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1. de Leval L, Lim GS, Waltregny D, Oliva E: Diverse phenotypic profile of uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors: an immunohistochemical study of 12 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Dec;34(12):1749-61
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  • [Title] Diverse phenotypic profile of uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors: an immunohistochemical study of 12 cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors (UTROSCTs) are rare neoplasms thought to be of putative endometrial stromal origin and solely composed of sex cord elements.
  • Our study aimed to delineate the immunophenotype of these tumors and to verify whether their morphology reflects true sex cord-like differentiation.
  • Cords and/or trabeculae were seen in all tumors, whereas tubules, diffuse areas, and a retiform pattern were present in 9, 6, and 2 cases, respectively.
  • Tumors were stained for sex cord (inhibin, calretinin, WT1, and melan-A), epithelial (KL1 and epithelial membrane antigen), and smooth muscle markers (smooth muscle actin, desmin, smooth muscle myosin heavy chain, h-caldesmon, and histone deacetylase-8), CD10, HMB45, S100, and CD117.
  • RESULTS: Six out of 12 tumors were positive for sex cord markers (inhibin 3 of 12, calretinin 4 of 12, WT1 4 of 12, and melan-A 3 of 11) with 4 tumors coexpressing more than one marker.
  • Half of the UTROSCTs showed positivity for KL1, with 2 tumors coexpressing epithelial membrane antigen.
  • All but one tumor expressed one or more smooth muscle markers, with smooth muscle actin, desmin and histone deacetylase-8 being most commonly expressed.
  • CD10 was positive in 6 of 12 tumors, CD117 in 4 of 12, and S100 in 2 of 11 tumors, whereas HMB45 was negative in 11 tumors tested.
  • CONCLUSIONS: UTROSCTs have a diverse immunohistochemical profile often coexpressing sex cord, epithelial, and smooth muscle markers.
  • The expression of smooth muscle markers in these tumors does not imply a smooth muscle origin as endometrial and sex cord stromal tumors are not infrequently positive for these markers.
  • Positivity for sex cord markers supports a true sex cord/steroid phenotype.
  • Although the immunohistochemical profile of these tumors overlaps with that of endometrial stromal tumors with sex cord-like differentiation as well as ovarian sex cord stromal tumors, the origin of UTROSCT remains uncertain.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Stromal Tumors / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Phenotype

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  • (PMID = 21084963.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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2. Ryan LJ, Pambuccian SE, Lai R, Gulbahce HE: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration diagnosis of metastatic sex cord tumor with annular tubules: a case report. Diagn Cytopathol; 2006 Aug;34(8):576-9
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  • [Title] Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration diagnosis of metastatic sex cord tumor with annular tubules: a case report.
  • The cytologic findings of a paratracheal metastasis from a malignant sex cord tumor with annular tubules (SCTATs) diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration are described.
  • These cytologic findings are clearly distinct from the poorly formed rosette-like structures of granulosa-cell tumors and are reminiscent of the low-power appearance of the cribriform variant of adenoid cystic carcinoma.
  • The fine needle aspiration cytologic features of only two other cases have been previously described and, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first case reporting the cytologic diagnosis of a distant metastasis of a SCTATs by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration.
  • In this case, the distinctive and characteristic cytologic features have allowed the proper diagnosis of a distant metastasis of SCTATs.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Endosonography / methods. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Thoracic Neoplasms / pathology. Thoracic Neoplasms / secondary

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16850486.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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3. Poli UR, Swarnalata G, Maturi R, Rao ST: Recurrent alpha-fetoprotein secreting Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor of ovary with an unusual presentation. Indian J Cancer; 2009 Jan-Mar;46(1):64-6
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  • [Title] Recurrent alpha-fetoprotein secreting Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor of ovary with an unusual presentation.
  • Alpha-fetoprotein secreting (AFP) Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors of ovary (SLCT) are now identified as a distinct entity among the uncommon group of sex cord tumors of ovary.
  • We report an unusual case of recurrent AFP secreting ovarian tumors and as ileocecal mesenteric cyst in a 25-year-old patient resulting in difficulty in initial diagnosis of AFP producing SLCT.
  • [MeSH-major] Cecal Neoplasms / pathology. Ileal Neoplasms / pathology. Leydig Cell Tumor / metabolism. Mesenteric Cyst / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Sertoli Cell Tumor / metabolism. alpha-Fetoproteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19282570.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-509X
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / alpha-Fetoproteins
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4. Engohan-Aloghe C, Buxant F, Noël JC: Primary ovarian carcinoid tumor with luteinized stromal cells. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2009 Jul;280(1):119-21
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  • [Title] Primary ovarian carcinoid tumor with luteinized stromal cells.
  • BACKGROUND: Primary ovarian carcinoid tumors are rare.
  • CASE REPORT: We describe a case of 71-year-old woman diagnosed with a left ovarian tumor.
  • Frozen section examination identified the mass as a sex-cord stromal tumor.
  • The surgically resected tumor was diagnosed as an insular carcinoid tumor with unusual luteinized stromal cells.
  • Histologic diagnosis complied with results acquired by immunohistochemical with positivity of tumor cells for neuroendocrine markers and positivity of luteinized stromal cells for alpha-inhibin, calretinin and Melan A.
  • CONCLUSION: Ovarian carcinoid tumor can be extremely heterogeneous.
  • The purpose of our report was to show that the ovarian carcinoid tumor can be associated with stromal luteinization, mimicking a sex-cord stromal tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoid Tumor / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Frozen Sections. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Luteinization. Stromal Cells / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19039598.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0711
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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5. Brown B, Ram A, Clayton P, Humphrey G: Conservative management of bilateral Sertoli cell tumors of the testicle in association with the Carney complex: a case report. J Pediatr Surg; 2007 Sep;42(9):E13-5
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  • [Title] Conservative management of bilateral Sertoli cell tumors of the testicle in association with the Carney complex: a case report.
  • Large cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumor of the testicle is a rare, hormonally active sex cord-stromal tumor seen in patients with Carney complex.
  • When such tumors occur bilaterally, treatment options for preserving fertility and addressing the secondary effects of excess hormone production must be considered.
  • The availability of specific antiestrogen drugs means that bilateral orchiectomy for this benign tumor may no longer be warranted.
  • In all cases, a thorough history and physical examination are required to exclude nonphysiologic causes such as drugs, pulmonary disease, chronic liver disease, exogenous estrogens, and estrogen-producing tumors (Seashore J.
  • In: Rowe MI, O'Neill JA, Grosfeld JL et al, editors.
  • We report on a child who presented with a 2-year history of gynecomastia with associated bilateral testicular swellings and discuss a novel treatment strategy for managing bilateral testicular tumors in the context of the Carney complex.
  • [MeSH-major] Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia / diagnosis. Sertoli Cell Tumor / therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 17848226.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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6. Kunz J, Friedrich T: [Uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex cord tumor: case report and review of literature]. Praxis (Bern 1994); 2007 Aug 2;96(31-32):1177-81
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  • [Title] [Uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex cord tumor: case report and review of literature].
  • [Transliterated title] Uteriner Tumor mit keimstrang-ahnlicher Differenzierung (UTROSCT): Fallbericht und Literaturübersicht.
  • Uterine tumours with sex cord-like differentiation are rare.
  • One distinguishes between two groups on account of the share of sex cord-like elements, i.e. tumours with only focal sex cord-like differentiation with a tendency to relapses and metastatic spread, and tumours with predominant differentiation in the sense of ovarian sex cord tumours with a good prognosis because surgical treatment alone often leads to relapse-free survival.
  • Because of the tumours' rarity, there are no randomized studies as to an optimal therapy.
  • Since there have been reports on endometrial stromal sarcoma with low malignant potential in adjuvant therapy of breast cancer with Tamoxifen, one can assume that this entity will occur more frequently in future.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17726857.001).
  • [ISSN] 1661-8157
  • [Journal-full-title] Praxis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Praxis (Bern 1994)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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7. Zhao C, Barner R, Vinh TN, McManus K, Dabbs D, Vang R: SF-1 is a diagnostically useful immunohistochemical marker and comparable to other sex cord-stromal tumor markers for the differential diagnosis of ovarian sertoli cell tumor. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Oct;27(4):507-14
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] SF-1 is a diagnostically useful immunohistochemical marker and comparable to other sex cord-stromal tumor markers for the differential diagnosis of ovarian sertoli cell tumor.
  • Immunohistochemistry can be an important part of the diagnosis of Sertoli cell tumor of the ovary, including distinction from non-sex cord-stromal tumors such as the sertoliform variant of endometrioid carcinoma and carcinoid.
  • Several good markers for this differential diagnosis have been identified, particularly inhibin, Wilms tumor 1 gene product (WT1), epithelial membrane antigen, and chromogranin; however, many available markers have limitations to some degree.
  • Steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1; adrenal 4-binding protein; Ad4BP) is a nuclear transcription factor involved in gonadal and adrenal development.
  • Immunohistochemical expression of this marker in ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors, including utility for differential diagnosis, has not been rigorously evaluated.
  • As an extension of our previous immunohistochemical studies of ovarian Sertoli cell tumor, expression of SF-1 and comparison with WT1 and inhibin were assessed in 111 primary ovarian tumors: 27 Sertoli cell tumors, 60 endometrioid tumors (including borderline tumors, conventional well-differentiated carcinomas, and sertoliform variants of carcinoma), and 24 carcinoids.
  • SF-1 was expressed in 100% of Sertoli cell tumors but not in endometrioid tumors or carcinoid.
  • WT1 was expressed in 100% of Sertoli cell tumors and 17% of endometrioid tumors; all carcinoids were negative.
  • Inhibin was expressed in 96% of Sertoli cell tumors and 2% of endometrioid tumors (4% of conventional well-differentiated carcinomas); all carcinoids were negative.
  • The extent of expression of all 3 markers was similar in Sertoli cell tumor but greatest for WT1: 63%, 96%, and 78% of cases showed expression of SF-1, WT1, and inhibin, respectively, in more than 50% of tumor cells.
  • Immunohistochemical composite scores combining both extent and intensity of staining in positive cases were calculated for Sertoli cell tumor (possible range: 1-12).
  • We conclude that for the differential diagnosis with endometrioid tumors and carcinoid of the ovary, SF-1 is a sensitive and specific immunohistochemical marker for Sertoli cell tumor and that SF-1 is diagnostically comparable with other good sex cord-stromal markers.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sertoli Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Steroidogenic Factor 1 / analysis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Inhibins / analysis. Nuclear Proteins / analysis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18753972.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Nuclear Proteins; 0 / Steroidogenic Factor 1; 0 / WTAP protein, human; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
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8. Murray SK, Clement PB, Young RH: Endometrioid carcinomas of the uterine corpus with sex cord-like formations, hyalinization, and other unusual morphologic features: a report of 31 cases of a neoplasm that may be confused with carcinosarcoma and other uterine neoplasms. Am J Surg Pathol; 2005 Feb;29(2):157-66
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  • [Title] Endometrioid carcinomas of the uterine corpus with sex cord-like formations, hyalinization, and other unusual morphologic features: a report of 31 cases of a neoplasm that may be confused with carcinosarcoma and other uterine neoplasms.
  • We describe a series of unusual endometrioid carcinomas (ECs) of the uterine corpus characterized in significant part by cords of epithelioid cells, spindle cells, and a hyalinized stroma that sometimes formed osteoid.
  • These features, particularly when prominent, produced an appearance strikingly different from that of conventional EC, sometimes resulting in problems in differential diagnosis, especially with a malignant mullerian mixed tumor (carcinosarcoma).
  • On microscopic examination, typical EC, which accounted for 10% to 90% of the tumor, was admixed in 90% of cases with cords of epithelioid or spindle cells within a hyalinized stroma.
  • In 3 cases, the tumor contained cords of cells without a hyalinized stroma.
  • Areas with a diffuse growth of fusiform cells suggesting endometrial stromal cells were also occasionally seen in minor amounts.
  • Seventy percent of the tumors exhibited squamous differentiation, and in 50% of the tumors there was a background of endometrial hyperplasia.
  • Two thirds of the tumors were grade 2 and the remainder were grade 1.
  • Vascular space invasion was identified in seven tumors.
  • Eighty-three percent of the patients were alive with no evidence of disease on follow-up (range, 2-115 months; mean, 34.4 months).
  • The clinical features, including a typically low stage and generally good prognosis, and histologic findings are different from those of malignant mullerian mixed tumors that are characterized by both high-grade carcinomatous and sarcomatous components and an aggressive clinical course.
  • Confusion with other neoplasms, particularly those with sex cord-like growth, such as uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors and epithelioid smooth muscle tumors, may also arise.
  • We refer to tumors with the features described herein as "corded and hyalinized endometrioid carcinomas," a designation that reflects their two most striking and consistent features.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15644772.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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9. Kommoss F, Kommoss S, Eichhorn J, Schmidt D: [Transitional cell carcinoma of the ovary. Morphological and clinical features]. Pathologe; 2007 May;28(3):209-14
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  • Transitional cell carcinoma of the ovary (TCC-O) is a less common type of malignant surface epithelial-stromal tumor of the ovary, still with uncertain incidence.
  • Histologically, TCC-O resembles urothelial carcinoma of the urinary system, and by definition does not contain a Brenner tumor component.
  • TCC-O may not be a bona fide urothelial neoplasm, however, but rather a lesion of the Müllerian type derived from the ovarian surface epithelium.
  • This notion is supported by the existence of mixed tumors consisting of TCC-O and other histological types of ovarian carcinoma, as well as the observation that TCC-O has a Müllerian type but not a urothelial-like immunohistochemical profile.
  • Besides metastatic urothelial carcinoma of the urinary tract, the other types of ovarian carcinoma, as well as sex cord-stromal tumors such as adult granulosa cell tumors, have to be considered in the differential diagnosis of TCC-O.
  • A recent analysis of a large series of advanced ovarian carcinomas treated by radical surgery and postoperative chemotherapy confirms studies that had suggested that TCC-O has a better prognosis (with current treatment) than that of the other histological types of ovarian carcinoma.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Combined Modality Therapy. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry

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  • (PMID = 17447068.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-8113
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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10. Van Cauwelaert Rojas R, Ruiz-Tagle Phillips D, Meneses Ciuffardi M, Carrasco Troncoso AM, Aguirre Aguirre C: [Three cases of unusual non-germ cell tumors of the testicle]. Actas Urol Esp; 2007 Sep;31(8):923-7
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  • [Title] [Three cases of unusual non-germ cell tumors of the testicle].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumores no germinales inusuales del testículo: tres casos clínicos.
  • By describing 3 clinical cases of unusual testicular non germinal tumors, including an adenoma of the rete testis, an undifferenciated sex cord tumor and a mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis, we make a literature review of the unusual testicular tumors and testicular apendix, including their incidence and management.
  • Also and as one of our conclusions, we expose the importance of the intraoperatory biopsy in the testicular cancer surgery, because even if it is infrecuent, the presence of this rare testicular tumors, in which if they are proven to be benign, the testicular unit could be preserved and the radical orquiectomy could be avoided.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Mesothelioma / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18020219.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-4806
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas urologicas españolas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Urol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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11. Caringella A, Loizzi V, Resta L, Ferreri R, Loverro G: A case of Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor in a postmenopausal woman. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 Jan-Feb;16(1):435-8
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A case of Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor in a postmenopausal woman.
  • Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor belongs to the group of sex cord-stromal tumors of the ovary.
  • These neoplasms account for less than 0.5% of all ovarian tumors and are more often encountered in young women between the ages of 20 and 30 years who usually become virilized.
  • We described an unusual case of Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor in a postmenopausal women who presented with a solid right pelvic mass, a large amount of ascites, and laboratory tests revealing an elevated CA125, all suggesting a pelvic malignancy.
  • Although five similar cases of postmenopausal women with Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor of ovary have been reported in the literature, we believe that this is an useful addition to the literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Staging. Ovariectomy / methods. Postmenopause. Rare Diseases. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16445673.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Kauppila S, Altinörs M, Väre P, Liakka A, Knuuti E, Nissi R: Primary sex cord-like variant of endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis. APMIS; 2008 Sep;116(9):842-5
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  • [Title] Primary sex cord-like variant of endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis.
  • Endometriosis, a relatively common disease generally affecting women in the reproductive age group, is mostly found in the pelvic organs.
  • Although endometriosis is a benign disease, some malignant tumors have been reported to develop in endometriotic lesions, most commonly in the ovary.
  • The sex cord-like variant of endometrioid adenocarcinoma is a rare tumor that histologically closely resembles the sex cord-stromal tumor.
  • Despite its rarity, the correct histological diagnosis of the sex cord-like variant of endometrioid adenocarcinoma is crucial to avoid misdiagnosis of a less aggressive tumor.
  • We here report a 53-year-old woman who was diagnosed as having this very rare subtype of endometroid adenocarcinoma curiously arising from an endometriotic lesion at the site of previous salpingo-oophorectomy.
  • The tumor was diagnosed based on light microscopy and immunohistochemistry.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Endometriosis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19024607.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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13. Simon RA, Sung CJ, Lawrence WD, Quddus MR: Vascular plexiform leiomyoma mimicking uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex cord tumor. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2010 Oct;14(5):355-7
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  • [Title] Vascular plexiform leiomyoma mimicking uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex cord tumor.
  • Leiomyomata are common benign smooth muscle neoplasms with a usually easily recognizable histologic pattern.
  • However, there is a wide variety of subtypes described in the literature, characterized by predominance of a particular distinct histologic pattern.
  • Here we describe a case of a highly vascular leiomyoma with a prominent plexiform pattern and cords and tubules of epithelioid cells that mimics a uterine tumor resembling an ovarian sex cord tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyoma / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20850699.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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14. Ramos-Vara JA, Miller MA: Immunohistochemical evaluation of GATA-4 in canine testicular tumors. Vet Pathol; 2009 Sep;46(5):893-6
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical evaluation of GATA-4 in canine testicular tumors.
  • We examined GATA-4 in 76 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded canine testicular tumors, including 21 Sertoli cell tumors (SCT), 28 Leydig (interstitial) cell tumors (LCT), 24 seminomas (GCT), and 3 mixed germ cell sex cord-stromal tumors (MGSCT).
  • Our hypothesis was that immunohistochemistry for GATA-4 could discriminate between germ cell and sex cord-stromal tumors of the canine testis.
  • Sex cord-stromal cells of MGSCT were also positive.
  • These results indicate that GATA-4 is mainly expressed in sex cord-stromal tumors and not in germ cell tumors of the canine testis.
  • [MeSH-major] Dog Diseases / pathology. GATA4 Transcription Factor / metabolism. Leydig Cell Tumor / pathology. Sertoli Cell Tumor / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 19429994.001).
  • [ISSN] 1544-2217
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / GATA4 Transcription Factor
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15. Popadiuk S, Korzon M, Chybicka A, Szmyd K, Dzierzega M, Trelińska J, Kowalczyk JR, Wiśniewska-Slusarz H, Woźniak W, Bilska K, Wachowiak J, Konatkowska B, Wysocki M, Krawczuk-Rybak M, Czauderna P, Szumera M, Sznurkowska K, Renke J: [Testicular malignant tumours. Efficacy of germ cell and sex cord tumours treatment protocol in Poland]. Med Wieku Rozwoj; 2006 Jul-Sep;10(3 Pt 1):811-7
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  • [Title] [Testicular malignant tumours. Efficacy of germ cell and sex cord tumours treatment protocol in Poland].
  • Approximately 2% of of all malignant tumours in boys are localised in the testis.
  • Among them 80% are germ cell tumours with the malignant elements of yolk sac tumour.
  • AIM of the study was evaluation of the efficacy of malignant testicular tumour treatment programme in children.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Since 1998 31 boys aged 1 month to 18 years (median 14 years) with malignant testicular tumours were enrolled in the multicentre trial.
  • Patomorphologically clear yolk sac tumour (33%) and mixed germ cell tumour (42%) with the majority of yolk sac tumour component or carcinoma embryonale, occurred most often.
  • 61% patients had local clinical stage and the tumour was localized in the testis.
  • In 39% patients tumour exceeded the testis margin.
  • All patients received TGM 95 regimen (Tumeurs Germinales Malignes).
  • RESULTS: Among 26 children with germ cell tumours, 25 (96%) are alive, 23 (88%) are in first remission after completion of treatment.
  • CONCLUSIONS: TGM regimen is highly efficient in the treatment of malignant testicular tumours.
  • Problems occur in cases of disseminated disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / drug therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / drug therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Child. Child, Preschool. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Doxorubicin / administration & dosage. Drug Administration Schedule. Endodermal Sinus Tumor / drug therapy. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Humans. Ifosfamide / administration & dosage. Male. Poland. Remission Induction. Treatment Outcome. Vincristine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 17317912.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Medycyna wieku rozwojowego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Wieku Rozwoj
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide; COB protocol
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16. Irving JA, Carinelli S, Prat J: Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors are polyphenotypic neoplasms with true sex cord differentiation. Mod Pathol; 2006 Jan;19(1):17-24
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  • [Title] Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors are polyphenotypic neoplasms with true sex cord differentiation.
  • In this study, we present the clinicopathologic features and immunophenotypic characteristics of five cases of uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors and three cases of endometrial stromal tumors with sex cord-like elements, with emphasis on immunohistochemical markers of sex cord differentiation.
  • The tumors were usually polypoid masses arising in the uterine fundus, with a mean tumor size of 6.7 cm.
  • Sex cord patterns in uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors, including anastomosing cords, trabeculae, small nests, tubules, and in one case, a striking retiform architecture with Leydig-like cells, comprised from 70 to 100% of the tumor volume.
  • All uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors were positive for two or more markers of sex cord differentiation; all five cases showed strong immunoreactivity for calretinin, with coexpression of CD99 (four cases), Melan-A (two cases), and inhibin (two cases).
  • Endometrial stromal tumors with sex cord-like elements were less frequently positive for markers of sex cord differentiation, with each case positive for one marker (calretinin, two cases; CD99, one case).
  • Overall, the morphologic and immunohistochemical findings in uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors strongly support that these unusual uterine tumors are polyphenotypic neoplasms with true sex cord differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antigens, CD / analysis. Antigens, Neoplasm. Biomarkers / analysis. Calbindin 2. Cell Adhesion Molecules / analysis. Cell Differentiation. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Inhibins / analysis. Keratins / analysis. MART-1 Antigen. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neprilysin / analysis. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Receptors, Progesterone / analysis. S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / analysis. Vimentin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16118629.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / CALB2 protein, human; 0 / CAM 5.2 antigen; 0 / CD99 protein, human; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G; 0 / Vimentin; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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17. Brown J, Shvartsman HS, Deavers MT, Ramondetta LM, Burke TW, Munsell MF, Gershenson DM: The activity of taxanes compared with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin in the treatment of sex cord-stromal ovarian tumors. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 May;97(2):489-96
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  • [Title] The activity of taxanes compared with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin in the treatment of sex cord-stromal ovarian tumors.
  • OBJECTIVE: We compared the efficacy and side effects of taxanes, with or without platinum, to bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) in treating sex cord-stromal ovarian tumors.
  • METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of all patients with sex cord-stromal ovarian tumors seen at our institution from 1985 to 2002.
  • Eligible patients were those who underwent pathologic confirmation, clinical evaluation, and treatment with a taxane or BEP for initial or recurrent disease.
  • RESULTS: Of 222 patients identified, 21 received BEP for new (n = 11) or recurrent disease (n = 10); 44 received a taxane during 48 treatment episodes (four patients on two occasions each) for new (n = 11) or recurrent disease (n = 37).
  • Among patients treated for recurrent measurable disease, the response rate was higher for BEP-treated (71%) than for taxane-treated patients (37%), but this was not statistically significant.
  • In all patients treated for recurrent disease, there was no significant difference in failure to progress at chemotherapy completion between BEP- (70%) and taxane-treated patients (62%) or in median PFS (11.2 vs. 7.2 months).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Taxanes demonstrated activity against sex cord-stromal tumors of the ovary and may be less toxic than BEP.
  • Taxane and platinum combination chemotherapy warrants further investigation in this disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Paclitaxel / therapeutic use. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / drug therapy. Taxoids / therapeutic use
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. Bleomycin / adverse effects. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Cisplatin / adverse effects. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Etoposide / adverse effects. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Organoplatinum Compounds / administration & dosage. Organoplatinum Compounds / adverse effects. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 15863149.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Organoplatinum Compounds; 0 / Taxoids; 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 15H5577CQD / docetaxel; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol
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18. Völker HU, Engert S, Cramer A, Schmidt M, Kämmerer U, Müller-Hermelink HK, Gattenlöhner S: Expression of CD56 isoforms in primary and relapsed adult granulosa cell tumors of the ovary. Diagn Pathol; 2008;3:29
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  • [Title] Expression of CD56 isoforms in primary and relapsed adult granulosa cell tumors of the ovary.
  • BACKGROUND: Adult granulosa cell tumors of the ovary (GCTs) are sex cord stromal tumors of unpredictable behaviour.
  • The percentage of CD56Pan positive tumor cells was lower in relapses, whereas CD56140/180 kDa showed a higher staining intensity in the latter.

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  • (PMID = 18613980.001).
  • [ISSN] 1746-1596
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2474830
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19. Liu SY, Ng CF, Lai FM, Cheng CW: Undifferentiated sex cord-stromal tumor in a young adult. Int Urol Nephrol; 2007;39(2):561-4
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  • [Title] Undifferentiated sex cord-stromal tumor in a young adult.
  • Undifferentiated sex cord-stromal tumor in post-puberty male is extremely rare.
  • We reported a 19-year-old patient presented with an asymptomatic right testicular nodule with normal level of serum marker for germ cell tumor.
  • Excisional biopsy and subsequent orchidectomy was preformed and the final pathology supported the diagnosis of undifferentiated sex cord-stromal tumor.
  • He remained disease free 18 months after the operation.
  • A summary of the literatures and discussion on the management of this rare tumor was provided.
  • [MeSH-major] Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16835728.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-1623
  • [Journal-full-title] International urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Urol Nephrol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 5
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20. Owston MA, Ramos-Vara JA: Histologic and immunohistochemical characterization of a testicular mixed germ cell sex cord-stromal tumor and a leydig cell tumor in a dog. Vet Pathol; 2007 Nov;44(6):936-43
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  • [Title] Histologic and immunohistochemical characterization of a testicular mixed germ cell sex cord-stromal tumor and a leydig cell tumor in a dog.
  • Mixed germ cell sex cord-stromal tumors (MGSCTs) of the testis are rare in dogs.
  • We describe the histopathology and immunohistochemical characteristics of an MGSCT associated with a Leydig cell tumor in a cryptorchid testis.
  • Although more cases of canine MGSCT need to be examined, our results suggest that an immunohistochemical panel of E-cadherin, GATA-4, INH-alpha, KIT, NSE, PGP 9.5, and melan A will help distinguish the three main cell types in canine testicular germ cell and sex cord-stromal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Dog Diseases / pathology. Leydig Cell Tumor / veterinary. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / veterinary. Testicular Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 18039910.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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21. Hoyer PB, Davis JR, Bedrnicek JB, Marion SL, Christian PJ, Barton JK, Brewer MA: Ovarian neoplasm development by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) in a chemically-induced rat model of ovarian failure. Gynecol Oncol; 2009 Mar;112(3):610-5
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  • [Title] Ovarian neoplasm development by 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) in a chemically-induced rat model of ovarian failure.
  • OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to determine the time course for ovarian failure in rats caused by 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) and develop a model for ovarian cancer in which ovarian neoplasms were chemically induced in an animal that was follicle depleted, but retained residual ovarian tissue.
  • A further set of female rats was assigned to four groups exposed to combinations of vehicle control, VCD and/or DMBA (directly applied to the ovary) in a novel model for examining early stages of ovarian neoplasia.
  • Treatment with DMBA subsequent to VCD resulted in tumors in 42% of animals at 3 months and 57% at 5 months.
  • All neoplasms were classified Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors (SLCT).
  • No tumor occurred in animals treated with vehicle or DMBA alone.
  • DMBA induction of ovarian neoplasms was greater in those rats treated with VCD.
  • Whether this increase was due to tumor initiation by VCD or was the result of ovarian failure cannot be distinguished from these results.
  • This represents the only animal model to date for sex cord stromal tumors.

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  • (PMID = 19150572.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P30 ES006694-11A1; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG021948-03S1; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG021948-01; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG021948-05; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG021948-02; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG021948-04; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG021948-03S1; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES06694; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P30 ES006694; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES006694-11A10001; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA119200-03; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P30 ES006694-120001; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P30 ES006694-12S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA119200-03; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG021948-02; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES006694-11A19006; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P30 ES006694-12; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA119200; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES006694-10S1; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG021948-05; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES006694-120001; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG021948; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA119200-01A1; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES006694-130001; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG021948-03; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG021948-03; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P30 ES006694-11A19006; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA119200-01A1; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P30 ES006694-130001; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P30 ES006694-11A10001; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P30 ES006694-13; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES006694-13; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / AG021948-04; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA119200; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01S AG021948; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P30 ES006694-10S1; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES006694-10; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES006694-12S1; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA119200-02; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / P30 ES006694-10; United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG021948-01; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA119200-02; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES006694-11A1; United States / NIEHS NIH HHS / ES / ES006694-12
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Carcinogens; 0 / Cyclohexenes; 0 / Vinyl Compounds; 57-97-6 / 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene; 596C064IG4 / 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene dioxide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS90041; NLM/ PMC2677070
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22. Sutak J, Lazic D, Cullimore JE: Uterine tumour resembling an ovarian sex cord tumour. J Clin Pathol; 2005 Aug;58(8):888-90
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  • [Title] Uterine tumour resembling an ovarian sex cord tumour.
  • Endometrial stromal sarcomas account for 0.25% of all uterine malignancies.
  • These tumours were originally divided into low grade and high grade stromal sarcomas, but the recent World Health Organisation classification (2003) recognises low grade stromal sarcoma and undifferentiated endometrial sarcoma.
  • Low grade sarcomas may exhibit other forms of differentiation, including smooth muscle and sex cord differentiation.
  • In the latter form, the tumour contains epithelial-like or sex cord-like elements often with epithelioid appearance, arranged in nests, cords, trabeculae, solid, or tubular structures.
  • If this element predominates, the tumour is considered to be a uterine tumour resembling ovarian sex cord tumour, and may cause diagnostic difficulties.
  • This case report describes the histological and immunohistochemical features of a uterine stromal sarcoma showing exclusively a pattern reminiscent of ovarian sex cord tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Sarcoma, Endometrial Stromal / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Neprilysin / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16049297.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1770886
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23. Conkey DS, Howard GC, Grigor KM, McLaren DB, Kerr GR: Testicular sex cord-stromal tumours: the Edinburgh experience 1988-2002, and a review of the literature. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2005 Aug;17(5):322-7
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  • [Title] Testicular sex cord-stromal tumours: the Edinburgh experience 1988-2002, and a review of the literature.
  • AIMS: Sex cord-stromal tumours of the testis are uncommon tumours, accounting for around 5% of testicular neoplasms.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 1988 to 2002, 18 patients with a diagnosis of sex cord-stromal tumour were referred to our centre.
  • RESULTS: Sixteen were Leydig-cell tumours and two were Sertoli cell.
  • For the Leydig-cell tumours, the median age at presentation was 42 years, 50% presented with a testicular mass and 31% with gynaecomastia.
  • Two patients followed a malignant course: one revealing disease dissemination at initial staging, and a second 12 months after potentially curative orchidectomy.
  • After a median follow-up of 46 months, two patients have developed progressive disease, and two patients have died, one of metastatic Leydig-cell tumour.
  • CONCLUSION: We confirm the overall excellent prognosis for most of the patients with sex cord-stromal tumours of the testis.
  • [MeSH-major] Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Humans. Male. Prognosis. Retroperitoneal Space. Retrospective Studies. Scotland. Sertoli Cell Tumor / pathology. Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16097561.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-6555
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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24. Premalata CS, Amirtham U, Devi G, Biswas S, Ud B, Umadevi K: Ovarian sex cord tumour with annular tubules diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology--a case report. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2005 Jul;48(3):358-60
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  • [Title] Ovarian sex cord tumour with annular tubules diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology--a case report.
  • Sex cord tumor with annular tubules (SCTAT) is a rare ovarian neoplasm with distinctive morphological features whose cytological features have rarely been described.
  • The cytological findings of a rare ovarian neoplasm are described, which is only the third such report in English literature.
  • Cell block study brings out the distinctive architecture of the tumor and helps in differentiating it from other closely related tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16761751.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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25. Hurrell DP, McCluggage WG: Uterine tumour resembling ovarian sex cord tumour is an immunohistochemically polyphenotypic neoplasm which exhibits coexpression of epithelial, myoid and sex cord markers. J Clin Pathol; 2007 Oct;60(10):1148-54
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  • [Title] Uterine tumour resembling ovarian sex cord tumour is an immunohistochemically polyphenotypic neoplasm which exhibits coexpression of epithelial, myoid and sex cord markers.
  • AIMS: To describe the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical findings in four cases of uterine tumour resembling ovarian sex cord tumour (UTROSCT).
  • METHODS: Four UTROSCTs were stained with a wide range of antibodies, including epithelial (AE1/3, epithelial membrane antigen), myoid (desmin, alpha smooth muscle actin, h-caldesmon), sex cord (alpha inhibin, calretinin, melan A, CD99) and neuroendocrine (chromogranin, CD56) markers as well as hormone receptors (oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, androgen receptor), vimentin, CD10, WT1 and HMB45.
  • RESULTS: The tumours ranged from 0.8 to 19.5 cm.
  • The tumours were variably composed of solid, corded, trabecular, nested, glandular and retiform arrangements of tumour cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: UTROSCT exhibits a polyphenotypic immunophenotype with coexpression of markers of epithelial, myoid and sex cord lineage as well as hormone receptors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17182656.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2014850
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26. McCluggage WG, Young RH: Immunohistochemistry as a diagnostic aid in the evaluation of ovarian tumors. Semin Diagn Pathol; 2005 Feb;22(1):3-32
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemistry as a diagnostic aid in the evaluation of ovarian tumors.
  • Aspects of immunohistochemistry (IHC), which are useful in the diagnosis of ovarian tumors (mostly neoplasms but also a few tumor-like lesions), are discussed.
  • One of the most common situations in which IHC may aid is in the evaluation of tumors with follicles or other patterns which bring a sex cord-stromal tumor into the differential.
  • The distinction between a sex cord tumor and an endometrioid carcinoma with sex-cord-like patterns may be greatly aided by the triad of epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), inhibin, and calretinin, the latter two being typically positive and EMA negative in sex cord tumors, the converse being typical of endometrioid carcinoma.
  • It should be emphasized that granulosa cell tumors may be inhibin negative and, albeit less specific, calretinin is more reliable in evaluating this particular issue.
  • Lack of staining for inhibin and calretinin may also be supportive in leading to consideration of diverse other neoplasms that may form follicles, including metastatic tumors as varied as carcinoid and melanoma.
  • The well-known staining of the latter neoplasm for S-100 protein and HMB-45 may be very helpful in evaluating melanomas with follicular or other unusual patterns, a challenging aspect of ovarian tumor interpretation.
  • IHC for neuroendocrine markers may assist in the diagnosis of primary and metastatic carcinoid tumor.
  • The broad differential diagnosis of glandular neoplasms with an endometrioid-pseudoendometrioid morphology, or mucinous cell type, has been the subject of much exploration in recent years, particularly the distinction between primary and metastatic neoplasms.
  • It is even less helpful in the case of primary versus metastatic mucinous neoplasia.
  • Staining for alpha-fetoprotein may aid in confirming the diagnosis of endometrioid-like (and hepatoid) variants of yolk sac tumor.
  • Ependymoma of the ovary may also have an endometrioid-like glandular pattern, but positive stains for glial fibrillary acidic protein contrast with the negative results in others neoplasms with a similar pattern.
  • Immunostains may be very helpful in the evaluation of oxyphilic tumors and tumor-like lesions and in some unusual forms of clear cell neoplasia, such as clear cell struma, both subjects being reviewed herein.
  • Immunostains may highlight both the presence and extent of epithelial cells in a variety of circumstances, including microinvasive foci in cases of serous borderline tumors and mucinous carcinomas, and in determining the extent of carcinoma cells and reactive cells within mural nodules of mucinous neoplasms.
  • As in tumor pathology in general, various markers may be crucial in the diagnosis of small round cell tumors of the ovary, and familiar markers of epithelial, lymphoid, leukemic, and melanocytic neoplasms may assist in the analysis of high grade tumors with a poorly differentiated carcinoma, lymphoma-granulocytic sarcoma, malignant melanoma differential.
  • The evaluation of ovarian cystic lesions may be aided by thyroglobulin or TTF 1 (cystic struma), glial fibrillary acid protein (ependymal cysts), and inhibin-calretinin (follicle cysts and unilocular granulosa cell tumors).
  • Stains for trophoblast markers may occasionally aid in the evaluation of germ cell tumors, although routine stains should usually suffice; they may be of academic interest in confirming trophoblastic differentiation in some high grade surface epithelial carcinomas.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunohistochemistry. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Metastasis. Ovarian Cysts / diagnosis. Ovarian Follicle / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16512597.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-2570
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 115
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27. Kommoss F, Kommoss S, Schmidt D, du Bois A, Pfisterer J: [Central pathology review. Inclusion criterion for clinical studies of ovarian carcinomas?]. Pathologe; 2008 Nov;29 Suppl 2:157-9
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  • In this context, the distinction of ovarian carcinomas from borderline tumors, ovarian metastases, and sex cord tumors has been shown to be a potential pitfall.
  • At present, the concept of a central histopathology review for patients with ovarian carcinomas is being studied prospectively in a translational research project of the AGO-Ovar termed "HIstologische STandardisierte Zweitbegutachtung in einem Studienkollektiv fortgeschrittener Ovarialkarzinome, OVAR 11t-HISTO" (Histological standardized review in a study collective of advanced ovarian cancer; http://www.mh-hannover.de/institute/pathologie/dgp:Studien).
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Referral and Consultation
  • [MeSH-minor] Angiogenesis Inhibitors / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal / therapeutic use. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bevacizumab. Carboplatin / administration & dosage. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Combined Modality Therapy. Consensus. Diagnostic Errors. Female. Humans. Ovariectomy. Ovary / pathology. Paclitaxel / administration & dosage. Precancerous Conditions / pathology. Prospective Studies. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18726596.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1963
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Randomized Controlled Trial
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Angiogenesis Inhibitors; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized; 2S9ZZM9Q9V / Bevacizumab; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; P88XT4IS4D / Paclitaxel
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28. Querleu D, Gladieff L, Delannes M, Mery E, Ferron G, Rafii A: [Preservation of fertility in gynaecologic cancers]. Bull Cancer; 2008 May;95(5):487-94
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  • [Transliterated title] Préservation de la fertilité dans les cancers gynécologiques.
  • Data from the recent literature are reassuring about the safety of conservative management - involving the maintenance of at least the uterus and one ovary without radiation therapy - in early cervical cancers, selected early invasive epithelial tumors of the ovary, stage IA sex cord stromal tumors, and borderline tumors of the ovary whatever the stage.
  • Conservative management of germ cell tumors of the ovary and trophoblastic disease is standard, not an option.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / therapy. Fertility. Infertility, Female / prevention & control. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / therapy


29. von Allmen D: Malignant lesions of the ovary in childhood. Semin Pediatr Surg; 2005 May;14(2):100-5
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  • Germ cell tumors predominate and may be further subdivided based on the differentiation of the malignant cells.
  • Epithelial cell tumors, which are most common in adults, and sex-cord stromal tumors each make up 15% of the total in children.
  • Rare malignant lesions and metastatic disease account for the small remaining group of tumors.
  • Regardless of tumor type, the majority of patients present with localized disease, but proper surgical staging is important to determine the need for adjuvant therapy.
  • The development of platinum-based chemotherapeutic regimens has resulted in significant improvements in long-term survival, even for children who present with advanced stage disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Agents. Child. Female. Gynecologic Surgical Procedures. Humans. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 15846566.001).
  • [ISSN] 1055-8586
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
  • [Number-of-references] 54
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30. Pervatikar SK, Rao R, Dinesh US: Ossifying luteinized thecoma of the ovary with endometrial adenocarcinoma. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2009 Apr-Jun;52(2):222-4
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  • Luteinized thecomas are one of the sex cord stromal tumors of the ovary rarely undergoing ossification.
  • We report a case of a 66-year-old post-menopausal female with the chief complaint of uterine bleeding of 7 months duration.
  • True bone formation in ovarian tumors is rare.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Thecoma / complications. Thecoma / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19332920.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5130
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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31. Li Q, Graff JM, O'Connor AE, Loveland KL, Matzuk MM: SMAD3 regulates gonadal tumorigenesis. Mol Endocrinol; 2007 Oct;21(10):2472-86
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  • [Title] SMAD3 regulates gonadal tumorigenesis.
  • Inhibin is a secreted tumor suppressor and an activin antagonist.
  • Inhibin alpha null mice develop gonadal sex cord-stromal tumors with 100% penetrance and die of a cachexia-like syndrome due to increased activin signaling.
  • Because Sma and Mad-related protein (SMAD)2 and SMAD3 transduce activin signals in vitro, we attempted to define the role of SMAD3 in gonadal tumorigenesis and the wasting syndrome by generating inhibin alpha and Smad3 double mutant mice.
  • Approximately 90% of these males survived to 26 wk in contrast to 95% of inhibin-deficient males, which develop bilateral testicular tumors and die of the wasting syndrome by 12 wk.
  • Testicular tumors were either absent or unilaterally slow growing and less hemorrhagic in the majority of double-knockout males.
  • In contrast, development of the ovarian tumors and wasting syndrome was delayed, but still occurred, in the majority of the double-knockout females by 26 wk.
  • In double mutant females, tumor development was accompanied by typical activin-induced pathological changes.
  • In summary, we identify an important function of SMAD3 in gonadal tumorigenesis in both sexes.
  • However, this effect is significantly more pronounced in the male, indicating that SMAD3 is the primary transducer of male gonadal tumorigenesis, whereas SMAD3 potentially overlaps with SMAD2 function in the ovary.
  • These studies identify sexually dimorphic functions of SMAD3 in gonadal tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Inhibins / physiology. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Smad3 Protein / physiology. Testicular Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17595316.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-8809
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA60651; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD32067; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / U54-HD28934
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Smad3 Protein; 0 / Smad3 protein, mouse; 0 / activin A; 0 / inhibin-alpha subunit; 104625-48-1 / Activins; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone
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32. Sangoi AR, Soslow RA, Teng NN, Longacre TA: Ovarian clear cell carcinoma with papillary features: a potential mimic of serous tumor of low malignant potential. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Feb;32(2):269-74
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  • [Title] Ovarian clear cell carcinoma with papillary features: a potential mimic of serous tumor of low malignant potential.
  • The differential diagnostic problems usually associated with clear cell carcinoma (CCC) of the ovary have been well characterized and include primitive germ cell tumor, sex cord stromal tumor, and metastasis.
  • Distinction from other types of surface epithelial carcinoma may also pose a diagnostic challenge, but the potential for misdiagnosis of serous tumor of low malignant potential (S-LMP) is not well recognized.
  • On microscopic examination, each tumor had a papillary architecture that accounted for 30% to 95% of the tumor; in 6 cases, the cores of the papillae were hyalinized.
  • Most had a low mitotic index (9/13) and/or deceptively bland cytology (8/13); only careful attention to the cytologic features and/or mitotic index allowed correct identification of the tumor type in 5 cases.
  • Features most helpful in distinguishing papillary CCC are unilaterality, nonhierarchical branching, monomorphous cell population, and the presence of more typical CCC patterns elsewhere in the tumor.
  • Increased numbers of mitotic figures may not be present and high-grade cytologic atypia may be focal, requiring careful examination of multiple tumor sections for detection.
  • As CCC and S-LMP exhibit significantly different immunoreactivity for Wilms' Tumor 1 and estrogen receptor, these markers may also be useful adjunctive tests in problematic cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Endometriosis / complications. Endometriosis / pathology. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct. Humans. Middle Aged. Mitotic Index. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 18223330.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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33. Ji J, Försti A, Sundquist J, Lenner P, Hemminki K: Survival in ovarian cancer patients by histology and family history. Acta Oncol; 2008;47(6):1133-9
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  • INTRODUCTION: Earlier studies suggest that histology has no prognostic significance in patients with invasive ovarian tumors.
  • Compared to women with epithelial ovarian cancer, women with borderline epithelial tumors had the best survival (HR 0.02 and 0.14 for cause-specific and overall survival).
  • Good survival was also noted for patients with sex cord-stromal tumors and germ cell tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: Our data showed that histology and family history are prognostic factors for ovarian tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / mortality. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / mortality. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Female. Genetic Predisposition to Disease. Humans. Medical History Taking. Middle Aged. Odds Ratio. Predictive Value of Tests. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Sweden / epidemiology

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  • (PMID = 18607880.001).
  • [ISSN] 1651-226X
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta oncologica (Stockholm, Sweden)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Oncol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Norway
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34. Peterson C, Skoog S: Prenatal diagnosis of juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the testis. J Pediatr Urol; 2008 Dec;4(6):472-4
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  • [Title] Prenatal diagnosis of juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the testis.
  • Juvenile granulosa cell tumor is a rare benign neoplasm of the testicular stroma that accounts for 1-5% of all prepubertal testis tumors [Metcalfe PD, Farivar-Mohseni H, Farhat W, McLorie G, Khoury A, Bagli DJ.
  • Pediatric testicular tumors: contemporary incidence and efficacy of testicular preserving surgery.
  • Clinical behavior and a contemporary management algorithm for prepubertal testis tumors: a summary of the prepubertal testis tumor registry.
  • A prior case series retrospectively identified a cystic testis tumor on prenatal ultrasound images which was subsequently diagnosed as a juvenile granulosa cell tumor [Bryan DE, Cain MP, Casale AJ.
  • Juvenile granulosa-theca cell (sex cord-stromal) tumor of the infant testis.
  • We report a case of a prenatally diagnosed testis tumor which was subsequently diagnosed as a juvenile granulosa cell tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / ultrasonography. Testicular Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Prenatal

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  • (PMID = 18760677.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4898
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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35. Czernobilsky B: Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors: an update. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Apr;27(2):229-35
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  • [Title] Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors: an update.
  • Tumors of the uterus resembling ovarian sex cord tumors were reported by Clement and Scully in 1976 and were divided in 2 groups: group 1, endometrial stromal tumors, and group 2, mural uterine tumors-both with elements resembling ovarian sex cord tumors.
  • In the former, the sex cord component constitutes a minor portion of an endometrial stromal neoplasm, whereas in the latter, it is the predominant or exclusive component of a uterine wall lesion composed of a variety of mesenchymal elements.
  • An origin from endometrial stromal cells, adenomyosis, stromal myosis, endometriosis, or multipotential cells within the myometrium was postulated in both groups of tumors.
  • In group 1 tumors, the prognosis depends on the type, grade, and stage of the underlying stromal neoplasm.
  • Group 2 tumors seemed to be benign, although because of the occasional recurrence of these tumors, they should be considered of low-grade malignant potential.
  • In group 1 tumors, the sex cord elements remained limited to cords, trabeculae, nests, and tubules.
  • Eventually, the abbreviation ESTSCLE, or endometrial stromal tumors with sex cord-like elements, was given to group 1 tumors, whereas UTROSCT, or uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex cord tumor, was used for group 2 tumors.
  • Out of the plethora of the immunohistochemical stains, a panel of 4 including calretinin, inhibin, CD99, and Melan A has emerged which seemed to be the most characteristic sex cord markers.
  • Endometrial stromal tumors with sex cord-like elements, on the other hand, usually express only 1 sex cord marker, mostly calretinin.
  • In conclusion, UTROSCT and, to a lesser degree, ESTSCLE, are polyphenotypic neoplasms, which, according to the evidence available at present, most likely arise from pluripotential uterine mesenchymal cells.
  • In UTROSCT, the differentiation into sex cord components is predominant or exclusive, whereas in ESTSCLE, it is minor.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Differentiation. Diagnosis, Differential. Endometrial Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Endometrial Stromal Tumors / pathology. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18317219.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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36. Kline RC, Bazzett-Matabele LB: Adnexal masses and malignancies of importance to the colorectal surgeon. Clin Colon Rectal Surg; 2010 Jun;23(2):63-71
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  • In this article, the authors review both benign and malignant ovarian masses, as the colorectal surgeon who encounters an adnexal mass at the time of surgery should be aware of the steps necessary for surgical staging and optimal tumor resection.Ovarian tumors-most of which are benign-are divided into three major categories, in order of frequency: epithelial, germ cell, and sex cord-stromal tumors.
  • Nonneoplastic conditions of the ovary that may present as adnexal masses include the following, according to World Health Organization (WHO) classification: pregnancy luteoma, hyperplasia of ovarian stroma, hyperthecosis, massive edema, solitary follicle cysts and corpus luteal cysts, multiple follicle cysts, and endometriosis.Epithelial ovarian tumors arise from the surface epithelium and can be benign or malignant.
  • Germ cell tumors are more likely to appear in females under 20 years, accounting for 70% of ovarian tumors in this age group.
  • Teratomas are the most common germ cell tumors.
  • Malignancies, in addition to malignant teratomas, include dysgerminomas, endodermal sinus tumors, and embryonal carcinomas.
  • The more common sex cord-stromal tumors include granulosa stromal cell tumors, Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, and gynandroblastomas.Surgical staging and optimal tumor resection are also addressed, with a focus on epithelial malignancies, as they are the most relevant to colorectal surgeons.

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  • (PMID = 21629623.001).
  • [ISSN] 1530-9681
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinics in colon and rectal surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Colon Rectal Surg
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2967325
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Adnexal masses / ovarian cancer / ovarian cysts
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37. Devouassoux-Shisheboran M, Deschildre C, Mauduit C, Berger G, Mejean-Lebreton F, Bouvier R, Droz JP, Fénichel P, Benahmed M: Expression of galectin-3 in gonads and gonadal sex cord stromal and germ cell tumors. Oncol Rep; 2006 Aug;16(2):335-40
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  • [Title] Expression of galectin-3 in gonads and gonadal sex cord stromal and germ cell tumors.
  • Galectin-3, a beta-galactoside-binding lectin, has been implicated in many human malignancies, but has seldom been studied in human gonads and gonadal tumors.
  • The aim of our study was to investigate galectin-3 mRNA and protein expression in normal ovaries and testes as well as in a variety of 51 gonadal sex cord stromal and germ cell tumors, and two testicular seminomatous and non-seminomatous cell lines, using either real-time PCR or immunohistochemistry.
  • In human ovaries, galectin-3 is absent from granulosa cells, as well as from granulosa cell and Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, and is not a useful marker in distinguishing granulosa cell from Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors.
  • In testicular tumorigenesis, galectin-3 has a dual function according to the histological type of tumors and their hormone dependency.
  • In malignant testicular Sertoli cell tumors, the expression of galectin-3 is down-regulated while, in benign Leydig cell tumors, this expression is maintained, indicating the possible implication of this gene in the development of more aggressive testicular sex cord stromal tumors.
  • In contrast to sex cord stromal tumors, galectin-3 expression is up-regulated in testicular germ cell tumors.
  • By real-time PCR, we demonstrated a significant elevation of the galectin-3 mRNA level in non-seminomatous testicular germ cell tumors and cell line as compared to normal testes and seminomas (p=0.0432 and p=0.0247, respectively), indicating the possible role of this gene in the non-seminomatous differentiation of germ cell tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Galectin 3 / analysis. Sertoli Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Male. Ovarian Neoplasms / chemistry. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovary / chemistry. RNA, Messenger / analysis. Receptors, Androgen / analysis. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Sertoli Cells / chemistry. Testis / chemistry

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  • (PMID = 16820912.001).
  • [ISSN] 1021-335X
  • [Journal-full-title] Oncology reports
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Oncol. Rep.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Galectin 3; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Receptors, Androgen
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38. Kalfa N, Veitia RA, Benayoun BA, Boizet-Bonhoure B, Sultan C: The new molecular biology of granulosa cell tumors of the ovary. Genome Med; 2009;1(8):81
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  • [Title] The new molecular biology of granulosa cell tumors of the ovary.
  • Granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) of the ovary belong to the group of ovarian sex-cord stromal tumors and represent 5 to 10% of ovarian malignancies.
  • The gsp oncogene is a constitutive activating mutation of the prognosis of the tumor.

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  • (PMID = 19725933.001).
  • [ISSN] 1756-994X
  • [Journal-full-title] Genome medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Genome Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2768967
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39. Gilani MM, Behnamfar F, Zamani F, Zamani N: Frequency of different types of ovarian cancer in Vali-e-Asr Hospital (Tehran University of Medical Sciences) 2001-2003. Pak J Biol Sci; 2007 Sep 1;10(17):3026-8
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  • There were 152 cases of ovarian cancer, 102 (67.1%) epithelial type, 26 (17.1%) germ cell tumors, 14 (9.2%) sex cord stromal and 10 (6.6%) metastatic ovarian tumors.
  • Epithelial type tumors and sex cord-stromal tumors were more prevalent after the age 50 (40 and 44.4% consequently).
  • Germ cell tumors were more prevalent before 20(16 cases, 61.5%) (chi2 = 42.54, p-value = 0.000).
  • Stage of disease in epithelial type tumors was advanced in most of patients but most germ cell tumors and sexcord-stromal tumors were stage I (chi2 = 19.6, p-value = 0.000).
  • Present study showed that epithelial ovarian tumors in comparison to western countries are less frequent in Iran but still this histologic type is the most prevalent type of ovarian malignancy in this area of the world.
  • Of course in younger patients we can predict more probability of germ cell tumors with more localized disease and better prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / epidemiology. Ovarian Neoplasms / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Female. Humans. Incidence. Iran. Medical Oncology / methods. Middle Aged. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 19090225.001).
  • [ISSN] 1028-8880
  • [Journal-full-title] Pakistan journal of biological sciences : PJBS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pak. J. Biol. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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40. Schneider DT, Calaminus G, Harms D, Göbel U, German Maligne Keimzelltumoren Study Group: Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors in children and adolescents. J Reprod Med; 2005 Jun;50(6):439-46
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  • [Title] Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors in children and adolescents.
  • Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors (OSCSTs) are a heterogeneous group of tumors that develop from the gonadal non-germ-cell component.
  • Despite recent advances in the clinical and histopathologic diagnosis of OSCSTs, a high degree of uncertainty remains with regard to adequate therapy, particularly in patients presenting with microscopic or macroscopic tumor spread.
  • In addition, we summarize the data from our clinical, histopathologic and genetic analyses of patients that were prospectively reported to the German MAKEI protocols for treatment of nontesticular malignant germ cell tumors.
  • Among these patients, juvenile granulosa cell tumors (JGCTs) constitute the most frequent histologic subtype, followed by Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors (SLCTs) and sclerosing stromal tumors.
  • In addition, prognosis correlates with tumor stage according to the International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
  • Nevertheless, we observed a favorable response to cisplatin-based chemotherapy in the majority of stage II and III tumors.
  • Genetic analysis of 27 tumors available for comparative genomic hybridization analysis revealed normal profiles in the majority of tumors and whole chromosomal gain, such as a gain of 12 in single tumors, with no consistent pattern with regard to histology or clinical outcome.
  • This analysis confirmed that most OSCSTs present at a low tumor stage and that prognosis in these patients is excellent.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Germany. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16050568.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-7758
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Reprod Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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41. Alam K, Maheshwari V, Rashid S, Bhargava S: Bilateral Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor of the ovary: a rare case report. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2009 Jan-Mar;52(1):97-9
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  • [Title] Bilateral Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor of the ovary: a rare case report.
  • Sertoli leydig cell tumors also known as arrhenoblastoma, are a rare member of the sex cord-stromal tumor group of ovarian and testicular cancers, comprising less than 1% of all ovarian tumors, which occur in young adults and are almost always unilateral.
  • We hereby report a case of a 17-year-old female presenting with a short history of irregular menses and an abdominal lump, which was histologically proven to be a bilateral sertoli leydig cell tumor of the ovary, an exceptionally rare entity in itself.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovary / pathology. Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19136796.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5130
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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42. Zizi-Sermpetzoglou A, Petrakopoulou N, Tepelenis N, Savvaidou V, Manoloudaki K, Katsoulis M: Pure Sertoli cell tumor. a case report and review of the literature. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2010;31(1):117-9
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  • [Title] Pure Sertoli cell tumor. a case report and review of the literature.
  • Pure Sertoli cell tumor (SCT) is a rare sex cord tumor and a subtype of Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors according to the WHO Classification.
  • They lack a Leydig cell component and do not contain the immature neoplastic stroma found in the neoplasms of the Sertoli-Leydig cell category.
  • Sertoli cell tumors occur in women of reproductive age but a few can also occur in children.
  • The tumors are hormone functional in 40-60% of cases.
  • These histologic patterns may result in SCTs mimicking other ovarian tumors.
  • About 11% of Stage I tumors have worrisome histologic features that may portend an adverse outcome.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sertoli Cell Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20349797.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 24
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43. Chang YW, Hong SS, Jeen YM, Kim MK, Suh ES: Bilateral sclerosing stromal tumor of the ovary in a premenarchal girl. Pediatr Radiol; 2009 Jul;39(7):731-4
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  • [Title] Bilateral sclerosing stromal tumor of the ovary in a premenarchal girl.
  • Sclerosing stromal tumor (SST) is a rare benign ovarian neoplasm classified as a type of sex cord stromal tumor that occurs predominantly in young patients.
  • Several reports have described the US, CT and MR features of SST, but there have been no reports of a bilateral calcified SST in a child.
  • We present a case of a bilateral SST of the ovary with calcification in a 12-year-old premenarchal girl and describe the US, CT, MR and pathological findings.
  • [MeSH-major] Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Endometrial Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19283376.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1998
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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44. Kigawa J, Katabuchi H, Yaegashi N: [Review and revision of guidelines for ovarian cancer treatment in Japan]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Apr;37(4):617-9
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  • A survey of members of the Japan Society of Gynecologic Oncology revealed that 93% of the members use the present Guideline for Ovarian Cancer Treatment in practice.
  • There is an international consensus about first-line treatment for ovarian cancer.
  • In contrast, the treatment for sex-cord stromal tumor, which is rare, and recurrent cancer are not standardized.
  • In addition, management for borderline malignant tumor has been controversial.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy. Practice Guidelines as Topic

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  • (PMID = 20414017.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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45. Zhang M, Cheung MK, Shin JY, Kapp DS, Husain A, Teng NN, Berek JS, Osann K, Chan JK: Prognostic factors responsible for survival in sex cord stromal tumors of the ovary--an analysis of 376 women. Gynecol Oncol; 2007 Feb;104(2):396-400
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors responsible for survival in sex cord stromal tumors of the ovary--an analysis of 376 women.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate prognostic factors that impact on the survival of women with ovarian sex cord stromal tumors (SCST).
  • RESULTS: 376 women (median age: 51) with ovarian sex cord stromal cell tumors were identified, including 339 with granulosa cell and 37 with Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors.
  • 265 (71%) patients had stage I, 39 (10%) stage II, 40 (11%) stage III, and 32 (8%) had stage IV disease.
  • Women with stage I-II disease had a 5-year disease-specific survival of 95% compared to 59% in those with stage III-IV cancers (p<0.001).
  • 110 patients with stage I-II disease underwent conservative surgery without hysterectomy.
  • On multivariate analysis, age<or=50 (p=0.001) and early-stage disease (p<0.001) remained significant prognostic factor for improved survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Younger age and early-stage disease are important predictors for improved survival in patients with ovarian sex cord stromal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / mortality. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / mortality. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Risk Factors. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17030354.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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46. Nosov V, Park S, Rao J, Memarzadeh S: Non-Peutz-Jeghers syndrome associated ovarian sex cord tumor with annular tubules: a case report. Fertil Steril; 2009 Oct;92(4):1497.e5-8
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  • [Title] Non-Peutz-Jeghers syndrome associated ovarian sex cord tumor with annular tubules: a case report.
  • OBJECTIVE: Sex cord tumors with annular tubules (SCTAT) are a rare subtype of sex cord stromal tumor of the ovary.
  • An evidence-based management plan with follow-up evaluations is difficult to outline because of the rarity of these tumors.
  • We describe the case of a premenarcheal patient with a SCTAT.
  • Her clinical presentation was consistent with an estrogen-secreting tumor, resulting in early menarche and premature breast development.
  • Inhibin and estradiol levels were markedly elevated preoperatively and normalized 5 weeks after surgical removal of the tumor.
  • RESULT(S): Normalization of serum estradiol and inhibin along with cessation of menstruation were seen 5 weeks postoperatively, with persistence of morphologic signs of precocious puberty and advanced bone age at 11 months after the diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSION(S): The diagnosis of SCTAT was established on final pathology examination based on morphologic features of the tumor microscopically and the marker expression profile on immunohistochemistry.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19703688.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-5653
  • [Journal-full-title] Fertility and sterility
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fertil. Steril.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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47. Stolnicu S, Preda O, Dohan M, Puscasiu L, García-Galvis OF, Nogales FF: Pseudoglandular hepatoid differentiation in endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary simulates oxyphilic cell change. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Oct;27(4):521-5
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  • A 42-year-old patient had a stage III ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma with areas of hepatoid carcinoma (HC) of clear cell and eosinophilic pseudoglandular type that was difficult to differentiate from endometrioid carcinoma of oxyphilic type and sex cord-stromal tumor.
  • Trabecular and clear vacuolated areas of HC resembled luteinized cells of sex cord-stromal ovarian tumors, but the membranous positivity to CAM5.2 supported epithelial (hepatoid) identity.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18753970.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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48. Carta G, Crisman G, Margiotta G, Mastrocola N, Di Fonso A, Coletti G: Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors. A case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2010;31(4):456-8
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  • [Title] Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors. A case report.
  • Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors (UTROSCT) are rare, usually benign, polypoid or nodular neoplasms which generally arise in the fourth to sixth decade of life.
  • We report a case of a 74-year-old woman who presented with vaginal bleeding and remarkable uterine enlargement.
  • Immunohistochemistry is mandatory for a correct diagnosis and a panel of at least two markers of sex cord differentiation is recommended.
  • Differential diagnoses include leiomyosarcoma, UTROSCT and ESTSCLE, mixed müllerian tumor and metastatic ovarian sex cord tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20882895.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
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49. Chang MC, Vargas SO, Hornick JL, Hirsch MS, Crum CP, Nucci MR: Embryonic stem cell transcription factors and D2-40 (podoplanin) as diagnostic immunohistochemical markers in ovarian germ cell tumors. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 Jul;28(4):347-55
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  • [Title] Embryonic stem cell transcription factors and D2-40 (podoplanin) as diagnostic immunohistochemical markers in ovarian germ cell tumors.
  • SUMMARY: The embryonic stem cell transcription factors SOX2, NANOG, and OCT3/4 are involved in the regulation of germ cell tumor growth and differentiation.
  • They, and D2-40 (podoplanin), an antigen expressed in seminomas, are emerging as useful diagnostic markers in testicular germ cell tumors.
  • This study evaluates the use of these markers in ovarian tumors.
  • Ovarian germ cell tumors (n=31) have distinct immunostaining profiles, depending on the type of differentiation as follows: dysgerminoma (SOX2-, NANOG+, OCT3/4+, D2-40+), embryonal carcinoma (SOX2+, NANOG+, OCT3/4+, D2-40-), immature teratomas (SOX2+, NANOG-, OCT3/4-, D2-40-), yolk sac tumors, and choriocarcinoma (SOX2-, NANOG-, OCT3/4-, D2-40-).
  • Nongerm cell tumors (n=57, including surface-epithelial stromal tumors and sex-cord stromal tumors) were negative for NANOG and D2-40.
  • OCT3/4 was positive in 4 of 9 adult granulosa cell tumors (15% to 85% of cells).
  • In a small number of surface-epithelial stromal tumors, SOX2 and/or OCT3/4 were variably positive (20% to 90% of cells).
  • NANOG distinguished between either of these 2 tumors and nongerm cell tumors.
  • The inclusion of these markers should therefore be considered in cases of pure or mixed ovarian germ cell tumors that are difficult to classify, and to exclude nongerm cell tumor mimics.
  • [MeSH-major] Homeodomain Proteins / biosynthesis. Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Octamer Transcription Factor-3 / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. SOXB1 Transcription Factors / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / metabolism. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Embryonic Stem Cells / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Transcription Factors / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19483629.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / NANOG protein, human; 0 / Octamer Transcription Factor-3; 0 / PDPN protein, human; 0 / POU5F1 protein, human; 0 / SOX2 protein, human; 0 / SOXB1 Transcription Factors; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / monoclonal antibody D2-40
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50. Bercaw JL, Sanchez J, Byrd RH, Bhattacharjee MB, Dietrich JE: Sex cord tumor with annular tubules in a young adolescent with Von Willebrand's disease. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol; 2010 Jun;23(3):e111-4
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  • [Title] Sex cord tumor with annular tubules in a young adolescent with Von Willebrand's disease.
  • BACKGROUND: Ovarian sex cord tumor with annular tubules (SCTAT) is a rare form of ovarian neoplasm.
  • During her evaluation, she was both diagnosed with von Willebrand disease (VWD) and found to have an ovarian neoplasm, which was ultimately determined to be an ovarian sex cord tumor with annular tubules (SCTAT).
  • SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION: As her diagnosis was temporally associated with her worsening symptoms and the presence of an ovarian mass, this tumor may have played a role in her VWD diagnosis.
  • This case reminds physicians of the importance of evaluating patients with menometrorrhagia for bleeding conditions, in addition to considering hormone-secreting ovarian neoplasms, including SCTAT.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / complications. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / complications. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. von Willebrand Diseases / complications

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19896399.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4332
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric and adolescent gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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51. Mould AW, Duncan R, Serewko-Auret M, Loffler KA, Biondi C, Gartside M, Kay GF, Hayward NK: Global expression profiling of sex cord stromal tumors from Men1 heterozygous mice identifies altered TGF-beta signaling, decreased Gata6 and increased Csf1r expression. Int J Cancer; 2009 Mar 1;124(5):1122-32
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  • [Title] Global expression profiling of sex cord stromal tumors from Men1 heterozygous mice identifies altered TGF-beta signaling, decreased Gata6 and increased Csf1r expression.
  • Heterozygous disruption of the Men1 gene predisposes mice to the development of multiple endocrine tumors, accurately mimicking the human MEN1 cancer predisposition syndrome.
  • Additionally, Men1(+/-) mice frequently develop sex cord adenomas.
  • The mechanism underlying the susceptibility of these mice to sex cord tumor development has not been fully determined, but data suggest it may involve transcriptional regulation of key growth promoting/repressing genes.
  • To identify potential menin-regulated genes that may be important for tumor suppression in sex cord cells, we compared the global gene expression profiles of testis and ovary adenomas with other endocrine tumors of the pancreas and pituitary from Men1 heterozygous mice and with control tissues.
  • Gonadal tumors clustered separately from pancreas and pituitary tumors with only a few genes (e.g., Cdkn2c) commonly dysregulated in all tumor types.
  • Testis and ovary tumors displayed a higher level of transcriptional similarity to each other than they did to their respective control tissues.
  • Among genes that had decreased expression in tumors was significant over-representation of genes associated with the TGF-beta, hedgehog and Wnt signaling, indicating that loss of menin function affects these pathways at the level of transcription.
  • We propose that sex cord tumor susceptibility in Men1(+/-) mice involves deregulated cell proliferation due to dysregulation of multiple cell growth regulating genes including: reduced Cdkn2c transcription, loss of TGF-beta pathway tumor suppressor function (e.g., Gata6) and transcriptional activation of Csf1r.
  • [MeSH-major] GATA6 Transcription Factor / analysis. Gene Expression Profiling. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / physiology. Receptor, Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / analysis. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / etiology. Signal Transduction / physiology. Transforming Growth Factor beta / physiology


52. Prat J: Ovarian carcinomas, including secondary tumors: diagnostically challenging areas. Mod Pathol; 2005 Feb;18 Suppl 2:S99-111
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  • [Title] Ovarian carcinomas, including secondary tumors: diagnostically challenging areas.
  • The differential diagnosis of ovarian carcinomas, including secondary tumors, remains a challenging task.
  • Mucinous carcinomas of the ovary are rare and can be easily confused with metastatic mucinous carcinomas that may present clinically as a primary ovarian tumor.
  • International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage is the single most important prognostic factor, and stage I carcinomas have an excellent prognosis; FIGO stage is largely related to the histologic features of the ovarian tumors.
  • Infiltrative stromal invasion proved to be biologically more aggressive than expansile invasion.
  • Occasionally, endometrioid carcinomas may exhibit a microglandular pattern simulating sex cord-stromal tumors.
  • However, typical endometrioid glands, squamous differentiation, or an adenofibroma component are each present in 75% of these tumors whereas immunostains for calretinin and alpha-inhibin are negative.
  • Most of these tumors have a favorable outcome and they most likely represent independent primary carcinomas arising as a result of a Mullerian field effect.
  • Transitional cell carcinomas are distinguished from undifferentiated carcinomas by the presence of thick, undulating papillae with smooth luminal borders, microspaces, and tumor cells with distinctive 'urothelial' appearance.
  • Krukenberg tumors are metastatic adenocarcinomas traditionally perceived as composed of mucin-filled signet-ring cells associated with a striking proliferation of the ovarian stroma but many variations on this pattern occur.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Base Sequence. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Cytoskeletal Proteins / genetics. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Intermediate Filament Proteins / analysis. Keratin-20. Keratin-7. Keratins / analysis. Mutation. Prognosis. Trans-Activators / genetics. beta Catenin. ras Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15492758.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / KRT20 protein, human; 0 / KRT7 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / beta Catenin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 63
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53. Zapata LB, Whiteman MK, Marchbanks PA, Curtis KM: Intrauterine device use among women with ovarian cancer: a systematic review. Contraception; 2010 Jul;82(1):38-40
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  • BACKGROUND: Fertility-sparing treatment may be an option for women with early stage ovarian cancer and certain tumor types.
  • While there are some theoretical concerns that IUD use might affect monitoring of disease progression of sex cord-stromal tumors, or increase risk of pelvic infection or vaginal bleeding among women undergoing chemotherapy, we did not find any data to suggest that IUD use would lead to worsening of primary ovarian cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Intrauterine Devices / adverse effects. Ovarian Neoplasms / physiopathology

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  • [Copyright] Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • (PMID = 20682141.001).
  • [ISSN] 1879-0518
  • [Journal-full-title] Contraception
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Contraception
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Contraceptive Agents, Female; 5W7SIA7YZW / Levonorgestrel
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54. Kalfa N, Philibert P, Patte C, Thibaud E, Pienkowski C, Ecochard A, Boizet-Bonhoure B, Fellous M, Sultan C: [Juvenile granulosa-cell tumor: clinical and molecular expression]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil; 2009 Jan;37(1):33-44
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  • [Title] [Juvenile granulosa-cell tumor: clinical and molecular expression].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumeurs juvéniles de la granulosa: expression clinique et moléculaire.
  • Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors are rare tumors that originate from the nongerminal cells of ovary.
  • Two decades ago, the identification of juvenile granulosa-cell tumors (GCT), as a specific entity inside this group, allowed a better treatment of these tumors in children.
  • However, little data have been reported on the natural course of the disease and reliable prognostic factors have not been yet defined.
  • We here review the clinical and genetics aspects of granulosa tumors, based on a series of 40 children.
  • We found that early diagnosis of a tumor, revealed by clinical signs of hyperoestrogeny, is an important prognostic factor.
  • The pathophysiology of these tumors is still debatable and several cellular- and molecular-abnormal signals could be implicated in their development.
  • According to our data, FSH signaling-transduction pathway, such as a constitutionally activated Galphas, could also be implicated in the induction of granulosa cell proliferation and seems to modulate the invasiveness of the tumor.
  • Last, we have described a low-expression pattern or an extinction of an ovarian-determination gene, FOXL2, which is related to a worse prognosis of this tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Forkhead Transcription Factors / analysis. Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Granulosa Cells / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19119048.001).
  • [ISSN] 1297-9589
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynécologie, obstétrique & fertilité
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol Obstet Fertil
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / FOXL2 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors
  • [Number-of-references] 109
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55. Köbel M, Gilks CB, Huntsman DG: Adult-type granulosa cell tumors and FOXL2 mutation. Cancer Res; 2009 Dec 15;69(24):9160-2
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  • [Title] Adult-type granulosa cell tumors and FOXL2 mutation.
  • Little is known about the pathogenesis of ovarian granulosa cell tumors.
  • Recently, we reported the identification of a somatic FOXL2 402C-->G mutation that is present in virtually all adult-type granulosa cell tumors, but not in a wide range of other tumor types.
  • This finding has important implications for the diagnosis and classification of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors, provides insight into the pathogenesis of adult-type granulosa cell tumors, and opens possibilities for the development of targeted therapies.
  • [MeSH-major] Forkhead Transcription Factors / genetics. Granulosa Cell Tumor / genetics. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19996294.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7445
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] Canada / Canadian Institutes of Health Research / / MOP 97735
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / FOXL2 protein, human; 0 / Forkhead Transcription Factors
  • [Number-of-references] 16
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56. Wakui S, Muto T, Kobayashi Y, Ishida K, Nakano M, Takahashi H, Suzuki Y, Furusato M, Hano H: Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor of the testis in a Sprague-Dawley rat. J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci; 2008 Nov;47(6):67-70
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  • [Title] Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor of the testis in a Sprague-Dawley rat.
  • A rare intratubular gonadal stromal tumor was present in the testis of a 7-wk-old male Sprague-Dawley rat.
  • The tumor comprised an intratubular mixture of 2 types of tumor cells with intercellular junctions: the predominant tumor cells were consistent with a Sertoli cell origin, and cells comprising the minor population were situated on basolateral side of the tubuli, consistent with a Leydig cell origin.
  • The presence of a thick or multilayered basement membrane was confirmed except in tumor-infiltrative lesions.
  • The present case was considered to be a testicular mixed tubular Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor in a Sprague-Dawley rat.
  • [MeSH-major] Rodent Diseases / pathology. Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor / veterinary. Testicular Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 19049257.001).
  • [ISSN] 1559-6109
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science : JAALAS
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Am. Assoc. Lab. Anim. Sci.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2687134
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57. Zhao XY, Huang HF, Lian LJ, Lang JH: Ovarian cancer in pregnancy: a clinicopathologic analysis of 22 cases and review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 Jan-Feb;16(1):8-15
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  • Nine (40.9%) were found with ovarian malignant germ cell tumors, six (27.3%) with low malignant potential tumors, five (22.7%) with invasive epithelial tumors, and two (9.1%) with sex cord stromal tumors.
  • Ascites presenting at diagnosis implies advanced disease and gloomy prognosis.
  • Management depends on histology of the tumor, stage of the tumor, and the term of the pregnancy.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / diagnosis. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic / therapy. Pregnancy Outcome
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. China / epidemiology. Cohort Studies. Female. Gestational Age. Humans. Maternal Age. Neoplasm Staging. Pregnancy. Prenatal Diagnosis / methods. Preoperative Care / methods. Retrospective Studies. Risk Assessment. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16445603.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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58. Magro G, Gurrera A, Gangemi P, Saita A, Greco P: Incompletely differentiated (unclassified) sex cord/gonadal stromal tumor of the testis with a "pure" spindle cell component: report of a case with diagnostic and histogenetic considerations. Pathol Res Pract; 2007;203(10):759-62
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  • [Title] Incompletely differentiated (unclassified) sex cord/gonadal stromal tumor of the testis with a "pure" spindle cell component: report of a case with diagnostic and histogenetic considerations.
  • The group of incompletely differentiated (unclassified) sex cord/gonadal stromal tumors includes rare cases with predominant spindle cell morphology.
  • We report a rare case of a "pure" spindle cell tumor of the testis with morphological and immunohistochemical features consistent with the diagnosis of "incompletely differentiated sex cord/gonadal stromal tumor".
  • The concurrent presence of some morphological and immunohistochemical features of both Leydig and granulosa cell lines in the tumor suggests its origin from a stromal stem cell, possibly capable of dual differentiation, but with an arrest of maturation at an early phase of differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Differentiation. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Embryonal Carcinoma Stem Cells. Female. Granulosa Cells / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Leydig Cells / pathology. Male. Neoplastic Stem Cells / pathology. Stromal Cells / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17850986.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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59. D'Antonio A, De Dominicis G, Addesso M, Caleo A, Boscaino A: Hepatoid carcinoma of the ovary with sex cord stromal tumor: a previously unrecognized association. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2010 Apr;281(4):765-8
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  • [Title] Hepatoid carcinoma of the ovary with sex cord stromal tumor: a previously unrecognized association.
  • BACKGROUND: Hepatoid carcinoma (HC) of ovary is a rare type of epithelial tumor composed mainly of epithelioid cells with abundant acidophilic cytoplasm, histologically indistinguishable from hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • We report a previously unrecognized case of HC of ovary concurrent with a Sertoli cell tumor.
  • CASE REPORT: A 42-year-old woman patient with a long-term history of hepatitis C presented with a mass of left ovary without evidence of hepatic tumor.
  • Histologically, the primary tumor was composed of epithelioid cells with "hepatoid features" in association with a sex cord stromal tumor of Sertoli-type.
  • A final diagnosis of HC concurrent with Sertoli-type tumor was made.
  • CONCLUSION: The occurrence of this unreported association of HC with Sertoli-like tumor, the problems of differential diagnosis and therapeutic management of these tumors are the subject of this presentation.
  • A diagnosis of ovarian metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma is easy in patients with known primary tumor of liver and should be always excluded in these cases as an hepatoid variant of yolk sac tumor.
  • However, a combination of clinical and pathological features is necessary for a correct diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovary / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19856182.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0711
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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60. Clements A, Robison K, Granai C, Steinhoff MM, Scalia-Wilbur J, Moore RG: A case of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome with breast cancer, bilateral sex cord tumor with annular tubules, and adenoma malignum caused by STK11 gene mutation. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2009 Dec;19(9):1591-4
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  • [Title] A case of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome with breast cancer, bilateral sex cord tumor with annular tubules, and adenoma malignum caused by STK11 gene mutation.
  • This case report presents a patient with PJS with a concomitant breast cancer, bilateral stromal tumors with annular tubules of the ovaries, and adenoma malignum of the cervix.
  • Final pathologic examination revealed a concomitant breast cancer with metastasis to the ovaries, bilateral stromal tumors with annular tubules of the ovaries, and adenoma malignum of the cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Breast Neoplasms / complications. Ovarian Neoplasms / complications. Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome / complications. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / genetics. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoma, Ductal / complications. Carcinoma, Ductal / genetics. Female. Humans. Mutation / physiology. Ovarian Diseases / complications. Ovarian Diseases / genetics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19955943.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.1.- / STK11 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
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61. Magu SK, Malaviya AK, Behl AK, Basu A: Ovarian Sex-cord Tumour with Peutz-Jeghers Polyp and Giant Keratoacanthoma. Med J Armed Forces India; 2007 Jul;63(3):289-91
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  • [Title] Ovarian Sex-cord Tumour with Peutz-Jeghers Polyp and Giant Keratoacanthoma.

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  • (PMID = 27408023.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-1237
  • [Journal-full-title] Medical journal, Armed Forces India
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med J Armed Forces India
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC4922548
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Ovarian Sex-cord Tumour, Colonic polyp / Sebaceous gland tumours
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62. Kommoss F, Schmidt D: [Immunohistochemical sex cord markers. Description and use in the differential diagnosis of ovarian tumors]. Pathologe; 2007 May;28(3):187-94
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  • [Title] [Immunohistochemical sex cord markers. Description and use in the differential diagnosis of ovarian tumors].
  • Sex cord markers comprise proteins and hormones that are produced in sex cord-derivatives in normal ovaries and testes as well as in gonadal sex cord-stromal tumors.
  • Sex cord markers (e.g. inhibin-alpha) are used clinically as serum tumor markers.
  • Immunohistochemical staining of sex cord markers may be helpful in the differential diagnosis of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors versus surface epithelial-stromal tumors, germ cell tumors, other ovarian tumors, and ovarian metastases.
  • Inhibin-alpha has been shown to be the most specific marker of sex cord differentiation.
  • Currently, an immunohistochemical panel including inhibin-alpha and calretinin is considered most helpful in the differential diagnosis of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors.
  • CD99, Müllerian inhibiting substance (MIS), melan A and CD10, being sex cord markers of limited sensitivity and specificity, should only be used as part of an antibody panel in specific diagnostic settings.
  • EMA, CK7 and chromogranin are considered additional markers that may be useful in the differential diagnosis of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chromogranins / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Fertility. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Inhibins / analysis. Keratin-7 / analysis. Neprilysin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 17429635.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-8113
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / inhibin A; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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63. Li Q, Kumar R, Underwood K, O'Connor AE, Loveland KL, Seehra JS, Matzuk MM: Prevention of cachexia-like syndrome development and reduction of tumor progression in inhibin-deficient mice following administration of a chimeric activin receptor type II-murine Fc protein. Mol Hum Reprod; 2007 Sep;13(9):675-83
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  • [Title] Prevention of cachexia-like syndrome development and reduction of tumor progression in inhibin-deficient mice following administration of a chimeric activin receptor type II-murine Fc protein.
  • Inhibin is a secreted tumor suppressor, and inhibin alpha null mice develop gonadal sex cord-stromal tumors with 100% penetrance at an early age.
  • Inhibin-deficient mice die of a severe wasting syndrome due to increased activin signaling through activin receptor type II.
  • The current study was designed to assess the in vivo effects of an activin antagonist, a chimeric activin receptor type II fused to the Fc region of a murine IgG2a (ActRII-mFc), administered transiently to the inhibin-deficient mice.
  • Although ActRII-mFc treatment did not seem to prevent the formation of gonadal tumors, tumors were smaller in the majority of experimentally treated mice and were characterized by the presence of variable numbers and sizes of cysts in contrast to the solid hemorrhagic tumors that typically developed in the controls.
  • In summary, this study demonstrated that in vivo administration of the activin antagonist, ActRII-mFc, not only prevents the cachexia-like symptoms in the inhibin-deficient mouse model, but also reduces tumor progression.
  • These results support an essential role of activins in the cachexia-like syndrome development and implicate activins as growth-promoting factors in gonadal tumor progression.
  • The current findings have potential implications in the design of new drugs or strategies for the treatment of ovarian and testicular tumors and other conditions where ligands signal through ActRII.
  • [MeSH-minor] Activins / blood. Animals. Disease Progression. Female. Follicle Stimulating Hormone / blood. Immunoglobulin G / genetics. Liver / drug effects. Liver / pathology. Male. Mice. Mice, Knockout. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / genetics. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / prevention & control. Stomach / drug effects. Stomach / metabolism. Stomach / pathology. Syndrome. Testicular Neoplasms / genetics. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / prevention & control. Wasting Syndrome / genetics. Wasting Syndrome / pathology. Wasting Syndrome / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 17704537.001).
  • [ISSN] 1360-9947
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular human reproduction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Hum. Reprod.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / U54 HD28934
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments; 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 104625-48-1 / Activins; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone; EC 2.7.11.30 / Activin Receptors, Type II
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64. Popadiuk S, Korzon M, Chybicka A, Szmyd K, Dzierzega M, Trelińska J, Kowalczyk JR, Wiśniewska-Slusarz H, Woźniak W, Bilska K, Wachowiak J, Konatkowska B, Wysocki M, Krawczuk-Rybak M, Czauderna P, Szumera M, Sznurkowska K, Renke J: [Ovarian malignant tumours. Efficacy of germ cell and sex cord tumour treatment protocol in Poland]. Med Wieku Rozwoj; 2006 Jul-Sep;10(3 Pt 1):803-10
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] [Ovarian malignant tumours. Efficacy of germ cell and sex cord tumour treatment protocol in Poland].
  • Approximately 1% of all malignant tumours among children are localized in the ovary.
  • The majority belongs to germ cell tumours and occurs in the peripubertal period.
  • AIM of the study was the evaluation of the efficacy of malignant ovarian germ cell tumour treatment programme in children.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Since 1998, 40 girls with malignant ovarian tumours were enrolled in the multicentre trial.
  • Mixed germ cell tumours with yolk sac elements and dysgerminoma occurred the most often.
  • Tumour exceeded the ovary margin in more than half the patients and 25% were qualified as high risk group.
  • All but one patient with neuroblastoma received TGM protocol (Tumeurs Germinates Malignes).
  • RESULTS: Among 34 children with germ cell tumours and 3 with sex cord tumours who completed the treatment all are alive in the first remission.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The TGM protocol appears to be highly efficient in treatment of germ cell tumours even in advanced stages.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17317911.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Medycyna wieku rozwojowego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Wieku Rozwoj
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide; COB protocol; ICE protocol 1
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65. McCluggage WG, McKenna M, McBride HA: CD56 is a sensitive and diagnostically useful immunohistochemical marker of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2007 Jul;26(3):322-7
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  • [Title] CD56 is a sensitive and diagnostically useful immunohistochemical marker of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors.
  • Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors comprise a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with wide morphological diversity, and they can be mistaken for a variety of other tumors.
  • Some types, including granulosa and Sertoli cell tumor, may be confused with a neuroendocrine neoplasm.
  • CD56 is a widely used neuroendocrine marker with a high sensitivity for neuroendocrine tumors and is commonly used as part of a panel to distinguish between a neuroendocrine neoplasm and other tumors in the differential diagnosis.
  • In this study, we investigate CD56 staining in ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors.
  • CD56 staining has not previously been studied in this group of neoplasms.
  • We stained a large series of ovarian sex cord-stromal neoplasms (n = 85) with CD56.
  • Neoplasms studied were adult granulosa cell tumor (n = 40), juvenile granulosa cell tumor (n = 8), Sertoli cell tumor (n = 1), Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor (n = 14), Leydig cell tumor (n = 2), steroid cell tumor, not otherwise specified (n = 2), sclerosing stromal tumor (n = 1), sex cord tumor with annular tubules (n = 2), and fibroma (n = 15).
  • Three uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumor were also studied.
  • The normal ovarian stroma was diffusely positive, as were the 3 pregnancy-related proliferations.
  • All sex cord-stromal tumors except one were positive with CD56; staining ranged from focal to diffuse but was usually diffuse involving more than 50% of tumor cells.
  • CD56 immunoreactivity is almost universal in ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors of all the major morphological types and is of no value in distinguishing a sex cord-stromal and a neuroendocrine neoplasm.
  • Since CD56 is an extremely sensitive marker of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors, it may be useful in the diagnosis of this group of neoplasms, especially in cases which are alpha inhibin or calretinin negative, and in distinguishing these from mimics which are CD56 negative.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD56 / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17581419.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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66. Zhao C, Vinh TN, McManus K, Dabbs D, Barner R, Vang R: Identification of the most sensitive and robust immunohistochemical markers in different categories of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Mar;33(3):354-66
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Identification of the most sensitive and robust immunohistochemical markers in different categories of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors.
  • Different immunohistochemical sex cord-stromal markers have been previously studied in various types of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors; however, the sensitivity for sex cord-stromal lineage may vary between markers, and some markers may not be as sensitive in some types of sex cord-stromal tumors compared with other tumors in this spectrum of neoplasms.
  • The goals of this study were to determine which immunohistochemical markers are the most sensitive and immunohistochemically robust for sex cord-stromal lineage within a given type of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumor, and to establish whether there are substantial differences of expression of these markers between different types of sex cord-stromal tumors.
  • Immunohistochemical stains for markers which have known variable specificity for sex cord-stromal lineage [inhibin, calretinin, MART-1/melan-A, CD99, steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1, adrenal 4-binding protein), and WT1], were performed in 127 cases of 5 different types of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors: adult granulosa cell tumor (n=32), Sertoli cell tumor (n=27), Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor (n=18), steroid cell tumor (n=25), and fibroma/fibrothecoma (n=25).
  • All cases in each type of sex cord-stromal tumor expressed SF-1.
  • Inhibin and calretinin were expressed in all groups of tumors but with a lesser frequency (56% to 100% and 36% to 100% of cases, respectively).
  • All types of tumors except steroid cell tumor expressed WT1.
  • Fibroma/fibrothecoma was the only type of tumor that did not express CD99.
  • The only tumor groups that showed expression of MART-1 were Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor (restricted to the Leydig cell component) and steroid cell tumor (94% and 96% of cases, respectively).
  • The type of sex cord-stromal tumor that was least frequently positive for several of the different markers studied was fibroma/fibrothecoma.
  • Among all tumor groups combined, inhibin and WT1 were the 2 markers showing the most diffuse expression.
  • Likewise, the single marker showing the most optimal combination of diffuse and strong staining (immunohistochemical composite score: possible range, 1 to 12) varied between tumors: adult granulosa cell tumor-inhibin (score 10.0); Sertoli cell tumor-WT1 (score 10.8); Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor (Sertoli cell component)-WT1 (score 10.4); steroid cell tumor-inhibin (score 11.2); and fibroma/fibrothecoma-WT1 (score 8.9).
  • We conclude that most immunohistochemical sex cord-stromal markers have sufficient sensitivity for sex cord-stromal lineage.
  • Although each of the different types of sex cord-stromal tumors has a slightly unique immunoprofile in terms of frequency and extent of expression, these differences are relatively minor for most types of tumors with certain exceptions (eg, WT1 is not diagnostically useful in steroid cell tumor; CD99 is not diagnostically useful in fibroma/fibrothecoma; the only sex cord-stromal tumor for which MART-1 is diagnostically useful is steroid cell tumor; inhibin and calretinin are less diagnostically useful in fibroma/fibrothecoma than in the other types of tumors, but expression in fibrothecoma was higher than in fibroma).
  • SF-1 is the most sensitive sex cord-stromal marker among the most common types of sex cord-stromal tumors.
  • Given the findings relating to sensitivity and extent of expression in this study, and known specificity in the literature, the most informative sex cord-stromal markers to be used for the distinction from nonsex cord-stromal tumors are inhibin, calretinin, SF-1, and WT1 (the exact number of markers to be used should be based on the degree of difficulty of the case and level of experience of the pathologist); however, the utility of immunohistochemistry for the diagnosis of fibroma/fibrothecoma is somewhat limited.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / metabolism. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19033865.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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67. Li WH, Zhang JM: [Endometrioid carcinoma of ovary with prominent spindle cell component and resembling sex-cord tumor: report of a case]. Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi; 2007 Aug;36(8):567-8
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  • [Title] [Endometrioid carcinoma of ovary with prominent spindle cell component and resembling sex-cord tumor: report of a case].
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17980110.001).
  • [ISSN] 0529-5807
  • [Journal-full-title] Zhonghua bing li xue za zhi = Chinese journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Zhonghua Bing Li Xue Za Zhi
  • [Language] chi
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China
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68. Oztekin O, Soylu F, Yigit S, Sarica E: Uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex cord tumors in a patient using tamoxifen: report of a case and review of literature. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2006 Jul-Aug;16(4):1694-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex cord tumors in a patient using tamoxifen: report of a case and review of literature.
  • However, only a few cases of endometrial stromal sarcomas have been reported to be linked with tamoxifen usage.
  • Preoperative investigations were indicative of a uterine myoma so that a standard total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed.
  • Postoperative histologic diagnosis was a uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex cord tumors, which is an exceedingly rare entity itself.
  • The present case is the first designated diagnosis of this rare tumor, with a possible association of tamoxifen usage.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal / adverse effects. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Tamoxifen / adverse effects. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16884388.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal; 094ZI81Y45 / Tamoxifen
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69. Hashemipour M, Moaddab MH, Nazem M, Mahzouni P, Salek M: Granulosa cell tumor in a six-year-old girl presented as precocious puberty. J Res Med Sci; 2010 Jul;15(4):240-2
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Granulosa cell tumor in a six-year-old girl presented as precocious puberty.
  • Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors, including granulose cell tumors (GCTs), are a group of neoplasms that occur rarely, especially in children.
  • Only 0.1 percent of all ovarian tumors and 4-5 percent of GCTs occur in children.
  • The most common presentation of these tumors in children is precocious puberty.
  • Although in most of girls with precocious puberty, the etiology is idiopathic, important causes, such as ovarian tumors must be considered.

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  • (PMID = 21526089.001).
  • [ISSN] 1735-7136
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of research in medical sciences : the official journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Res Med Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Iran
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3082815
  • [Keywords] NOTNLM ; Children / Granulosa Cell Tumor / Puberty
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70. Sachdeva P, Arora R, Dubey C, Sukhija A, Daga M, Singh DK: Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor: a rare ovarian neoplasm. Case report and review of literature. Gynecol Endocrinol; 2008 Apr;24(4):230-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor: a rare ovarian neoplasm. Case report and review of literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor is a gonadal tumor of the sex cord-stromal type.
  • It is a rare tumor comprising 0.1 to 0.5% of all ovarian tumors.
  • A mass the size of a 28-week gravid uterus was arising from the pelvis.
  • A histopathological diagnosis of Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor (intermediate, Meyers type II) was given.
  • CONCLUSION: Patients with Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors present with signs of defeminization followed by masculinization.
  • Age of the patient, stage of the disease and degree of tumor differentiation based on morphology are the most important factors to consider in the management of the case.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18382911.001).
  • [ISSN] 0951-3590
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecological endocrinology : the official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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71. Yang DT, Lowichik A, Chen J, Snow BW, Ulbright TM, Chen Z: Cytogenetics of a pediatric unclassified sex cord-stromal tumor of the testis: a case report. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2005 Jan 1;156(1):80-2
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  • [Title] Cytogenetics of a pediatric unclassified sex cord-stromal tumor of the testis: a case report.
  • Unclassified sex cord-stromal tumors account for a small proportion of pediatric testicular tumors and, while most are clinically benign, some have demonstrated malignant potential.
  • Histological findings do not correlate well with clinical behavior and, while cytogenetics may aid in both diagnosis and predicting clinical behavior, these data on sex cord-stromal tumors are scarce.
  • We describe an unclassified sex cord-stromal tumor occurring in the testis of a prepubertal male without evidence of metastasis that had a previously unreported 54,XY,+3,+7,+9,+12,+13,+18,+19,+20 karyotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / genetics. Testicular Neoplasms / genetics. Trisomy

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  • (PMID = 15588862.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-4608
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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72. Calisir C, Inan U, Yavas US, Isiksoy S, Kaya T: Mazabraud's syndrome coexisting with a uterine tumor resembling an ovarian sex cord tumor (UTROSCT): a case report. Korean J Radiol; 2007 Sep-Oct;8(5):438-42
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Mazabraud's syndrome coexisting with a uterine tumor resembling an ovarian sex cord tumor (UTROSCT): a case report.
  • The association of intramuscular myxoma and fibrous dysplasia is a rare disease known as Mazabraud's syndrome.
  • We present a case of Mazabraud's syndrome coexisting with a uterine tumor and resembling an ovarian sex cord tumor (UTROSCT).
  • This uterine tumor showed a high mitotic index and cytological atypia.
  • [MeSH-major] Fibrous Dysplasia, Monostotic / diagnosis. Myxoma / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biopsy. Buttocks / pathology. Buttocks / surgery. Buttocks / ultrasonography. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Rare Diseases. Syndrome

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  • (PMID = 17923787.001).
  • [ISSN] 1229-6929
  • [Journal-full-title] Korean journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Korean J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Korea (South)
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2626811
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73. Acar C, Gurocak S, Sozen S: Current treatment of testicular sex cord-stromal tumors: critical review. Urology; 2009 Jun;73(6):1165-71
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Current treatment of testicular sex cord-stromal tumors: critical review.
  • Sex cord-stromal tumors (SCST) are rare testicular tumors.
  • The standard treatment method is inguinal orchiectomy and testis-sparing surgery is recommended for certain conditions.
  • The studies show that retroperitoneal lymph node dissection is seemingly more of a staging tool and aiding to determine the follow-up protocol.
  • The first 2 years are rather important in the follow-up of the disease.
  • Although follow-up protocol could be more vigorous for patients with malignant clinicopathologic features and metastatic disease, it can be determined individually according to the aggressive properties of the disease and patient status.
  • [MeSH-major] Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19362328.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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74. Gupta M, de Leval L, Selig M, Oliva E, Nielsen GP: Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors: an ultrastructural analysis of 13 cases. Ultrastruct Pathol; 2010 Feb;34(1):16-24
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors: an ultrastructural analysis of 13 cases.
  • Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors (UTROSCT) are tumors of unclear histogenesis.
  • Features included cells with frequent organoid, nested or cord-like arrangement (8), lumen formation (2; one of which showed surface microvilli), nuclei with irregular indentations (8), intermediate filaments (13), prominent paranuclear aggregates (5), cell junctions (9), desmosome-like junctions (2), tonofilaments (2), basal lamina (1), and cytoplasmic lipid droplets (7; prominent in 3).
  • Ultrastructural epithelial differentiation was present in 2 tumors (positive for keratin or epithelial membrane antigen).
  • Prominent lipid droplets correlated with sex cord markers positivity in 2 tumors.
  • UTROSCT are polyphenotypic neoplasms ultrastructurally with focal epithelial and variable sex cord-like differentiation.
  • These findings suggest that UTROSCT may result from divergent differentiation in endometrial stromal tumors or represent a distinct group of uterine tumors with sex cord-like differentiation that are closer in histogenesis to ovarian sex cord stromal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Calbindin 2. Cell Nucleus / ultrastructure. Cytoplasmic Structures / ultrastructure. Desmosomes / ultrastructure. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Intermediate Filaments / ultrastructure. Keratins / analysis. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / analysis

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  • (PMID = 20070149.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-0758
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrastructural pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrastruct Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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75. Abbas F, Bashir NW, Hussainy AS: Sclerosing Sertoli cell tumor of the testis. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak; 2005 Jul;15(7):437-8
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  • [Title] Sclerosing Sertoli cell tumor of the testis.
  • Sclerosing Sertoli-cell tumor is a rare, sex-cord-stromal tumor of the testis with distinct clinical and pathological features with only 14 such cases reported in contemporary literature.
  • We report such a tumor in a young diabetic and hypertensive male.
  • Pathological examination of right radical orchidectomy specimen was consistent with sclerosing sub-type of Sertoli-cell testicular tumor with no invasion.
  • He remains free of disease recurrence at 6 years following surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Sertoli Cell Tumor / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16197877.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-386X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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76. Kataria SP, Mishra K, Dev G, Tandon R: Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor of ovary with heterologous element: a case report. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2005 Oct;48(4):493-5
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  • [Title] Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor of ovary with heterologous element: a case report.
  • Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors are uncommon tumors of ovary accounting for about 1% of sex cord stromal tumors.
  • They constitute between 0.1% to 0.5% of all the primary ovarian neoplasms.
  • The majority of reported cases are moderately or poorly differentiated combined Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors.
  • A rare case of Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor with heterologous element in a 14 year girl is described.
  • The heterologous component comprised smooth muscle, an uncommon element, that was seen in 60 to 70% of the tumor area.
  • The epithelial element of the tumor consisted of solid, tubular and foci of retiform pattern.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16366107.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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77. Fan X, Gabbi C, Kim HJ, Cheng G, Andersson LC, Warner M, Gustafsson JA: Gonadotropin-positive pituitary tumors accompanied by ovarian tumors in aging female ERbeta-/- mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2010 Apr 6;107(14):6453-8
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  • [Title] Gonadotropin-positive pituitary tumors accompanied by ovarian tumors in aging female ERbeta-/- mice.
  • At 2 years of age, 100% (23/23) of ERbeta(-/-) female mice have developed large pituitary and ovarian tumors.
  • The pituitary tumors are gonadotropin-positive and the ovarian tumors are sex cord (less differentiated) and granulosa cell tumors (differentiated and estrogen secreting).
  • No male mice had pituitary tumors and no pituitary or ovarian tumors developed in ERalpha(-/-) mice or in ERalphabeta(-/-) double knockout mice.
  • The tumors have high proliferation indices, are ERalpha-positive, ERbeta-negative, and express high levels of nuclear phospho-SMAD3.
  • Mice with granulosa cell tumors also had hyperproliferative endometria.
  • The cause of the pituitary tumors appeared to be excessive secretion of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus resulting from high expression of NPY.
  • We suggest that in the absence of ERbeta, the proliferative action of FSH/SMAD3 is unopposed and the high proliferation leads to the development of ovarian tumors.
  • The absence of tumors in the ERalphabeta(-/-) mice suggests that tumor development requires the presence of ERalpha.
  • [MeSH-major] Aging. Estrogen Receptor alpha / metabolism. Estrogen Receptor beta / metabolism. Gonadotropins / metabolism. Neoplasms, Second Primary / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Proliferation. Female. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / metabolism. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Mice. Mice, Knockout. Neuropeptide Y / metabolism. Sex Characteristics

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  • (PMID = 20308571.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-6490
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Estrogen Receptor beta; 0 / Gonadotropins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Neuropeptide Y; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2851950
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78. Micci F, Haugom L, Abeler VM, Tropé CG, Danielsen HE, Heim S: Consistent numerical chromosome aberrations in thecofibromas of the ovary. Virchows Arch; 2008 Mar;452(3):269-76
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  • Sex cord-stromal tumors of the ovary comprise 8% of all ovarian neoplasms.
  • Because they consist of cells that resemble embryonic sex cord and/or specialized ovarian stroma cells, their cytologic and histologic features can be viewed as reflecting a continuum from fibromas to thecomas with thecofibromas in between.
  • We wanted to obtain more information about the genomic composition of these tumors, and, therefore, examined 29 new thecoma-thecofibroma-fibroma tumors of the ovary using karyotyping, comparative genomic hybridization, interphase FISH, and DNA ploidy analysis.
  • We detected aneuploidy in 21 tumors.
  • Trisomy and/or tetrasomy 12 was the most common chromosomal aberration, found in 15 tumors (71.5% of the aneuploid tumors or 51.5% of all analyzed tumors), followed by trisomy for chromosomes 10, 18, 4, and 9.
  • The nonrandom occurrence of these aneuploidies in these benign tumors strongly indicates that they play a major pathogenetic role, but how trisomies and other aneuploidies contribute to tumorigenesis remains unknown.
  • [MeSH-major] Aneuploidy. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18188592.001).
  • [ISSN] 0945-6317
  • [Journal-full-title] Virchows Archiv : an international journal of pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Virchows Arch.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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79. Jung SE, Rha SE, Lee JM, Park SY, Oh SN, Cho KS, Lee EJ, Byun JY, Hahn ST: CT and MRI findings of sex cord-stromal tumor of the ovary. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2005 Jul;185(1):207-15
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  • [Title] CT and MRI findings of sex cord-stromal tumor of the ovary.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article was to research the clinical and imaging features of sex cord-stromal tumors of the ovary to help in specific diagnosis of ovarian tumors.
  • Sex cord-stromal tumors of the ovary are rare ovarian neoplasms, which arise from stromal cells and primitive sex cords in the ovary.
  • The common types are granulosa cell tumors, fibrothecomas, sclerosing stromal tumors, and Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors.
  • They account for most of the hormonally active ovarian tumors.
  • They have characteristic imaging features in each type of the tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: Clinical and radiologic clues are helpful in differential diagnosis from the more common epithelial tumors; sex cord-stromal tumors primarily are treated surgically and have generally good prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15972425.001).
  • [ISSN] 0361-803X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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80. Hettinger CA, Cheville JC, Lteif AN, Bradley NA, Kramer SA: Precocious puberty in a 7-year-old boy: a novel case. J Pediatr Urol; 2009 Oct;5(5):412-4
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  • A comprehensive hormonal evaluation showed an elevated serum testosterone value (4.0 nmol/L) and a prepubertal gonadotropin value.
  • Pathologic evaluation of the orchiectomy specimen showed the unclassified type of a mixed germ cell sex cord stromal tumor (MGCSCST), composed of neoplastic Sertoli cells and seminoma-like germ cells.
  • Isolated previous reports of unclassified MGCSCSTs of the testis are now thought to be reports of sex cord stromal tumors with entrapped non-neoplastic germ cells.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / complications. Puberty, Precocious / etiology. Testicular Neoplasms / complications

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  • [CommentIn] J Pediatr Urol. 2009 Oct;5(5):415 [19570725.001]
  • (PMID = 19525149.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4898
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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81. Aziz O, Giles J, Knowles S: Uterine tumours resembling ovarian sex cord tumours: a case report. Cases J; 2009;2(1):55
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  • [Title] Uterine tumours resembling ovarian sex cord tumours: a case report.
  • BACKGROUND: Endometrial stromal tumours with sex-cord-like elements were first described by Clement and Scully in 1976.
  • The recent World Health Organisation classification 2003 recognises low grade stromal sarcoma and undifferentiated endometrial sarcoma.
  • CONCLUSION: Total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral ovarian oophorectomy is the best approach at this stage.These tumours should be considered as having an uncertain but low likelihood of recurrence.

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  • [Cites] Mod Pathol. 2006 Jan;19(1):17-24 [16118629.001]
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  • (PMID = 19144192.001).
  • [ISSN] 1757-1626
  • [Journal-full-title] Cases journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cases J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2631540
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82. Cicin I, Eralp Y, Saip P, Ayan I, Kebudi R, Iyibozkurt C, Tuzlali S, Gorgun O, Topuz E: Malignant ovarian germ cell tumors: a single-institution experience. Am J Clin Oncol; 2009 Apr;32(2):191-6
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Malignant ovarian germ cell tumors: a single-institution experience.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinicopathologic prognostic factors in malignant ovarian germ cell tumors.
  • The histologic subtypes included 36 dysgerminomas, 11 yolk sac tumors, 3 immature teratomas, 1 embryonal carcinomas, and 19 mixed types.
  • The most striking clinicopathologic finding was a history of concomitant immunosuppressant therapy, which was observed in 2 patients.
  • Two patients had contralateral sex-cord tumors at presentation and follow-up.
  • Nondysgerminoma histology and residual tumor after surgery were unfavorable prognostic factors (P < 0.001 and P = 0.015).
  • New treatment strategies are needed for eradication of abdominopelvic disease at initial diagnosis and recurrent setting.
  • Occurrence of malignant ovarian germ cell tumors may be associated with immunosuppression in some patients.
  • Sex-cord stromal tumors may present with bilateral involvement.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Child. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Medical Records. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 19307952.001).
  • [ISSN] 1537-453X
  • [Journal-full-title] American journal of clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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83. Middlebrook BS, Eldin K, Li X, Shivasankaran S, Pangas SA: Smad1-Smad5 ovarian conditional knockout mice develop a disease profile similar to the juvenile form of human granulosa cell tumors. Endocrinology; 2009 Dec;150(12):5208-17
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  • [Title] Smad1-Smad5 ovarian conditional knockout mice develop a disease profile similar to the juvenile form of human granulosa cell tumors.
  • Granulosa cell tumors (GCTs) of the ovary are rare sex cord stromal tumors.
  • Because of the low incidence of cases and lack of standard diagnostics, mouse models for granulosa cell tumors are a valuable tool for studying GCTs and provide models for developing diagnostic and treatment strategies.
  • We recently developed a novel mouse model of metastatic granulosa cell tumors by genetic deletion of the bone morphogenetic protein signaling transcription factors (SMADs) in granulosa cells of the ovary.
  • We further analyzed samples of human juvenile GCT (JGCT) for expression of anti-Müllerian hormone and activation of two major signaling pathways: TGFbeta/SMAD2/3 and wingless-related mouse mammary tumor virus integration site (Wnt)/beta-catenin.
  • The TGFbeta family is active in mouse Smad1-Smad5 double knockout tumors, and here we show that this pathway, but not the beta-catenin pathway, is activated in samples of human JGCT.

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  • (PMID = 19819941.001).
  • [ISSN] 1945-7170
  • [Journal-full-title] Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Endocrinology
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / U54 HD028934; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / U54 HD28934
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Smad1 Protein; 0 / Smad2 Protein; 0 / Smad3 Protein; 0 / Smad5 Protein; 80497-65-0 / Anti-Mullerian Hormone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2819741
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84. Gwin K, Mariño-Enríquez A, Martel M, Reyes-Múgica M: Sclerosing stromal tumor: an important differential diagnosis of ovarian neoplasms in childhood and adolescence. Pediatr Dev Pathol; 2009 Sep-Oct;12(5):366-70
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  • [Title] Sclerosing stromal tumor: an important differential diagnosis of ovarian neoplasms in childhood and adolescence.
  • Sclerosing stromal tumors are an uncommon type of benign ovarian sex cord-stromal tumor.
  • Although the usual age of presentation is in the 2nd and 3rd decades, sclerosing stromal tumor can occur in adolescence or premenarchal girls.
  • Imaging studies frequently reveal solid or complex cystic adnexal masses with marked vascularity raising concern for germ cell tumors and, especially in the absence of elevated tumor markers, surface epithelial neoplasms.
  • The differential diagnosis of a benign sclerosing stromal tumor is seldom entertained.
  • We stress the importance of being familiar with sclerosing stromal tumors when evaluating ovarian neoplasms in children and adolescents in order to contribute to the appropriate clinical management preventing extensive and unnecessary surgery, and preserving fertility.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19071970.001).
  • [ISSN] 1093-5266
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric and developmental pathology : the official journal of the Society for Pediatric Pathology and the Paediatric Pathology Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Dev. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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85. Camparo P, Durand X, Avances C, Culine S, Segui B, Rigaud J, Membres du GELU-Groupe d'Etude des Lésions Urologiques, Membres du CCAFU: [Histological features and principles of treating testicle tumors in the elderly subject]. Prog Urol; 2009 Nov;19 Suppl 3:S142-6
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  • [Title] [Histological features and principles of treating testicle tumors in the elderly subject].
  • [Transliterated title] Particularités histologiques et principes de traitements des tumeurs du testicule du sujet âgé.
  • After the 6th decade, primitive lymphomas are the most frequent tumors of the testis (>30%).
  • Chemotherapy depends on histological subtype.
  • Germ cell tumors, mainly seminomas, represent less than 20% cases.
  • Therapy do not differ from young adults germ cell tumors.
  • Sex cord stromal tumors, mesenchymal benign tumors, sarcomas and metastasis represent approximately 10% of cases each.
  • The one of metastasis depends on primitive tumor (prostatic or pulmonary adenocarcinoma or melanoma mainly).
  • Spermatocytic seminoma is a rare and benign tumor, if no sarcomatous component is observed.
  • Other histological subtype are extraordinary rare.
  • This particular histological profile must be in mind when considering the appropriate therapeutic approach of testis tumors in elderly.
  • [MeSH-major] Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20123499.001).
  • [ISSN] 1166-7087
  • [Journal-full-title] Progrès en urologie : journal de l'Association française d'urologie et de la Société française d'urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog. Urol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Investigator] Choudat L; Priollet BC; Comperat E; Sibony M; Vassiliu V; Verkarre V; Allory Y; Ferlicot S; Molinié V; Denoux Y; Sautet A; Lesourd A; Trillet M; Petit T; Aillet G; Vieillefond A; Boccon-Gibod L
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86. Chan JK, Zhang M, Kaleb V, Loizzi V, Benjamin J, Vasilev S, Osann K, Disaia PJ: Prognostic factors responsible for survival in sex cord stromal tumors of the ovary--a multivariate analysis. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Jan;96(1):204-9
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors responsible for survival in sex cord stromal tumors of the ovary--a multivariate analysis.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate prognostic factors that impacts the survival of women with sex cord stromal tumors of the ovary (SCST).
  • METHODS: Cases were identified from tumor registry databases at three academic institutions between 1975 and 2003.
  • RESULTS: Eighty-three women (median age: 49 years) with SCST of the ovary, including 73 with granulosa and 10 with Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors were identified.
  • The median and 5-year disease-specific survival of women with stage I-II vs. III-IV was 180 months and 85% compared to 58 months and 48%, respectively (P = 0.012).
  • Furthermore, age <50 (P = 0.003), premenopausal status (P = 0.013), tumor size < 10 cm (P = 0.003), lack of lymph node invasion (P < 0.0005), and absence of residual disease (P = 0.002) were all significant predictors for improved survival.
  • In multivariate analysis, age <50, smaller tumor size, and absence of residual disease remained as independent prognostic factors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Age <50, smaller tumor size, and absence of residual disease are important predictors for improved survival in patients with SCST of the ovary.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / mortality. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Registries. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 15589602.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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87. Tomsová M, Krepinská E, Spacek J: [Sclerosing stromal tumor--a rare benign ovarian neoplasm]. Ceska Gynekol; 2008 Jun;73(3):188-91
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  • [Title] [Sclerosing stromal tumor--a rare benign ovarian neoplasm].
  • [Transliterated title] Sklerozující stromální tumor--vzácný gonadostromální nádor ovaria.
  • Sclerosing stromal tumor (SST) is a rare benign ovarian neoplasm of the sex cord-stromal category occurring predominantly in young women (usually younger than 30 years of age).
  • Histologically, the tumor is characterized by cellular heterogenity, prominent vascularisation, and a pseudolobular appearance composed of cellular and hypocellular areas.

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  • (PMID = 18646673.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-7832
  • [Journal-full-title] Ceska gynekologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ceska Gynekol
  • [Language] CZE
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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88. Kostopoulou E, Angelidou S, Daponte A, Galani C, Chiotoglou I, Terzis A, Koukoulis G: Fascin can be an auxiliary immunomarker of ovarian granulosa cell tumors: comparison with calretinin and inhibin-alpha. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2008;29(6):638-42
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  • [Title] Fascin can be an auxiliary immunomarker of ovarian granulosa cell tumors: comparison with calretinin and inhibin-alpha.
  • The histopathologic diagnosis of granulosa cell tumor adult type (AGCT) can be supported by the use of established immunomarkers such as inhibin-alpha and calretinin.
  • Previously unreported data is presented on the detection of fascin in AGCT, in nonneoplastic granulosa cells and in other types of sex-cord stromal tumors.
  • In addition, by staining a panel of various tumors, potentially included in the differential diagnosis of AGCT, we assessed the value of fascin as an auxiliary AGCT immunomarker.
  • On the contrary, absence of fascin should question a provisional morphologic diagnosis of AGCT.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carrier Proteins / analysis. Granulosa Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Microfilament Proteins / analysis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19115695.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CALB2 protein, human; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / Carrier Proteins; 0 / FSCN1 protein, human; 0 / Microfilament Proteins; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G; 0 / inhibin-alpha subunit; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
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89. Chan JK, Cheung MK, Husain A, Teng NN, West D, Whittemore AS, Berek JS, Osann K: Patterns and progress in ovarian cancer over 14 years. Obstet Gynecol; 2006 Sep;108(3 Pt 1):521-8
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  • METHODS: Women diagnosed with epithelial, germ cell, sarcomas, and sex-cord stromal ovarian tumors were identified from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Database.
  • RESULTS: A total of 30,246 women were diagnosed with ovarian cancer, including 26,753 non-clear cell epithelial, 1,411 clear cell, 818 sarcoma, 778 germ cell, and 486 sex-cord stromal tumors.
  • The 5-year disease-specific survival rate across 1988-1992 and 1993-1997 improved from 45.4% to 48.6% (P < .001).
  • However, improvements were not observed in those with clear cell, 64.3% to 63.9% (P = .82), and sex-cord stromal, 89.7% to 85.7% (P = .18), tumors of the ovary.
  • In multivariable analyses, younger age, early stage, favorable histologic cell types, low-grade tumors, standard surgery, and recent time interval from 1993-1997 were independent prognostic factors for improved survival.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / epidemiology. Ovarian Neoplasms / epidemiology. Sarcoma / epidemiology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / epidemiology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / epidemiology. Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / mortality. Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Chi-Square Distribution. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Humans. Infant. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Survival Rate. United States / epidemiology


90. Chan JK, Munro EG, Cheung MK, Husain A, Teng NN, Berek JS, Osann K: Association of lymphadenectomy and survival in stage I ovarian cancer patients. Obstet Gynecol; 2007 Jan;109(1):12-9
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  • Epithelial tumors were present in 85.8% of the women, and 2,862 (42.8%) patients underwent lymphadenectomy.
  • Lymphadenectomy was associated with improved 5-year disease-specific survival of all patients from 87.0% to 92.6% (P<.001).
  • More specifically, lymphadenectomy improved the survival in those with non-clear cell epithelial ovarian cancer (85.9% to 93.3%, P<.001) but not in those with clear cell carcinoma, germ cell tumors, sex cord stromal tumors, and sarcomas.
  • On multivariable analysis, the extent of lymphadenectomy was a significant prognostic factor for improved survival, independently of other factors such as age, stage, histology, and grade of disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Lymph Node Excision. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / mortality. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / mortality. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Child, Preschool. Female. Health Status. Humans. Infant. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • [CommentIn] Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Apr;109(4):1000; author reply 1000-1 [17400870.001]
  • (PMID = 17197582.001).
  • [ISSN] 0029-7844
  • [Journal-full-title] Obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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91. Al-Salam S, El-Terifi H, Ghazal-Aswad S: Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma with sex cord-like differentiation metastatic to the thoracic spines. APMIS; 2006 Sep;114(9):651-5
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  • [Title] Low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma with sex cord-like differentiation metastatic to the thoracic spines.
  • We report a case of monostotic low-grade stromal sarcoma (ESS) with sex cord-like elements metastatic to the thoracic spines, which to the best of our knowledge has not previously been documented.
  • A 48-year-old female who had undergone total abdominal hysterectomy for low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma 7 years previously presented with insidious onset of severe back pain of 2 months' duration.
  • Histologically, the laminae of thoracic vertebrae 11 and 12 were replaced by sheets of ovoid cells with plump nuclei intermixed with anastomosing trabeculae, cords and small nests, reminiscent of a sex-cord stromal tumor pattern.
  • The tumor cells showed diffuse nuclear immunostaining for estrogen receptors (ER) and progesterone receptors (PR), as well as membranous immunostaining for CD10.
  • These findings confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic low-grade ESS with sex cord-like differentiation.
  • Low-grade ESS with sex cord-like differentiation is an uncommon tumor which rarely metastasizes to the bone, and use of a panel of ER, PR, CD10, actin, cytokeratin and inhibin immunostains is essential to establish the diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Sarcoma, Endometrial Stromal / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Spinal Neoplasms / secondary. Thoracic Vertebrae

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  • (PMID = 16948819.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Actins; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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92. Chu SM, Ming YC, Chao HC, Lai JY, Chen JC, Yung CP, Luo CC: Ovarian tumors in the pediatric age group: 37 cases treated over an 8-year period. Chang Gung Med J; 2010 Mar-Apr;33(2):152-6
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  • [Title] Ovarian tumors in the pediatric age group: 37 cases treated over an 8-year period.
  • BACKGROUND: Ovarian tumors have generally been considered rare in the pediatric age group.
  • We reported our experience dealing with pediatric ovarian tumors during an 8-year period.
  • METHODS: Between January 1998 and December 2006, 37 girls with ovarian tumors were treated at the Department of Pediatric Surgery, Chang Gung Childrenfs Medical Center.
  • RESULTS: Twenty-nine of the 37 patients were symptomatic with abdominal pain, abdominal distention or the presence of a palpable mass, reduction in appetite or nausea and vomiting and precocious puberty.
  • Thirty patients had benign disease and 7 had malignant tumors.
  • The malignant lesions included 5 germ cell tumors (2 yolk sac tumors, 2 immature teratomas, 1 dysgerminoma), and 2 sex cord stromal tumors.
  • Patients with stage II yolk sac tumors (n = 2) or grade III immature teratomas (n = 2) had elevated alpha-fetoprotein levels, and the patient with dysgerminoma was diagnosed as stage II b.
  • All underwent salpingo-oophorectomy and received chemotherapy following their initial operation and remained free of disease at 8 months to 6 years of follow-up.
  • CONCLUSIONS: In our studies, most ovarian tumors were benign.
  • Epithelial cysts and teratomas were the most common benign lesions, and germ cell tumors were the most common malignancy.
  • With accurate staging, complete resection, and chemotherapy for malignant tumors, patients are expected to have excellent survival rates.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms

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  • (PMID = 20438667.001).
  • [ISSN] 2309-835X
  • [Journal-full-title] Chang Gung medical journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Chang Gung Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] China (Republic : 1949- )
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93. Hariri LP, Liebmann ER, Marion SL, Hoyer PB, Davis JR, Brewer MA, Barton JK: Simultaneous optical coherence tomography and laser induced fluorescence imaging in rat model of ovarian carcinogenesis. Cancer Biol Ther; 2010 Sep 1;10(5):438-47
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  • Although sex cord-stromal tumors (SCST) account for 0.1–0.5% of ovarian malignancies, they have similar appearances to more aggressive epithelial cancers and can serve as a prototype for developing better diagnostic methods for ovarian cancer.
  • [MeSH-major] Disease Models, Animal. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovary / pathology. Spectrometry, Fluorescence / methods. Tomography, Optical Coherence / methods
  • [MeSH-minor] 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene. Animals. Cyclohexenes. Female. Lasers. Primary Ovarian Insufficiency / etiology. Rats. Rats, Inbred F344. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Vinyl Compounds

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  • (PMID = 21108515.001).
  • [ISSN] 1555-8576
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer biology & therapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Biol. Ther.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NIA NIH HHS / AG / R01 AG021948; United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / R01 CA119200
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Cyclohexenes; 0 / Vinyl Compounds; 57-97-6 / 9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene; 596C064IG4 / 4-vinyl-1-cyclohexene dioxide
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC3040967
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94. Majhi AK, Bhattacharya D, Sarkar K, Mondal T, Sengupta P: Ovarian neoplasms in adolescence and childhood--an analysis of twenty cases. J Indian Med Assoc; 2005 Aug;103(8):422-4, 426-7
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  • [Title] Ovarian neoplasms in adolescence and childhood--an analysis of twenty cases.
  • Between January, 1999 and June, 2001 consecutive twenty cases of ovarian tumours in girls below 20 years of age admitted in Burdwan Medical College, Burdwan, West Bengal were analysed.
  • Among 5 cases of torsion of ovarian tumours, one along with the twisted uterus was detected.
  • Germ cell tumours (60%) took the leading place followed by epithelial (3 0%) and sex-cord stromal tumour (10%).
  • Fifty percent neoplasms were malignant with majority (80%) being instage I.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Pain / etiology. Adolescent. Child. Female. Humans. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16363197.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-5847
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Indian Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Indian Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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95. Emerson RE, Ulbright TM: The use of immunohistochemistry in the differential diagnosis of tumors of the testis and paratestis. Semin Diagn Pathol; 2005 Feb;22(1):33-50
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  • [Title] The use of immunohistochemistry in the differential diagnosis of tumors of the testis and paratestis.
  • Although most testicular and paratesticular tumors can be recognized by their light microscopic features, some raise significant differential diagnostic questions.
  • Immunohistochemical staining has proved of significant value in this situation.
  • OCT4 is virtually 100% sensitive and specific for seminoma, embryonal carcinoma, and intratubular germ cell neoplasia, unclassified type.
  • Inhibin-alpha, among testicular tumors, is limited to those in the sex cord-stromal category or those having adrenocortical-type differentiation (testicular tumor of the adrenogenital syndrome) or of trophoblastic lineage.
  • Calretinin is another positive marker for the sex cord-stromal tumors but has less specificity.
  • This article reviews the application of immunohistochemical markers for a number of differential diagnostic considerations in the testis and paratestis categorized according to their light microscopic patterns.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunohistochemistry. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16512598.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-2570
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 137
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96. Ichimura R, Shibutani M, Mizukami S, Suzuki T, Shimada Y, Mitsumori K: A case report of an uncommon sex-cord stromal tumor consisted of luteal and sertoli cells in a spayed bitch. J Vet Med Sci; 2010 Feb;72(2):229-34
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  • [Title] A case report of an uncommon sex-cord stromal tumor consisted of luteal and sertoli cells in a spayed bitch.
  • We report a rare case of benign sex cord-stromal tumor consisted largely of luteoma with minor portion of Sertoli cell tumor located at the position of the left ovary excision in an 11-year-old ovariectomized bitch.
  • Granulosa cell component was lacking, and both luteal and Sertoli cell portions were entirely positive for inhibin alpha and neuron-specific enolase, whereas luteoma portion alone was positive for Wilms' tumor-1 (WT1), immunohistochemically.
  • The results suggest that this tumor is a possible complication of incomplete ovarian excision at the time of ovariectomy and consisted of uncommon hybrid of luteal and Sertoli cells to be diagnosed as an unclassified sex cord-stromal tumor if applied in human cases.

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  • (PMID = 19940389.001).
  • [ISSN] 0916-7250
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of veterinary medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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97. Yanik FF, Kuşçu E, Eroğlu D, Kahraman I, Sürücü B, Colak A: Thecoma associated with pregnancy: a case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2007;28(6):519-21
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  • Ovarian thecoma, which belongs to the group of sex-cord stromal tumors, is a relatively rare neoplasm.
  • At surgical exploration, torsion of the ovarian tumor was observed together with ascites and unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / complications. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic. Thecoma / complications

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  • (PMID = 18179153.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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98. Grabiec M, Kwiatkowski M, Walentowicz M, Greźlikowska U: [Current views on treatment of the ovarian granulosa-cell tumor]. Ginekol Pol; 2008 Jan;79(1):42-6
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  • [Title] [Current views on treatment of the ovarian granulosa-cell tumor].
  • The granulosa-cell tumor (folliculoma) is a rare type of ovarian neoplasm, accounting for 5% of all cases.
  • It is the most common type of sex cord-stromal tumors, diagnosed in 70% of cases.
  • The granulosa-cell tumor is a hormone active one, originating from granulosa cells which produce estradiol.
  • Overproduction of estradiol is helpful in the diagnosis of the tumor because of its numerous symptoms.
  • Tumors in higher stages are more aggressive and must be treated further.
  • Patients with the disease diagnosed in higher stages must be treated by adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy.
  • Many old (platinum) and new (taxans) agents are active when used in treatment of this type of tumor.
  • Randomized study must be made to establish standard therapy of granulosa-cell tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Granulosa Cell Tumor / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 18510049.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-0011
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginekologia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginekol. Pol.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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99. Kinkor Z, Daum O: [Ovarian tumor as a complication in diagnosis of the extraintestinal gastrointestinal stromal tumor--two case reports]. Ceska Gynekol; 2008 Jan;73(1):54-7
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  • [Title] [Ovarian tumor as a complication in diagnosis of the extraintestinal gastrointestinal stromal tumor--two case reports].
  • [Transliterated title] Nádor ovaria jako komplikace diagnostiky extraintestinálního gastrointestinálního stromálního tumoru--dve kazuistiky.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to address difficulties in diagnosis of the extraintestinal gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) when even in ovary is the tumor.
  • One should ever think of the GIST in the case of peritoneal dissemination of the spindle/epithelioid cell tumor.
  • In contrary, the late intraabdominal recurrence of primary both epithelial and non-epithelial tumor of genital tract can be undistinguishable by pure morphology.
  • Complete clinical records and accurate operation field topography are both of great value.
  • Documenting this phenomenon, presented is both late intraabdominal dissemination of primary uterine endometrial stromal sarcoma and massive ovarian involvement by extraintestinal GIST.
  • RESULTS: In 75-year-old woman, 5 cm tumor in maximum diameter of the mesentery was diagnosed as an extraintestinal GIST.
  • Multiple peritoneal recurrence occurred ten years later and the tumor has been reclassified as a disseminated endometroid stromal sarcoma.
  • The second case describes 49-year-old woman operated for tumorous obliteration of the small pelvis where a tumor 9 cm in maximum diameter was found.
  • Initially, predominant epitheloid morphology of the tumor led to the diagnosis of primary epithelial malignancy, sex-cord stromal tumor or metastatic melanoma of the ovary.
  • Finally, the help of immunohistochemistry and molecular biology rendered the tumor as an extraintestinal GIST, ovarian primary not excluded.

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  • (PMID = 18411643.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-7832
  • [Journal-full-title] Ceska gynekologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ceska Gynekol
  • [Language] CZE
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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100. Farinola MA, Gown AM, Judson K, Ronnett BM, Barry TS, Movahedi-Lankarani S, Vang R: Estrogen receptor alpha and progesterone receptor expression in ovarian adult granulosa cell tumors and Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2007 Oct;26(4):375-82
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  • [Title] Estrogen receptor alpha and progesterone receptor expression in ovarian adult granulosa cell tumors and Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors.
  • The biologic role that estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) play in ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors is poorly understood.
  • Furthermore, immunohistochemical data on these hormone receptors in this group of neoplasms are limited and conflicting, with many reports suggesting that expression of ERalpha and/or PR is either infrequent or present at low levels in granulosa and Sertoli cell tumors.
  • Immunohistochemical staining for ERalpha and PR was performed in 69 ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors: 41 adult granulosa cell tumors and 28 Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors.
  • Estrogen receptor alpha and PR were frequently expressed in adult granulosa cell tumors (66% and 98%, respectively) and Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors (79% and 86%, respectively).
  • Diffuse (3+ or 4+) expression of PR was more common in adult granulosa cell tumors (68% vs. 36%; P = 0.013), whereas diffuse (3+ or 4+) expression of ERalpha was more frequent in Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors (50% vs. 20%; P = 0.010).
  • In cases positive for both markers, adult granulosa cell tumors exhibited a focal (1+ or 2+) ERalpha/diffuse (3+ or 4+) PR coordinate profile more commonly than Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors (52% vs. 18%; P = 0.02), whereas Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors displayed a diffuse (3+ or 4+) ERalpha/focal (1+ or 2+) PR profile more frequently than adult granulosa cell tumors (36% vs. 0%; P = 0.0007).
  • We conclude that expression of hormone receptors (based only on frequency of immunostaining) does not allow for distinction from other tumors in the differential diagnosis that are known to be frequently positive for ERalpha and PR such as endometrioid neoplasms.
  • Most adult granulosa cell tumors and Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors share overlapping patterns of expression of ERalpha and PR with each other, but a subset of cases in each tumor category exhibits unique ERalpha/PR immunoprofiles (eg, focal ERalpha/diffuse PR in adult granulosa cell tumors and diffuse ERalpha/focal PR in Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors).
  • These patterns of expression of ERalpha and PR may aid our understanding of the biologic differences between granulosa and Sertoli cell tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Estrogen Receptor alpha / biosynthesis. Granulosa Cell Tumor / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Receptors, Progesterone / biosynthesis. Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17885486.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone
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