytosis among individuals with ovarian malignancy, with as high as 33% of those with ovarian germ cell tumors demonstrating preoperative thrombocytosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Diseases / blood. Ovarian Diseases / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / blood. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Thrombocytosis / etiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Platelet Count. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 18794018.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4332
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric and adolescent gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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92. Behtash N, Karimi Zarchi M: Placental site trophoblastic tumor. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2008 Jan;134(1):1-6
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  • [Title] Placental site trophoblastic tumor.
  • Placental site trophoblastic tumor (PSTT) is a rare neoplasm that rises from intermediate trophoblasts and commonly presents with low and variable concentration of HCG immunoactivity in serum, which can be difficult to differentiate from early stage choriocarcinoma/gestational trophoblastic neoplasm (GTN) or quiescent gestational trophoblastic disease.
  • Nontrophoblastic malignancies such as germ cell tumors or other tumors secreting low HCG must also be considered in the differential diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Trophoblastic Tumor, Placental Site / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17701427.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1335
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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93. Kuczyk M, Horstmann M, Merseburger A, Beyer J: [Therapy for recurrent testicular cancer]. Urologe A; 2005 Apr;44(4):352-7
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  • [Transliterated title] Therapie des Rezidivs beim Hodentumor.
  • In the case of an insufficient response to primary treatment or a tumor relapse, regardless of an initially complete remission, conventional as well as high dose chemotherapy regimens are available as salvage therapy for metastatic germ cell tumors.
  • A multimodal approach should include the radiation of simultaneously occurring brain metastases as well as the surgical resection of residual tumour masses still detectable after completion of chemotherapy.
  • Salvage therapy should be reserved for specialized centres due to the increased complexity of a salvage approach and a significantly increased therapy-induced morbidity.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / administration & dosage. Germinoma / secondary. Germinoma / therapy. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Salvage Therapy / methods. Terminal Care / methods. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 15756533.001).
  • [ISSN] 0340-2592
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Urologe. Ausg. A
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urologe A
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 30
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94. McIntyre A, Summersgill B, Lu YJ, Missiaglia E, Kitazawa S, Oosterhuis JW, Looijenga LH, Shipley J: Genomic copy number and expression patterns in testicular germ cell tumours. Br J Cancer; 2007 Dec 17;97(12):1707-12
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  • [Title] Genomic copy number and expression patterns in testicular germ cell tumours.
  • Testicular germ cell tumours of adults and adolescents (TGCT) include seminomas (SE) and nonseminomas (NS), with spermatocytic seminomas (SSE) representing a distinct entity in older men.
  • Here, we compare at the chromosomal level, copy number imbalances with global expression changes, identified by comparative expressed sequence hybridisation analyses, in seven SE, one combined tumour, seven NS and seven cell lines.
  • However, increased expression from 4q22, 5q23.2 and 9p21 distinguished SSE from SE and NS and decreased copy number and expression from 2q36-q37 and 6q24 was a specific feature of NS-derived cell lines.
  • [MeSH-major] Gene Dosage. Gene Expression Profiling. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / genetics. Testicular Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Genome. Humans. Male. Nucleic Acid Hybridization

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  • (PMID = 18059402.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2360290
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95. De Giorgi U, Rosti G, Slavin S, Yaniv I, Harousseau JL, Ladenstein R, Demirer T, Dini G, European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Solid Tumours and Paediatric Disease Working Parties: Salvage high-dose chemotherapy for children with extragonadal germ-cell tumours. Br J Cancer; 2005 Aug 22;93(4):412-7
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  • [Title] Salvage high-dose chemotherapy for children with extragonadal germ-cell tumours.
  • We reviewed the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) experience with salvage high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) in paediatric patients with extragonadal germ-cell tumour (GCT).
  • A total of 23 children with extragonadal GCT, median age 12 years (range 1-20), were treated with salvage HDC with haematopoietic progenitor cell support.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Brain Neoplasms / drug therapy. Child. Child, Preschool. Combined Modality Therapy. Databases, Factual. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation. Humans. Infant. Male. Mediastinal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Remission Induction. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / drug therapy. Retrospective Studies. Salvage Therapy

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  • (PMID = 16106248.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0920
  • [Journal-full-title] British journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2361583
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96. Almstrup K, Sonne SB, Hoei-Hansen CE, Ottesen AM, Nielsen JE, Skakkebaek NE, Leffers H, Rajpert-De Meyts E: From embryonic stem cells to testicular germ cell cancer-- should we be concerned? Int J Androl; 2006 Feb;29(1):211-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] From embryonic stem cells to testicular germ cell cancer-- should we be concerned?
  • Since the discovery of testicular carcinoma in situ (CIS) -- the precursor cell for the vast majority of germ cell tumours -- it has been proposed that CIS cells could be derived from transformed primordial germ cells or gonocytes.
  • Here, we review recent discoveries not only substantiating that initial hypothesis but also indicating that CIS cells have a striking phenotypic similarity to embryonic stem cells (ESC).
  • Many cancers have been proposed to originate from tissue-specific stem cells [so-called 'cancer stem cells' (CSC)] and we argue that CIS may be a very good example of a CSC, but with exceptional features due to the retention of embryonic pluripotency.
  • In addition, considering the fact that pre-invasive CIS cells are transformed from early fetal cells, possibly due to environmentally induced alterations of the niche, we discuss potential risks linked to the uncontrolled therapeutic use of ESC.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Stem Cells / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma in Situ / genetics. Carcinoma in Situ / metabolism. Carcinoma in Situ / pathology. Germinoma / genetics. Germinoma / metabolism. Germinoma / pathology. Humans. Male. Seminoma / genetics. Seminoma / metabolism. Seminoma / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / genetics. Testicular Neoplasms / metabolism. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [CommentIn] Int J Androl. 2006 Dec;29(6):627 [17073946.001]
  • (PMID = 16466542.001).
  • [ISSN] 0105-6263
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of andrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Androl.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 55
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97. Dagli AF, Pehlivan S, Cihangiroglu G, Ozercan MR: Cytology of mixed germ cell tumor with mediastinal metastasis. J Cytol; 2009 Jul;26(3):120-2
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  • [Title] Cytology of mixed germ cell tumor with mediastinal metastasis.
  • Nonseminomatous germ cell tumors of the testis are common and are very aggressive malignant tumors.
  • Most of the cases have metastases at the time of diagnosis, and involvement of the posterior mediastinum in particular is well known.
  • A 33 year-old male patient presented with complaints of a swelling on the right side of the neck that had been growing for the last month, as well as shortness of breath and cough.
  • The patient, who was given the preliminary diagnosis of a mixture metastatic bronchial tumor plus lymphoma, was subjected to transthoracic fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC).
  • The patient, who could not be typed in his cytopathological examination, was diagnosed with malignant epithelial tumor and was recommended to undergo a genitourinary system examination.
  • Histopathological examination of the orchiectomy material resulted in the diagnosis of mixed germ cell tumor (60% mature teratoma and 40% yolk sac tumor).
  • Even though metastatic lesions are mostly seen in the posterior mediastinum, our findings reveal that specimens obtained with FNAC from the anterior mediastinum bear discohesive, pleomorphic, small nuclei in epithelial cells with microvacoules in the cytoplasm.
  • These cytopathological alterations in specimens from the anterior mediastinum might promote germ cell and yolk sac tumors.

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  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cytology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Cytol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3168014
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Nonseminomatous germ cell tumor / fine needle aspiration cytology / mixed germ cell tumor / testis
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98. Rajpert-De Meyts E, Poll SN, Goukasian I, Jeanneau C, Herlihy AS, Bennett EP, Skakkebaek NE, Clausen H, Giwercman A, Mandel U: Changes in the profile of simple mucin-type O-glycans and polypeptide GalNAc-transferases in human testis and testicular neoplasms are associated with germ cell maturation and tumour differentiation. Virchows Arch; 2007 Oct;451(4):805-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Changes in the profile of simple mucin-type O-glycans and polypeptide GalNAc-transferases in human testis and testicular neoplasms are associated with germ cell maturation and tumour differentiation.
  • Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) exhibit remarkable ability to differentiate into virtually all somatic tissue types.
  • In this study, we investigated changes in mucin-type O-glycosylation, which have been associated with somatic cell differentiation and cancer.
  • The pattern found in testicular neoplasms recapitulated the developmental order: Pre-invasive carcinoma in situ (CIS) cells and seminoma expressed fetal type sialylated glycans in keeping with their gonocyte-like phenotype.
  • We concluded that simple mucin-type O-glycans and their transferases are developmentally regulated in the human testis, with profound changes associated with neoplasia.
  • The restricted O-glycosylation pattern in haploid germ cells suggests a role in their maturation or egg recognition/fertilization warranting further studies in male infertility, whereas the findings in TGCT provide new diagnostic tools and support our hypothesis that testicular cancer is a developmental disease of germ cell differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate / metabolism. Antigens, Viral, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / metabolism. N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferases / metabolism. Testicular Neoplasms / metabolism. Testis / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Differentiation / physiology. Gene Expression Profiling. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male. Phenotype. Spermatogenesis / physiology. Spermatozoa / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17694322.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Tumor-Associated, Carbohydrate; 0 / Antigens, Viral, Tumor; 0 / Tn antigen; 0 / sialosyl-Tn antigen; EC 2.4.1.- / N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferases; EC 2.4.1.41 / polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase
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99. Parada D, Peña KB, Moreira O, Cohen I, Parada AM, Mejías LD: Extragonadal retroperitoneal germ cell tumor: primary versus metastases? Arch Esp Urol; 2007 Jul-Aug;60(6):713-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Extragonadal retroperitoneal germ cell tumor: primary versus metastases?
  • OBJECTIVE: Primary extragonadal germ cell tumors are rare and their histogenetic origin is not clear.
  • We describe two cases presenting as primary retroperitoneal germ cell tumors without clinical evidence of testicular tumor.
  • METHODS: A 21 and 18 years-old patients presented retroperitoneal choriocarcinoma and yolk sac tumor, respectively.
  • RESULTS: A right orchitectomy were performed and the final diagnostics were mature teratoma associated with intratubular malignant germ cell.
  • CONCLUSION: Adult mature teratoma is infrequent and the retroperitoneal germ cell tumors should be considered to be metastases of a viable or burned-out testicular cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Retroperitoneal Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 17847753.001).
  • [ISSN] 0004-0614
  • [Journal-full-title] Archivos españoles de urología
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Esp. Urol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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100. Hochedlinger K, Yamada Y, Beard C, Jaenisch R: Ectopic expression of Oct-4 blocks progenitor-cell differentiation and causes dysplasia in epithelial tissues. Cell; 2005 May 6;121(3):465-77
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Ectopic expression of Oct-4 blocks progenitor-cell differentiation and causes dysplasia in epithelial tissues.
  • The POU-domain transcription factor Oct-4 is normally expressed in pluripotent cells of the mammalian embryo.
  • In addition, germ-cell tumors and a few somatic tumors show detectable expression of Oct-4.
  • While Oct-4's role during preimplantation development is to maintain embryonic cells in a pluripotent state, little is known about its potential oncogenic properties.
  • Dysplastic lesions show an expansion of progenitor cells and increased beta-catenin transcriptional activity.
  • In the intestine, Oct-4 expression causes dysplasia by inhibiting cellular differentiation in a manner similar to that in embryonic cells.
  • These data show that certain adult progenitors remain competent to interpret key embryonic signals and support the notion that progenitor cells are a driving force in tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Differentiation / genetics. DNA-Binding Proteins / genetics. Epithelium / pathology. Stem Cells / pathology. Transcription Factors / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Lineage / genetics. Cytoskeletal Proteins / genetics. Cytoskeletal Proteins / metabolism. Doxycycline / administration & dosage. Doxycycline / toxicity. Gastrointestinal Tract / drug effects. Gastrointestinal Tract / metabolism. Gastrointestinal Tract / pathology. Gene Expression / drug effects. Gene Expression / genetics. Green Fluorescent Proteins / genetics. Intestines / drug effects. Intestines / metabolism. Intestines / pathology. Mice. Mice, Transgenic. Neoplasms / etiology. Neoplasms / genetics. Neoplasms / pathology. Octamer Transcription Factor-3. Skin / drug effects. Skin / metabolism. Skin / pathology. Trans-Activators / genetics. Trans-Activators / metabolism. beta Catenin






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