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1. Plummer RS, Shea CR, Nelson M, Powell SK, Freeman DM, Dan CP, Lang D: PAX3 expression in primary melanomas and nevi. Mod Pathol; 2008 May;21(5):525-30
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] PAX3 expression in primary melanomas and nevi.
  • Although the histogenesis of the tumor is not well understood, it is thought to originate from a rare melanocyte stem cell that resides in the skin.
  • This mechanism may also contribute to the uncontrolled cell growth and loss of terminal differentiation in melanomas.
  • Our data suggest that PAX3-expressing melanomas may be less environmentally dependent and more genetically linked.

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  • (PMID = 18327212.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA130202; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA130202-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA130202-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA130202-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA130202-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA130202-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA130202-01A2
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / PAX3 protein, human; 0 / Paired Box Transcription Factors
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS249625; NLM/ PMC2987639
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2. Kantrow SM, Boyd AS, Ellis DL, Nanney LB, Richmond A, Shyr Y, Robbins JB: Expression of activated Akt in benign nevi, Spitz nevi and melanomas. J Cutan Pathol; 2007 Aug;34(8):593-6
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  • [Title] Expression of activated Akt in benign nevi, Spitz nevi and melanomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Activated Akt expression (p-Akt) is reportedly increased in many melanomas as compared with benign nevi.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare p-Akt immunohistological staining in benign nevi, Spitz nevi and primary melanomas.
  • RESULTS: Benign nevi showed less staining (mean score 1.18) compared with Spitz nevi (mean score 2.11) and melanomas (mean score 2.19).
  • This difference was statistically significant between benign nevi and melanomas (p = 0.0047) and benign nevi and Spitz nevi (p = 0.0271).
  • No statistical difference was detected in staining between Spitz nevi and melanomas (p = 0.8309).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Activated Akt expression is increased in Spitz nevi and melanomas as compared with benign intradermal nevi, but is unlikely to prove useful in differentiating between the former.

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  • (PMID = 17640227.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098807; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA098807-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA116021-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA116021; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA116021-03
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS49408; NLM/ PMC2665272
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3. Pellacani G, Cesinaro AM, Seidenari S: In vivo assessment of melanocytic nests in nevi and melanomas by reflectance confocal microscopy. Mod Pathol; 2005 Apr;18(4):469-74
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  • [Title] In vivo assessment of melanocytic nests in nevi and melanomas by reflectance confocal microscopy.
  • A total of 55 melanocytic lesions comprising 20 melanomas, 25 acquired nevi and 10 Spitz nevi were studied by means of reflectance confocal microscopy, dermoscopy and routine histopathology.
  • Dense clusters appeared characteristic for benign lesions, although present in 13 out of 20 melanomas.
  • Sparse cell clusters were more frequently observable in melanomas, but also sporadically present in one Spitz nevus.
  • Moreover, cerebriform clusters were exclusively observed in five out of 20 melanomas.

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  • (PMID = 15529179.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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4. Fogt F, Selim AM, Xu GX, Prinz MK, Eagle RC Jr, Budimlija ZM: Uveal melanocytomas: genetic comparison with uveal and dermal melanomas. Arch Ophthalmol; 2005 Mar;123(3):377-80
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  • [Title] Uveal melanocytomas: genetic comparison with uveal and dermal melanomas.
  • OBJECTIVE: Melanocytomas of the eye are typically benign tumors that may be associated with nevi and melanomas.
  • In this study, we assessed the genetic data of melanocytomas and compared them with nevi and melanomas of both the eyes and the skin.
  • DESIGN: We microdissected 8 melanocytomas, 13 uveal melanomas, and 10 cutaneous melanomas and analyzed loss of heterozygosity markers on chromosome bands 1p36, 6q22-23.3, 9p21, and 10q23, which represent genetic loci associated with advanced dermal melanocytic lesions.
  • However, many loss of heterozygosity events were found in uveal and cutaneous melanomas, most frequently involving chromosome 1 damage followed by chromosome 9 and 10 alterations.
  • CONCLUSION: Based on the absence of loss of heterozygosity in melanocytomas, specifically the locus that is lost most often in dysplastic nevi of the skin, we conclude that melanocytomas represent an entity that is different from melanomas or may be similar to that of dermal benign nevi.
  • CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Our results confirm that melanocytomas represent nonagressive lesions that do not demand radical surgery.

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  • (PMID = 15767481.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-9950
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Augsburger JJ, Corrêa ZM, Trichopoulos N, Shaikh A: Size overlap between benign melanocytic choroidal nevi and choroidal malignant melanomas. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci; 2008 Jul;49(7):2823-8
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  • [Title] Size overlap between benign melanocytic choroidal nevi and choroidal malignant melanomas.
  • PURPOSE: To estimate size overlap between large choroidal nevi and small choroidal melanomas by using plotted frequency distributions of tumor size.
  • METHODS: Frequency distributions of largest linear basal diameter (LBD) and thickness (TH) of choroidal nevi and melanomas were plotted from published data and cases in the senior author's practice.
  • Relative frequencies of choroidal nevi and melanomas were estimated from published data.
  • RESULTS: Comparison of plotted frequency distribution curves for thickness indicated that there were approximately 125 nevi for every melanoma in the TH range 1.5 to 2 mm, approximately 25 nevi for every melanoma in the TH range 2 to 2.5 mm, and approximately 5 nevi for every melanoma in the TH range 2.5 to 3 mm.
  • Similarly, comparison of the plotted frequency distribution curves for LBD of these tumor types indicated that there were approximately 70 nevi for every choroidal melanoma in the LBD range 5 to 6 mm, approximately 10 nevi for every melanoma in the LBD range 6 to 7 mm, and approximately 3 nevi for every melanoma in the LBD range 7 to 8 mm.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Because of the markedly greater cumulative lifetime incidence of choroidal nevi, the results of this analysis suggest considerable size overlap between larger nevi and smaller melanomas.
  • Attempts to classify small melanocytic choroidal tumors clinically as benign nevi versus malignant melanomas on the basis of tumor size appear likely to result in multiple misclassifications.

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  • (PMID = 18408179.001).
  • [ISSN] 1552-5783
  • [Journal-full-title] Investigative ophthalmology & visual science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Jakobiec FA, Bhat P, Colby KA: Immunohistochemical studies of conjunctival nevi and melanomas. Arch Ophthalmol; 2010 Feb;128(2):174-83
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical studies of conjunctival nevi and melanomas.
  • METHODS: Paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 20 conjunctival nevi and 15 invasive melanomas were immunoreacted with antibodies against cellular antigens S-100 protein, MART-1, HMB-45, CD-45, and Ki-67 nuclear proliferation protein.
  • RESULTS: All nevi immunostained moderately to strongly for S-100 protein and MART-1.
  • Only 1 melanoma did not stain positively for S-100; MART-1 and HMB-45 were positive in all lesions at some level of intensity.
  • Ki-67 positivity was restricted to the junctional zone of nevi and was diffuse in melanomas.
  • The mean Ki-67 proliferation indices were 1.89% for the nevi and 17.3% for the melanomas.
  • Melanomas in situ and atypical primary acquired melanoses had more than twice the Ki-67 proliferation counts of intraepithelial junctional nevocytes (P < .001) and more intense HMB-45 cytoplasmic staining than junctional zone nevocytes.
  • CONCLUSIONS: S-100 and MART-1 were not useful in separating benign from malignant lesions.
  • Two nevi and all melanomatous nodules were positive for HMB-45 (P < .001).
  • A higher Ki-67 proliferation index convincingly separated melanomas from nevi (P < .001).

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  • (PMID = 20142539.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3601
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Proteins; EC 3.1.3.48 / Antigens, CD45; EC 3.1.3.48 / PTPRC protein, human
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7. Kaiserman I, Kaiserman N, Pe'er J: Long term ultrasonic follow up of choroidal naevi and their transformation to melanomas. Br J Ophthalmol; 2006 Aug;90(8):994-8
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  • [Title] Long term ultrasonic follow up of choroidal naevi and their transformation to melanomas.
  • AIMS: To compare ultrasonographic (US) predicting factors for conversion of choroidal naevi into melanomas.
  • METHODS: 659 consecutive eyes with choroidal naevi were examined between 1984 and 2004.
  • 165 clinically suspicious naevi were followed clinically and ultrasonographically (thickness, base diameters, internal reflectivity and location in the eye) for 5.08 (SE 0.24) years.
  • RESULTS: 17 naevi (2.6% of all naevi, 10.3% of suspicious naevi) converted to small choroidal melanomas.
  • The thickness of benign and premalignant naevi differed significant only after 1.5 years of follow up.
  • The mean initial thickness of benign and premalignant naevi was significantly different (p = 0.001), as was mean initial internal reflectivity (p = 0.002) and mean initial largest base diameter (LBD, p = 0.05).
  • Posterior pole and nasally located naevi were more likely to become malignant.
  • An artificial neural network did not have a better forecasting accuracy than the KI index.
  • CONCLUSIONS: A follow up of at least 1.5 years is necessary to detect conversion of naevi to choroidal melanomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / pathology. Disease Progression. Epidemiologic Methods. Humans. Neural Networks (Computer). Scattering, Radiation

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  • (PMID = 16672327.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-1161
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of ophthalmology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br J Ophthalmol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1857217
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8. Pellacani G, Cesinaro AM, Seidenari S: Reflectance-mode confocal microscopy for the in vivo characterization of pagetoid melanocytosis in melanomas and nevi. J Invest Dermatol; 2005 Sep;125(3):532-7
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  • [Title] Reflectance-mode confocal microscopy for the in vivo characterization of pagetoid melanocytosis in melanomas and nevi.
  • In vivo identification of pagetoid cells, clearly present in the majority of melanomas and in a few benign lesions, seemed useful for melanoma diagnosis.

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  • [CommentIn] J Invest Dermatol. 2005 Sep;125(3):vii [16193554.001]
  • (PMID = 16117795.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-202X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of investigative dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Invest. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Busam KJ, Fang Y, Jhanwar SC, Pulitzer MP, Marr B, Abramson DH: Distinction of conjunctival melanocytic nevi from melanomas by fluorescence in situ hybridization. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 Feb;37(2):196-203
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  • [Title] Distinction of conjunctival melanocytic nevi from melanomas by fluorescence in situ hybridization.
  • We evaluated a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay, which has previously been shown to be of value for the diagnosis of melanocytic nevi and melanomas of the skin, using probes targeting 6p25 (RREB1), 6q23 (MYB), 11q13 (CCND1) and centromere 6 (CEP6), for its potential to assist in the distinction of conjunctival melanocytic nevi from melanomas.
  • Four melanocytic nevi and eight melanomas of the conjunctiva were analyzed.
  • Two of the melanomas were diagnostically problematic because of suboptimal histopathology.
  • None of the conjunctival melanocytic nevi showed a level of chromosomal aberrations that met FISH criteria for a diagnosis of melanoma.
  • All eight conjunctival melanomas (six unequivocal and two suspicious lesions) met FISH criteria for melanoma.


10. Shelly S, Chien MB, Yip B, Kent MS, Theon AP, McCallan JL, London CA: Exon 15 BRAF mutations are uncommon in canine oral malignant melanomas. Mamm Genome; 2005 Mar;16(3):211-7
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  • [Title] Exon 15 BRAF mutations are uncommon in canine oral malignant melanomas.
  • An activating mutation in codon 599 of BRAF has been identified in approximately 60% of human cutaneous nevi and melanomas, but not melanomas of mucosal origin.
  • The purpose of this study was to determine if BRAF mutations occur in canine oral malignant melanomas.
  • Therefore, similar to the case with human mucosal melanomas, canine oral malignant melanomas do not possess codon 599 BRAF mutations commonly identified in human cutaneous melanomas.
  • This finding supports the notion that melanomas arising from non-sun-exposed sites exhibit distinct mechanisms of molecular transformation.

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  • (PMID = 15834638.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-8990
  • [Journal-full-title] Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mamm. Genome
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf; EC 2.7.11.24 / Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases
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11. Kamino H, Tam S, Tapia B, Toussaint S: The use of elastin immunostain improves the evaluation of melanomas associated with nevi. J Cutan Pathol; 2009 Aug;36(8):845-52
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  • [Title] The use of elastin immunostain improves the evaluation of melanomas associated with nevi.
  • BACKGROUND: Twenty to 30% of malignant melanomas are associated with melanocytic nevi; however, sometimes it is difficult to distinguish the melanoma from the nevus by routine histology.
  • We have previously described distinctive patterns of elastic fibers in nevi and in melanomas.
  • METHODS: We analyzed elastic fiber patterns using elastin immunostain and elastic van Gieson (EVG) stain in 30 cases of invasive melanomas associated with nevi, 12 control melanocytic nevi and 14 control invasive melanomas.
  • In nevi, the elastic fibers were preserved between nests and often around individual melanocytes.
  • In contrast, melanomas had markedly decreased elastic fibers in the stroma and within the nests of melanocytes.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The distinctive patterns of elastic fibers, best shown by the elastin immunostain, were helpful in evaluating melanomas associated with melanocytic nevi.

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  • [CommentIn] J Cutan Pathol. 2011 Jul;38(7):593-4 [21306409.001]
  • (PMID = 19032378.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 9007-58-3 / Elastin
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12. Carbonetto SH, Lew SE: Characterization of border structure using fractal dimension in melanomas. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc; 2010;2010:4088-91
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  • [Title] Characterization of border structure using fractal dimension in melanomas.
  • There are many characteristics that differentiate normal moles (nevi) from melanomas.
  • The average performance to discriminate normal moles from melanomas reached 85% giving some insights about the power of the fractal dimension as a candidate for automatic detection and diagnosis.

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  • (PMID = 21096624.001).
  • [ISSN] 1557-170X
  • [Journal-full-title] Conference proceedings : ... Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society. Annual Conference
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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13. Stefanaki C, Stefanaki K, Antoniou C, Argyrakos T, Stratigos A, Patereli A, Katsambas A: G1 cell cycle regulators in congenital melanocytic nevi. Comparison with acquired nevi and melanomas. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Sep;35(9):799-808
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  • [Title] G1 cell cycle regulators in congenital melanocytic nevi. Comparison with acquired nevi and melanomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Congenital nevi are one of the known risk factors for the development of melanoma.
  • However, the magnitude of the risk for both large and small congenital nevi is controversial.
  • METHODS: In order to elucidate the behavior of congenital nevocytes and to define any possible similarities or differences with common nevi and melanomas, we investigated the expression of Ki-67, Rb, p16, cyclin D1, p53 and p21/Waf-1 in 41 congenital nevi, 16 melanomas and 20 acquired common nevi by immunohistochemistry.
  • RESULTS: Congenital nevi highly expressed p16 (81.82 +/- 9.98) but showed limited, if any, reactivity for Ki-67 (1.34% +/- 0.89), Rb (0.76% +/- 0.94), cyclin D1 (0.21% +/- 0.29), p53 (0.54% +/- 0.93) and p21 (0.0609% +/- 0.32).
  • No statistically significant difference was found between giant and nongiant congenital nevi and between congenital and common nevi for any of the markers.
  • The expression of p16 was significantly higher in congenital nevi than in melanomas (p < 0.0001).
  • On the contrary, the expression of Ki-67, p53, p21, Rb and cyclin D1 was significantly higher in melanomas (p < 0.0001).
  • CONCLUSION: Our data regarding the immunohistochemical expression of Rb, p16, p53, cyclin D1 and Ki-67 in congenital nevi indicate that either the alteration of their expression is not an initiating event in melanoma formation or, alternatively, congenital melanocytic nevi may not be the first step in malignant transformation.


14. Fröhlich E, Mack AF, Garbe C, Klessen C: Distribution and colocalization of markers for proliferation, invasion, motility and neoangiogenesis in benign melanocytic naevi and malignant melanomas. Br J Dermatol; 2005 Dec;153(6):1159-65
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  • [Title] Distribution and colocalization of markers for proliferation, invasion, motility and neoangiogenesis in benign melanocytic naevi and malignant melanomas.
  • BACKGROUND: Melanomas are heterogeneous tumours, and differentiation from other melanocytic lesions may cause problems.
  • OBJECTIVES: To test this hypothesis, melanocytic naevi, primary melanomas and metastases were investigated.
  • RESULTS: Malignant melanomas tended to express more markers of malignancy compared with melanocytic naevi, and the differences were statistically significant for EGF and actin immunoreactivity: melanocytic naevi displayed clear EGF labelling more often (60% vs. 5%) and melanomas showed more intense actin labelling (70% vs. 0%).
  • HMB-45+ cells to a large extent also stained with antibodies to CatB but not to EGF or actin; EGF-, FGF-2- and VEGF-immunoreactive cells were predominantly HMB-45-.
  • Similar combinations were observed in melanocytic naevi and in melanomas.
  • However, we did not detect a clear-cut increase of markers of malignancy in melanoma.
  • Cells expressing multiple malignancy markers were also found in some melanocytic naevi; this may confirm the dormant potential of melanocytic naevi for melanoma development.

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  • (PMID = 16307652.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 62229-50-9 / Epidermal Growth Factor
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15. Kanitakis J, Baldassini S, Lora V, Euvrard S: BRAF mutations in melanocytic tumors (nevi and melanomas) from organ transplant recipients. Eur J Dermatol; 2010 Mar-Apr;20(2):167-71
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  • [Title] BRAF mutations in melanocytic tumors (nevi and melanomas) from organ transplant recipients.
  • BRAF is a gene of the RAF family of kinases, frequently mutated in benign and malignant melanocytic tumors (nevi and melanomas).
  • We studied a group of 129 melanocytic tumors including various subtypes of nevi (n: 114) and melanomas (n: 15) excised from transplant (n: 63) and control (non-immunosuppressed) patients (n: 66) as to BRAF mutation status.


16. Pellacani G, Cesinaro AM, Longo C, Grana C, Seidenari S: Microscopic in vivo description of cellular architecture of dermoscopic pigment network in nevi and melanomas. Arch Dermatol; 2005 Feb;141(2):147-54
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  • [Title] Microscopic in vivo description of cellular architecture of dermoscopic pigment network in nevi and melanomas.
  • STUDY POPULATION: We studied confocal images of 15 melanomas, 15 dermoscopic atypical nevi, and 15 common nevi.
  • RESULTS: Pigment network in melanomas consisted of large basal cells that circumscribed small to medium-sized dermal papillae with marked cellular atypia, sometimes infiltrating dermal papillae.
  • On the other hand, common acquired nevi were characterized by lack of atypical cells and edged dermal papillae.
  • Atypical nevi presented intermediate characteristics between clearly benign and malignant lesions.

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  • [CommentIn] Arch Dermatol. 2005 Feb;141(2):212-5 [15724018.001]
  • (PMID = 15724010.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-987X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Uribe P, Wistuba II, Gonzalez S: Allelotyping, microsatellite instability, and BRAF mutation analyses in common and atypical melanocytic nevi and primary cutaneous melanomas. Am J Dermatopathol; 2009 Jun;31(4):354-63
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  • [Title] Allelotyping, microsatellite instability, and BRAF mutation analyses in common and atypical melanocytic nevi and primary cutaneous melanomas.
  • Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in several chromosomal regions is found in melanoma, and it has been partially studied in nevi.
  • BRAF mutations are found in melanoma and nevi and in colorectal cancer are linked to mismatch repair deficiency.
  • DNA extracted from microdissected cells of 22 common nevi, 23 atypical nevi, and 25 primary cutaneous melanomas were examined for LOH and MSI by polymerase chain reaction-based analysis of 24 microsatellite markers and BRAF mutation.
  • Allelic loss index was higher in atypical nevi (0.20) and melanomas (0.27) than common nevi (0.07).
  • LOH at any of this loci occurred in 27% of common nevi, 57% of atypical nevi, and 68% of melanomas.
  • BRAF mutations were not related to MSI presence and MSI index was not related with BRAF mutational status.
  • Similar genetic alterations in atypical nevi and melanomas support the concept of atypical nevus as melanoma precursor.
  • Novel deletion loci at 5q35 and 17q21 (BRCA1) in atypical nevi and melanomas were identified.
  • Mismatch repair deficiency is not a crucial event for BRAF mutation in melanocytic tumors.

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  • (PMID = 19461239.001).
  • [ISSN] 1533-0311
  • [Journal-full-title] The American Journal of dermatopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am J Dermatopathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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18. Koh SS, Opel ML, Wei JP, Yau K, Shah R, Gorre ME, Whitman E, Shitabata PK, Tao Y, Cochran AJ, Abrishami P, Binder SW: Molecular classification of melanomas and nevi using gene expression microarray signatures and formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue. Mod Pathol; 2009 Apr;22(4):538-46
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  • [Title] Molecular classification of melanomas and nevi using gene expression microarray signatures and formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue.
  • Currently separation of melanomas from nevi is based primarily on light microscopic interpretation of hematoxylin and eosin stained sections with limited assistance from immunohistology.
  • To increase the accuracy of discrimination of benign and malignant melanocytic lesions we identified DNA microarray-derived gene expression profiles of different melanocytic lesions and evaluated the performance of these gene signatures as molecular diagnostic tools in the molecular classification and separation of melanomas and nevi.
  • Melanocyte-derived cells were isolated by laser capture microdissection from 165 formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded melanocytic nevi and melanoma tissue sections.
  • In all 120 samples were used to identify differentially expressed genes and generate a gene expression classifier capable of distinguishing between melanomas and nevi.
  • Unsupervised hierarchical clustering identified two distinct lesional groups that closely correlated with the histopathologically identified melanomas and nevi.
  • In comparison with nevi, melanomas expressed higher levels of genes promoting signal transduction, transcription, and cell growth.
  • In contrast, expression of L1CAM (homolog) was reduced in melanomas relative to nevi.
  • Genes differentially expressed in melanomas and nevi, on the basis of molecular signal, sub classified a group of unknown melanocytic lesions as melanomas or nevi and had high concordance rates with histopathology.
  • Gene signatures established using DNA microarray gene expression profiling can distinguish melanomas from nevi, indicating the feasibility of using molecular classification as a supplement to standard histology.

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  • (PMID = 19270649.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 1HG84L3525 / Formaldehyde
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19. Kashani-Sabet M, Rangel J, Torabian S, Nosrati M, Simko J, Jablons DM, Moore DH, Haqq C, Miller JR 3rd, Sagebiel RW: A multi-marker assay to distinguish malignant melanomas from benign nevi. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2009 Apr 14;106(15):6268-72
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  • [Title] A multi-marker assay to distinguish malignant melanomas from benign nevi.
  • Here, we describe a multi-marker diagnostic assay using 5 markers (ARPC2, FN1, RGS1, SPP1, and WNT2) overexpressed in melanomas.
  • Immunohistochemical marker expression was analyzed in 693 melanocytic neoplasms comprising a training set (tissue microarray of 534 melanomas and nevi), and 4 independent validation sets: tissue sections of melanoma arising in a nevus; dysplastic nevi; Spitz nevi; and misdiagnosed melanocytic neoplasms.
  • Based on the differential expression of these 5 markers between nevi and melanomas in the training set, a diagnostic algorithm was obtained.
  • Both the intensity and pattern of expression of each marker were significantly different in melanomas compared to nevi.
  • In the validation sets, the multi-marker assay correctly diagnosed a high percentage of melanomas arising in a nevus, Spitz nevi, dysplastic nevi, and misdiagnosed lesions.

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  • (PMID = 19332774.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-6490
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA114337-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA114337-02S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA122947-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA114337; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA114337-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA122947; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA122947-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA122947-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA114337-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA122947-01A1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA122947; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA114337-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA122947-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA114337-02S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA122947-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA114337
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2662963
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20. Chwirot BW, Kuźbicki Ł: Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2): first immunohistochemical marker distinguishing early cutaneous melanomas from benign melanocytic skin tumours. Melanoma Res; 2007 Jun;17(3):139-45
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  • [Title] Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2): first immunohistochemical marker distinguishing early cutaneous melanomas from benign melanocytic skin tumours.
  • In this study, we investigated whether the COX-2 expression level might be a useful immunohistochemical marker for distinguishing cutaneous melanomas from benign melanocytic lesions.
  • Up to now, immunohistochemical markers have not ensured satisfactory sensitivity and specificity of differential pathologic diagnosis of melanoma.
  • The expression of COX-2 was determined immunohistochemically in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded specimens of 33 early Clark I/II melanomas and 58 naevi.
  • Mean COX-2 expression in melanomas was significantly stronger than in naevi (P approximately 10(-13)).
  • A simple diagnostic algorithm using threshold values of the COX-2 expression level allows for differentiation between early melanomas and naevi with high sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) (for Se between 91 and 100%, Sp values change between 96.5 and 51.7%).
  • For all the melanomas (not only the early ones),the respective areas under the ROC curve values were 0.98+/-0.01 and 0.97+/-0.02.
  • In conclusion, COX-2 is the first immunohistochemical marker that allows the distinguishing of early melanomas from benign melanocytic lesions with both high sensitivity and specificity.

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  • (PMID = 17505259.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-8931
  • [Journal-full-title] Melanoma research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Melanoma Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Membrane Proteins; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2; EC 1.14.99.1 / PTGS2 protein, human
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21. Altamura D, Altobelli E, Micantonio T, Piccolo D, Fargnoli MC, Peris K: Dermoscopic patterns of acral melanocytic nevi and melanomas in a white population in central Italy. Arch Dermatol; 2006 Sep;142(9):1123-8
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  • [Title] Dermoscopic patterns of acral melanocytic nevi and melanomas in a white population in central Italy.
  • RESULTS: We retrieved digital images of 723 benign acral melanocytic lesions in 641 patients (235 males and 406 females; mean age, 26.5 years) and of 10 acral melanomas in 10 patients (7 males and 3 females; mean age, 65 years).
  • Among acral nevi, the parallel furrow (42.1%) was the most common pattern, followed by the latticelike (14.9%), nontypical (13.7%), fibrillar (10.8%), homogeneous (9.3%), globular (5.4%), and reticular (2.1%) patterns.
  • Also, 13 acral nevi (1.8%), mainly located on the fingers, showed a new combined pattern (transition pattern) consisting of a brownish black network associated with a parallel furrow or latticelike pattern.
  • All 10 acral melanomas showed a multicomponent dermoscopic pattern.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In our series of acral nevi, we observed 8 dermoscopic patterns, with varying distribution by anatomical site.

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  • [CommentIn] Arch Dermatol. 2006 Sep;142(9):1211-2 [16983009.001]
  • (PMID = 16982999.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-987X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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22. Medic S, Ziman M: PAX3 expression in normal skin melanocytes and melanocytic lesions (naevi and melanomas). PLoS One; 2010;5(4):e9977
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  • [Title] PAX3 expression in normal skin melanocytes and melanocytic lesions (naevi and melanomas).
  • By contrast it is frequently found in melanomas and naevi and is a marker for melanoma staging and detection.
  • As expected PAX3 expression was observed in naevi and melanoma cells.
  • PAX3 was also co-expressed with melanoma cell migration marker MCAM in dermal naevi and melanoma cell nests, but this downstream target of PAX3 was not present in normal epidermal melanocytes, suggesting differential roles for PAX3 in normal epidermal melanocytes and melanoma cells.


23. Banky JP, Kelly JW, English DR, Yeatman JM, Dowling JP: Incidence of new and changed nevi and melanomas detected using baseline images and dermoscopy in patients at high risk for melanoma. Arch Dermatol; 2005 Aug;141(8):998-1006
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  • [Title] Incidence of new and changed nevi and melanomas detected using baseline images and dermoscopy in patients at high risk for melanoma.
  • OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of new, changed, and regressed nevi and melanomas in a cohort of patients at high risk for melanoma using baseline total body photography and dermatoscopy.
  • PATIENTS: A total of 309 patients who had at least 1 of the following risk factors for melanoma: personal history, family history, 100 or more nevi, or 4 or more dysplastic nevi.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number of new, changed, and regressed nevi and melanomas detected and excised during the study interval.
  • RESULTS: The incidence of new, changed, and regressed nevi decreased with increasing age (P<.001), whereas the incidence of melanomas increased (P = .05).
  • The number of dysplastic nevi at baseline was positively associated with the incidence of changed nevi (P<.001) and melanomas (P = .03).
  • The use of baseline photography and dermatoscopy was associated with low biopsy rates and early detection of melanomas.
  • The development of melanoma in association with a preexisting nevus was not directly correlated with a change in a preexisting lesion monitored by baseline photography.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Nevi are dynamic, and only a small percentage of all new and changed melanocytic lesions are melanomas.
  • Patients younger than 50 years had a lower incidence of melanomas and a higher rate of new, changed, and regressed nevi when compared with patients older than 50 years.

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  • [CommentIn] Arch Dermatol. 2005 Aug;141(8):1032-4 [16103334.001]
  • (PMID = 16103329.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-987X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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24. Perry BN, Cohen C, Govindarajan B, Cotsonis G, Arbiser JL: Wilms tumor 1 expression present in most melanomas but nearly absent in nevi. Arch Dermatol; 2006 Aug;142(8):1031-4
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  • [Title] Wilms tumor 1 expression present in most melanomas but nearly absent in nevi.
  • They range from nevi, which are clinically stable, to melanomas, which are notorious for distant metastasis and death.
  • Both nevi and melanomas arise from melanocytes, which are neural crest derivatives, and melanocyte precursors migrate from the paraspinal area to their eventual location at the dermoepidermal junction.
  • Atypical nevi have been clinically considered to be precursors of melanoma, and recently, biochemical abnormalities have been found that are present in both nevi and melanomas, including inactivation of the p16INK4a tumor suppressor gene and mutations in B-raf.
  • These mutations suggest not only that nevi and melanomas share a common origin but also that additional events are required for transformation to malignant melanoma.
  • Using immunohistochemical analysis, we compared expression of archival nevi and melanomas in a tissue microarray.
  • CONCLUSION: We found that Wilms tumor 1 is expressed in most melanomas but is nearly absent in nevi.
  • Immunohistochemical analysis for Wilms tumor 1 may be clinically useful in distinguishing nevi from melanoma.

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  • (PMID = 16924053.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-987X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR 47901
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / WTAP protein, human
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25. Deichmann M, Thome M, Egner U, Hartschuh W, Kurzen H: The chemoresistance gene ABCG2 (MXR/BCRP1/ABCP1) is not expressed in melanomas but in single neuroendocrine carcinomas of the skin. J Cutan Pathol; 2005 Aug;32(7):467-73
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  • [Title] The chemoresistance gene ABCG2 (MXR/BCRP1/ABCP1) is not expressed in melanomas but in single neuroendocrine carcinomas of the skin.
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: Upon semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, ABCG2 mRNA expression was not upregulated in 18 melanoma resection specimens when compared with 19 acquired melanocytic nevi from which melanomas are known to often arise (Mantel-Haenszel test, p=0.3).
  • At protein level, immunohistochemistry was negative in all 66 investigated melanoma resection specimens (50 primary melanomas and 16 cutaneous/subcutaneous metastases) and in 19 acquired melanocytic nevi.
  • CONCLUSION: Altogether, chemoresistance of melanomas and neuroendocrine carcinomas of the skin cannot be explained by expression of the ABCG2-chemoresistance gene.
  • Most of these tumors do not exhibit this potential stem-cell feature.

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  • (PMID = 16008690.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ABCG2 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / RNA, Neoplasm
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26. Jilaveanu LB, Zito CR, Aziz SA, Conrad PJ, Schmitz JC, Sznol M, Camp RL, Rimm DL, Kluger HM: C-Raf is associated with disease progression and cell proliferation in a subset of melanomas. Clin Cancer Res; 2009 Sep 15;15(18):5704-13
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  • [Title] C-Raf is associated with disease progression and cell proliferation in a subset of melanomas.
  • We studied effects of C-Raf knockdown in vitro and assessed expression of C-Raf in a large cohort of melanomas and nevi.
  • Using an automated method to measure in situ protein expression, we quantified C-Raf expression in 263 nevi and 523 melanomas.
  • C-Raf was highly expressed in melanomas compared with nevi (P < 0.0001), and no nevi had high C-Raf expression.
  • C-Raf expression is up-regulated in a subset of melanomas but not in nevi, suggesting that it might be a valuable diagnostic marker and therapeutic target.

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  • (PMID = 19737955.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1 P50 CA121974-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA115756-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA121974; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA115756; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA121974-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA115756-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA115756-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / 5-iodo-3-((3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxyphenyl)methylene)-2-indolinone; 0 / Benzenesulfonates; 0 / Indoles; 0 / Phenols; 0 / Phenylurea Compounds; 0 / Protein Kinase Inhibitors; 0 / Pyridines; 0 / RNA, Small Interfering; 25X51I8RD4 / Niacinamide; 9ZOQ3TZI87 / sorafenib; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-raf
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS134482; NLM/ PMC2763114
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27. Mourmouras V, Fimiani M, Rubegni P, Epistolato MC, Malagnino V, Cardone C, Cosci E, Nisi MC, Miracco C: Evaluation of tumour-infiltrating CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in human cutaneous benign and atypical naevi, melanomas and melanoma metastases. Br J Dermatol; 2007 Sep;157(3):531-9
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  • [Title] Evaluation of tumour-infiltrating CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in human cutaneous benign and atypical naevi, melanomas and melanoma metastases.
  • They have not yet been investigated in the entire spectrum of melanocytic cutaneous lesions within a tumour site.
  • METHODS: We analysed 128 lesions (10 benign junctional common naevi, 10 benign compound common naevi, 10 compound Spitz naevi, 10 junctional atypical naevi, 20 compound atypical naevi, 20 radial growth phase melanomas, 30 vertical growth phase melanomas and 18 melanoma metastases).
  • Junctional atypical naevi, compound atypical naevi and radial growth phase melanomas showed the highest percentages of CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ Tregs (junctional atypical naevi vs. junctional common naevi, compound common naevi, compound Spitz naevi, melanoma metastases: P < 0.0001; junctional atypical naevi vs. vertical growth phase melanomas: P = 0.001; compound atypical naevi vs. junctional common naevi, compound common naevi: P < 0.0001; compound atypical naevi vs. compound Spitz naevi, melanoma metastases: P = 0.002; compound atypical naevi vs. vertical growth phase melanomas: P = 0.02; radial growth phase melanomas vs. junctional common naevi, compound common naevi, compound Spitz naevi, melanoma metastases: P < 0.0001; radial growth phase melanomas vs. vertical growth phase melanomas: P = 0.008).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The strong prevalence of CD25+FOXP3+ Tregs both in junctional and compound atypical naevi and radial growth phase melanomas, suggests that they induce immunotolerance early during melanoma genesis, favouring melanoma growth.

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  • (PMID = 17596146.001).
  • [ISSN] 0007-0963
  • [Journal-full-title] The British journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Br. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD4; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Interleukin-2 Receptor alpha Subunit
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28. Feinmesser M, Veltman V, Morgenstern S, Tobar A, Gutman H, Kaganovsky E, Tzabari C, Sulkes J, Okon E: Different patterns of expression of the erbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases in common nevi, dysplastic nevi, and primary malignant melanomas: an immunohistochemical study. Am J Dermatopathol; 2010 Oct;32(7):665-75
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  • [Title] Different patterns of expression of the erbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases in common nevi, dysplastic nevi, and primary malignant melanomas: an immunohistochemical study.
  • Variable expression of erbB1, erbB2, and erbB3 has been reported in nevi and melanomas; erbB4 has hardly been investigated.
  • We examined the expression of all 4 erbB receptors in common and dysplastic nevi and melanomas.
  • Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of 100 melanomas, 27 common nevi, and 23 dysplastic nevi were immunostained with antibodies against the 4 erbB receptors. erbB3 and erbB4 showed stronger positivity in nevi than in melanomas, and in common than in dysplastic nevi.
  • Staining pattern was more orderly in nevi than in melanomas.
  • Common nevi showed more prominent membranous staining for erbB3 than dysplastic nevi followed by melanomas.
  • In melanomas, greater thickness was associated with more widespread erbB2 and erbB3 staining in the vertical than in the radial growth phase, and in the dermal than in the epidermal component.
  • Melanomas with more widespread erbB2 staining had heavier lymphocytic infiltrates. erbB1 expression was negligible in all groups. erbB2, erbB3, and erbB4 are expressed in all subtypes of melanocytic lesions, but with quantitative and qualitative differences.


29. Garrido-Ruiz MC, Rodriguez-Pinilla SM, Pérez-Gómez B, Rodriguez-Peralto JL: WT 1 expression in nevi and melanomas: a marker of melanocytic invasion into the dermis. J Cutan Pathol; 2010 May;37(5):542-8
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  • [Title] WT 1 expression in nevi and melanomas: a marker of melanocytic invasion into the dermis.
  • METHODS: We compare the expression of this protein among different types of melanocytic nevi and among stages in primary melanoma progression.
  • Tissue microarrays containing normal tissues and 271 primary melanocytic lesion samples (163 primary melanomas and 108 nevi) were studied by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibody against WT1.
  • 2. A higher rate of WT1 staining in melanocytic nevi against melanomas has been observed.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Disease Progression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Invasiveness / pathology. Tissue Array Analysis

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  • (PMID = 19638168.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / WT1 Proteins
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30. Akslen LA, Puntervoll H, Bachmann IM, Straume O, Vuhahula E, Kumar R, Molven A: Mutation analysis of the EGFR-NRAS-BRAF pathway in melanomas from black Africans and other subgroups of cutaneous melanoma. Melanoma Res; 2008 Feb;18(1):29-35
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  • [Title] Mutation analysis of the EGFR-NRAS-BRAF pathway in melanomas from black Africans and other subgroups of cutaneous melanoma.
  • Earlier studies have shown frequent mutations in the BRAF and NRAS genes in cutaneous melanoma, but these alterations have not been examined in the rare category of melanoma from black Africans.
  • Moreover, the frequency of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations in melanocytic tumors is not known.
  • We therefore examined 165 benign and malignant melanocytic lesions (including 118 invasive melanomas and 18 metastases collected as consecutive cases from various time periods and from two different pathology departments; the 51 nodular melanomas were randomly selected from a larger, consecutive, population-based series of nodular melanomas) with respect to alterations in the EGFR, BRAF and NRAS genes.
  • Mutations in EGFR (exons 18-21) were not detected.
  • EGFR protein expression was observed in a subgroup of melanomas, but without associations with clinicopathologic phenotype or prognosis.
  • Cytoplasmic EGFR expression was, however, significantly increased from benign nevi to melanomas.
  • In a series of melanomas from black Africans (n=26), only two BRAF mutations (8%) were found, both being different from the common T1799A substitution.
  • Moreover, melanomas from black Africans exhibited mutations in NRAS exon 1 only (12%), whereas NRAS exon 2 mutations were predominant in melanomas from Caucasians.
  • Thus, the frequencies of BRAF and NRAS mutations were particularly low in melanomas from black Africans, supporting a different pathogenesis of these tumors.

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  • (PMID = 18227705.001).
  • [ISSN] 0960-8931
  • [Journal-full-title] Melanoma research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Melanoma Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA Primers; EC 2.7.10.1 / Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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31. Akman A, Ciftcioglu MA, Ozbey C, Alpsoy E: Expression of cell cycle inhibitor p27Kip1 in nevi and melanomas. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol; 2008 Sep-Oct;74(5):551
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  • [Title] Expression of cell cycle inhibitor p27Kip1 in nevi and melanomas.

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  • (PMID = 19068543.001).
  • [ISSN] 0973-3922
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of dermatology, venereology and leprology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Letter
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 147604-94-2 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p27
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32. Kittler H, Guitera P, Riedl E, Avramidis M, Teban L, Fiebiger M, Weger RA, Dawid M, Menzies S: Identification of clinically featureless incipient melanoma using sequential dermoscopy imaging. Arch Dermatol; 2006 Sep;142(9):1113-9
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  • DESIGN: Baseline and follow-up images of melanomas and melanocytic nevi excised only because of changes across time were inspected on a computer screen and assessed according to prospectively defined criteria.
  • MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Description and comparison of dermoscopy features and changes in melanomas and melanocytic nevi at baseline and after follow-up.
  • Most melanomas (58.2%; n = 53) were in situ, and the median thickness of invasive melanomas was 0.38 mm.
  • Dermoscopy features of melanomas and nevi did not differ significantly at baseline.
  • After follow-up of 1.5 to 4.5 months, 61.8% of the melanomas showed no specific dermoscopy features for melanoma.
  • We could not differentiate melanomas and changing nevi by means of observed changes or dermoscopy features when follow-up was shorter than 4.5 months.
  • With longer follow-up, melanomas tended to enlarge asymmetrically with architectural and color changes, and nevi tended to enlarge symmetrically without architectural and color changes.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Sequential dermoscopy imaging detects incipient melanomas when they are still featureless.

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  • [CommentIn] Arch Dermatol. 2006 Sep;142(9):1211-2 [16983009.001]
  • [CommentIn] Arch Dermatol. 2007 Jun;143(6):805; author reply 805-6 [17576957.001]
  • (PMID = 16982998.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-987X
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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33. Sviatoha V, Tani E, Kleina R, Sperga M, Skoog L: Immunohistochemical analysis of the S100A1, S100B, CD44 and Bcl-2 antigens and the rate of cell proliferation assessed by Ki-67 antibody in benign and malignant melanocytic tumours. Melanoma Res; 2010 Apr;20(2):118-25
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  • Malignant melanomas usually have an unfavourable prognosis and poor response to chemotherapy.
  • The series included benign (45 intradermal, 27 compound and eight displastic naevi) and malignant (39 primary and 14 metastatic) melanocytic tumours.
  • The proliferating rate assessed by Ki-67 staining was lower in naevi than in melanomas, with a correlation coefficient of r = 0814.
  • The expression of S100A1 was low in benign melanocytic tumours and increased in malignant melanomas (r = 0.61).
  • In contrast, a higher percentage of S100B antigen-positive cells were observed in benign melanocytic lesions than in melanomas (Pearson correlation coefficient, 0.627).
  • In addition, positive immunostaining for S100B antigen in malignant melanomas corresponded with the areas with increased proliferating rate.
  • The expression of Bcl-2 was lower in melanomas than in benign melanocytic tumours (r = -0.53).
  • Bcl-2-negative areas within melanomas had an increased proliferating rate.
  • CD44 antigen expression was higher in melanomas with known metastases than in those without metastases, but this difference was not statistically significant.

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  • (PMID = 20042890.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5636
  • [Journal-full-title] Melanoma research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Melanoma Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD44; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Nerve Growth Factors; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein beta Subunit; 0 / S100 Proteins; 0 / S100A1 protein; 0 / S100B protein, human
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34. Morey AL, Murali R, McCarthy SW, Mann GJ, Scolyer RA: Diagnosis of cutaneous melanocytic tumours by four-colour fluorescence in situ hybridisation. Pathology; 2009;41(4):383-7
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  • Several chromosomal aberrations have been frequently identified in melanomas, but are absent in melanocytic naevi.
  • METHODS: FISH was performed on paraffin-embedded tissue from 40 histologically unequivocal melanocytic tumours (10 metastatic melanomas, 10 primary melanomas and 20 benign melanocytic naevi) using the product Vysis LSI RREB1/LSI MYB/LSI CCND1/CEP 6 probes (Abbott Molecular Laboratories, USA), which is designed to detect the copy number of the RREB1 (6p25), MYB (6q23), and CCND1 (11q13) genes and FISH positivity is defined by means of a scoring algorithm.
  • RESULTS: FISH distinguished the melanomas and the naevi with a sensitivity of 90% (10/10 primary melanoma cases and 8/10 metastatic melanoma cases, respectively), and a specificity of 95%.
  • The most common abnormalities in the melanomas were increased copies of 11q (70%) and 6p (70%), followed by 6q loss relative to cep6 (50%).
  • Fifteen of the 18 positive melanomas were positive by more than one criterion.

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  • (PMID = 19404853.001).
  • [ISSN] 1465-3931
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / RREB1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors; 136601-57-5 / Cyclin D1
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35. Mustika R, Budiyanto A, Nishigori C, Ichihashi M, Ueda M: Decreased expression of Apaf-1 with progression of melanoma. Pigment Cell Res; 2005 Feb;18(1):59-62
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  • Recently it was shown that metastatic melanomas often lose Apaf-1 and are concomitantly resistant to apoptosis.
  • It is not known, however, whether Apaf-1 protein is lost during melanoma progression from localized to metastatic tumor.
  • To this end, we evaluated Apaf-1 protein expression by immunohistochemistry in 10 cases of human nevi, 11 melanomas in situ, 26 primary melanomas and 15 metastases.
  • Significant decreases in Apaf-1 expression was observed when comparing nevi and melanomas (chi-square = 33.719; P < 0.0001).
  • Moreover, primary melanomas with greater tumor thickness showed lesser expression of Apaf-1 (chi-square = 16.182; P < 0.003).
  • Intriguingly, we were unable to detect Apaf-1 expression in lesions of metastatic melanomas.

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  • (PMID = 15649154.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-5785
  • [Journal-full-title] Pigment cell research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pigment Cell Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / APAF1 protein, human; 0 / Apoptotic Protease-Activating Factor 1; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Proteins
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36. Fullen DR, Zhu W, Thomas D, Su LD: hTERT expression in melanocytic lesions: an immunohistochemical study on paraffin-embedded tissue. J Cutan Pathol; 2005 Nov;32(10):680-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Previous studies have yielded conflicting results on whether human telomerase RNA (hTER) expression differs in nevi, atypical nevi and melanomas using polymerase chain reaction-based telomeric repeat amplification protocol or in situ hybridization assays.
  • METHODS: Paraffin-embedded sections from 12 acquired nevi, seven dysplastic nevi, 11 Spitz nevi, eight primary invasive melanomas, and three metastatic melanomas were studied for staining intensity (0-3+) and percentage of labeled cells with anti-hTERT.
  • Spitz nevi tended to have weaker hTERT staining (mean = 1.7) compared with acquired nevi (mean = 2.2), dysplastic nevi (mean = 2.4), primary melanomas (mean = 2.4), or metastatic melanomas (mean = 3).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Although telomerase activity was weaker in Spitz nevi, there was overlap with other nevi and primary invasive melanomas in our small series.
  • Thus, hTERT expression does not appear to be a reliable adjunct to the histological diagnosis of primary melanocytic lesions.

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  • (PMID = 16293180.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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37. Wu H, Barusevicius A, Babb J, Klein-Szanto A, Godwin A, Elenitsas R, Gelfand JM, Lessin S, Seykora JT: Pleiotrophin expression correlates with melanocytic tumor progression and metastatic potential. J Cutan Pathol; 2005 Feb;32(2):125-30
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  • BACKGROUND: Gene expression profiling of melanoma and nevic tissue has demonstrated that pleiotrophin (PTN) is significantly overexpressed in human melanomas.
  • RESULTS: Melanocytic nevi were consistently negative (n=58).
  • In contrast, the great majority of metastatic melanomas were positive (33/34, 97%).
  • The analysis of 34 primary melanomas demonstrated PTN positivity in 20 lesions while 14 lesions were negative.
  • Within the primary melanomas, PTN immunoreactivity was associated with metastasis (p=0.0004) and decreased melanoma-related survival (p=0.0444).
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study confirm previous gene profiling data showing differential PTN expression between melanocytic nevi and melanomas.
  • In addition, lesional PTN expression is associated with metastatic potential and may be a prognostic factor for melanomas.

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  • (PMID = 15606670.001).
  • [ISSN] 0303-6987
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / K08 AR047597
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / Cytokines; 134034-50-7 / pleiotrophin
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38. Massi D, Naldini A, Ardinghi C, Carraro F, Franchi A, Paglierani M, Tarantini F, Ketabchi S, Cirino G, Hollenberg MD, Geppetti P, Santucci M: Expression of protease-activated receptors 1 and 2 in melanocytic nevi and malignant melanoma. Hum Pathol; 2005 Jun;36(6):676-85
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  • [Title] Expression of protease-activated receptors 1 and 2 in melanocytic nevi and malignant melanoma.
  • Here, we have investigated the expression of PAR-1 and PAR-2 proteins by immunohistochemistry in a series of benign and malignant melanocytic lesions: 20 melanocytic lesions (10 common melanocytic nevi and 10 atypical or "dysplastic" melanocytic nevi) and 50 melanomas (10 in situ melanomas, 10 melanomas T1, 10 melanomas T2, 10 melanomas T3 to T4, and 10 metastatic melanomas).
  • PAR-1 was significantly overexpressed in atypical nevi and melanomas in comparison with common melanocytic nevi.
  • PAR-2 was strongly and diffusely expressed by immunohistochemistry in all melanocytic lesions, with no statistically significant differences between nevi and melanomas.
  • Because we found a differential expression in PAR-1 protein, but not in PAR-2, we next investigated the expression of PAR-1 messenger RNA (mRNA) by ribonuclease protection assay in paraffin-embedded tissues using a paraffin block RNA isolation procedure.
  • Similarly to immunohistochemical results, PAR-1 mRNA expression was significantly higher in atypical nevi and melanomas in comparison with common nevi and controls.
  • Overexpression of PAR-1 in atypical nevi and melanomas supports a role for PAR-1 in the initial phases of melanoma development as well as in tumor progression and metastasis.

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  • (PMID = 16021575.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptor, PAR-1; 0 / Receptor, PAR-2
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39. Tóth J: [Clinical signs and differential diagnosis of iris melanoma]. Magy Onkol; 2005;49(2):153-5, 158-9
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  • Iris melanoma is the rarest type of uveal melanomas.
  • Only 4-5% of uveal melanomas occur on the iris.
  • Although the iris can be easily examined due to its location, differentiation of melanocytic malformations such as naevi or melanomas is difficult for the examiner.

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  • (PMID = 16249812.001).
  • [ISSN] 0025-0244
  • [Journal-full-title] Magyar onkologia
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Magy Onkol
  • [Language] hun
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Hungary
  • [Number-of-references] 31
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40. Batinac T, Hadzisejdić I, Brumini G, Ruzić A, Vojniković B, Zamolo G: Expression of cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory proteins and telomerase in melanocitic lesions. Coll Antropol; 2007 Jan;31 Suppl 1:17-22
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  • To gain insight into the role and association of cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory proteins and telomerase activity in the course of progression of melanocitic lesions we have examined immunohistochemicaly, expression and the distribution of p53, bcl-2, Ki-67 and telomerase in 25 samples of common and dysplastic nevi, and 45 samples of primary invasive melanomas.
  • Protein p53 expression was significantly increased in dysplastic as compared with common nevi and melanomas (p < 0.001).
  • Bcl-2 protein expression was significantly increased in melanomas as compared with common aquired and dysplastic nevi (p = 0.001).
  • Nevi and melanomas exhibited clear-cut differences in terms of Ki-67 expression.
  • Telomerase expression was significantly increased in melanomas as compared with common acquired (p = 0.014) and dysplastic nevi (p < 0.001).

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  • (PMID = 17469743.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins; 0 / Cell Cycle Proteins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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41. Ding Y, Prieto VG, Zhang PS, Rosenthal S, Smith KJ, Skelton HG, Diwan AH: Nuclear expression of the antiapoptotic protein survivin in malignant melanoma. Cancer; 2006 Mar 1;106(5):1123-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • However, its diagnostic value in differentiating melanomas from nevi has not yet been examined.
  • METHODS: Tissue microarray blocks were constructed with paraffin-fixed tissue of 19 nevi, 18 dysplastic nevi, 24 malignant melanomas, and 31 metastatic melanomas.
  • Nuclear immunoreactivity for survivin (i.e., > or = 25% of cells exhibiting and/or at least moderately intense staining) was seen in a subset of melanomas but not in nevi or dysplastic nevi (P < 0.05).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Survivin is variably expressed in the cytoplasm in the entire spectrum of melanocytic lesions, with nuclear expression detectable only in melanomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Nucleus / chemistry. Cell Survival. Diagnosis, Differential. Disease Progression. Gene Expression Profiling. Humans. Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins. Nevus / diagnosis. Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis

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  • (PMID = 16456815.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-543X
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / BIRC5 protein, human; 0 / Inhibitor of Apoptosis Proteins; 0 / Microtubule-Associated Proteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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42. Tfayli A, Piot O, Durlach A, Bernard P, Manfait M: Discriminating nevus and melanoma on paraffin-embedded skin biopsies using FTIR microspectroscopy. Biochim Biophys Acta; 2005 Aug 5;1724(3):262-9
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  • The main objective of this in vitro study was to demonstrate the applicability of infrared spectral imaging to separate, on paraffinised biopsies, pigmented nevi (benign skin lesions) from melanomas (malignant skin lesions).
  • Infrared spectra were collected from paraffin-embedded samples of nevi and melanomas, without deparaffinisation.
  • Spectra extracted from the images were subjected to hierarchical classification algorithm, which allowed the discrimination of melanomas from the nevi, using selected spectral windows that correspond to vibrations of DNA and melanin content.


43. Caujolle JP, Gastaud P: [The other pigmented lesions]. J Fr Ophtalmol; 2010 Feb;33(2):131-5
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  • Not all intraocular pigmented lesions are melanomas or nevi.
  • In this article, we present what we classically consider to be the main pigmented stains other than melanomas and nevi and their possible forms of treatment.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20080320.001).
  • [ISSN] 1773-0597
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal français d'ophtalmologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Fr Ophtalmol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
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44. McCarthy MM, Pick E, Kluger Y, Gould-Rothberg B, Lazova R, Camp RL, Rimm DL, Kluger HM: HSP90 as a marker of progression in melanoma. Ann Oncol; 2008 Mar;19(3):590-4
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  • No large studies have been conducted on expression of HSP90 in melanomas.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Tissue microarrays containing 414 nevi, 198 primary and 270 metastatic melanomas were assessed using our automated quantitative analysis (AQUA) method of in situ protein measurement; we use S-100 to define pixels as melanocytes (tumor mask) within the array spot, and measure HSP90 expression within the mask using Cy5-conjugated antibodies.
  • RESULTS: HSP90 expression was higher in melanomas than nevi (P < 0.0001) and higher in metastatic than primary specimens (P < 0.0001).
  • In primary melanomas, high HSP90 expression was associated with higher Clark level (P = 0.0167) and increased Breslow depth (P < 0.0001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: HSP90 expression was significantly higher in tumors than nevi and was associated with disease progression, indicating that it might be a valuable drug target in melanoma, as well as a useful diagnostic marker.

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  • (PMID = 18037622.001).
  • [ISSN] 1569-8041
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of oncology : official journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR041942; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA 110511-01; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / K0-8 ES11571; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA121974-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R0-1 CA115756-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins
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45. Stanganelli I, Brucale A, Calori L, Gori R, Lovato A, Magi S, Kopf B, Bacchilega R, Rapisarda V, Testori A, Ascierto PA, Simeone E, Ferri M: Computer-aided diagnosis of melanocytic lesions. Anticancer Res; 2005 Nov-Dec;25(6C):4577-82
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  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: Images of melanocytic lesions (477 total, 42 melanomas and 435 melanocytic nevi) evaluated in epiluminescence microscopy and recorded with x16 magnification were selected.
  • A training set of 22 melanomas and 218 nevi was randomized from the dataset.
  • The test set was formed by the complement (the remaining 20 melanomas and 217 nevi).
  • Furthermore, a set of images consisting of 31 melanomas and 103 nevi was selected to compare the discrimination capacity of three general practitioners and three dermatologists with experience in dermoscopy (2 years), and with the automatic data analysis for the melanoma early detection system (ADAM).
  • CONCLUSION: Image analysis has the potential to distinguish nevi and melanomas and to support the clinical diagnosis of melanocytic lesions by the general practitioner.

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  • (PMID = 16334145.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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46. Sztramska A, Dymerska D, Chwirot BW: Skin layer-specific Melan-A expression during progression of human cutaneous melanoma: implications for diagnostic applications of the marker. Melanoma Res; 2008 Aug;18(4):259-67
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  • We have performed objective immunohistochemical assessment of the expression of Melan-A in benign naevi and melanomas at different stages of progression.
  • Our results show a complex pattern of changes in the expression of Melan-A in melanomas depending on the location of melanoma cells within individual skin layers.
  • It should also be emphasized that from the Clark II level of progression the melanomas can be detected with high sensitivity and specificity using a simple cut-off test based on the determination of Melan-A expression in tumour cells located within the papillary layer.
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers / metabolism. Disease Progression. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. MART-1 Antigen. Nevus / immunology. Nevus / metabolism. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 18626310.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5636
  • [Journal-full-title] Melanoma research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Melanoma Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
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47. Kluger HM, McCarthy MM, Alvero AB, Sznol M, Ariyan S, Camp RL, Rimm DL, Mor G: The X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) is up-regulated in metastatic melanoma, and XIAP cleavage by Phenoxodiol is associated with Carboplatin sensitization. J Transl Med; 2007 Jan 26;5:6
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  • Here we assessed XIAP expression in melanomas, using tissue microarrays containing 436 melanomas and 336 nevi by a novel method of automated, quantitative analysis (AQUA).
  • XIAP expression was significantly higher in melanomas than nevi (P < 0.0001), and higher in metastatic than primary lesions (P < 0.0001).
  • We conclude that XIAP levels in clinical specimens are significantly higher in melanomas than their benign counterparts, and higher in metastatic than in primary specimens, suggesting an association with malignant progression and disease aggression.

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  • (PMID = 17257402.001).
  • [ISSN] 1479-5876
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of translational medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Transl Med
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA114277; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / K0-8 ES11571; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA 114277-01; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / P30 AR041942; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / K08 ES011571; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA092435; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01-CA92435-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R0-1 CA115756-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA115756
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Isoflavones; 0 / X-Linked Inhibitor of Apoptosis Protein; 995FT1W541 / phenoxodiol; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1796544
  • [General-notes] NLM/ Original DateCompleted: 20070724
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48. McCarthy MM, DiVito KA, Sznol M, Kovacs D, Halaban R, Berger AJ, Flaherty KT, Camp RL, Lazova R, Rimm DL, Kluger HM: Expression of tumor necrosis factor--related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptors 1 and 2 in melanoma. Clin Cancer Res; 2006 Jun 15;12(12):3856-63
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • We assessed TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 expression patterns in a large cohort of melanomas and benign nevi.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We analyzed tissue microarrays containing 546 melanomas and 540 nevi using our automated quantitative method to measure protein levels in situ (AQUA).
  • RESULTS: TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 expression was higher in melanomas than in nevi (P < 0.0001), and higher in primary than in metastatic specimens (P = 0.0031 and P < 0.0001, respectively).
  • TRAIL-R1 and TRAIL-R2 expression exceeding the 95th percentile for nevi was found in 19% and 74% of melanoma specimens, respectively.
  • Although on univariate analysis, high TRAIL-R2 expression correlated with increased survival (P = 0.0439), it was not associated with survival within the primary or metastatic subcohorts.
  • TRAIL-R1 expression was not associated with survival.
  • Expression is higher in early-stage disease than in metastatic specimens, and expression exceeding that found in nevi is found in a substantially larger fraction of melanomas for TRAIL-R2 compared with TRAIL-R1.

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  • (PMID = 16778114.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / PHS HHS / / P30 041942; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA100825-01; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / K08 ES11571; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / K08 ES011571; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA100825; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R0-1 CA115756-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA115756
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand; 0 / Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor; 0 / TNFRSF10A protein, human; 0 / TNFRSF10B protein, human
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS19117; NLM/ PMC1839847
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49. Kuzbicki L, Lange D, Chwirot BW: Cyclooxygenase-2 immunohistochemistry in human melanoma: differences between results obtained with different antibodies. Melanoma Res; 2009 Oct;19(5):294-300
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Several groups have reported that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression is significantly enhanced in human melanomas, and that the expression of this protein may be useful as diagnostic and prognostic marker for the disease.
  • At the same time, collective analysis of immunohistochemical data on the COX-2 expression in melanomas, presented by different researchers, shows a clear lack of consistency of reported results commonly assigned to differences in protocols used for the staining.
  • A surprising outcome is that although the three antibodies gave very consistent results for the COX-2 expression in keratinocytes, they showed significant differences in immunoreactivity for both melanocytic naevi and melanomas.
  • This phenomenon has not been described before, and has implications for the selection of antibodies for studies on the diagnostic potential of COX-2 for melanoma.

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  • (PMID = 19543125.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5636
  • [Journal-full-title] Melanoma research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Melanoma Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Epitopes; EC 1.14.99.1 / Cyclooxygenase 2
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50. Inoue-Narita T, Hamada K, Sasaki T, Hatakeyama S, Fujita S, Kawahara K, Sasaki M, Kishimoto H, Eguchi S, Kojima I, Beermann F, Kimura T, Osawa M, Itami S, Mak TW, Nakano T, Manabe M, Suzuki A: Pten deficiency in melanocytes results in resistance to hair graying and susceptibility to carcinogen-induced melanomagenesis. Cancer Res; 2008 Jul 15;68(14):5760-8
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Phosphate and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) is a tumor suppressor gene inactivated in numerous sporadic cancers, including melanomas.
  • Although spontaneous melanomas did not form in DctCrePten(flox/flox) mice, large nevi and melanomas developed after carcinogen exposure.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinogens / pharmacology. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Hair Color / genetics. Melanocytes / cytology. Melanoma / genetics. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / genetics. PTEN Phosphohydrolase / physiology


51. Ribé A: Melanocytic lesions of the genital area with attention given to atypical genital nevi. J Cutan Pathol; 2008 Nov;35 Suppl 2:24-7
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Skin Cancer.

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Melanocytic lesions of the genital area with attention given to atypical genital nevi.
  • These pigmented lesions include melanocytic nevi, lentigines, melanocytic nevi with architectural disorder and atypia of melanocytes (dysplastic nevi) and melanomas with microscopic features similar to those seen elsewhere on the body.
  • There is a small subset of benign nevi named atypical melanocytic nevi of the genital type (AMNGT) that occur in young women, with distinctive histologic features in some cases overlapping morphologically with those of melanoma.
  • Thus, it is important to distinguish AMNGT from melanomas in terms of prognosis and treatment.
  • Thirty-two cases (55%) were common nevi, 10 (17%) lentigines, 6 (10%) melanomas, 3 (5%) dysplastic nevi and 1 blue nevus.
  • Therefore, it seems that there is no evidence that AMNGT are precursors of dysplastic nevi or melanomas.

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  • (PMID = 18976416.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0560
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cutaneous pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cutan. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Number-of-references] 8
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52. Xu XZ, Garcia MV, Li TY, Khor LY, Gajapathy RS, Spittle C, Weed S, Lessin SR, Wu H: Cytoskeleton alterations in melanoma: aberrant expression of cortactin, an actin-binding adapter protein, correlates with melanocytic tumor progression. Mod Pathol; 2010 Feb;23(2):187-96
MedlinePlus Health Information. consumer health - Skin Cancer.

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  • Significantly higher cortactin expression is found in melanomas than in nevi (P<0.0001), with levels greater in metastatic than in invasive melanomas (P<0.05).
  • Furthermore, in patients with metastatic disease, high-level cortactin expression correlates with poor disease-specific survival.
  • Our data, in conjunction with outcome data on several other types of human cancers and experimental data from melanoma cell lines, supports a potential role of aberrant cortactin expression in melanoma tumor progression and a rational for targeting key elements of actin-signaling pathway for developmental therapeutics in melanomas.

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  • (PMID = 19898426.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR16440; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01DE014578; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR016440; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR016440-096547; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE014578-06; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / DE014578-06; United States / NIDCR NIH HHS / DE / R01 DE014578; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P20 RR016440-096547
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cortactin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS173892; NLM/ PMC2827925
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53. Massi D, Tarantini F, Franchi A, Paglierani M, Di Serio C, Pellerito S, Leoncini G, Cirino G, Geppetti P, Santucci M: Evidence for differential expression of Notch receptors and their ligands in melanocytic nevi and cutaneous malignant melanoma. Mod Pathol; 2006 Feb;19(2):246-54
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Evidence for differential expression of Notch receptors and their ligands in melanocytic nevi and cutaneous malignant melanoma.
  • Here, we have investigated, for the first time, the expression of Notch-1, Notch-2, Jagged-1, Jagged-2 and Delta-like 1 proteins, by immunohistochemistry, in a series of benign and malignant human melanocytic lesions: five common melanocytic nevi, five 'dysplastic nevi' and 20 melanomas (five in situ, five T1-T2, five T3-T4 and five metastatic melanomas).
  • We found that the expression of Notch-1 and Notch-2, as well as Notch ligands, was upregulated in 'dysplastic nevi' and melanomas as compared with common melanocytic nevi.

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  • [ErratumIn] Mod Pathol. 2006 Apr;19(4):616
  • (PMID = 16341148.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calcium-Binding Proteins; 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / JAG2 protein, human; 0 / Ligands; 0 / Membrane Proteins; 0 / Receptor, Notch1; 0 / Receptor, Notch2; 0 / Receptors, Notch; 0 / delta protein; 134324-36-0 / Serrate proteins
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54. Turner DJ, Zirvi MA, Barany F, Elenitsas R, Seykora J: Detection of the BRAF V600E mutation in melanocytic lesions using the ligase detection reaction. J Cutan Pathol; 2005 May;32(5):334-9
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Research has shown that a majority of melanomas and nevi exhibit an activating V600E (T1799A) mutation in BRAF exon 15.
  • Additional studies of BRAF have demonstrated that the T1799A mutation is absent in uveal melanomas and Spitz nevi.
  • RESULTS: The LDR can readily detect mutations in DNA extracted from non-microdissected paraffin-embedded sections of common nevi, dysplastic nevi, and melanomas.
  • In addition, this method demonstrated the absence of the V600E (T1799A) mutation within Spitz nevi.
  • The absence of the BRAF V600E mutation in Spitz's nevi may serve as a molecular signature to distinguish these lesions from common nevi, dysplastic nevi, and some types of malignant melanoma.


55. Chawla R, Procknow JA, Tantravahi RV, Khurana JS, Litvin J, Reddy EP: Cooperativity of Cdk4R24C and Ras in melanoma development. Cell Cycle; 2010 Aug 15;9(16):3305-14
Hazardous Substances Data Bank. 7,12-DIMETHYLBENZ(A)ANTHRACENE .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • In an earlier study, we introduced the R24C mutation into the Cdk4 locus of mice using Cre-loxP-mediated "knock-in" technology and observed a very low incidence of spontaneous melanomas in Cdk4(R24C/R24C) mice.
  • This suggested that additional oncogenic mutations might be required for development of melanomas.
  • Treatment of Tyr-HRas:Cdk4(R24C/R24C) mice with the carcinogen, DMBA/TPA resulted in a further increase in the number of nevi and melanomas developed when compared with Tyr-HRas:Cdk4(+/+) mice.

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  • (PMID = 20703083.001).
  • [ISSN] 1551-4005
  • [Journal-full-title] Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cell Cycle
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA095569; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG022022; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P01 CA95569; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG22022
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; 57-97-6 / 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene; EC 2.7.11.22 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 4; EC 3.6.5.2 / Oncogene Protein p21(ras)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3041165
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56. Seidenari S, Grana C, Pellacani G: Colour clusters for computer diagnosis of melanocytic lesions. Dermatology; 2007;214(2):137-43
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • METHODS: Melanomas and naevi of the test set were described by means of 23 colour clusters previously selected by a training set comprising 369 melanocytic lesion images.
  • RESULTS: Colour cluster values significantly differed between melanomas and naevi.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.
  • (PMID = 17341863.001).
  • [ISSN] 1018-8665
  • [Journal-full-title] Dermatology (Basel, Switzerland)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Dermatology (Basel)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Validation Studies
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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57. Miracco C, De Nisi MC, Arcuri F, Cosci E, Pacenti L, Toscano M, Lalinga AV, Biagioli M, Rubegni P, Vatti R, Maellaro E, Del Bello B, Massi D, Luzi P, Tosi P: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor protein and mRNA expression in cutaneous melanocytic tumours. Int J Oncol; 2006 Feb;28(2):345-52
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  • Although MIF's functions in cancer have not been completely elucidated, its expression has usually been correlated with tumour progression and aggressiveness, and it is currently discussed as a new promising target for novel therapies.
  • Recent studies seem to confirm its active role in melanoma pathobiology; however, its expression has not yet been extensively studied in melanocytic tumours.
  • We evaluated MIF protein expression in 126 skin lesions, including benign and atypical nevi, melanoma and melanoma metastases.
  • Benign nevi were subdivided into nevocytic and Spitz/blue types; and melanomas into the radial, and vertical growth phase.
  • A strong cytoplasmic MIF positivity was found in most samples, although it was more heterogeneous in malignant tumours; MIF nuclear expression characterized Spitz/blue nevi, atypical nevi, melanomas and metastases.
  • All samples expressed MIF mRNA but it was significantly lower in benign nevi vs atypical nevi, melanomas and metastases (p=0.001; p<0.0001; p=0.002, respectively).
  • Whereas we observed a trend towards higher expression levels of mRNA in atypical and malignant tumours, MIF protein was highly expressed in all lesions, although limited to the cytoplasm in most benign nevi.
  • These observations suggest differences in MIF protein storage, subcellular location and properties in most benign nevi vs atypical and malignant tumours that should be confirmed by further investigation and correlation with clinical outcome.

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  • (PMID = 16391788.001).
  • [ISSN] 1019-6439
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors; 0 / RNA, Messenger
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58. Mehnert JM, McCarthy MM, Jilaveanu L, Flaherty KT, Aziz S, Camp RL, Rimm DL, Kluger HM: Quantitative expression of VEGF, VEGF-R1, VEGF-R2, and VEGF-R3 in melanoma tissue microarrays. Hum Pathol; 2010 Mar;41(3):375-84
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  • We hypothesized that differential expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors VEGF-R1, VEGF-R2, and VEGF-R3 would be higher in melanomas than nevi and higher in advanced melanoma.
  • Using automated quantitative analysis, we quantified VEGF, -R1, -R2 and -R3 expression in melanoma tissue microarrays composed of 540 nevi and 468 melanoma specimens (198 primaries, 270 metastases).
  • VEGF, VEGF-R1, VEGF-R2, and VEGF-R3 expression was significantly higher in melanomas than nevi by unpaired t tests (P < .0001).
  • VEGF, VEGF-R1, VEGF-R2, and VEGF-R3 expression is higher in melanomas than nevi.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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  • (PMID = 20004943.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA115756-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA115756; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA115756-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA115756-04
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2; EC 2.7.10.1 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-3
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS142667; NLM/ PMC2824079
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59. Bachmann IM, Straume O, Puntervoll HE, Kalvenes MB, Akslen LA: Importance of P-cadherin, beta-catenin, and Wnt5a/frizzled for progression of melanocytic tumors and prognosis in cutaneous melanoma. Clin Cancer Res; 2005 Dec 15;11(24 Pt 1):8606-14
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  • PURPOSE: It has been proposed that melanoma cells shift from E-cadherin to N-cadherin expression during tumor development, and recent gene profiling has shown increased expression of Wnt5a/Frizzled in aggressive melanomas possibly by interactions with beta-catenin.
  • We therefore wanted to investigate the role of cadherin subtypes, beta-catenin, and Wnt5a/Frizzled in melanocytic tumors, with focus on prognosis in nodular melanomas.
  • Wnt5a and its receptor Frizzled were highly coexpressed, and nuclear expression of both markers was significantly reduced from benign nevi to melanomas, with a shift from nuclear to cytoplasmic expression in malignant tumors.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Membrane / chemistry. Cell Membrane / metabolism. Cell Nucleus / chemistry. Cell Nucleus / metabolism. Cell Proliferation. Cytoplasm / chemistry. Cytoplasm / metabolism. Disease Progression. Down-Regulation. Frizzled Receptors. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Melanocytes / pathology. Neovascularization, Pathologic / diagnosis. Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology. Nevus / diagnosis. Nevus / pathology. Prognosis. Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled. Receptors, Neurotransmitter / analysis. Receptors, Neurotransmitter / metabolism. Up-Regulation

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  • (PMID = 16361544.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Cadherins; 0 / FZD5 protein, human; 0 / Frizzled Receptors; 0 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins; 0 / Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled; 0 / Receptors, Neurotransmitter; 0 / WNT5A protein, human; 0 / Wnt Proteins; 0 / beta Catenin
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60. Aziz SA, Davies M, Pick E, Zito C, Jilaveanu L, Camp RL, Rimm DL, Kluger Y, Kluger HM: Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase as a therapeutic target in melanoma. Clin Cancer Res; 2009 May 1;15(9):3029-36
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  • We assessed expression of PI3K in melanomas and nevi, and studied associations between PI3K pathway members and in vitro response to a PI3K inhibitor, LY294002.
  • EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Using Automated Quantitative Analysis, we quantified expression of p85 and p110alpha subunits in 540 nevi and 523 melanomas.
  • RESULTS: p85 and p110alpha tend to be coexpressed (P < 0.0001); expression was higher in melanomas than nevi (P < 0.0001) for both subunits, and higher in metastatic than primary melanomas for p85 (P < 0.0001).
  • Pretreatment pS6 levels correlated with sensitivity to the PI3K inhibitor, LY294002, whereas PI3K and pAkt did not, suggesting that full activation of the PI3K pathway is needed for sensitivity to PI3K inhibition. pS6 should be evaluated as a predictor of response in melanoma patients treated with PI3K inhibitors, as these drugs enter clinical trials.

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  • (PMID = 19383818.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-0432
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical cancer research : an official journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin. Cancer Res.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA114277; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1 P50 CA121974-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA121974; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA115756; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R0-1-CA114277; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA115756-01
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromones; 0 / Enzyme Inhibitors; 0 / Morpholines; 154447-36-6 / 2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one; EC 2.7.1.- / Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS687833; NLM/ PMC4431617
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61. Gerami P, Jewell SS, Morrison LE, Blondin B, Schulz J, Ruffalo T, Matushek P 4th, Legator M, Jacobson K, Dalton SR, Charzan S, Kolaitis NA, Guitart J, Lertsbarapa T, Boone S, LeBoit PE, Bastian BC: Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) as an ancillary diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of melanoma. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Aug;33(8):1146-56
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  • Although the clinical and pathologic diagnosis of some melanomas is clear-cut, there are many histopathologic simulators of melanoma that pose problems.
  • Using FISH data from a training set of 301 tumors, we established a discriminatory algorithm and validated it on an independent set of 169 unequivocal nevi and melanomas as well as 27 cases with ambiguous pathology, for which we had long-term follow-up data.
  • Sufficient chromosomal alterations are present in melanoma that a limited panel of FISH probes can distinguish most melanomas from most nevi, providing useful diagnostic information in cases that cannot be classified reliably by current methods.
  • As a diagnostic aid to traditional histologic evaluation, this assay can have significant clinical impact and improve classification of melanocytic neoplasms with conflicting morphologic criteria.


62. Roodink I, Kats G, van Kempen L, Grunberg M, Maass C, Verrijp K, Raats J, Leenders W: Semaphorin 3E expression correlates inversely with Plexin D1 during tumor progression. Am J Pathol; 2008 Dec;173(6):1873-81
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  • PLXND1 was not expressed by melanocytic cells in either naevi or melanomas in situ, whereas expression increased with invasion level, according to Clark's criteria.
  • Furthermore, 89% of the metastatic melanomas examined showed membranous PLXND1-staining of tumor cells.
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Disease Progression. Extracellular Matrix Proteins / metabolism. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Humans. Male. Mice. Mice, Inbred BALB C. Microarray Analysis. Neoplasm Transplantation. Neovascularization, Pathologic. Thrombospondin 1 / metabolism. Transplantation, Heterologous. Tumor Cells, Cultured. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 18974298.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-2191
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules, Neuronal; 0 / ECM1 protein, human; 0 / Extracellular Matrix Proteins; 0 / PLXND1 protein, human; 0 / SEMA3E protein, human; 0 / Semaphorins; 0 / Thrombospondin 1; 0 / Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2626397
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63. Cagnano E, Hershkovitz O, Zilka A, Bar-Ilan A, Golder A, Sion-Vardy N, Bogdanov-Berezovsky A, Mandelboim O, Benharroch D, Porgador A: Expression of ligands to NKp46 in benign and malignant melanocytes. J Invest Dermatol; 2008 Apr;128(4):972-9
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  • Sections from primary nevi and melanomas were tested for expression of NKp46 ligands employing chimeric NKp46-Fc for staining.
  • The melanocytes present in the reticular dermis were negative for NKp46 ligands in common nevi; in malignant melanocytic lesions, the deeper melanocytes were focally positive.
  • Normal melanocytes did not express ligands to NKp46.
  • Therefore, the results show (i) a correlation between the malignant potential of the lesion and the expression of NKp46 ligands in the reticular dermis, and (ii) enhanced expression of NKp46 ligands in the active proliferation zone (dermoepidermal junction) of nevi and melanomas.
  • [MeSH-minor] Cell Line, Tumor. Cell Membrane / immunology. Dermis / immunology. Dermis / pathology. Disease Progression. Humans. Killer Cells, Natural / immunology. Ligands. Melanocytes / immunology. Melanocytes / pathology. Natural Cytotoxicity Triggering Receptor 1

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  • (PMID = 17972960.001).
  • [ISSN] 1523-1747
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of investigative dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Invest. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Ligands; 0 / NCR1 protein, human; 0 / Natural Cytotoxicity Triggering Receptor 1; 0 / Receptors, Immunologic
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64. Soares TF, Laman SD, Yiannias JA, Connolly SM, Lim KK, Wu Q, Swanson DL: Factors leading to the biopsy of 1547 pigmented lesions at Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, Arizona, in 2005. Int J Dermatol; 2009 Oct;48(10):1053-6
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  • RESULTS: We identified 1398 nevi, 147 invasive and in situ melanomas, and two lesions interpreted as atypical melanocytic proliferations.
  • Prior histories of melanoma, atypical nevi, or nonmelanoma skin cancer were common.
  • Physician-directed biopsies more commonly yielded atypical nevi, but there was no difference in the likelihood of melanoma.
  • The ratio of removed nevi to melanomas was 9.2 : 1.

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  • (PMID = 19775399.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-4632
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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65. Ellerhorst JA, Diwan AH, Dang SM, Uffort DG, Johnson MK, Cooke CP, Grimm EA: Promotion of melanoma growth by the metabolic hormone leptin. Oncol Rep; 2010 Apr;23(4):901-7
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  • Melanoma cells but not melanocytes, also expressed leptin protein, creating a potential autocrine loop.
  • Examination of human melanoma tumors by immunohistochemistry revealed that melanomas and nevi expressed leptin at a high frequency.
  • Melanomas also strongly expressed the leptin receptor, whereas nevi expressed this receptor to a much lesser degree.

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  • (PMID = 20204272.001).
  • [ISSN] 1791-2431
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P30 CA016672; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA097983-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA16672; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA093459-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K22 CA097983; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K22 CA097983-03; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA093459
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins; 0 / Leptin; 0 / Receptors, Leptin; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS316343; NLM/ PMC3158136
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66. Katunarić M, Jurisić D, Hadzisejdić I, Kirin I, Zamolo G: Real-time expression of hTERT in primary melanoma biopsies. Coll Antropol; 2010 Dec;34(4):1401-4
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  • In this study we analyzed the expression of hTERT by real-time PCR on 58 freshly obtained biopsy samples (4 samples of normal skin, 12 dermal nevi, 23 dysplastic nevi, 19 primary melanomas).
  • Our results showed slightly greater hTERT expression in dysplastic nevi than melanomas with major data overlap.
  • Considering the given results, hTERT does not seem to be a reliable diagnostic marker for melanoma.

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  • (PMID = 21874728.001).
  • [ISSN] 0350-6134
  • [Journal-full-title] Collegium antropologicum
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Coll Antropol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Croatia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 2.7.7.49 / TERT protein, human; EC 2.7.7.49 / Telomerase
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67. Yu H, McDaid R, Lee J, Possik P, Li L, Kumar SM, Elder DE, Van Belle P, Gimotty P, Guerra M, Hammond R, Nathanson KL, Dalla Palma M, Herlyn M, Xu X: The role of BRAF mutation and p53 inactivation during transformation of a subpopulation of primary human melanocytes. Am J Pathol; 2009 Jun;174(6):2367-77
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Melanocytic nevi frequently harbor oncogenic BRAF mutations, but only a minority progress to melanoma.
  • We show that a subpopulation of primary human melanocytes with persistent expression of BRAF(V600E) do not enter oncogene-induced senescence, but instead survive despite heightened MAPK activity.
  • Gene expression profiling study of nevi and melanomas showed that p53 target genes were differentially expressed in melanomas compared with nevi, suggesting a dysfunctional p53 pathway in melanoma in vivo.

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  • (PMID = 19389934.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-2191
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA-093372; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / AR054593-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA118871; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA093372; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR054593; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 5R21CA116103; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / R01 AR054593-01A2; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R21 CA116103
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Retinoblastoma Protein; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p53; EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2684200
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68. McHugh JB, Fullen DR: Atypical compound nevus arising in mature cystic ovarian teratoma. Med Sci Monit; 2006 Apr;12(4):CS34-7
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  • Melanocytic nevi have also rarely been reported in MCOT.
  • Diagnostic criteria of melanoma were not identified.
  • No features of melanoma were present and the patient is disease-free at one-year follow-up.
  • Rarely, melanocytic nevi and melanomas arise from the ectodermal component of MCOTs.
  • Moreover, melanomas may arise de novo or in association with a nevus.
  • As primary ovarian melanomas, like their skin counterpart, may arise from a precursor lesion, removal of a melanocytic nevus, such as this atypical nevus, could theoretically prevent melanoma transformation.

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  • (PMID = 16572057.001).
  • [ISSN] 1234-1010
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med. Sci. Monit.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Poland
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69. Fleming MG: Pigmented lesion pathology: what you should expect from your pathologist, and what your pathologist should expect from you. Clin Plast Surg; 2010 Jan;37(1):1-20
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  • The second part of the review is a guide to some of the more difficult and controversial pigmented lesions, including dysplastic nevus, spitzoid nevi and melanomas, cellular blue nevus, animal-type melanoma, and deep penetrating nevus.

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  • (PMID = 19914454.001).
  • [ISSN] 1558-0504
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in plastic surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Plast Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 168
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70. Kolman O, Hoang MP, Piris A, Mihm MC Jr, Duncan LM: Histologic processing and reporting of cutaneous pigmented lesions: recommendations based on a survey of 94 dermatopathologists. J Am Acad Dermatol; 2010 Oct;63(4):661-7
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  • BACKGROUND: Standard operating procedures for laboratory processing and reporting of margins of cutaneous pigmented lesions do not exist.
  • Although more than 90% of observers report the margins on all melanomas and atypical nevi, fewer than 50% of respondents report margins on all nonatypical nevi.
  • LIMITATIONS: The study consists of a survey sample of dermatopathologists and does not represent the practices of those who did not respond to the survey.
  • (3) obtain levels in cases with tumor in the tip but not at ink if the specimen is an ellipse or excision and the diagnosis is atypical nevus or melanoma; and (4) report margins on all atypical nevi and melanomas.

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2009 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20846568.001).
  • [ISSN] 1097-6787
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Acad. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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71. van Schanke A, van Venrooij GM, Jongsma MJ, Banus HA, Mullenders LH, van Kranen HJ, de Gruijl FR: Induction of nevi and skin tumors in Ink4a/Arf Xpa knockout mice by neonatal, intermittent, or chronic UVB exposures. Cancer Res; 2006 Mar 1;66(5):2608-15
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Induction of nevi and skin tumors in Ink4a/Arf Xpa knockout mice by neonatal, intermittent, or chronic UVB exposures.
  • Nevi and melanomas correlate to childhood and intermittent solar UV exposure, xeroderma pigmentosum patients run increased risk, and p16(Ink4a) expression is often lost in malignant progression.
  • Nevi occurred earliest, grew largest, and were most numerous in mice exposed to DMBA followed by intermittent UVB overexposure [effect of six minimal edemal doses (MED), 1 x /2 weeks > 4 MED 1 x /wk].
  • The Xpa(-/-) mice proved exquisitely sensitive to UV-driven nevus induction, indicating the involvement of pyrimidine dimer DNA lesions, but Xpa(+/+) mice developed many more nevi (>40 per mouse) at high UV dosages not tolerated by Xpa(-/-) mice.
  • Ink4a/Arf(-/-) mice developed most skin tumors faster, but surprisingly developed nevi slower than their heterozygous counterparts especially after neonatal UV exposure.
  • Despite raising >1,600 nevi, only six melanomas arose in our experiments with Ink4a/Arf knockout mice (five of which in Xpa(+/+) mice at high UV dosages).
  • In contrast to human nevi, these nevi lacked hotspot mutations in Braf or Ras genes, possibly explaining the lack of malignant progression in the Ink4a/Arf(-/-) mice.
  • Hence, although our experiments did not effectively emulate human melanoma, they provided clear evidence that intermittent UV overexposure strongly stimulates and the Ink4a/Arf(-/-) genotype may actually impair nevus development.

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  • (PMID = 16510579.001).
  • [ISSN] 0008-5472
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p16; 0 / Tumor Suppressor Protein p14ARF; 0 / Xeroderma Pigmentosum Group A Protein; 0 / Xpa protein, mouse; 57-97-6 / 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene
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72. Blokx WA, van Dijk MC, Ruiter DJ: Molecular cytogenetics of cutaneous melanocytic lesions - diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic aspects. Histopathology; 2010 Jan;56(1):121-32
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  • Mutations in BRAF (in common naevocellular naevi), NRAS (congenital naevi), HRAS (Spitz naevi) and GNAQ (blue naevi) can all cause MAPK activation.
  • Additional molecular alterations are implicated in progression towards melanoma, with different genetic alterations in melanomas at different sites and with varying levels of sun exposure.
  • This genetic heterogeneity in distinct types of naevi and melanomas can be used for the development of molecular tests for diagnostic purposes.
  • These targeted treatments all need careful evaluation, but might be a promising adjunct for treatment of metastatic melanoma patients, in which other therapies have not brought important survival advantages yet.

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  • (PMID = 20055910.001).
  • [ISSN] 1365-2559
  • [Journal-full-title] Histopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histopathology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 56
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73. Rothberg BE, Moeder CB, Kluger H, Halaban R, Elder DE, Murphy GF, Lazar A, Prieto V, Duncan LM, Rimm DL: Nuclear to non-nuclear Pmel17/gp100 expression (HMB45 staining) as a discriminator between benign and malignant melanocytic lesions. Mod Pathol; 2008 Sep;21(9):1121-9
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  • However, the fluorescence-based approach revealed a nuclear gp100 localization present in the dermal component of all nevi that was not seen before.
  • This nuclear localization could not be observed on routine chromogenic stains, because the standard hematoxylin nuclear counterstain overwhelms the weak nuclear HMB45 stain.
  • The thin (0.450+/-0.253) and thick (0.513+/-0.227) nevi had strongly positive mean ln(nuclear/non-nuclear AQUA score ratios), which are significantly higher than those from the group of malignant lesions (P<0.0001).
  • This finding was reproduced on a smaller but independent progression array composed of nevi and melanomas from the Yale Pathology archives (P<0.01).
  • The odds ratio associated with a sample being a nevus was 2.24 (95% CI: 1.87-2.69, P<0.0001) for each 0.1 unit increase of the ln(nuclear/non-nuclear AQUA score ratio) to yield an ROC curve with 0.93 units of area and a simultaneously maximized sensitivity of 0.92 and specificity of 0.80 for distinguishing benign nevi from malignant melanomas.

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  • (PMID = 18552823.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-0285
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA121974-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA114277; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA121974-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA114277-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA114277-02; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R0-1 CA01142777; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA121974; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / 1P50 CA121974
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / PMEL protein, human; 0 / Si protein, mouse; 0 / gp100 Melanoma Antigen
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS67484; NLM/ PMC2570478
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74. D'Amico A, Bono R, Pennazza G, Santonico M, Mantini G, Bernabei M, Zarlenga M, Roscioni C, Martinelli E, Paolesse R, Di Natale C: Identification of melanoma with a gas sensor array. Skin Res Technol; 2008 May;14(2):226-36
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  • METHODS: In this paper, the first application of sensor arrays to study the differentiation between melanomas and nevi, namely malignant and benign affection of melanocytary cells, respectively, is presented and discussed.
  • The measurement campaign involved 40 cases; 10 of these were diagnosed melanomas referred to surgical intervention.

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  • (PMID = 18412567.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0846
  • [Journal-full-title] Skin research and technology : official journal of International Society for Bioengineering and the Skin (ISBS) [and] International Society for Digital Imaging of Skin (ISDIS) [and] International Society for Skin Imaging (ISSI)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Skin Res Technol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Gases
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75. James MR, Roth RB, Shi MM, Kammerer S, Nelson MR, Stark MS, Dumenil T, Montgomery GW, Hayward NK, Martin NG, Braun A, Duffy DL: BRAF polymorphisms and risk of melanocytic neoplasia. J Invest Dermatol; 2005 Dec;125(6):1252-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Somatic mutations of the BRAF gene are common in melanomas and nevi but the contribution of polymorphisms in this gene to melanoma or nevus susceptibility remains unclear.
  • SNP in the BRAF gene were found to be weakly associated with melanoma status but not with development of nevi or freckles.
  • The burden of disease associated with this variant is greater than that associated with the major melanoma susceptibility locus CDKN2A, which has an estimated attributable risk of 0.2%.

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  • (PMID = 16354196.001).
  • [ISSN] 0022-202X
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of investigative dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Invest. Dermatol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA88363
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.11.1 / BRAF protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Proto-Oncogene Proteins B-raf
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76. Dicker DT, Lerner J, Van Belle P, Barth SF, Guerry D 4th, Herlyn M, Elder DE, El-Deiry WS: Differentiation of normal skin and melanoma using high resolution hyperspectral imaging. Cancer Biol Ther; 2006 Aug;5(8):1033-8
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  • We investigated the use of high resolution hyperspectral imaging microscopy to detect abnormalities in skin tissue using hematoxylin eosin stained preparations of normal and abnormal skin, benign nevi and melanomas.

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  • (PMID = 16931902.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-4047
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biology & therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA093372; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / U54 CA105008
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
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77. Murali R, Sharma RN, Thompson JF, Stretch JR, Lee CS, McCarthy SW, Scolyer RA: Sentinel lymph node biopsy in histologically ambiguous melanocytic tumors with spitzoid features (so-called atypical spitzoid tumors). Ann Surg Oncol; 2008 Jan;15(1):302-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: The distinction of Spitz nevi from melanomas with spitzoid morphology can be difficult.

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  • (PMID = 18000712.001).
  • [ISSN] 1534-4681
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of surgical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann. Surg. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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78. Nading MA, Nanney LB, Ellis DL: Pregnancy and estrogen receptor beta expression in a large congenital nevus. Arch Dermatol; 2009 Jun;145(6):691-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • BACKGROUND: Large congenital nevi carry a slightly increased risk of melanoma.
  • Pregnancy poses an additional challenge in the monitoring of these patients because little is known regarding the effects of increased estrogen levels on congenital nevi.
  • OBSERVATIONS: A young woman was observed to have clinical lightening of her garment nevus and satellite nevi during 2 sequential pregnancies.
  • In addition to photographic documentation of these changes, biopsy samples taken during pregnant and nonpregnant periods underwent immunohistochemical evaluation for estrogen receptor beta (ERbeta), the predominant estrogen receptor in nevi and melanomas.
  • These changes in ERbeta expression were not associated with histologic atypia during pregnancy or after delivery.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Congenital nevi may be unique in their response to altered estrogen levels.
  • Given the slightly increased risk of melanoma in giant congenital nevi and the dearth of information available regarding the effects of pregnancy on congenital nevi, this case illustrates the need for further study of these pigmented lesions.

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  • (PMID = 19528425.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3652
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of dermatology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch Dermatol
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / P30 AR041943; United States / NIAMS NIH HHS / AR / 5P30 AR041943
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Estrogen Receptor beta
  • [Number-of-references] 15
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS532066; NLM/ PMC3860585
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79. Ellerhorst JA, Sendi-Naderi A, Johnson MK, Cooke CP, Dang SM, Diwan AH: Human melanoma cells express functional receptors for thyroid-stimulating hormone. Endocr Relat Cancer; 2006 Dec;13(4):1269-77
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Our results show that TSH receptors (TSHR) are expressed by virtually all cutaneous melanocytic lesions, including benign nevi, dysplastic nevi, and melanomas, with higher expression found in malignant and pre-malignant lesions.
  • The finding of TSHR expression by human tumors is confirmed in cultured melanoma cells and melanocytes, in which TSHR expression is demonstrated by immunofluorescent staining, western blotting, and reverse transcriptase-PCR.
  • Cultured melanoma cells, but not melanocytes, are induced to proliferate at a physiologically relevant concentration of TSH.
  • Our findings have broad clinical implications for the prevention of melanoma and the management of established disease.

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  • (PMID = 17158770.001).
  • [ISSN] 1351-0088
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrine-related cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocr. Relat. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA16672; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / K22 CA097983; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / P50 CA093459
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Receptors, Thyrotropin; 9002-71-5 / Thyrotropin; E0399OZS9N / Cyclic AMP; EC 2.7.11.24 / Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
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80. Matsuo Y, Kamitani T: Parkinson's disease-related protein, alpha-synuclein, in malignant melanoma. PLoS One; 2010;5(5):e10481
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Parkinson's disease-related protein, alpha-synuclein, in malignant melanoma.
  • Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder that is caused by mutation of alpha-synuclein or other genes.
  • Importantly, epidemiological studies have reported co-occurrence of melanoma and Parkinson's disease, suggesting that these two diseases could share common genetic components.
  • CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The Parkinson's disease-related protein, alpha-synuclein, is expressed in both malignant and benign melanocytic lesions, such as melanomas and nevi.
  • [MeSH-major] Melanoma / metabolism. Parkinson Disease / metabolism. alpha-Synuclein / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 20463956.001).
  • [ISSN] 1932-6203
  • [Journal-full-title] PloS one
  • [ISO-abbreviation] PLoS ONE
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG024497
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Melanins; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / alpha-Synuclein
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2864738
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81. Haass NK, Ripperger D, Wladykowski E, Dawson P, Gimotty PA, Blome C, Fischer F, Schmage P, Moll I, Brandner JM: Melanoma progression exhibits a significant impact on connexin expression patterns in the epidermal tumor microenvironment. Histochem Cell Biol; 2010 Jan;133(1):113-24
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • This study compares the extent of Cx26, Cx30 and Cx43 expression in the epidermal microenvironment of melanocytic nevi and melanomas and its association with melanoma thickness, proliferative index of the tumor and its microenvironment, and with 5-year metastasis and survival.
  • Vertical epidermal expression patterns of Cx26 and Cx30 significantly correlated with the proliferative index in the epidermal tumor microenvironment but not with the proliferative index in the tumor.
  • In contrast, Cx43 did not correlate with malignancy, thickness or proliferative index.
  • [MeSH-major] Connexins / biosynthesis. Disease Progression. Melanoma / metabolism. Melanoma / pathology. Neovascularization, Pathologic / pathology. Skin Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19844737.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-119X
  • [Journal-full-title] Histochemistry and cell biology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Histochem. Cell Biol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Connexins; 0 / GJB6 protein, human; 127120-53-0 / connexin 26
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82. Wasco MJ, Pu RT, Yu L, Su L, Ma L: Expression of gamma-H2AX in melanocytic lesions. Hum Pathol; 2008 Nov;39(11):1614-20
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Previous studies have demonstrated the expression of gamma-H2AX in melanoma and dysplastic nevus, but its diagnostic and prognostic utility in a full range of melanocytic lesions has not been fully studied.
  • The expression of gamma-H2AX did not show significant correlation with many melanoma prognostic factors, including Breslow depth, mitotic rate, and sentinel lymph node status.
  • Based on the overlap in subsets of nevi and melanomas, the potential clinical utility of this antibody remains uncertain until further studies have been carried out in a larger cohort of melanocytic lesions, including borderline cases.

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  • (PMID = 18656236.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / H2AFX protein, human; 0 / Histones
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87. Tfayli A, Gobinet C, Vrabie V, Huez R, Manfait M, Piot O: Digital dewaxing of Raman signals: discrimination between nevi and melanoma spectra obtained from paraffin-embedded skin biopsies. Appl Spectrosc; 2009 May;63(5):564-70
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  • [Title] Digital dewaxing of Raman signals: discrimination between nevi and melanoma spectra obtained from paraffin-embedded skin biopsies.
  • In addition to being time consuming and chemical intensive, chemical dewaxing methods are not efficient and they leave traces of the paraffin in tissues, which affects the Raman signal.
  • The sources obtained from these images are then used to eliminate, using non-negativity constrained least squares (NCLS), the paraffin contribution from each individual spectrum of the spectral images of nevi and melanomas.

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  • (PMID = 19470215.001).
  • [ISSN] 0003-7028
  • [Journal-full-title] Applied spectroscopy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Appl Spectrosc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Evaluation Studies; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 8002-74-2 / Paraffin
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88. Jakobiec FA, Colby K, Bajart AM, Saragas SJ, Moulin A: Immunohistochemical studies of atypical conjunctival melanocytic nevi. Arch Ophthalmol; 2009 Aug;127(8):970-80

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Immunohistochemical studies of atypical conjunctival melanocytic nevi.
  • Two epithelioid cell (clonal or inverted) nevi exhibited an identical immunohistochemical profile.
  • The granular cell and blue nevi immunoreacted negligibly with Ki-67 (approximately 1% of cells).
  • CONCLUSIONS: S100 and MART-1 reliably immunostained all nevocytic morphologic variants.
  • HMB-45 immunoreactivity of the granular, epithelioid/clonal, and blue nevi did not indicate a more active or proliferative lesion but instead suggested abnormal melanogenesis.
  • Ki-67 was the most valuable immunohistochemical adjunct to morphology for the diagnosis of these benign variant conjunctival nevi, because melanomas display a much higher proliferation index (>10% nuclear positivity among all cells counted) than the current nevi (approximately 1%).

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  • (PMID = 19667333.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-3601
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of ophthalmology (Chicago, Ill. : 1960)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Ophthalmol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Melanoma-Specific Antigens; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / S100 Proteins; EC 3.2.1.17 / Muramidase
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89. Petersson S, Shubbar E, Enerbäck L, Enerbäck C: Expression patterns of S100 proteins in melanocytes and melanocytic lesions. Melanoma Res; 2009 Aug;19(4):215-25
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

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  • In a panel of 47 melanocyte-derived lesions comprising melanocytic naevi and melanomas, S100A10 was expressed to varying degrees in the melanocytic lesions.

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  • (PMID = 19521263.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-5636
  • [Journal-full-title] Melanoma research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Melanoma Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / S100 Proteins
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90. Gaiser T, Kutzner H, Palmedo G, Siegelin MD, Wiesner T, Bruckner T, Hartschuh W, Enk AH, Becker MR: Classifying ambiguous melanocytic lesions with FISH and correlation with clinical long-term follow up. Mod Pathol; 2010 Mar;23(3):413-9
The Lens. Cited by Patents in .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • Recently, initial studies describing the use of multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for classifying melanocytic skin lesions have been published demonstrating a high sensitivity and specificity in discriminating melanomas from nevi.
  • Comparison of array comparative genomic hybridization data with FISH analyses did not yield significant results but array comparative genomic hybridization data demonstrated that melanocytic skin lesions with the development of metastases showed significantly more chromosomal aberrations (P<0.01) compared with melanocytic skin lesions without the development of metastases.
  • The FISH technique with its present composition of locus-specific probes for RREB1/MYB and CCND1 did not achieve a clinically useful sensitivity and specificity.






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