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1. Ismi O, Vayisoglu Y, Karabacak T, Unal M: Supraclavicular metastases from a sex cord stromal tumor of the ovary. Tumori; 2009 Mar-Apr;95(2):254-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Supraclavicular metastases from a sex cord stromal tumor of the ovary.
  • Metastases to the supraclavicular fossa usually originate from head and neck or infraclavicular tumors.
  • Sex cord stromal tumors of the ovary account for 5-8% of all ovarian malignancies and there have been only a few case reports on distant metastases from these tumors.
  • She had had a sex cord stromal tumor in the right ovary four years before.
  • The lesion had the characteristics of a sex cord stromal tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Head and Neck Neoplasms / secondary. Lymph Nodes / pathology. Lymphatic Diseases / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / secondary

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  • (PMID = 19579877.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-8916
  • [Journal-full-title] Tumori
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tumori
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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2. Sajadi KP, Dalton RR, Brown JA: Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor of the rete testis. Adv Urol; 2009;:624173

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sex cord-gonadal stromal tumor of the rete testis.
  • The radical orchiectomy specimen contained an undifferentiated spindled sex cord-stromal tumor arising in the rete testis.
  • Testicular sex cord-stromal tumors are far less common than germ cell neoplasms and are usually benign.
  • The close relationship between sex cords and ductules of the rete testis during development provides the opportunity for these uncommon tumors to arise anatomically within the rete tesis.
  • This undifferentiated sex cord-stromal tumor, occurring in a previously unreported location, is an example of an unusual lesion mimicking an intratesticular malignant neoplasm.

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  • (PMID = 19125206.001).
  • [ISSN] 1687-6369
  • [Journal-full-title] Advances in urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Adv Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Egypt
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2612754
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3. Hurrell DP, McCluggage WG: Uterine tumour resembling ovarian sex cord tumour is an immunohistochemically polyphenotypic neoplasm which exhibits coexpression of epithelial, myoid and sex cord markers. J Clin Pathol; 2007 Oct;60(10):1148-54
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Uterine tumour resembling ovarian sex cord tumour is an immunohistochemically polyphenotypic neoplasm which exhibits coexpression of epithelial, myoid and sex cord markers.
  • AIMS: To describe the clinicopathological and immunohistochemical findings in four cases of uterine tumour resembling ovarian sex cord tumour (UTROSCT).
  • METHODS: Four UTROSCTs were stained with a wide range of antibodies, including epithelial (AE1/3, epithelial membrane antigen), myoid (desmin, alpha smooth muscle actin, h-caldesmon), sex cord (alpha inhibin, calretinin, melan A, CD99) and neuroendocrine (chromogranin, CD56) markers as well as hormone receptors (oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, androgen receptor), vimentin, CD10, WT1 and HMB45.
  • RESULTS: The tumours ranged from 0.8 to 19.5 cm.
  • The tumours were variably composed of solid, corded, trabecular, nested, glandular and retiform arrangements of tumour cells.
  • CONCLUSIONS: UTROSCT exhibits a polyphenotypic immunophenotype with coexpression of markers of epithelial, myoid and sex cord lineage as well as hormone receptors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunophenotyping. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17182656.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2014850
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4. Jarzembowski JA, Lieberman RW: Pediatric sex cord-stromal tumor with composite morphology: a case report. Pediatr Dev Pathol; 2005 Nov-Dec;8(6):680-4
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Pediatric sex cord-stromal tumor with composite morphology: a case report.
  • Histologically, the tumor exhibited several different morphologic appearances including adult granulosa cell tumor, juvenile granulosa cell tumor (with areas of marked atypia), and Sertoli cell tumor.
  • Immunohistochemically, the tumor was positive for calretinin, MIC-2 (CD99), S100 protein, PGP 9.5, and neuron-specific enolase.
  • Electron microscopy of the Sertoli cell tumor-like areas showed Charcot-Bottcher filaments, a distinguishing feature of Sertoli cells.
  • Together, these findings supported a diagnosis of mixed sex cord-stromal tumor including granulosa cell tumor of adult and juvenile types and intermediate- to high-grade Sertoli cell tumor, with large areas of markedly atypical sex cord-stromal tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Carcinoma, Small Cell / pathology. Child. Developmental Disabilities / complications. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Intellectual Disability / complications. Lymphoma / pathology. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. Neuroectodermal Tumors, Primitive / pathology. Rhabdomyosarcoma / pathology. Sarcoma, Ewing / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16222477.001).
  • [ISSN] 1093-5266
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric and developmental pathology : the official journal of the Society for Pediatric Pathology and the Paediatric Pathology Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr. Dev. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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5. Magro G, Gurrera A, Gangemi P, Saita A, Greco P: Incompletely differentiated (unclassified) sex cord/gonadal stromal tumor of the testis with a "pure" spindle cell component: report of a case with diagnostic and histogenetic considerations. Pathol Res Pract; 2007;203(10):759-62
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Incompletely differentiated (unclassified) sex cord/gonadal stromal tumor of the testis with a "pure" spindle cell component: report of a case with diagnostic and histogenetic considerations.
  • The group of incompletely differentiated (unclassified) sex cord/gonadal stromal tumors includes rare cases with predominant spindle cell morphology.
  • We report a rare case of a "pure" spindle cell tumor of the testis with morphological and immunohistochemical features consistent with the diagnosis of "incompletely differentiated sex cord/gonadal stromal tumor".
  • The concurrent presence of some morphological and immunohistochemical features of both Leydig and granulosa cell lines in the tumor suggests its origin from a stromal stem cell, possibly capable of dual differentiation, but with an arrest of maturation at an early phase of differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Differentiation. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Diagnosis, Differential. Embryonal Carcinoma Stem Cells. Female. Granulosa Cells / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Leydig Cells / pathology. Male. Neoplastic Stem Cells / pathology. Stromal Cells / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17850986.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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6. Mould AW, Duncan R, Serewko-Auret M, Loffler KA, Biondi C, Gartside M, Kay GF, Hayward NK: Global expression profiling of sex cord stromal tumors from Men1 heterozygous mice identifies altered TGF-beta signaling, decreased Gata6 and increased Csf1r expression. Int J Cancer; 2009 Mar 1;124(5):1122-32
NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program. NCI CPTC Antibody Characterization Program .

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Global expression profiling of sex cord stromal tumors from Men1 heterozygous mice identifies altered TGF-beta signaling, decreased Gata6 and increased Csf1r expression.
  • Heterozygous disruption of the Men1 gene predisposes mice to the development of multiple endocrine tumors, accurately mimicking the human MEN1 cancer predisposition syndrome.
  • Additionally, Men1(+/-) mice frequently develop sex cord adenomas.
  • The mechanism underlying the susceptibility of these mice to sex cord tumor development has not been fully determined, but data suggest it may involve transcriptional regulation of key growth promoting/repressing genes.
  • To identify potential menin-regulated genes that may be important for tumor suppression in sex cord cells, we compared the global gene expression profiles of testis and ovary adenomas with other endocrine tumors of the pancreas and pituitary from Men1 heterozygous mice and with control tissues.
  • Gonadal tumors clustered separately from pancreas and pituitary tumors with only a few genes (e.g., Cdkn2c) commonly dysregulated in all tumor types.
  • Testis and ovary tumors displayed a higher level of transcriptional similarity to each other than they did to their respective control tissues.
  • Among genes that had decreased expression in tumors was significant over-representation of genes associated with the TGF-beta, hedgehog and Wnt signaling, indicating that loss of menin function affects these pathways at the level of transcription.
  • We propose that sex cord tumor susceptibility in Men1(+/-) mice involves deregulated cell proliferation due to dysregulation of multiple cell growth regulating genes including: reduced Cdkn2c transcription, loss of TGF-beta pathway tumor suppressor function (e.g., Gata6) and transcriptional activation of Csf1r.
  • [MeSH-major] GATA6 Transcription Factor / analysis. Gene Expression Profiling. Proto-Oncogene Proteins / physiology. Receptor, Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / analysis. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / etiology. Signal Transduction / physiology. Transforming Growth Factor beta / physiology


7. Yearley JH, King N, Liu X, Curran EH, O'Neil SP: Biphasic malignant testicular sex cord-stromal tumor in a cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus) with review of the literature. Vet Pathol; 2008 Nov;45(6):922-7
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Biphasic malignant testicular sex cord-stromal tumor in a cotton-top tamarin (Saguinus oedipus) with review of the literature.
  • The animal was castrated, and histologic examination revealed a biphasic sex cord-stromal tumor, with one region resembling Sertoli-cell tumor and one region resembling granulosa-cell tumor, with extensive microfollicular pattern and many Call-Exner bodies.
  • Eight months after castration, the animal was euthanized on discovery of a caudal abdominal mass that displaced organs, was highly infiltrative, and extended into the paravertebral musculature with lysis of vertebral bone.
  • Histologic examination of the abdominal tumor showed multifocal formation of Call-Exner bodies in an otherwise highly dedifferentiated population.
  • Positive immunolabeling for alpha inhibin confirmed the sex cord-stromal origin of the abdominal and paravertebral tumor masses.
  • This case has similarities to malignant testicular granulosa-cell tumor of humans.

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  • (PMID = 18984797.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Grant] United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / K01RR24120; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / T32 RR007000; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR00168; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / P51 RR000168; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / K26 RR000168; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / T32 RR007000-32; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / RR007000-32; United States / NCRR NIH HHS / RR / K01 RR024120
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 37
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ NIHMS93232; NLM/ PMC2660595
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8. Sutak J, Lazic D, Cullimore JE: Uterine tumour resembling an ovarian sex cord tumour. J Clin Pathol; 2005 Aug;58(8):888-90

  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Uterine tumour resembling an ovarian sex cord tumour.
  • Endometrial stromal sarcomas account for 0.25% of all uterine malignancies.
  • These tumours were originally divided into low grade and high grade stromal sarcomas, but the recent World Health Organisation classification (2003) recognises low grade stromal sarcoma and undifferentiated endometrial sarcoma.
  • Low grade sarcomas may exhibit other forms of differentiation, including smooth muscle and sex cord differentiation.
  • In the latter form, the tumour contains epithelial-like or sex cord-like elements often with epithelioid appearance, arranged in nests, cords, trabeculae, solid, or tubular structures.
  • If this element predominates, the tumour is considered to be a uterine tumour resembling ovarian sex cord tumour, and may cause diagnostic difficulties.
  • This case report describes the histological and immunohistochemical features of a uterine stromal sarcoma showing exclusively a pattern reminiscent of ovarian sex cord tumour.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Sarcoma, Endometrial Stromal / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Neprilysin / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16049297.001).
  • [ISSN] 0021-9746
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1770886
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9. Liu SY, Ng CF, Lai FM, Cheng CW: Undifferentiated sex cord-stromal tumor in a young adult. Int Urol Nephrol; 2007;39(2):561-4
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  • [Title] Undifferentiated sex cord-stromal tumor in a young adult.
  • Undifferentiated sex cord-stromal tumor in post-puberty male is extremely rare.
  • We reported a 19-year-old patient presented with an asymptomatic right testicular nodule with normal level of serum marker for germ cell tumor.
  • Excisional biopsy and subsequent orchidectomy was preformed and the final pathology supported the diagnosis of undifferentiated sex cord-stromal tumor.
  • He remained disease free 18 months after the operation.
  • A summary of the literatures and discussion on the management of this rare tumor was provided.
  • [MeSH-major] Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16835728.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-1623
  • [Journal-full-title] International urology and nephrology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int Urol Nephrol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Netherlands
  • [Number-of-references] 5
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10. Bercaw JL, Sanchez J, Byrd RH, Bhattacharjee MB, Dietrich JE: Sex cord tumor with annular tubules in a young adolescent with Von Willebrand's disease. J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol; 2010 Jun;23(3):e111-4
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  • [Title] Sex cord tumor with annular tubules in a young adolescent with Von Willebrand's disease.
  • BACKGROUND: Ovarian sex cord tumor with annular tubules (SCTAT) is a rare form of ovarian neoplasm.
  • During her evaluation, she was both diagnosed with von Willebrand disease (VWD) and found to have an ovarian neoplasm, which was ultimately determined to be an ovarian sex cord tumor with annular tubules (SCTAT).
  • SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION: As her diagnosis was temporally associated with her worsening symptoms and the presence of an ovarian mass, this tumor may have played a role in her VWD diagnosis.
  • This case reminds physicians of the importance of evaluating patients with menometrorrhagia for bleeding conditions, in addition to considering hormone-secreting ovarian neoplasms, including SCTAT.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / complications. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / complications. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. von Willebrand Diseases / complications

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  • [Copyright] Copyright 2010 North American Society for Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 19896399.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4332
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric and adolescent gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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11. Nosov V, Park S, Rao J, Memarzadeh S: Non-Peutz-Jeghers syndrome associated ovarian sex cord tumor with annular tubules: a case report. Fertil Steril; 2009 Oct;92(4):1497.e5-8
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  • [Title] Non-Peutz-Jeghers syndrome associated ovarian sex cord tumor with annular tubules: a case report.
  • OBJECTIVE: Sex cord tumors with annular tubules (SCTAT) are a rare subtype of sex cord stromal tumor of the ovary.
  • An evidence-based management plan with follow-up evaluations is difficult to outline because of the rarity of these tumors.
  • We describe the case of a premenarcheal patient with a SCTAT.
  • Her clinical presentation was consistent with an estrogen-secreting tumor, resulting in early menarche and premature breast development.
  • Inhibin and estradiol levels were markedly elevated preoperatively and normalized 5 weeks after surgical removal of the tumor.
  • RESULT(S): Normalization of serum estradiol and inhibin along with cessation of menstruation were seen 5 weeks postoperatively, with persistence of morphologic signs of precocious puberty and advanced bone age at 11 months after the diagnosis.
  • CONCLUSION(S): The diagnosis of SCTAT was established on final pathology examination based on morphologic features of the tumor microscopically and the marker expression profile on immunohistochemistry.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19703688.001).
  • [ISSN] 1556-5653
  • [Journal-full-title] Fertility and sterility
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Fertil. Steril.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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12. Barker D, Sharma R, McIndoe A, Blair E, Hall M, Gabra H, El-Bahrawy M: An unusual case of sex cord tumor with annular tubules with malignant transformation in a patient with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2010 Jan;29(1):27-32
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  • [Title] An unusual case of sex cord tumor with annular tubules with malignant transformation in a patient with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome.
  • We report a case of a 54-year-old Caucasian woman with an earlier diagnosis of Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome (PJS) and sex cord tumor with annular tubules (SCTAT).
  • The sex cord stromal tumors showed aggressive malignant behavior with repeated recurrence and metastasis.
  • We discuss the presentation and management of this case and highlight the importance of considering the possibility of aggressive behavior of these tumors in the management of patients with PJS.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome / complications. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19952941.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.1.- / STK11 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
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13. Shah SN: Bilateral sex cord tumor with annular tubules of ovary without Peutz-Jeghers syndrome: a case report. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2007 Apr;50(2):401-3
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  • [Title] Bilateral sex cord tumor with annular tubules of ovary without Peutz-Jeghers syndrome: a case report.
  • Ovarian sex cord tumor with annular tubules is a very rare tumor .
  • Microscopic examination showed characteristic findings of sex cord tumor with annular tubules on both sides.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17883091.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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14. Khalifa M, Nofech-Mozes S, Atri M, Covens A: Chemotherapy-induced alterations in ovarian sex cord tumor with annular tubules (SCTAT): a diagnostic challenge. Pathol Res Pract; 2006;202(3):183-6
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  • [Title] Chemotherapy-induced alterations in ovarian sex cord tumor with annular tubules (SCTAT): a diagnostic challenge.
  • We present a case of ovarian sex cord tumor with annular tubules (SCTAT) in a patient that received neoadjuvant chemotherapy with 3.5 years of follow-up.
  • Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy is a common practice in advanced cases of ovarian carcinoma and is rarely applied in nonepithelial ovarian tumors.
  • Chemotherapy-induced morphologic alterations of the subsequently resected tissue samples are well recognized; in this case, chemotherapy-induced cytoarchitectural changes created diagnostic difficulties in the subsequently resected specimen.
  • [MeSH-major] Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / adverse effects. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16459027.001).
  • [ISSN] 0344-0338
  • [Journal-full-title] Pathology, research and practice
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathol. Res. Pract.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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15. D'Antonio A, De Dominicis G, Addesso M, Caleo A, Boscaino A: Hepatoid carcinoma of the ovary with sex cord stromal tumor: a previously unrecognized association. Arch Gynecol Obstet; 2010 Apr;281(4):765-8
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  • [Title] Hepatoid carcinoma of the ovary with sex cord stromal tumor: a previously unrecognized association.
  • BACKGROUND: Hepatoid carcinoma (HC) of ovary is a rare type of epithelial tumor composed mainly of epithelioid cells with abundant acidophilic cytoplasm, histologically indistinguishable from hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • We report a previously unrecognized case of HC of ovary concurrent with a Sertoli cell tumor.
  • CASE REPORT: A 42-year-old woman patient with a long-term history of hepatitis C presented with a mass of left ovary without evidence of hepatic tumor.
  • Histologically, the primary tumor was composed of epithelioid cells with "hepatoid features" in association with a sex cord stromal tumor of Sertoli-type.
  • A final diagnosis of HC concurrent with Sertoli-type tumor was made.
  • CONCLUSION: The occurrence of this unreported association of HC with Sertoli-like tumor, the problems of differential diagnosis and therapeutic management of these tumors are the subject of this presentation.
  • A diagnosis of ovarian metastasis from hepatocellular carcinoma is easy in patients with known primary tumor of liver and should be always excluded in these cases as an hepatoid variant of yolk sac tumor.
  • However, a combination of clinical and pathological features is necessary for a correct diagnosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovary / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19856182.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-0711
  • [Journal-full-title] Archives of gynecology and obstetrics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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16. Brown J, Deavers MT, Nick AM, Milojevic L, Gershenson DM, Sood AK: Clinical relevance of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in patients with sex cord-stromal ovarian tumors. J Clin Oncol; 2009 May 20;27(15_suppl):5575

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  • [Title] Clinical relevance of angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in patients with sex cord-stromal ovarian tumors.
  • : 5575 Background: Distant metastasis is common in patients with sex cord-stromal ovarian tumors (SCSTs), but lymph node involvement is extremely rare.
  • METHODS: After Institutional Review Board approval, 80 tumor samples (46 primary, 34 recurrent) were obtained from 65 patients and stained for CD31 (microvessel density; MVD), D2-40 (lymphvascular density; LVD), and VEGF.
  • At presentation, 53% of patients had stage I disease, 8% had stage II, 16% had stage III, and 23% were unstaged.
  • High MVD was present in 41% of all tumors.
  • High MVD was significantly associated with shorter disease-specific survival (mean 16.7 versus 32.3 months; p = 0.024), increased risk of recurrence (p < 0.04), and shorter overall survival (median 108.6 versus 388.5 months; p < 0.001).
  • Most tumors had either absent or low LVD.
  • Interestingly, all 3 tumors with nodal metastasis had significantly greater LVD (LVD = 35.8 vessels/hpf) compared to those without nodal metastasis (LVD = 2.7 vessels/hpf; p < 0.001).
  • CONCLUSIONS: Increased angiogenesis is a significant predictor of poor clinical outcome in patients with sex-cord stromal tumors.
  • Most of these tumors have poor lymphatic development that might explain the low likelihood of nodal metastasis.

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  • (PMID = 27962605.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-7755
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of clinical oncology : official journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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17. Premalata CS, Amirtham U, Devi G, Biswas S, Ud B, Umadevi K: Ovarian sex cord tumour with annular tubules diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology--a case report. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2005 Jul;48(3):358-60
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  • [Title] Ovarian sex cord tumour with annular tubules diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology--a case report.
  • Sex cord tumor with annular tubules (SCTAT) is a rare ovarian neoplasm with distinctive morphological features whose cytological features have rarely been described.
  • The cytological findings of a rare ovarian neoplasm are described, which is only the third such report in English literature.
  • Cell block study brings out the distinctive architecture of the tumor and helps in differentiating it from other closely related tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16761751.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-4929
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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18. Ryan LJ, Pambuccian SE, Lai R, Gulbahce HE: Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration diagnosis of metastatic sex cord tumor with annular tubules: a case report. Diagn Cytopathol; 2006 Aug;34(8):576-9
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  • [Title] Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration diagnosis of metastatic sex cord tumor with annular tubules: a case report.
  • The cytologic findings of a paratracheal metastasis from a malignant sex cord tumor with annular tubules (SCTATs) diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration are described.
  • These cytologic findings are clearly distinct from the poorly formed rosette-like structures of granulosa-cell tumors and are reminiscent of the low-power appearance of the cribriform variant of adenoid cystic carcinoma.
  • The fine needle aspiration cytologic features of only two other cases have been previously described and, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first case reporting the cytologic diagnosis of a distant metastasis of a SCTATs by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration.
  • In this case, the distinctive and characteristic cytologic features have allowed the proper diagnosis of a distant metastasis of SCTATs.
  • [MeSH-major] Biopsy, Fine-Needle. Endosonography / methods. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Thoracic Neoplasms / pathology. Thoracic Neoplasms / secondary

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
  • (PMID = 16850486.001).
  • [ISSN] 8755-1039
  • [Journal-full-title] Diagnostic cytopathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Diagn. Cytopathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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19. Popadiuk S, Korzon M, Chybicka A, Szmyd K, Dzierzega M, Trelińska J, Kowalczyk JR, Wiśniewska-Slusarz H, Woźniak W, Bilska K, Wachowiak J, Konatkowska B, Wysocki M, Krawczuk-Rybak M, Czauderna P, Szumera M, Sznurkowska K, Renke J: [Ovarian malignant tumours. Efficacy of germ cell and sex cord tumour treatment protocol in Poland]. Med Wieku Rozwoj; 2006 Jul-Sep;10(3 Pt 1):803-10
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  • [Title] [Ovarian malignant tumours. Efficacy of germ cell and sex cord tumour treatment protocol in Poland].
  • Approximately 1% of all malignant tumours among children are localized in the ovary.
  • The majority belongs to germ cell tumours and occurs in the peripubertal period.
  • AIM of the study was the evaluation of the efficacy of malignant ovarian germ cell tumour treatment programme in children.
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: Since 1998, 40 girls with malignant ovarian tumours were enrolled in the multicentre trial.
  • Mixed germ cell tumours with yolk sac elements and dysgerminoma occurred the most often.
  • Tumour exceeded the ovary margin in more than half the patients and 25% were qualified as high risk group.
  • All but one patient with neuroblastoma received TGM protocol (Tumeurs Germinates Malignes).
  • RESULTS: Among 34 children with germ cell tumours and 3 with sex cord tumours who completed the treatment all are alive in the first remission.
  • CONCLUSIONS: The TGM protocol appears to be highly efficient in treatment of germ cell tumours even in advanced stages.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / drug therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 17317911.001).
  • [Journal-full-title] Medycyna wieku rozwojowego
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Med Wieku Rozwoj
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] Clinical Trial; English Abstract; Journal Article; Multicenter Study
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5J49Q6B70F / Vincristine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; BG3F62OND5 / Carboplatin; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; UM20QQM95Y / Ifosfamide; COB protocol; ICE protocol 1
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20. Roth LM: Recent advances in the pathology and classification of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2006 Jul;25(3):199-215
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  • [Title] Recent advances in the pathology and classification of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors.
  • In recent years, our knowledge of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors has increased, and their classification has evolved.
  • In this review, recent advances in the classification and pathology of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors are discussed, and the controversy regarding the classification of sex cord tumor with annular tubules is addressed.
  • The current classification is built on those of the past, and future classifications should improve on what is now in place incorporating new knowledge from more sophisticated clinicopathologic studies and advanced molecular techniques.
  • This review emphasizes articles written in the 21st century as well as those that have significantly advanced our knowledge of sex cord-stromal tumors in past decades.
  • The tumors in this group occur over a wide age range and are often unilateral.
  • The most useful immunohistochemical marker for their identification is alpha-inhibin, which is positive in most neoplasms in the sex cord-stromal group.
  • The article concludes with a section discussing the pathogenesis of sex cord-stromal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / classification. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / classification. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Fibroma / classification. Fibroma / etiology. Fibroma / pathology. Granulosa Cell Tumor / classification. Granulosa Cell Tumor / etiology. Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Inhibins / analysis. Leydig Cell Tumor / classification. Leydig Cell Tumor / etiology. Leydig Cell Tumor / pathology. Luteoma / classification. Luteoma / etiology. Luteoma / pathology. Thecoma / classification. Thecoma / etiology. Thecoma / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16810055.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / inhibin-alpha subunit; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
  • [Number-of-references] 89
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21. Swanger RS, Brudnicki A: Ultrasound of ovarian sex-cord tumor with annular tubules. Pediatr Radiol; 2007 Dec;37(12):1270-1
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  • [Title] Ultrasound of ovarian sex-cord tumor with annular tubules.
  • Sex-cord tumors with annular tubules (SCTAT) have been extensively reported in the literature with great emphasis on the cytologic and histologic appearance.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnostic imaging. Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome / complications. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / diagnostic imaging

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  • [Cites] N Engl J Med. 1987 Jun 11;316(24):1511-4 [3587280.001]
  • [Cites] Cancer. 1970 May;25(5):1107-21 [5429475.001]
  • [Cites] Int J Gynecol Pathol. 2006 Jul;25(3):199-215 [16810055.001]
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  • (PMID = 17764009.001).
  • [ISSN] 0301-0449
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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22. Zhao C, Vinh TN, McManus K, Dabbs D, Barner R, Vang R: Identification of the most sensitive and robust immunohistochemical markers in different categories of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Mar;33(3):354-66
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  • [Title] Identification of the most sensitive and robust immunohistochemical markers in different categories of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors.
  • Different immunohistochemical sex cord-stromal markers have been previously studied in various types of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors; however, the sensitivity for sex cord-stromal lineage may vary between markers, and some markers may not be as sensitive in some types of sex cord-stromal tumors compared with other tumors in this spectrum of neoplasms.
  • The goals of this study were to determine which immunohistochemical markers are the most sensitive and immunohistochemically robust for sex cord-stromal lineage within a given type of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumor, and to establish whether there are substantial differences of expression of these markers between different types of sex cord-stromal tumors.
  • Immunohistochemical stains for markers which have known variable specificity for sex cord-stromal lineage [inhibin, calretinin, MART-1/melan-A, CD99, steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1, adrenal 4-binding protein), and WT1], were performed in 127 cases of 5 different types of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors: adult granulosa cell tumor (n=32), Sertoli cell tumor (n=27), Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor (n=18), steroid cell tumor (n=25), and fibroma/fibrothecoma (n=25).
  • All cases in each type of sex cord-stromal tumor expressed SF-1.
  • Inhibin and calretinin were expressed in all groups of tumors but with a lesser frequency (56% to 100% and 36% to 100% of cases, respectively).
  • All types of tumors except steroid cell tumor expressed WT1.
  • Fibroma/fibrothecoma was the only type of tumor that did not express CD99.
  • The only tumor groups that showed expression of MART-1 were Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor (restricted to the Leydig cell component) and steroid cell tumor (94% and 96% of cases, respectively).
  • The type of sex cord-stromal tumor that was least frequently positive for several of the different markers studied was fibroma/fibrothecoma.
  • Among all tumor groups combined, inhibin and WT1 were the 2 markers showing the most diffuse expression.
  • Likewise, the single marker showing the most optimal combination of diffuse and strong staining (immunohistochemical composite score: possible range, 1 to 12) varied between tumors: adult granulosa cell tumor-inhibin (score 10.0); Sertoli cell tumor-WT1 (score 10.8); Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor (Sertoli cell component)-WT1 (score 10.4); steroid cell tumor-inhibin (score 11.2); and fibroma/fibrothecoma-WT1 (score 8.9).
  • We conclude that most immunohistochemical sex cord-stromal markers have sufficient sensitivity for sex cord-stromal lineage.
  • Although each of the different types of sex cord-stromal tumors has a slightly unique immunoprofile in terms of frequency and extent of expression, these differences are relatively minor for most types of tumors with certain exceptions (eg, WT1 is not diagnostically useful in steroid cell tumor; CD99 is not diagnostically useful in fibroma/fibrothecoma; the only sex cord-stromal tumor for which MART-1 is diagnostically useful is steroid cell tumor; inhibin and calretinin are less diagnostically useful in fibroma/fibrothecoma than in the other types of tumors, but expression in fibrothecoma was higher than in fibroma).
  • SF-1 is the most sensitive sex cord-stromal marker among the most common types of sex cord-stromal tumors.
  • Given the findings relating to sensitivity and extent of expression in this study, and known specificity in the literature, the most informative sex cord-stromal markers to be used for the distinction from nonsex cord-stromal tumors are inhibin, calretinin, SF-1, and WT1 (the exact number of markers to be used should be based on the degree of difficulty of the case and level of experience of the pathologist); however, the utility of immunohistochemistry for the diagnosis of fibroma/fibrothecoma is somewhat limited.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / metabolism. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19033865.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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23. McCluggage WG, McKenna M, McBride HA: CD56 is a sensitive and diagnostically useful immunohistochemical marker of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2007 Jul;26(3):322-7
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  • [Title] CD56 is a sensitive and diagnostically useful immunohistochemical marker of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors.
  • Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors comprise a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with wide morphological diversity, and they can be mistaken for a variety of other tumors.
  • Some types, including granulosa and Sertoli cell tumor, may be confused with a neuroendocrine neoplasm.
  • CD56 is a widely used neuroendocrine marker with a high sensitivity for neuroendocrine tumors and is commonly used as part of a panel to distinguish between a neuroendocrine neoplasm and other tumors in the differential diagnosis.
  • In this study, we investigate CD56 staining in ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors.
  • CD56 staining has not previously been studied in this group of neoplasms.
  • We stained a large series of ovarian sex cord-stromal neoplasms (n = 85) with CD56.
  • Neoplasms studied were adult granulosa cell tumor (n = 40), juvenile granulosa cell tumor (n = 8), Sertoli cell tumor (n = 1), Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor (n = 14), Leydig cell tumor (n = 2), steroid cell tumor, not otherwise specified (n = 2), sclerosing stromal tumor (n = 1), sex cord tumor with annular tubules (n = 2), and fibroma (n = 15).
  • Three uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumor were also studied.
  • The normal ovarian stroma was diffusely positive, as were the 3 pregnancy-related proliferations.
  • All sex cord-stromal tumors except one were positive with CD56; staining ranged from focal to diffuse but was usually diffuse involving more than 50% of tumor cells.
  • CD56 immunoreactivity is almost universal in ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors of all the major morphological types and is of no value in distinguishing a sex cord-stromal and a neuroendocrine neoplasm.
  • Since CD56 is an extremely sensitive marker of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors, it may be useful in the diagnosis of this group of neoplasms, especially in cases which are alpha inhibin or calretinin negative, and in distinguishing these from mimics which are CD56 negative.
  • [MeSH-major] Antigens, CD56 / metabolism. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17581419.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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24. Gupta PR, Taly A, Joshi N, Gupta S, Meena RC, Jain S: Chylothorax in a patient with ovarian tumour. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci; 2005 Jan-Mar;47(1):43-6
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  • [Title] Chylothorax in a patient with ovarian tumour.
  • A rare case of chylothorax complicating sex cord tumour of ovary in a young girl is being reported here.
  • [MeSH-major] Chylothorax / complications. Ovarian Neoplasms / complications

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  • (PMID = 15704715.001).
  • [ISSN] 0377-9343
  • [Journal-full-title] The Indian journal of chest diseases & allied sciences
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 80168379AG / Doxorubicin; 8N3DW7272P / Cyclophosphamide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; CISCA protocol
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25. Owston MA, Ramos-Vara JA: Histologic and immunohistochemical characterization of a testicular mixed germ cell sex cord-stromal tumor and a leydig cell tumor in a dog. Vet Pathol; 2007 Nov;44(6):936-43
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  • [Title] Histologic and immunohistochemical characterization of a testicular mixed germ cell sex cord-stromal tumor and a leydig cell tumor in a dog.
  • Mixed germ cell sex cord-stromal tumors (MGSCTs) of the testis are rare in dogs.
  • We describe the histopathology and immunohistochemical characteristics of an MGSCT associated with a Leydig cell tumor in a cryptorchid testis.
  • Although more cases of canine MGSCT need to be examined, our results suggest that an immunohistochemical panel of E-cadherin, GATA-4, INH-alpha, KIT, NSE, PGP 9.5, and melan A will help distinguish the three main cell types in canine testicular germ cell and sex cord-stromal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Dog Diseases / pathology. Leydig Cell Tumor / veterinary. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / veterinary. Testicular Neoplasms / veterinary

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  • (PMID = 18039910.001).
  • [ISSN] 0300-9858
  • [Journal-full-title] Veterinary pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Vet. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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26. Jung SE, Rha SE, Lee JM, Park SY, Oh SN, Cho KS, Lee EJ, Byun JY, Hahn ST: CT and MRI findings of sex cord-stromal tumor of the ovary. AJR Am J Roentgenol; 2005 Jul;185(1):207-15
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  • [Title] CT and MRI findings of sex cord-stromal tumor of the ovary.
  • OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article was to research the clinical and imaging features of sex cord-stromal tumors of the ovary to help in specific diagnosis of ovarian tumors.
  • Sex cord-stromal tumors of the ovary are rare ovarian neoplasms, which arise from stromal cells and primitive sex cords in the ovary.
  • The common types are granulosa cell tumors, fibrothecomas, sclerosing stromal tumors, and Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors.
  • They account for most of the hormonally active ovarian tumors.
  • They have characteristic imaging features in each type of the tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: Clinical and radiologic clues are helpful in differential diagnosis from the more common epithelial tumors; sex cord-stromal tumors primarily are treated surgically and have generally good prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Tomography, X-Ray Computed

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  • (PMID = 15972425.001).
  • [ISSN] 0361-803X
  • [Journal-full-title] AJR. American journal of roentgenology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] AJR Am J Roentgenol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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27. Czernobilsky B: Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors: an update. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Apr;27(2):229-35
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  • [Title] Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors: an update.
  • Tumors of the uterus resembling ovarian sex cord tumors were reported by Clement and Scully in 1976 and were divided in 2 groups: group 1, endometrial stromal tumors, and group 2, mural uterine tumors-both with elements resembling ovarian sex cord tumors.
  • In the former, the sex cord component constitutes a minor portion of an endometrial stromal neoplasm, whereas in the latter, it is the predominant or exclusive component of a uterine wall lesion composed of a variety of mesenchymal elements.
  • An origin from endometrial stromal cells, adenomyosis, stromal myosis, endometriosis, or multipotential cells within the myometrium was postulated in both groups of tumors.
  • In group 1 tumors, the prognosis depends on the type, grade, and stage of the underlying stromal neoplasm.
  • Group 2 tumors seemed to be benign, although because of the occasional recurrence of these tumors, they should be considered of low-grade malignant potential.
  • In group 1 tumors, the sex cord elements remained limited to cords, trabeculae, nests, and tubules.
  • Eventually, the abbreviation ESTSCLE, or endometrial stromal tumors with sex cord-like elements, was given to group 1 tumors, whereas UTROSCT, or uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex cord tumor, was used for group 2 tumors.
  • Out of the plethora of the immunohistochemical stains, a panel of 4 including calretinin, inhibin, CD99, and Melan A has emerged which seemed to be the most characteristic sex cord markers.
  • Endometrial stromal tumors with sex cord-like elements, on the other hand, usually express only 1 sex cord marker, mostly calretinin.
  • In conclusion, UTROSCT and, to a lesser degree, ESTSCLE, are polyphenotypic neoplasms, which, according to the evidence available at present, most likely arise from pluripotential uterine mesenchymal cells.
  • In UTROSCT, the differentiation into sex cord components is predominant or exclusive, whereas in ESTSCLE, it is minor.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Cell Differentiation. Diagnosis, Differential. Endometrial Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Endometrial Stromal Tumors / pathology. Female. Humans

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  • (PMID = 18317219.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 40
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28. Young RH: Sex cord-stromal tumors of the ovary and testis: their similarities and differences with consideration of selected problems. Mod Pathol; 2005 Feb;18 Suppl 2:S81-98
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  • [Title] Sex cord-stromal tumors of the ovary and testis: their similarities and differences with consideration of selected problems.
  • Gonadal sex cord-stromal tumors contain some of the most morphologically interesting neoplasms of the gonads and these lead to many important issues in differential diagnosis.
  • The pathology of these tumors is reviewed with emphasis on new information, similarities and differences in the two gonads, and diagnostic problems.
  • Sertoli cell tumors occur in both gonads being more common in the testis where they usually exhibit a lobular pattern of hollow or solid tubules.
  • In the ovary, tubular differentiation is usually the predominant feature but the lobulation typically seen in the testis is generally not as striking.
  • One variant of Sertoli cell tumor, the large cell calcifying form, appears to be restricted to the male gonad and in contrast to other sex cord tumors is much more frequently bilateral and is associated in many cases with unusual clinical manifestations.
  • In both sexes, patients with Peutz-Jeghers syndrome often have distinctive gonadal pathology.
  • In females, it is in the form of the sex cord with annular tubules whereas in males, the lesion has features that are often intermediate between those of a sex cord tumor with annular tubules and a large cell calcifying Sertoli cell tumor.
  • Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors are more morphologically diverse than pure Sertoli cell tumors and for practical purposes are an issue only in ovarian pathology being exceptionally rare in the testis.
  • The classification proposed by Meyer into well, intermediate, and poor differentiation, remains important prognostically.
  • Heterologous tumors most often contain mucinous epithelium, sometimes with small foci of carcinoid or less commonly, and generally in poorly differentiated neoplasms, rhabdomyosarcoma or fetal-type cartilage.
  • Such tumors should be distinguished from pure sarcomas and teratomas.
  • The retiform neoplasms, which tend to occur in young females, may mimic serous borderline tumors or even serous carcinomas.
  • Granulosa cell tumors are much more common in females and in both gonads are divided into adult and juvenile forms.
  • In females, granulosa cell tumors and other sex cord tumors may have markedly bizarre nuclei potentially leading to overdiagnosis as more malignant neoplasms.
  • The juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the testis tends to occur in the first 6 months of life and should be carefully distinguished from the yolk sac tumor of the testis, which usually occurs in a slightly older age group.
  • Occasional sex cord-stromal tumors cannot be readily categorized into the Sertoli or granulosa families and are diagnosed as sex cord-stromal tumors unclassified.
  • In females, this is a relatively common placement for a neoplasm in a pregnant patient.
  • Unclassified tumors are overall more common in males and may entrap residual normal germ cells potentially leading to the erroneous placement of the tumor in the category of a mixed germ cell sex cord-stromal tumor.
  • From the practical viewpoint, the most helpful immunohistochemical findings are the negative staining of sex cord tumors for epithelial membrane antigen, and positive staining for inhibin and calretinin, findings that are converse to those seen in endometrioid carcinomas of the ovary, which commonly have formations that simulate sex cord tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Humans. Male. Sertoli Cell Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 15502809.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 69
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29. O'Meara AC, Giger OT, Kurrer M, Schaer G: Case report: Recurrence of a uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex-cord tumor. Gynecol Oncol; 2009 Jul;114(1):140-2
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  • [Title] Case report: Recurrence of a uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex-cord tumor.
  • BACKGROUND: Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex-cord tumors are very rare uterine neoplasias that generally behave in a benign manner.
  • We report the case of a uterine tumor resembling an ovarian sex-cord tumor that recurred after hysterectomy.
  • Ultrasound examination showed a heterogeneous uterine tumor composed of cystic and solid parts.
  • Because of the patient's desire to preserve fertility, tumor resection was scheduled.
  • The final histological diagnosis was uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex-cord tumor.
  • CONCLUSION: Although uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex-cord tumors generally behave in a benign manner, they may in rare cases metastasize.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / surgery

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  • (PMID = 19406461.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
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30. Yang DT, Lowichik A, Chen J, Snow BW, Ulbright TM, Chen Z: Cytogenetics of a pediatric unclassified sex cord-stromal tumor of the testis: a case report. Cancer Genet Cytogenet; 2005 Jan 1;156(1):80-2
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  • [Title] Cytogenetics of a pediatric unclassified sex cord-stromal tumor of the testis: a case report.
  • Unclassified sex cord-stromal tumors account for a small proportion of pediatric testicular tumors and, while most are clinically benign, some have demonstrated malignant potential.
  • Histological findings do not correlate well with clinical behavior and, while cytogenetics may aid in both diagnosis and predicting clinical behavior, these data on sex cord-stromal tumors are scarce.
  • We describe an unclassified sex cord-stromal tumor occurring in the testis of a prepubertal male without evidence of metastasis that had a previously unreported 54,XY,+3,+7,+9,+12,+13,+18,+19,+20 karyotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / genetics. Testicular Neoplasms / genetics. Trisomy

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  • (PMID = 15588862.001).
  • [ISSN] 0165-4608
  • [Journal-full-title] Cancer genetics and cytogenetics
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Cancer Genet. Cytogenet.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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31. Dragonas C, Mueller A, Maltaris T, Kraemer P, Dimmler A, Jaeger W, Beckmann MW, Dittrich R: Role of insulin in the progression of ovarian sex cord stromal tumors in rats. J Cancer Res Clin Oncol; 2005 Nov;131(11):751-7
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  • [Title] Role of insulin in the progression of ovarian sex cord stromal tumors in rats.
  • PURPOSE: This study examined the effect of insulin on sex cord stromal tumors in the rat.
  • METHODS: Sex cord stromal tumors were induced by transplantation of ovaries under the splenic capsule of ovariectomized rats (Lewis-inbred).
  • These tumors were then transplanted into new inbred rats.
  • Tumor growth, animal weight, food and water consumption, and serum concentrations of glucose, FSH, LH, and estradiol were measured.
  • No significant influence of the hypoglycemic or hyperglycemic status on tumor growth was measured during the first 28 and 56 days.
  • Eighty-four days after transplantation and substitution of 1 or 2 IU/100 g body weight/d insulin, there was a significant stimulation of tumor growth (2.2-fold and 2.7-fold, respectively).
  • In hyperglycemic animals (treated with STZ), no influence on tumor growth was found in comparison with the controls.
  • CONCLUSION: This study confirms that hyperinsulinemic conditions contribute to the progression of tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Hyperinsulinism / complications. Insulin / metabolism. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / etiology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Blood Glucose / metabolism. Body Weight. Disease Progression. Female. Follicle Stimulating Hormone / blood. Luteinizing Hormone / blood. Neoplasm Transplantation. Ovariectomy. Rats. Rats, Inbred Lew. Streptozocin. Time Factors

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  • (PMID = 16136354.001).
  • [ISSN] 0171-5216
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of cancer research and clinical oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Blood Glucose; 0 / Insulin; 5W494URQ81 / Streptozocin; 9002-67-9 / Luteinizing Hormone; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone
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32. Mueller A, Maltaris T, Dimmler A, Hoffmann I, Beckmann MW, Dittrich R: Development of sex cord stromal tumors after heterotopic transplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue in rats. Anticancer Res; 2005 Nov-Dec;25(6B):4107-11
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  • [Title] Development of sex cord stromal tumors after heterotopic transplantation of cryopreserved ovarian tissue in rats.
  • Sex cord stromal tumors, consisting mainly of granulosa cells, were found in all of the rats.
  • Although the hormonal situation in rats cannot be directly compared to that in humans, the development of sex cord stromal tumors in this animal model may be worth considering when cryopreserved ovarian tissue is transplanted heterotopically in fertility-preserving programs for cancer patients.
  • [MeSH-major] Cryopreservation. Ovarian Neoplasms / etiology. Ovary / transplantation. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / etiology. Transplantation, Heterotopic / adverse effects

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  • [ErratumIn] Anticancer Res. 2006 Jan-Feb;26(1a):445
  • (PMID = 16309204.001).
  • [ISSN] 0250-7005
  • [Journal-full-title] Anticancer research
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Anticancer Res.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Greece
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33. Hölscher G, Anthuber C, Bastert G, Burges A, Mayr D, Oberlechner E, Schubert-Fritschle G, Sinz S, Sommer H, Schmalfeldt B, Engel J, 'Malignant Ovarian Tumors' of the Munich Cancer Center (MCC): Improvement of survival in sex cord stromal tumors - an observational study with more than 25 years follow-up. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand; 2009;88(4):440-8
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  • [Title] Improvement of survival in sex cord stromal tumors - an observational study with more than 25 years follow-up.
  • OBJECTIVE: To highlight aspects of malignant ovarian sex cord stromal tumors, effects of treatment, and developments over the past 28 years.
  • SETTING: Gynecological departments within the catchment-area of the Munich Cancer Registry and associated with the project group 'Malignant Ovarian Tumors' of the Munich Cancer Center.
  • SAMPLE: One hundred and forty-five women with an invasive single sex cord stromal tumor diagnosed between 1978 and 2005.
  • The impact of age, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO)-stage, residual tumor, and chemotherapy was examined by multivariate analysis (Cox regression model).
  • After adjustment for age and FIGO-stage, the following hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for treatment methods resulted: 3.3 (95% CI 1.5-7.0) for women with compared to women without residual tumor and 2.2 (95% CI 1.2-4.2) for women with chemotherapy compared to women where no chemotherapy was given.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Improvements in survival may be attributed to a stage-shift toward more favorable stages at diagnosis and to advances in treatment such as improved surgery without residual tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use. Ovarian Neoplasms / mortality. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / mortality. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Cohort Studies. Combined Modality Therapy. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Germany. Humans. Kaplan-Meier Estimate. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Proportional Hazards Models. Registries. Risk Factors. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • [CommentIn] Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2009;88(4):371-2 [19330571.001]
  • (PMID = 19191075.001).
  • [ISSN] 1600-0412
  • [Journal-full-title] Acta obstetricia et gynecologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antineoplastic Agents
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34. Zhang M, Cheung MK, Shin JY, Kapp DS, Husain A, Teng NN, Berek JS, Osann K, Chan JK: Prognostic factors responsible for survival in sex cord stromal tumors of the ovary--an analysis of 376 women. Gynecol Oncol; 2007 Feb;104(2):396-400
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  • [Title] Prognostic factors responsible for survival in sex cord stromal tumors of the ovary--an analysis of 376 women.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate prognostic factors that impact on the survival of women with ovarian sex cord stromal tumors (SCST).
  • RESULTS: 376 women (median age: 51) with ovarian sex cord stromal cell tumors were identified, including 339 with granulosa cell and 37 with Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors.
  • 265 (71%) patients had stage I, 39 (10%) stage II, 40 (11%) stage III, and 32 (8%) had stage IV disease.
  • Women with stage I-II disease had a 5-year disease-specific survival of 95% compared to 59% in those with stage III-IV cancers (p<0.001).
  • 110 patients with stage I-II disease underwent conservative surgery without hysterectomy.
  • On multivariate analysis, age<or=50 (p=0.001) and early-stage disease (p<0.001) remained significant prognostic factor for improved survival.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Younger age and early-stage disease are important predictors for improved survival in patients with ovarian sex cord stromal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / mortality. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / mortality. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Child. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Risk Factors. Survival Rate. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 17030354.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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35. Sachdeva P, Arora R, Dubey C, Sukhija A, Daga M, Singh DK: Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor: a rare ovarian neoplasm. Case report and review of literature. Gynecol Endocrinol; 2008 Apr;24(4):230-4
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  • [Title] Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor: a rare ovarian neoplasm. Case report and review of literature.
  • BACKGROUND: Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor is a gonadal tumor of the sex cord-stromal type.
  • It is a rare tumor comprising 0.1 to 0.5% of all ovarian tumors.
  • A mass the size of a 28-week gravid uterus was arising from the pelvis.
  • A histopathological diagnosis of Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor (intermediate, Meyers type II) was given.
  • CONCLUSION: Patients with Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors present with signs of defeminization followed by masculinization.
  • Age of the patient, stage of the disease and degree of tumor differentiation based on morphology are the most important factors to consider in the management of the case.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 18382911.001).
  • [ISSN] 0951-3590
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecological endocrinology : the official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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36. Van Cauwelaert Rojas R, Ruiz-Tagle Phillips D, Meneses Ciuffardi M, Carrasco Troncoso AM, Aguirre Aguirre C: [Three cases of unusual non-germ cell tumors of the testicle]. Actas Urol Esp; 2007 Sep;31(8):923-7
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  • [Title] [Three cases of unusual non-germ cell tumors of the testicle].
  • [Transliterated title] Tumores no germinales inusuales del testículo: tres casos clínicos.
  • By describing 3 clinical cases of unusual testicular non germinal tumors, including an adenoma of the rete testis, an undifferenciated sex cord tumor and a mesothelioma of the tunica vaginalis, we make a literature review of the unusual testicular tumors and testicular apendix, including their incidence and management.
  • Also and as one of our conclusions, we expose the importance of the intraoperatory biopsy in the testicular cancer surgery, because even if it is infrecuent, the presence of this rare testicular tumors, in which if they are proven to be benign, the testicular unit could be preserved and the radical orquiectomy could be avoided.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / pathology. Mesothelioma / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18020219.001).
  • [ISSN] 0210-4806
  • [Journal-full-title] Actas urologicas españolas
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Actas Urol Esp
  • [Language] spa
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Spain
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37. Chan JK, Zhang M, Kaleb V, Loizzi V, Benjamin J, Vasilev S, Osann K, Disaia PJ: Prognostic factors responsible for survival in sex cord stromal tumors of the ovary--a multivariate analysis. Gynecol Oncol; 2005 Jan;96(1):204-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Prognostic factors responsible for survival in sex cord stromal tumors of the ovary--a multivariate analysis.
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate prognostic factors that impacts the survival of women with sex cord stromal tumors of the ovary (SCST).
  • METHODS: Cases were identified from tumor registry databases at three academic institutions between 1975 and 2003.
  • RESULTS: Eighty-three women (median age: 49 years) with SCST of the ovary, including 73 with granulosa and 10 with Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors were identified.
  • The median and 5-year disease-specific survival of women with stage I-II vs. III-IV was 180 months and 85% compared to 58 months and 48%, respectively (P = 0.012).
  • Furthermore, age <50 (P = 0.003), premenopausal status (P = 0.013), tumor size < 10 cm (P = 0.003), lack of lymph node invasion (P < 0.0005), and absence of residual disease (P = 0.002) were all significant predictors for improved survival.
  • In multivariate analysis, age <50, smaller tumor size, and absence of residual disease remained as independent prognostic factors.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Age <50, smaller tumor size, and absence of residual disease are important predictors for improved survival in patients with SCST of the ovary.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / mortality. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / mortality
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Multivariate Analysis. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Proportional Hazards Models. Registries. Survival Rate

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  • (PMID = 15589602.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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38. de Leval L, Lim GS, Waltregny D, Oliva E: Diverse phenotypic profile of uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors: an immunohistochemical study of 12 cases. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Dec;34(12):1749-61
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  • [Title] Diverse phenotypic profile of uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors: an immunohistochemical study of 12 cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors (UTROSCTs) are rare neoplasms thought to be of putative endometrial stromal origin and solely composed of sex cord elements.
  • Our study aimed to delineate the immunophenotype of these tumors and to verify whether their morphology reflects true sex cord-like differentiation.
  • Cords and/or trabeculae were seen in all tumors, whereas tubules, diffuse areas, and a retiform pattern were present in 9, 6, and 2 cases, respectively.
  • Tumors were stained for sex cord (inhibin, calretinin, WT1, and melan-A), epithelial (KL1 and epithelial membrane antigen), and smooth muscle markers (smooth muscle actin, desmin, smooth muscle myosin heavy chain, h-caldesmon, and histone deacetylase-8), CD10, HMB45, S100, and CD117.
  • RESULTS: Six out of 12 tumors were positive for sex cord markers (inhibin 3 of 12, calretinin 4 of 12, WT1 4 of 12, and melan-A 3 of 11) with 4 tumors coexpressing more than one marker.
  • Half of the UTROSCTs showed positivity for KL1, with 2 tumors coexpressing epithelial membrane antigen.
  • All but one tumor expressed one or more smooth muscle markers, with smooth muscle actin, desmin and histone deacetylase-8 being most commonly expressed.
  • CD10 was positive in 6 of 12 tumors, CD117 in 4 of 12, and S100 in 2 of 11 tumors, whereas HMB45 was negative in 11 tumors tested.
  • CONCLUSIONS: UTROSCTs have a diverse immunohistochemical profile often coexpressing sex cord, epithelial, and smooth muscle markers.
  • The expression of smooth muscle markers in these tumors does not imply a smooth muscle origin as endometrial and sex cord stromal tumors are not infrequently positive for these markers.
  • Positivity for sex cord markers supports a true sex cord/steroid phenotype.
  • Although the immunohistochemical profile of these tumors overlaps with that of endometrial stromal tumors with sex cord-like differentiation as well as ovarian sex cord stromal tumors, the origin of UTROSCT remains uncertain.
  • [MeSH-major] Endometrial Stromal Tumors / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged. Phenotype

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  • (PMID = 21084963.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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39. Ichimura R, Shibutani M, Mizukami S, Suzuki T, Shimada Y, Mitsumori K: A case report of an uncommon sex-cord stromal tumor consisted of luteal and sertoli cells in a spayed bitch. J Vet Med Sci; 2010 Feb;72(2):229-34
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  • [Title] A case report of an uncommon sex-cord stromal tumor consisted of luteal and sertoli cells in a spayed bitch.
  • We report a rare case of benign sex cord-stromal tumor consisted largely of luteoma with minor portion of Sertoli cell tumor located at the position of the left ovary excision in an 11-year-old ovariectomized bitch.
  • Granulosa cell component was lacking, and both luteal and Sertoli cell portions were entirely positive for inhibin alpha and neuron-specific enolase, whereas luteoma portion alone was positive for Wilms' tumor-1 (WT1), immunohistochemically.
  • The results suggest that this tumor is a possible complication of incomplete ovarian excision at the time of ovariectomy and consisted of uncommon hybrid of luteal and Sertoli cells to be diagnosed as an unclassified sex cord-stromal tumor if applied in human cases.

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  • (PMID = 19940389.001).
  • [ISSN] 0916-7250
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of veterinary medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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40. Majhi AK, Bhattacharya D, Sarkar K, Mondal T, Sengupta P: Ovarian neoplasms in adolescence and childhood--an analysis of twenty cases. J Indian Med Assoc; 2005 Aug;103(8):422-4, 426-7
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  • [Title] Ovarian neoplasms in adolescence and childhood--an analysis of twenty cases.
  • Between January, 1999 and June, 2001 consecutive twenty cases of ovarian tumours in girls below 20 years of age admitted in Burdwan Medical College, Burdwan, West Bengal were analysed.
  • Among 5 cases of torsion of ovarian tumours, one along with the twisted uterus was detected.
  • Germ cell tumours (60%) took the leading place followed by epithelial (3 0%) and sex-cord stromal tumour (10%).
  • Fifty percent neoplasms were malignant with majority (80%) being instage I.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Abdominal Pain / etiology. Adolescent. Child. Female. Humans. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / surgery

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  • (PMID = 16363197.001).
  • [ISSN] 0019-5847
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the Indian Medical Association
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Indian Med Assoc
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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41. Czernobilsky B, Mamet Y, David MB, Atlas I, Gitstein G, Lifschitz-Mercer B: Uterine retiform sertoli-leydig cell tumor: report of a case providing additional evidence that uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors have a histologic and immunohistochemical phenotype of genuine sex cord tumors. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2005 Oct;24(4):335-40
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  • [Title] Uterine retiform sertoli-leydig cell tumor: report of a case providing additional evidence that uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors have a histologic and immunohistochemical phenotype of genuine sex cord tumors.
  • We report a case of a retiform Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor of intermediate differentiation presenting as a uterine intracavity polypoid mass in a 63-year-old woman.
  • In contrast to sertoliform endometrioid carcinoma and to hitherto reported uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors (UTROSCTs), which are primarily characterized by tubular glands and solid tubules, this tumor, which most likely represents a UTROSCT, showed a large spectrum of histologic features typical of a genuine retiform Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor.
  • The diagnosis was confirmed by a battery of immunohistochemical stains, which also served as a tool for differential diagnosis with other neoplasms.
  • The tumor cells were positive for broad spectrum keratin (CK) CK18, vimentin, calretinin, and progesterone receptor.
  • The tumor cells were negative for CK7, CK5/6, epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 125 (CA125), thrombomodulin, 013 (CD99), melan A, alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), alpha-1-antitrypsin, estrogen receptor, S100, neurone specific enolase (NSE), chromogranin, synaptophysin, desmin, caldesmon, and CD10.
  • To the best of our knowledge, no UTROSCT showing such a variety of histologic features indicative of a true sex cord tumor has been reported before.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunohistochemistry. Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / chemistry. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16175078.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CALB2 protein, human; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G; 0 / Vimentin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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42. Kigawa J, Katabuchi H, Yaegashi N: [Review and revision of guidelines for ovarian cancer treatment in Japan]. Gan To Kagaku Ryoho; 2010 Apr;37(4):617-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • A survey of members of the Japan Society of Gynecologic Oncology revealed that 93% of the members use the present Guideline for Ovarian Cancer Treatment in practice.
  • There is an international consensus about first-line treatment for ovarian cancer.
  • In contrast, the treatment for sex-cord stromal tumor, which is rare, and recurrent cancer are not standardized.
  • In addition, management for borderline malignant tumor has been controversial.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy. Practice Guidelines as Topic

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  • (PMID = 20414017.001).
  • [ISSN] 0385-0684
  • [Journal-full-title] Gan to kagaku ryoho. Cancer & chemotherapy
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
  • [Language] jpn
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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43. Abbas F, Bashir NW, Hussainy AS: Sclerosing Sertoli cell tumor of the testis. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak; 2005 Jul;15(7):437-8
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  • [Title] Sclerosing Sertoli cell tumor of the testis.
  • Sclerosing Sertoli-cell tumor is a rare, sex-cord-stromal tumor of the testis with distinct clinical and pathological features with only 14 such cases reported in contemporary literature.
  • We report such a tumor in a young diabetic and hypertensive male.
  • Pathological examination of right radical orchidectomy specimen was consistent with sclerosing sub-type of Sertoli-cell testicular tumor with no invasion.
  • He remains free of disease recurrence at 6 years following surgery.
  • [MeSH-major] Sertoli Cell Tumor / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16197877.001).
  • [ISSN] 1022-386X
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons--Pakistan : JCPSP
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Pakistan
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44. Alam K, Maheshwari V, Rashid S, Bhargava S: Bilateral Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor of the ovary: a rare case report. Indian J Pathol Microbiol; 2009 Jan-Mar;52(1):97-9
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  • [Title] Bilateral Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor of the ovary: a rare case report.
  • Sertoli leydig cell tumors also known as arrhenoblastoma, are a rare member of the sex cord-stromal tumor group of ovarian and testicular cancers, comprising less than 1% of all ovarian tumors, which occur in young adults and are almost always unilateral.
  • We hereby report a case of a 17-year-old female presenting with a short history of irregular menses and an abdominal lump, which was histologically proven to be a bilateral sertoli leydig cell tumor of the ovary, an exceptionally rare entity in itself.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovary / pathology. Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19136796.001).
  • [ISSN] 0974-5130
  • [Journal-full-title] Indian journal of pathology & microbiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Indian J Pathol Microbiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] India
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45. Kuo CY, Wen MC, Wang J, Jan YJ: Signet-ring stromal tumor of the testis: a case report and literature review. Hum Pathol; 2009 Apr;40(4):584-7
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  • [Title] Signet-ring stromal tumor of the testis: a case report and literature review.
  • Primary signet-ring stromal tumor of the testis is extremely rare.
  • Herein, we present a case of testicular signet-ring stromal tumor with positive immunostain for CD99, which has not been reported previously.
  • We also review the literature and discuss the clinicopathological significance of this type of tumor.
  • The most important differential diagnosis of signet-ring stromal tumor is metastatic signet-ring cell carcinoma because of its different management and prognosis.
  • Fortunately, signet-ring stromal tumors have a well-defined growth pattern, bland histological features, no mucin production, and immunoreaction to vimentin rather than cytokeratin, all of which help pathologists to rule out metastatic adenocarcinoma.
  • Although ovarian signet-ring stromal tumors are categorized in the fibroma/thecoma group of sex cord stromal tumors, the cell origin of signet-ring stromal tumors is still debatable.
  • The histological criteria for predicting clinical behavior of signet-ring stromal tumors are not clear.
  • Fortunately, however, all reported signet-ring stromal tumors are benign tumors with excellent prognosis, and they do not recur or metastasize.
  • We consider signet-ring stromal tumor to be a special type of sex cord stromal tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18835626.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8392
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / CD99 protein, human; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules
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46. Akihara Y, Shimoyama Y, Kawasako K, Komine M, Hirayama K, Kagawa Y, Omachi T, Matsuda K, Okamoto M, Kadosawa T, Taniyama H: Immunohistochemical evaluation of canine ovarian tumors. J Vet Med Sci; 2007 Jul;69(7):703-8
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  • [Title] Immunohistochemical evaluation of canine ovarian tumors.
  • Canine ovarian tumors (epithelial tumor, sex-cord stromal tumor, germ cell tumor) classifying into 9 histological types were examined immunohistochemically using placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP), cytokeratin7 (CK7), desmin, S100, AE1/AE3, inhibin alpha, vimentin, and alfa feto-protein (AFP).
  • The papillary and tubular types observed in epithelial tumors were immunoreactive for desmin and AE1/AE3.
  • The solid type, nest type, cord type, palisade type, cystic type and spindle type, which were observed in sex-cord stromal tumors, showed a positive immunoreaction for S100 but little or no positive immunoreaction for inhibin alpha with an exception of positive result in the palisade type.
  • Most of the sex-cord stromal tumors were AE1/AE3-positive except for the palisade type.
  • In the cobblestone type observed in germ cell tumors, only vimentin and AFP were positive.
  • The present study elucidated the detailed histological and immunohistochemical characteristics of canine ovarian tumors.

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  • (PMID = 17675800.001).
  • [ISSN] 0916-7250
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of veterinary medical science
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Vet. Med. Sci.
  • [Language] ENG
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] Japan
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47. Sangoi AR, Soslow RA, Teng NN, Longacre TA: Ovarian clear cell carcinoma with papillary features: a potential mimic of serous tumor of low malignant potential. Am J Surg Pathol; 2008 Feb;32(2):269-74
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  • [Title] Ovarian clear cell carcinoma with papillary features: a potential mimic of serous tumor of low malignant potential.
  • The differential diagnostic problems usually associated with clear cell carcinoma (CCC) of the ovary have been well characterized and include primitive germ cell tumor, sex cord stromal tumor, and metastasis.
  • Distinction from other types of surface epithelial carcinoma may also pose a diagnostic challenge, but the potential for misdiagnosis of serous tumor of low malignant potential (S-LMP) is not well recognized.
  • On microscopic examination, each tumor had a papillary architecture that accounted for 30% to 95% of the tumor; in 6 cases, the cores of the papillae were hyalinized.
  • Most had a low mitotic index (9/13) and/or deceptively bland cytology (8/13); only careful attention to the cytologic features and/or mitotic index allowed correct identification of the tumor type in 5 cases.
  • Features most helpful in distinguishing papillary CCC are unilaterality, nonhierarchical branching, monomorphous cell population, and the presence of more typical CCC patterns elsewhere in the tumor.
  • Increased numbers of mitotic figures may not be present and high-grade cytologic atypia may be focal, requiring careful examination of multiple tumor sections for detection.
  • As CCC and S-LMP exhibit significantly different immunoreactivity for Wilms' Tumor 1 and estrogen receptor, these markers may also be useful adjunctive tests in problematic cases.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / diagnosis. Adenocarcinoma, Papillary / diagnosis. Cystadenocarcinoma, Serous / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Endometriosis / complications. Endometriosis / pathology. Female. Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct. Humans. Middle Aged. Mitotic Index. Neoplasm Staging

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  • (PMID = 18223330.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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48. Li Q, Kumar R, Underwood K, O'Connor AE, Loveland KL, Seehra JS, Matzuk MM: Prevention of cachexia-like syndrome development and reduction of tumor progression in inhibin-deficient mice following administration of a chimeric activin receptor type II-murine Fc protein. Mol Hum Reprod; 2007 Sep;13(9):675-83
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  • [Title] Prevention of cachexia-like syndrome development and reduction of tumor progression in inhibin-deficient mice following administration of a chimeric activin receptor type II-murine Fc protein.
  • Inhibin is a secreted tumor suppressor, and inhibin alpha null mice develop gonadal sex cord-stromal tumors with 100% penetrance at an early age.
  • Inhibin-deficient mice die of a severe wasting syndrome due to increased activin signaling through activin receptor type II.
  • The current study was designed to assess the in vivo effects of an activin antagonist, a chimeric activin receptor type II fused to the Fc region of a murine IgG2a (ActRII-mFc), administered transiently to the inhibin-deficient mice.
  • Although ActRII-mFc treatment did not seem to prevent the formation of gonadal tumors, tumors were smaller in the majority of experimentally treated mice and were characterized by the presence of variable numbers and sizes of cysts in contrast to the solid hemorrhagic tumors that typically developed in the controls.
  • In summary, this study demonstrated that in vivo administration of the activin antagonist, ActRII-mFc, not only prevents the cachexia-like symptoms in the inhibin-deficient mouse model, but also reduces tumor progression.
  • These results support an essential role of activins in the cachexia-like syndrome development and implicate activins as growth-promoting factors in gonadal tumor progression.
  • The current findings have potential implications in the design of new drugs or strategies for the treatment of ovarian and testicular tumors and other conditions where ligands signal through ActRII.
  • [MeSH-minor] Activins / blood. Animals. Disease Progression. Female. Follicle Stimulating Hormone / blood. Immunoglobulin G / genetics. Liver / drug effects. Liver / pathology. Male. Mice. Mice, Knockout. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / genetics. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / prevention & control. Stomach / drug effects. Stomach / metabolism. Stomach / pathology. Syndrome. Testicular Neoplasms / genetics. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / prevention & control. Wasting Syndrome / genetics. Wasting Syndrome / pathology. Wasting Syndrome / prevention & control

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  • (PMID = 17704537.001).
  • [ISSN] 1360-9947
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular human reproduction
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Hum. Reprod.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / U54 HD28934
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments; 0 / Immunoglobulin G; 0 / Recombinant Fusion Proteins; 104625-48-1 / Activins; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone; EC 2.7.11.30 / Activin Receptors, Type II
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49. Hes O, Vanecek T, Síma R, Hora M, Velickinová H, Grossmann P, Kovár J, Michal M: [Tumorous diseases in patients with the testicular feminization syndrome ("androgen insensitivity" syndrome)--description of two cases]. Ceska Gynekol; 2005 Mar;70(2):113-7
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  • [Title] [Tumorous diseases in patients with the testicular feminization syndrome ("androgen insensitivity" syndrome)--description of two cases].
  • OBJECTIVE: To describe tumors occurring in two cases of testicular feminization syndrome.
  • SETTING: Dpt. of Special Diagnostics SPAU, University Hospital Plzen.
  • Older patient had in addition unclassified sex cord tumor of Leydig cell type.
  • The number of sex chromosomes was examined using FISH analysis in both patients.
  • CONCLUSION: Patients with testicular feminization syndrome are frequently affected by benign or malignant tumors in the cryptorchid testes.
  • We documented two benign Sertoli cell adenomas and one sex cord tumor of uncertain biological behavior in our patients.

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  • (PMID = 15918264.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-7832
  • [Journal-full-title] Ceska gynekologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ceska Gynekol
  • [Language] CZE
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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50. Farah-Klibi F, Ben Slama S, Ben Hamouda S, Sfar R, Koubâa A, Ben Jilani S, Zermani R: [Diagnostic value of immunohistochemistry in ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors]. Tunis Med; 2008 Sep;86(9):821-6
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  • [Title] [Diagnostic value of immunohistochemistry in ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors].
  • [Transliterated title] Apport de l'immunohistochimie dans le diagnostic des tumeurs stromales de l'ovaire.
  • BACKGROUND: The ovarian tumors' diagnosis is based on biological and radiologic tests but only the histological examination associated to an immunohistochemical study allow best diagnosis.
  • AIM: The purposes of this study is to examine inhibin and other markers immunoreactivity to ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors and their histological mimics and to discuss its value in the differential diagnosis.
  • METHODS: We report a retrospective study of 31 cases of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors and review the clinical, pathologic and immunohistochimical features of these tumors.
  • Immunostaining for inhibin was positive in 66% of granulosa cell tumor, in 50% of Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor and in 54% of thecoma-fibroma group.
  • CONCLUSION: The results of this study show that although it is not complete specificity, inhibin, contrarily to the other markers, can be used to help in the distinction between ovarian sex cord-stromal neoplasms and the other primary and metastatic tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19472783.001).
  • [ISSN] 0041-4131
  • [Journal-full-title] La Tunisie médicale
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Tunis Med
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Tunisia
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51. Kumaravelu PG, Vella S, Pontes JE, Heath EI: Malignant undifferentiated sex cord-stromal testis tumor with brain metastasis: case report. Urol Oncol; 2008 Jan-Feb;26(1):53-5
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  • [Title] Malignant undifferentiated sex cord-stromal testis tumor with brain metastasis: case report.
  • Metastatic undifferentiated sex cord-stromal testis tumors are uncommon.
  • We would like to present a rare case of undifferentiated sex cord-stromal testis tumor with brain metastasis.
  • One month later, the patient had no visible evidence of tumor recurrence on the follow-up computed tomography of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis.
  • To our knowledge, undifferentiated sex cord-stromal tumor with brain metastasis has not been reported.
  • As with any new onset neurologic deficits in patients with solid tumors, the presence of brain metastases should be considered.
  • [MeSH-major] Brain Neoplasms / pathology. Neoplasm Metastasis / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18190831.001).
  • [ISSN] 1078-1439
  • [Journal-full-title] Urologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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52. Abdullazade S, Kosemehmetoglu K, Adanir I, Kutluay L, Usubutun A: Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors: synchronous uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors and ovarian sex cord tumor. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2010 Dec;14(6):432-7
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  • [Title] Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors: synchronous uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors and ovarian sex cord tumor.
  • Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors (UTROSCTs) are very rare.
  • As a distinctive finding, one of the patients had UTROSCT in the uterus and an ovarian sex cord tumor, called granulosa cell tumor, in the left ovary, simultaneously.
  • Immunohistochemically, these tumors express different markers that indicate their polyphenotypic origins.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Multiple Primary / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antigens, CD56 / metabolism. Calbindin 2. Desmin / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Granulosa Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Granulosa Cell Tumor / metabolism. Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Humans. Inhibins / metabolism. Middle Aged. S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / metabolism

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 21074692.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD56; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / Desmin; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; Granulosa cell tumor of the ovary
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53. Song SH, Lee JK, Saw HS, Choi SY, Koo BH, Kim A, Yeom BW, Kim I: Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome with multiple genital tract tumors and breast cancer: a case report with a review of literatures. J Korean Med Sci; 2006 Aug;21(4):752-7
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  • [Title] Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome with multiple genital tract tumors and breast cancer: a case report with a review of literatures.
  • We report here on the multiple genital tract neoplasms in a 41-yr-old Korean woman with Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome (PJS).
  • Pelvic ultrasound showed a multilocular cyst at the right adnexal region, diagnosed as bilateral ovarian mucinous borderline tumors.
  • An ovarian sex cord tumor with annular tubules was incidentally diagnosed together with a minimal deviation adenocarcinoma of the uterine cervix and mucinous metaplasia of both the Fallopian tubal mucosa and the endometrium.
  • Although the cases of multiple genital tract tumors with PJS has rarely been reported, the present case appears to be the first in Korea in which the PJS syndrome was complicated by multiple genital tract tumors and infiltrating carcinoma of the breast.
  • The clinical significance of the multiple genital tract tumors and breast cancer associated with PJS is reviewed.
  • [MeSH-major] Breast Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome / pathology. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenocarcinoma / complications. Adenocarcinoma / pathology. Adult. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / complications. Carcinoma, Ductal, Breast / pathology. Endometrium / pathology. Fallopian Tubes / pathology. Female. Humans. Korea. Metaplasia. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / complications. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology


54. Kommoss F, Schmidt D: [Immunohistochemical sex cord markers. Description and use in the differential diagnosis of ovarian tumors]. Pathologe; 2007 May;28(3):187-94
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  • [Title] [Immunohistochemical sex cord markers. Description and use in the differential diagnosis of ovarian tumors].
  • Sex cord markers comprise proteins and hormones that are produced in sex cord-derivatives in normal ovaries and testes as well as in gonadal sex cord-stromal tumors.
  • Sex cord markers (e.g. inhibin-alpha) are used clinically as serum tumor markers.
  • Immunohistochemical staining of sex cord markers may be helpful in the differential diagnosis of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors versus surface epithelial-stromal tumors, germ cell tumors, other ovarian tumors, and ovarian metastases.
  • Inhibin-alpha has been shown to be the most specific marker of sex cord differentiation.
  • Currently, an immunohistochemical panel including inhibin-alpha and calretinin is considered most helpful in the differential diagnosis of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors.
  • CD99, Müllerian inhibiting substance (MIS), melan A and CD10, being sex cord markers of limited sensitivity and specificity, should only be used as part of an antibody panel in specific diagnostic settings.
  • EMA, CK7 and chromogranin are considered additional markers that may be useful in the differential diagnosis of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antigens, CD / analysis. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Chromogranins / analysis. Diagnosis, Differential. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Female. Fertility. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Inhibins / analysis. Keratin-7 / analysis. Neprilysin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 17429635.001).
  • [ISSN] 0172-8113
  • [Journal-full-title] Der Pathologe
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pathologe
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Chromogranins; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / inhibin A; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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55. Tarjàn M, Sarkissov G, Tot T: Unclassified sex cord/gonadal stromal testis tumor with predominance of spindle cells. APMIS; 2006 Jun;114(6):465-9
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  • [Title] Unclassified sex cord/gonadal stromal testis tumor with predominance of spindle cells.
  • Unclassified sex cord/gonadal stromal tumors (SCSTs) of the testis comprised predominantly of spindle cells are extremely rare.
  • It is important to differentiate these tumors from other testicular neoplasms, especially other types of sex cord/gonadal stromal tumors.
  • We describe a single case of this rare tumor type and discuss the differential diagnostics options based on a review of the related literature.
  • [MeSH-major] Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 16856970.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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56. Chang MC, Vargas SO, Hornick JL, Hirsch MS, Crum CP, Nucci MR: Embryonic stem cell transcription factors and D2-40 (podoplanin) as diagnostic immunohistochemical markers in ovarian germ cell tumors. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2009 Jul;28(4):347-55
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  • [Title] Embryonic stem cell transcription factors and D2-40 (podoplanin) as diagnostic immunohistochemical markers in ovarian germ cell tumors.
  • SUMMARY: The embryonic stem cell transcription factors SOX2, NANOG, and OCT3/4 are involved in the regulation of germ cell tumor growth and differentiation.
  • They, and D2-40 (podoplanin), an antigen expressed in seminomas, are emerging as useful diagnostic markers in testicular germ cell tumors.
  • This study evaluates the use of these markers in ovarian tumors.
  • Ovarian germ cell tumors (n=31) have distinct immunostaining profiles, depending on the type of differentiation as follows: dysgerminoma (SOX2-, NANOG+, OCT3/4+, D2-40+), embryonal carcinoma (SOX2+, NANOG+, OCT3/4+, D2-40-), immature teratomas (SOX2+, NANOG-, OCT3/4-, D2-40-), yolk sac tumors, and choriocarcinoma (SOX2-, NANOG-, OCT3/4-, D2-40-).
  • Nongerm cell tumors (n=57, including surface-epithelial stromal tumors and sex-cord stromal tumors) were negative for NANOG and D2-40.
  • OCT3/4 was positive in 4 of 9 adult granulosa cell tumors (15% to 85% of cells).
  • In a small number of surface-epithelial stromal tumors, SOX2 and/or OCT3/4 were variably positive (20% to 90% of cells).
  • NANOG distinguished between either of these 2 tumors and nongerm cell tumors.
  • The inclusion of these markers should therefore be considered in cases of pure or mixed ovarian germ cell tumors that are difficult to classify, and to exclude nongerm cell tumor mimics.
  • [MeSH-major] Homeodomain Proteins / biosynthesis. Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Octamer Transcription Factor-3 / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. SOXB1 Transcription Factors / biosynthesis
  • [MeSH-minor] Antibodies, Monoclonal / metabolism. Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Embryonic Stem Cells / metabolism. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Transcription Factors / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 19483629.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal; 0 / Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived; 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Homeodomain Proteins; 0 / Membrane Glycoproteins; 0 / NANOG protein, human; 0 / Octamer Transcription Factor-3; 0 / PDPN protein, human; 0 / POU5F1 protein, human; 0 / SOX2 protein, human; 0 / SOXB1 Transcription Factors; 0 / Transcription Factors; 0 / monoclonal antibody D2-40
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57. Kauppila S, Altinörs M, Väre P, Liakka A, Knuuti E, Nissi R: Primary sex cord-like variant of endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis. APMIS; 2008 Sep;116(9):842-5
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  • [Title] Primary sex cord-like variant of endometrioid adenocarcinoma arising from endometriosis.
  • Endometriosis, a relatively common disease generally affecting women in the reproductive age group, is mostly found in the pelvic organs.
  • Although endometriosis is a benign disease, some malignant tumors have been reported to develop in endometriotic lesions, most commonly in the ovary.
  • The sex cord-like variant of endometrioid adenocarcinoma is a rare tumor that histologically closely resembles the sex cord-stromal tumor.
  • Despite its rarity, the correct histological diagnosis of the sex cord-like variant of endometrioid adenocarcinoma is crucial to avoid misdiagnosis of a less aggressive tumor.
  • We here report a 53-year-old woman who was diagnosed as having this very rare subtype of endometroid adenocarcinoma curiously arising from an endometriotic lesion at the site of previous salpingo-oophorectomy.
  • The tumor was diagnosed based on light microscopy and immunohistochemistry.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Endometrial Neoplasms / pathology. Endometriosis / pathology

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  • (PMID = 19024607.001).
  • [ISSN] 0903-4641
  • [Journal-full-title] APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica
  • [ISO-abbreviation] APMIS
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Denmark
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58. McCluggage WG, Young RH: Ovarian sertoli-leydig cell tumors with pseudoendometrioid tubules (pseudoendometrioid sertoli-leydig cell tumors). Am J Surg Pathol; 2007 Apr;31(4):592-7
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  • [Title] Ovarian sertoli-leydig cell tumors with pseudoendometrioid tubules (pseudoendometrioid sertoli-leydig cell tumors).
  • The propensity for ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinomas to morphologically mimic Sertoli, Sertoli-Leydig, and granulosa cell tumors, is well known.
  • The converse situation, mimicry of an endometrioid neoplasm by a sex cord-stromal tumor, has not been emphasized.
  • In this report, we describe 9 ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors (5 well differentiated, 4 of intermediate differentiation) with areas containing hollow, sometimes dilated, tubules which resemble endometrioid glands; we refer to these as pseudoendometrioid tubules.
  • The tumors, all of which were unilateral except for one, ranged from 3.5 to 19 cm and were variously described as tan, pale, yellow, or gold.
  • The proportion of the tumor made up of pseudoendometrioid tubules ranged from 10% to >90%.
  • When widespread, their presence sometimes resulted in consideration of a borderline endometrioid adenofibroma or a well-differentiated endometrioid adenocarcinoma.
  • However, all the neoplasms contained typical Sertoli tubules and one or more of the characteristic patterns of Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors as well as Leydig cells, although the latter cells were inconspicuous in some cases.
  • This report illustrates the potential for ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors to contain tubules with a pseudoendometrioid appearance which mimic a borderline or malignant endometrioid neoplasm.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Middle Aged

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  • (PMID = 17414107.001).
  • [ISSN] 0147-5185
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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59. Staats PN, Garcia JJ, Dias-Santagata DC, Kuhlmann G, Stubbs H, McCluggage WG, De Nictolis M, Kommoss F, Soslow RA, Iafrate AJ, Oliva E: Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors (UTROSCT) lack the JAZF1-JJAZ1 translocation frequently seen in endometrial stromal tumors. Am J Surg Pathol; 2009 Aug;33(8):1206-12
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  • [Title] Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors (UTROSCT) lack the JAZF1-JJAZ1 translocation frequently seen in endometrial stromal tumors.
  • Uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex cord tumor (UTROSCT) is a rare uterine neoplasm composed predominantly or exclusively of cells which resemble those seen in sex cord tumors of the ovary.
  • Since its initial morphologic description, it has been unclear whether UTROSCT represents a variant within the spectrum of endometrial stromal tumors (ESTs), which may rarely exhibit areas of sex cord-like differentiation, or whether it is a distinct uterine neoplasm unrelated to ESTs.
  • Recently, several studies have revealed a recurrent t(7;17) translocation resulting in a JAZF1-JJAZ1 gene fusion in over 60% of EST and its variants, including 2 out of 4 endometrial stromal tumors with sex cord-like elements (ESTSCLE).
  • The JAZF1-JJAZ1 gene fusion was not identified in any tumor by either method.
  • Although we cannot entirely exclude that UTROSCT represents a variant of ESTSCLE which lacks this translocation, our findings suggest that UTROSCT does not share the genetic mechanism common to the majority of ESTs with or without sex cord-like differentiation, and therefore most likely represents a distinct neoplasm unrelated to ESTSCLE.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasm Proteins / genetics. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / genetics. Transcription Factors / genetics. Uterine Neoplasms / genetics
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Aged, 80 and over. Female. Humans. In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence. Middle Aged. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction. Translocation, Genetic

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  • (PMID = 19542872.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / JAZF1 protein, human; 0 / JJAZ1 protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Transcription Factors
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60. Chang YW, Hong SS, Jeen YM, Kim MK, Suh ES: Bilateral sclerosing stromal tumor of the ovary in a premenarchal girl. Pediatr Radiol; 2009 Jul;39(7):731-4
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  • [Title] Bilateral sclerosing stromal tumor of the ovary in a premenarchal girl.
  • Sclerosing stromal tumor (SST) is a rare benign ovarian neoplasm classified as a type of sex cord stromal tumor that occurs predominantly in young patients.
  • Several reports have described the US, CT and MR features of SST, but there have been no reports of a bilateral calcified SST in a child.
  • We present a case of a bilateral SST of the ovary with calcification in a 12-year-old premenarchal girl and describe the US, CT, MR and pathological findings.
  • [MeSH-major] Diagnostic Imaging / methods. Endometrial Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 19283376.001).
  • [ISSN] 1432-1998
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Germany
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61. Biermann K, Heukamp LC, Büttner R, Zhou H: Uterine tumor resembling an ovarian sex cord tumor associated with metastasis. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Jan;27(1):58-60
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  • [Title] Uterine tumor resembling an ovarian sex cord tumor associated with metastasis.
  • Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex-cord tumors (UTROSCT) are very rare, usually benign uterine tumors, and are probably derived from uterine mesenchymal stem cells.
  • In this case report, a unique case of a malignant UTROSCT is described.
  • Four years after a diagnosis of UTROSCT of the uterine corpus, the patient developed obstructive ileus due to a large infiltrating tumor within the small bowel with the same morphology and expression pattern as the previously diagnosed UTROSCT.
  • In addition, 2 benign gastrointestinal stromal tumors were detected in the same patient.
  • This case indicates that although the majority of UTROSCT are benign tumors, some of them might undergo malignant transformation and have a metastatic potency.
  • [MeSH-major] Intestinal Neoplasms / secondary. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Aged. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Female. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / metabolism. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Intestinal Obstruction / etiology. Intestine, Small / metabolism. Intestine, Small / pathology. Neoplasms, Second Primary / metabolism. Neoplasms, Second Primary / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18156976.001).
  • [ISSN] 0277-1691
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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62. Schultz KA, Sencer SF, Messinger Y, Neglia JP, Steiner ME: Pediatric ovarian tumors: a review of 67 cases. Pediatr Blood Cancer; 2005 Feb;44(2):167-73
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  • [Title] Pediatric ovarian tumors: a review of 67 cases.
  • BACKGROUND: Ovarian tumors are uncommon but important childhood neoplasms.
  • RESULTS: Thirty patients had benign tumors.
  • Thirty-seven patients had malignant tumors: 11 immature teratomas, seven malignant mixed germ cell tumors, seven juvenile granulosa cell tumors, five dysgerminomas, two endodermal sinus tumors, two serous papillary cystadenocarcinomas, one small cell carcinoma, one anaplastic sex-cord tumor, and one undifferentiated sarcoma.
  • Torsion was seen more often in patients with benign tumors (23 vs. 8%); two patients had both torsion and acute appendicitis.
  • The neoplasm was an incidental finding in 12 patients.
  • CONCLUSIONS: Fifty-five percent of the 67 ovarian tumors presenting to our centers were malignant.
  • Almost all neoplasms presented as unilateral masses and rarely were metastatic at diagnosis.
  • Ovarian tumors must be considered in the differential diagnosis of young girls with abdominal pain, mass, or other non-specific symptoms.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Biomarkers, Tumor / blood. Child. Child, Preschool. Chromosome Aberrations. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant, Newborn. Neoplasm Metastasis

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  • (PMID = 15490488.001).
  • [ISSN] 1545-5009
  • [Journal-full-title] Pediatric blood & cancer
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Pediatr Blood Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
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63. Stolnicu S, Borda A, Radulescu D, Puscasiu L, Berger N, Nogales FF: Metastasis from papillary renal cell carcinoma masquerading as primary ovarian clear cell tumor. Pathol Res Pract; 2007;203(11):819-22
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  • [Title] Metastasis from papillary renal cell carcinoma masquerading as primary ovarian clear cell tumor.
  • A 73-year-old female presented with a left ovarian tumor mass.
  • Microscopic examination disclosed cystic spaces lined by abundant clear and eosinophilic tumor cells with pleomorphic nuclei.
  • Differential diagnosis included primary ovarian oxyphilic-type clear cell carcinoma and sex-cord tumor with extensive luteinization.
  • However, analysis of the patient's past history revealed that in 2003, she had undergone nephrectomy for a papillary renal cell carcinoma, and a histological comparison between the primary and the present tumor exhibited in the latter a substantially larger number of clear cells and loss of papillary architecture.
  • Immunohistochemistry demonstrated a characteristic renal immunophenotype for a type II tubulopapillary tumor metastatic to ovary.
  • The tumor cells were strongly positive for CD10 and AMACR, and negative for cytokeratin 7.
  • This confirmed the renal origin of the ovarian tumor despite its divergent morphology of the renal primary.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma, Clear Cell / pathology. Carcinoma, Renal Cell / secondary. Kidney Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / secondary


64. Clements A, Robison K, Granai C, Steinhoff MM, Scalia-Wilbur J, Moore RG: A case of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome with breast cancer, bilateral sex cord tumor with annular tubules, and adenoma malignum caused by STK11 gene mutation. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2009 Dec;19(9):1591-4
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  • [Title] A case of Peutz-Jeghers syndrome with breast cancer, bilateral sex cord tumor with annular tubules, and adenoma malignum caused by STK11 gene mutation.
  • This case report presents a patient with PJS with a concomitant breast cancer, bilateral stromal tumors with annular tubules of the ovaries, and adenoma malignum of the cervix.
  • Final pathologic examination revealed a concomitant breast cancer with metastasis to the ovaries, bilateral stromal tumors with annular tubules of the ovaries, and adenoma malignum of the cervix.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenoma / complications. Breast Neoplasms / complications. Ovarian Neoplasms / complications. Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome / complications. Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases / genetics. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / complications
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Carcinoma, Ductal / complications. Carcinoma, Ductal / genetics. Female. Humans. Mutation / physiology. Ovarian Diseases / complications. Ovarian Diseases / genetics. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / complications. Uterine Cervical Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 19955943.001).
  • [ISSN] 1525-1438
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] EC 2.7.1.- / STK11 protein, human; EC 2.7.11.1 / Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
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65. Conkey DS, Howard GC, Grigor KM, McLaren DB, Kerr GR: Testicular sex cord-stromal tumours: the Edinburgh experience 1988-2002, and a review of the literature. Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol); 2005 Aug;17(5):322-7
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  • [Title] Testicular sex cord-stromal tumours: the Edinburgh experience 1988-2002, and a review of the literature.
  • AIMS: Sex cord-stromal tumours of the testis are uncommon tumours, accounting for around 5% of testicular neoplasms.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 1988 to 2002, 18 patients with a diagnosis of sex cord-stromal tumour were referred to our centre.
  • RESULTS: Sixteen were Leydig-cell tumours and two were Sertoli cell.
  • For the Leydig-cell tumours, the median age at presentation was 42 years, 50% presented with a testicular mass and 31% with gynaecomastia.
  • Two patients followed a malignant course: one revealing disease dissemination at initial staging, and a second 12 months after potentially curative orchidectomy.
  • After a median follow-up of 46 months, two patients have developed progressive disease, and two patients have died, one of metastatic Leydig-cell tumour.
  • CONCLUSION: We confirm the overall excellent prognosis for most of the patients with sex cord-stromal tumours of the testis.
  • [MeSH-major] Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / surgery. Testicular Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Humans. Male. Prognosis. Retroperitoneal Space. Retrospective Studies. Scotland. Sertoli Cell Tumor / pathology. Sertoli-Leydig Cell Tumor / pathology. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16097561.001).
  • [ISSN] 0936-6555
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical oncology (Royal College of Radiologists (Great Britain))
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Oncol (R Coll Radiol)
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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66. Gupta M, de Leval L, Selig M, Oliva E, Nielsen GP: Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors: an ultrastructural analysis of 13 cases. Ultrastruct Pathol; 2010 Feb;34(1):16-24
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  • [Title] Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors: an ultrastructural analysis of 13 cases.
  • Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors (UTROSCT) are tumors of unclear histogenesis.
  • Features included cells with frequent organoid, nested or cord-like arrangement (8), lumen formation (2; one of which showed surface microvilli), nuclei with irregular indentations (8), intermediate filaments (13), prominent paranuclear aggregates (5), cell junctions (9), desmosome-like junctions (2), tonofilaments (2), basal lamina (1), and cytoplasmic lipid droplets (7; prominent in 3).
  • Ultrastructural epithelial differentiation was present in 2 tumors (positive for keratin or epithelial membrane antigen).
  • Prominent lipid droplets correlated with sex cord markers positivity in 2 tumors.
  • UTROSCT are polyphenotypic neoplasms ultrastructurally with focal epithelial and variable sex cord-like differentiation.
  • These findings suggest that UTROSCT may result from divergent differentiation in endometrial stromal tumors or represent a distinct group of uterine tumors with sex cord-like differentiation that are closer in histogenesis to ovarian sex cord stromal tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Calbindin 2. Cell Nucleus / ultrastructure. Cytoplasmic Structures / ultrastructure. Desmosomes / ultrastructure. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Intermediate Filaments / ultrastructure. Keratins / analysis. Microscopy, Electron, Transmission. S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / analysis

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  • (PMID = 20070149.001).
  • [ISSN] 1521-0758
  • [Journal-full-title] Ultrastructural pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ultrastruct Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G; 68238-35-7 / Keratins
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67. Grabiec M, Kwiatkowski M, Walentowicz M, Greźlikowska U: [Current views on treatment of the ovarian granulosa-cell tumor]. Ginekol Pol; 2008 Jan;79(1):42-6
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  • [Title] [Current views on treatment of the ovarian granulosa-cell tumor].
  • The granulosa-cell tumor (folliculoma) is a rare type of ovarian neoplasm, accounting for 5% of all cases.
  • It is the most common type of sex cord-stromal tumors, diagnosed in 70% of cases.
  • The granulosa-cell tumor is a hormone active one, originating from granulosa cells which produce estradiol.
  • Overproduction of estradiol is helpful in the diagnosis of the tumor because of its numerous symptoms.
  • Tumors in higher stages are more aggressive and must be treated further.
  • Patients with the disease diagnosed in higher stages must be treated by adjuvant radiotherapy or chemotherapy.
  • Many old (platinum) and new (taxans) agents are active when used in treatment of this type of tumor.
  • Randomized study must be made to establish standard therapy of granulosa-cell tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Granulosa Cell Tumor / therapy. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Age Factors. Aged. Female. Humans. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 18510049.001).
  • [ISSN] 0017-0011
  • [Journal-full-title] Ginekologia polska
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ginekol. Pol.
  • [Language] pol
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Poland
  • [Number-of-references] 21
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68. Stolnicu S, Preda O, Dohan M, Puscasiu L, García-Galvis OF, Nogales FF: Pseudoglandular hepatoid differentiation in endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary simulates oxyphilic cell change. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Oct;27(4):521-5
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  • A 42-year-old patient had a stage III ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma with areas of hepatoid carcinoma (HC) of clear cell and eosinophilic pseudoglandular type that was difficult to differentiate from endometrioid carcinoma of oxyphilic type and sex cord-stromal tumor.
  • Trabecular and clear vacuolated areas of HC resembled luteinized cells of sex cord-stromal ovarian tumors, but the membranous positivity to CAM5.2 supported epithelial (hepatoid) identity.
  • [MeSH-major] Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18753970.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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69. Forde GK, Harrison C, Doss BJ, Forde AE, Carlson JW: Bilateral and multinodular signet-ring stromal tumor of the ovary. Obstet Gynecol; 2010 Aug;116 Suppl 2:556-8
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  • [Title] Bilateral and multinodular signet-ring stromal tumor of the ovary.
  • BACKGROUND: Signet-ring stromal tumor of the ovary is a rare, benign sex cord stromal tumor that is typically unilateral.
  • Its distinction from malignant signet-ring cell adenocarcinoma metastatic to the ovary (Krukenberg tumor), is critical.
  • Solid multinodular masses in both ovaries were identified that histologically corresponded to bilateral signet-ring stromal tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: We report a rare example of signet-ring stromal tumor that is bilateral and multinodular mimicking a Krukenberg tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Krukenberg Tumor / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20664453.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-233X
  • [Journal-full-title] Obstetrics and gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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70. Acar C, Gurocak S, Sozen S: Current treatment of testicular sex cord-stromal tumors: critical review. Urology; 2009 Jun;73(6):1165-71
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  • [Title] Current treatment of testicular sex cord-stromal tumors: critical review.
  • Sex cord-stromal tumors (SCST) are rare testicular tumors.
  • The standard treatment method is inguinal orchiectomy and testis-sparing surgery is recommended for certain conditions.
  • The studies show that retroperitoneal lymph node dissection is seemingly more of a staging tool and aiding to determine the follow-up protocol.
  • The first 2 years are rather important in the follow-up of the disease.
  • Although follow-up protocol could be more vigorous for patients with malignant clinicopathologic features and metastatic disease, it can be determined individually according to the aggressive properties of the disease and patient status.
  • [MeSH-major] Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / therapy. Testicular Neoplasms / therapy

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  • (PMID = 19362328.001).
  • [ISSN] 1527-9995
  • [Journal-full-title] Urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Urology
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 50
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71. Vallangeon BD, Eble JN, Ulbright TM: Macroscopic sertoli cell nodule: a study of 6 cases that presented as testicular masses. Am J Surg Pathol; 2010 Dec;34(12):1874-80
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  • The referral diagnoses included Sertoli cell tumor (2 cases), sex cord tumor with annular tubules (1 case), and gonadoblastoma (1 case).
  • The patients were 19 to 36 years old: 3 patients presented with palpable testicular masses and 3 with lesions that were worrisome for neoplasms in ultrasonographic examinations conducted for pain (2 cases) or infertility (1 case).
  • An antibody for testis-specific protein, Y-encoded (TSPY), stained the spermatogonia (2 of 2 cases), whereas OCT 3/4 was negative in all the cases (5 of 5 cases).
  • We conclude that Sertoli cell nodules may present clinically as mass lesions, and that it is important to distinguish them from true neoplasms to avoid unnecessary procedures.
  • [MeSH-major] Sertoli Cell Tumor / diagnosis. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Diagnosis, Differential. Gonadoblastoma / diagnosis. Humans. Inhibins / metabolism. Male. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Young Adult

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  • (PMID = 21107095.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-0979
  • [Journal-full-title] The American journal of surgical pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / inhibin-alpha subunit; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
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72. Tanaka YO, Saida TS, Minami R, Yagi T, Tsunoda H, Yoshikawa H, Minami M: MR findings of ovarian tumors with hormonal activity, with emphasis on tumors other than sex cord-stromal tumors. Eur J Radiol; 2007 Jun;62(3):317-27
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  • [Title] MR findings of ovarian tumors with hormonal activity, with emphasis on tumors other than sex cord-stromal tumors.
  • Sex cord-stromal tumors including granulosa cell tumor, thecoma, Sertoli stromal cell tumor and steroid cell tumor are noted for their hormonal activity.
  • However, there are many kinds of ovarian tumors other than sex cord-stromal tumors and tumor-like conditions with endocrine manifestations.
  • Cross-sectional imaging, especially MR, can provide precise features of ovarian tumors and uterine morphological change even in a clinically latent excess of estrogen.
  • In this article, we demonstrate typical imaging findings of ovarian tumors with hormonal activity.
  • We also shortly explain the mechanism of the virilization and hyperestrogenism caused by ovarian tumors and tumor-like conditions.
  • [MeSH-major] Androgens / biosynthesis. Estrogens / biosynthesis. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / diagnosis. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovary / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors
  • [MeSH-minor] Female. Humans. Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Ovarian Diseases / diagnosis. Ovarian Diseases / metabolism

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  • (PMID = 17403591.001).
  • [ISSN] 0720-048X
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur J Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Ireland
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Androgens; 0 / Estrogens
  • [Number-of-references] 43
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73. Carta G, Crisman G, Margiotta G, Mastrocola N, Di Fonso A, Coletti G: Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors. A case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2010;31(4):456-8
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  • [Title] Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors. A case report.
  • Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors (UTROSCT) are rare, usually benign, polypoid or nodular neoplasms which generally arise in the fourth to sixth decade of life.
  • We report a case of a 74-year-old woman who presented with vaginal bleeding and remarkable uterine enlargement.
  • Immunohistochemistry is mandatory for a correct diagnosis and a panel of at least two markers of sex cord differentiation is recommended.
  • Differential diagnoses include leiomyosarcoma, UTROSCT and ESTSCLE, mixed müllerian tumor and metastatic ovarian sex cord tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 20882895.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
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74. Tohya T: Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumor, unclassified: case report of endocrinologic findings and review of the literature. Int J Gynecol Cancer; 2005 Nov-Dec;15(6):1153-5
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  • [Title] Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumor, unclassified: case report of endocrinologic findings and review of the literature.
  • Endocrinologic findings and a successful pregnancy in a 39-year-old woman with significant androgen excess due to a biologically active, virilizing ovarian sex cord-stromal tumor, unclassified, are described.
  • Tumor resection resulted in resumption of ovulation, pregnancy, and delivery.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / diagnosis

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  • (PMID = 16343200.001).
  • [ISSN] 1048-891X
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Number-of-references] 9
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75. Fan X, Gabbi C, Kim HJ, Cheng G, Andersson LC, Warner M, Gustafsson JA: Gonadotropin-positive pituitary tumors accompanied by ovarian tumors in aging female ERbeta-/- mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A; 2010 Apr 6;107(14):6453-8
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  • [Title] Gonadotropin-positive pituitary tumors accompanied by ovarian tumors in aging female ERbeta-/- mice.
  • At 2 years of age, 100% (23/23) of ERbeta(-/-) female mice have developed large pituitary and ovarian tumors.
  • The pituitary tumors are gonadotropin-positive and the ovarian tumors are sex cord (less differentiated) and granulosa cell tumors (differentiated and estrogen secreting).
  • No male mice had pituitary tumors and no pituitary or ovarian tumors developed in ERalpha(-/-) mice or in ERalphabeta(-/-) double knockout mice.
  • The tumors have high proliferation indices, are ERalpha-positive, ERbeta-negative, and express high levels of nuclear phospho-SMAD3.
  • Mice with granulosa cell tumors also had hyperproliferative endometria.
  • The cause of the pituitary tumors appeared to be excessive secretion of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus resulting from high expression of NPY.
  • We suggest that in the absence of ERbeta, the proliferative action of FSH/SMAD3 is unopposed and the high proliferation leads to the development of ovarian tumors.
  • The absence of tumors in the ERalphabeta(-/-) mice suggests that tumor development requires the presence of ERalpha.
  • [MeSH-major] Aging. Estrogen Receptor alpha / metabolism. Estrogen Receptor beta / metabolism. Gonadotropins / metabolism. Neoplasms, Second Primary / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. Pituitary Neoplasms / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Animals. Cell Proliferation. Female. Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone / metabolism. Ki-67 Antigen / metabolism. Male. Mice. Mice, Knockout. Neuropeptide Y / metabolism. Sex Characteristics

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  • (PMID = 20308571.001).
  • [ISSN] 1091-6490
  • [Journal-full-title] Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Estrogen Receptor alpha; 0 / Estrogen Receptor beta; 0 / Gonadotropins; 0 / Ki-67 Antigen; 0 / Neuropeptide Y; 33515-09-2 / Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2851950
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76. Cathro HP, Stoler MH: The utility of calretinin, inhibin, and WT1 immunohistochemical staining in the differential diagnosis of ovarian tumors. Hum Pathol; 2005 Feb;36(2):195-201
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  • [Title] The utility of calretinin, inhibin, and WT1 immunohistochemical staining in the differential diagnosis of ovarian tumors.
  • Calretinin has been proposed as a novel marker of ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors (SCST); this study aims to determine whether calretinin can complement or supplant the established utility of inhibin in the differential diagnosis of SCST.
  • WT1 has been shown to be expressed in ovarian serous, but not mucinous neoplasms; its expression in a variety of ovarian tumors is also examined.
  • Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded archival tissues from 111 primary ovarian tumors were analyzed with commercially available antibodies using semi-automated immunohistochemistry.
  • Of 27 SCST, 56% were calretinin and 56% inhibin positive overall; 90% of granulosa cell tumors, 57% of Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, 33% of thecomas, and 14% of fibromas were calretinin positive.
  • Inhibin was expressed in 60% of granulosa cell tumors, 71% of Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, 43% of fibromas, and 33% of thecomas.
  • Of 35 surface epithelial tumors (SET), 8% of serous papillary tumors were calretinin positive, whereas 8% of serous papillary tumors and 13% of poorly differentiated carcinomas expressed inhibin.
  • WT1 was expressed in 29% of all endometrioid carcinomas, 10% of borderline mucinous tumors, and no mucinous carcinomas; however, most of the other SETs were positive (77% serous papillary and 88% poorly differentiated carcinomas).
  • Among the SCST, WT1 stained only granulosa cell tumors (75%), though often weakly or variably.
  • Calretinin has only slightly greater sensitivity (76% versus 65%) and equal specificity to inhibin (92%) in the differential staining of granulosa or Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, that is, nonstromal SCST.
  • Although WT1 should be reliably positive in non-mucinous SET, staining of granulosa cell tumors and lack of expression in a sizable subset of endometrioid carcinomas may confound interpretation.
  • [MeSH-major] Adenocarcinoma / metabolism. Inhibins / metabolism. Ovarian Neoplasms / metabolism. S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / metabolism. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / metabolism. WT1 Proteins / metabolism
  • [MeSH-minor] Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism. Calbindin 2. Cell Count. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunoenzyme Techniques / methods. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 15754297.001).
  • [ISSN] 0046-8177
  • [Journal-full-title] Human pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Hum. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor; 0 / CALB2 protein, human; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G; 0 / WT1 Proteins; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins
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77. Young RH: A brief history of the pathology of the gonads. Mod Pathol; 2005 Feb;18 Suppl 2:S3-S17
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  • Our understanding of gonadal pathology has reached its current state as a result of the contributions of numerous outstanding investigators.
  • Knowledge of testicular tumor pathology dates back to the great British workers Percival Pott and Sir Astley Cooper but the single greatest early stride was made with the description in 1906 by the French urologist Maurice Chevassu of the seminoma.
  • The seminal 1946 paper of Nathan B Friedman and Robert A Moore, which segregated out as a distinct entity embryonal carcinoma, is, however, the foundation for the current classification of testicular tumors.
  • In that year Pierre Masson described the distinctive neoplasm, the spermatocytic seminoma.
  • The 1950s saw the publication of an important paper by Frank J Dixon and Dr Moore and they also wrote the first series fascicle on testicular tumors.
  • In this same timeframe, and thereafter, Robert E Scully made significant contributions to testicular pathology, writing the first English language paper on spermatocytic seminoma, describing several subtypes of sex cord tumor, and also the distinctive lesion of intersex, the gonadoblastoma, as well as playing a major role in 1980 in formulating the current classification of premalignant lesions of the testis.
  • The current classification of testicular tumors was arrived at in the early 1970s when the World Health Organization, under the leadership of Dr FK Mostofi, who himself made notable contributions to testicular pathology, devised what is fundamentally the current classification of neoplasms of the male gonad.
  • Thomas Hodgkin, Richard Bright, and Sir James Paget all wrote extensively on ovarian neoplasms.
  • In 1870, Heinrich Waldeyer, and later in that century, another German, Hermann Johannes Pfannenstiel wrote important papers on the surface epithelial tumors.
  • The latter was likely the first to refer to neoplasms now known as of 'borderline malignancy' and also wrote on pseudomyxoma peritonei and other topics.
  • Their work was followed by that of Robert Meyer who made monumental contributions to gynecological pathology, including recognizing the Brenner tumor as a distinctive neoplasm and proposing the first classification of Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors (arrhenoblastomas).
  • He also coined the term 'disgerminoma' (soon changed to dysgerminoma) for the ovarian tumor that had been described in detail by the French investigator Marcel Chenot 5 years after Chevassu had mentioned the tumor in his paper describing the seminoma.
  • During the Meyer era other significant contributions were made by, among others, Howard C Taylor writing on the borderline tumors and John A Sampson writing on endometriosis and tumors, associated with it.
  • Dr Teilum delineated the morphologic features of the yolk sac tumor and noted the resemblance of papillary formations within it to the endodermal sinuses of the rat placenta.
  • He also wrote extensively on sex cord tumors in both gonads.
  • At a FIGO meeting in 1961 Dr Santesson played a major role in formulating the first organized classification of the surface epithelial-stromal tumors of the ovary and also promoted the endometrioid carcinoma as a special variant of ovarian cancer.
  • In a career spanning over 50 years, Dr Scully was the architect of the modern classification of ovarian tumors being the driving force behind the influential 1973 World Health Organization classification of them.
  • His many original observations have touched upon virtually all categories of ovarian tumor pathology.
  • His second series fascicle 'Tumors of the Ovaries and Maldeveloped Gonads' utilized the WHO classification and presented a lucid elaboration of his by then vast experience with ovarian tumors.
  • [MeSH-major] Gonads / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / history. Pathology / history. Testicular Neoplasms / history

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  • (PMID = 15529187.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Biography; Historical Article; Journal Article; Portraits
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Personal-name-as-subject] Chevassau M; Moore RA; Mostofi FK; Teilum G; Meyer R; Santesson L; Scully RE
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78. Li J, Yang W, Wu X: Prognostic factors and role of salvage surgery in chemorefractory ovarian germ cell malignancies: a study in Chinese patients. Gynecol Oncol; 2007 Jun;105(3):769-75
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  • Prognostic factors and the salvage treatment, particularly the role of salvage surgery, for the chemorefractory disease are much less documented.
  • The histological subtypes included 2 dysgerminomas (DSG), 7 immature teratomas (IMT), 22 endodermal sinus tumors (EST) (including 16 pure EST, 3 mixed type with DSG, 3 with EC), 2 embryonal carcinomas (EC) and 1 mixed form (with component of sex cord-stromal tumor).
  • The 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival in patients who were rendered macroscopically disease-free or had residual disease < or = 1 cm after surgical salvage were 93.33%, 80.00%, and 60.95%, compared to 68.42%, 21.05%, and 14.04% in those who had postoperative residual disease >1 cm (P=0.0036).
  • Histology (DSG/IMT vs. non-DSG/IMT) (P=0.0221), primary and salvage chemotherapy regimen (non-BEP/PVB regimen for primary chemotherapy and BEP/PVB regimen for salvage chemotherapy vs. all other regimens in primary and salvage chemotherapy) (P=0.0316), site of chemorefractory disease (retroperitoneal vs. intraperitoneal) (P=0.0221), and salvage surgery states (optimal cytoreduction vs. suboptimal cytoreduction) (P=0.0036) were significant prognostic factors for survival through univariate analysis.
  • However, site of chemorefractory disease was excluded as an independent prognostic factor according to multivariate analysis.
  • When offered standard BEP/PVB regimen as salvage chemotherapy, patients with chemorefractory disease after non-BEP/PVB primary chemotherapy have better prognosis.
  • [MeSH-major] Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / surgery. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage. Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Bleomycin / administration & dosage. China. Cisplatin / administration & dosage. Drug Resistance, Neoplasm. Etoposide / administration & dosage. Female. Humans. Multivariate Analysis. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies. Salvage Therapy. Vinblastine / administration & dosage

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  • (PMID = 17459461.001).
  • [ISSN] 0090-8258
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 11056-06-7 / Bleomycin; 5V9KLZ54CY / Vinblastine; 6PLQ3CP4P3 / Etoposide; Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin; BEP protocol; PVB protocol
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79. Behtash N, Karimi Zarchi M, Modares Gilani M, Ghaemmaghami F, Mousavi A, Ghotbizadeh F: Ovarian carcinoma associated with pregnancy: a clinicopathologic analysis of 23 cases and review of the literature. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth; 2008;8:3
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  • Eleven (47.8%) were found with ovarian malignant germ cell tumors, five (21.7%) with low malignant potential tumors, four (17.4%) with invasive epithelial tumors, and three (13%) with sex cord stromal tumors.
  • CONCLUSION: Early finding of ascitis by ultrasound and persistent large ovarian mass during pregnancy may be related to malignancy and advanced stage.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic. Pregnancy Outcome
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Cesarean Section / statistics & numerical data. Female. Humans. Incidence. Iran / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / epidemiology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / pathology. Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal / therapy. Pregnancy. Prognosis. Retrospective Studies

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  • (PMID = 18205951.001).
  • [ISSN] 1471-2393
  • [Journal-full-title] BMC pregnancy and childbirth
  • [ISO-abbreviation] BMC Pregnancy Childbirth
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 49
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC2266699
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80. Schneider DT, Calaminus G, Harms D, Göbel U, German Maligne Keimzelltumoren Study Group: Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors in children and adolescents. J Reprod Med; 2005 Jun;50(6):439-46
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  • [Title] Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors in children and adolescents.
  • Ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors (OSCSTs) are a heterogeneous group of tumors that develop from the gonadal non-germ-cell component.
  • Despite recent advances in the clinical and histopathologic diagnosis of OSCSTs, a high degree of uncertainty remains with regard to adequate therapy, particularly in patients presenting with microscopic or macroscopic tumor spread.
  • In addition, we summarize the data from our clinical, histopathologic and genetic analyses of patients that were prospectively reported to the German MAKEI protocols for treatment of nontesticular malignant germ cell tumors.
  • Among these patients, juvenile granulosa cell tumors (JGCTs) constitute the most frequent histologic subtype, followed by Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors (SLCTs) and sclerosing stromal tumors.
  • In addition, prognosis correlates with tumor stage according to the International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
  • Nevertheless, we observed a favorable response to cisplatin-based chemotherapy in the majority of stage II and III tumors.
  • Genetic analysis of 27 tumors available for comparative genomic hybridization analysis revealed normal profiles in the majority of tumors and whole chromosomal gain, such as a gain of 12 in single tumors, with no consistent pattern with regard to histology or clinical outcome.
  • This analysis confirmed that most OSCSTs present at a low tumor stage and that prognosis in these patients is excellent.
  • [MeSH-major] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Ovarian Neoplasms / therapy. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / therapy
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Child. Cisplatin / therapeutic use. Combined Modality Therapy. Disease-Free Survival. Female. Germany. Humans. Neoplasm Staging. Prognosis

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  • (PMID = 16050568.001).
  • [ISSN] 0024-7758
  • [Journal-full-title] The Journal of reproductive medicine
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Reprod Med
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] Q20Q21Q62J / Cisplatin
  • [Number-of-references] 27
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81. Brown J, Sood AK, Deavers MT, Milojevic L, Gershenson DM: Patterns of metastasis in sex cord-stromal tumors of the ovary: can routine staging lymphadenectomy be omitted? Gynecol Oncol; 2009 Apr;113(1):86-90
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  • [Title] Patterns of metastasis in sex cord-stromal tumors of the ovary: can routine staging lymphadenectomy be omitted?
  • OBJECTIVE: Given the paucity of data regarding the patterns of metastasis from ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors (SCSTs), we sought to determine the risk of lymph node metastasis in patients with SCSTs.
  • RESULTS: We identified 262 patients with pathology-confirmed ovarian SCSTs; 5 had additional non-stromal histology and were excluded, leaving 257 evaluable patients.
  • Of these patients, 178 had adult granulosa cell tumors, 27 had juvenile granulosa cell tumors, 31 had Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors, 6 had sex cord tumors with annular tubules, 13 had mixed SCSTs, and 2 had SCSTs not otherwise specified.
  • Our evaluation showed that 111 patients underwent a complete or partial staging procedure; 75 had stage I disease, 11 had stage II disease, and 25 had stage III disease.
  • Of 117 patients whose disease eventually recurred, 6 patients (5.1%) had nodal metastases at the time of recurrence.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant. Female. Humans. Lymph Node Excision. Lymphatic Metastasis. Neoplasm Metastasis. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology. Neoplasm Staging. Retrospective Studies. Risk Factors

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  • (PMID = 19162310.001).
  • [ISSN] 1095-6859
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecologic oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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82. Bouic-Pagès E, Perrochia H, Mérigeaud S, Giacalone PY, Taourel P: [MR Imaging of primary ovarian tumors with pathologic correlation]. J Radiol; 2009 Jul-Aug;90(7-8 Pt 1):787-802
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  • [Title] [MR Imaging of primary ovarian tumors with pathologic correlation].
  • [Transliterated title] Corrélations anatomopathologiques: IRM des tumeurs ovariennes primitives.
  • Ovarian tumors are classified based on the cell of origin into epithelial tumors, germ cell tumors and sex cord-stromal tumors.
  • This pictorial essay illustrates the MR imaging features of the main ovarian tumors with pathologic correlation.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adenofibroma / diagnosis. Adenofibroma / pathology. Adenoma / diagnosis. Adenoma / pathology. Age Factors. Aged. Brenner Tumor / diagnosis. Brenner Tumor / pathology. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / diagnosis. Carcinoma, Endometrioid / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma / diagnosis. Cystadenocarcinoma / pathology. Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous / diagnosis. Cystadenocarcinoma, Mucinous / pathology. Cystadenoma / diagnosis. Cystadenoma / pathology. Cystadenoma, Mucinous / diagnosis. Cystadenoma, Mucinous / pathology. Cystadenoma, Serous / diagnosis. Cystadenoma, Serous / pathology. Dermoid Cyst / diagnosis. Dermoid Cyst / pathology. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Germinoma / diagnosis. Germinoma / pathology. Humans. Middle Aged. Prevalence. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / diagnosis. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Teratoma / diagnosis. Teratoma / pathology. World Health Organization

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  • (PMID = 19752784.001).
  • [ISSN] 0221-0363
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal de radiologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Radiol
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Number-of-references] 26
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83. Cecchetto G, Alaggio R, Bisogno G, Virgone C, Dall'Igna P, Terenziani M, Boldrini R, D'Onofrio V, Ferrari A, Bernini G: Sex cord-stromal tumors of the testis in children. A clinicopathologic report from the Italian TREP project. J Pediatr Surg; 2010 Sep;45(9):1868-73
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] Sex cord-stromal tumors of the testis in children. A clinicopathologic report from the Italian TREP project.
  • PURPOSE: Testicular sex cord-stromal tumors (SCSTs) are very rare in children and include a variety of neoplasms with different clinical features and biologic behavior.
  • Aim of the study was to report the clinical findings and results observed in a series of patients with testicular SCST, registered in a multi-institutional Italian network on rare tumors in children and adolescents.
  • The Children's Oncology Group (COG) staging system was adopted.
  • Chemotherapy was recommended in patients with incomplete surgery or metastatic disease.
  • All patients underwent primary removal of the tumor; orchiectomy with high ligation of spermatic cord was performed in 7 and tumor enucleation in 4.
  • At histology, 4 patients had Leydig cell tumors, 4 juvenile granulosa cell tumors, 1 Sertoli cell tumor, 1 incompletely differentiated SCST, and 1 SCST with an intermediate pattern Sertoli cell tumor/mixed form.
  • [MeSH-major] Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20850634.001).
  • [ISSN] 1531-5037
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric surgery
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J. Pediatr. Surg.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Multicenter Study; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
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84. Nicoletto MO, Caltarossa E, Donach M, Nardelli GB, Parenti A, Ambrosini A: Sertoli cell tumor: a rare case in an elderly patient. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2006;27(1):86-7
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  • [Title] Sertoli cell tumor: a rare case in an elderly patient.
  • Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors constitute < 1% of ovarian tumors, mostly in young women with virilization; however, not all present endocrine manifestations.
  • The pathologic diagnosis was poorly-differentiated sex cord-stromal tumor with Sertoli cells.
  • At 12-month follow-up the patient showed no evidence of disease.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery. Sertoli Cell Tumor / pathology. Sertoli Cell Tumor / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Age Factors. Aged. Biopsy, Needle. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Hysterectomy / methods. Immunohistochemistry. Neoplasm Staging. Ovariectomy / methods. Rare Diseases. Risk Assessment. Treatment Outcome

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  • (PMID = 16550978.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Italy
  • [Number-of-references] 13
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85. Irving JA, Carinelli S, Prat J: Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors are polyphenotypic neoplasms with true sex cord differentiation. Mod Pathol; 2006 Jan;19(1):17-24
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  • [Title] Uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors are polyphenotypic neoplasms with true sex cord differentiation.
  • In this study, we present the clinicopathologic features and immunophenotypic characteristics of five cases of uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors and three cases of endometrial stromal tumors with sex cord-like elements, with emphasis on immunohistochemical markers of sex cord differentiation.
  • The tumors were usually polypoid masses arising in the uterine fundus, with a mean tumor size of 6.7 cm.
  • Sex cord patterns in uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors, including anastomosing cords, trabeculae, small nests, tubules, and in one case, a striking retiform architecture with Leydig-like cells, comprised from 70 to 100% of the tumor volume.
  • All uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors were positive for two or more markers of sex cord differentiation; all five cases showed strong immunoreactivity for calretinin, with coexpression of CD99 (four cases), Melan-A (two cases), and inhibin (two cases).
  • Endometrial stromal tumors with sex cord-like elements were less frequently positive for markers of sex cord differentiation, with each case positive for one marker (calretinin, two cases; CD99, one case).
  • Overall, the morphologic and immunohistochemical findings in uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumors strongly support that these unusual uterine tumors are polyphenotypic neoplasms with true sex cord differentiation.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Aged. Antigens, CD / analysis. Antigens, Neoplasm. Biomarkers / analysis. Calbindin 2. Cell Adhesion Molecules / analysis. Cell Differentiation. Female. Follow-Up Studies. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Inhibins / analysis. Keratins / analysis. MART-1 Antigen. Middle Aged. Neoplasm Proteins / analysis. Neprilysin / analysis. Receptors, Estrogen / analysis. Receptors, Progesterone / analysis. S100 Calcium Binding Protein G / analysis. Vimentin / analysis

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  • (PMID = 16118629.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Comparative Study; Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Antigens, CD; 0 / Antigens, Neoplasm; 0 / Biomarkers; 0 / CALB2 protein, human; 0 / CAM 5.2 antigen; 0 / CD99 protein, human; 0 / Calbindin 2; 0 / Cell Adhesion Molecules; 0 / MART-1 Antigen; 0 / MLANA protein, human; 0 / Neoplasm Proteins; 0 / Receptors, Estrogen; 0 / Receptors, Progesterone; 0 / S100 Calcium Binding Protein G; 0 / Vimentin; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 3.4.24.11 / Neprilysin
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86. Al-Hussaini M, Hirschowitz L, McCluggage WG: Uterine neoplasms composed of rhabdoid cells do not exhibit loss of INI1 immunoreactivity and are not related to childhood malignant rhabdoid tumor. Int J Gynecol Pathol; 2008 Apr;27(2):236-42
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  • [Title] Uterine neoplasms composed of rhabdoid cells do not exhibit loss of INI1 immunoreactivity and are not related to childhood malignant rhabdoid tumor.
  • Malignant rhabdoid tumors are rare childhood neoplasms which occur most commonly in the kidneys, soft tissue, and central nervous system.
  • Recently, it has been demonstrated that malignant rhabdoid tumors in childhood are characterized by biallelic deletion or mutation involving the SMARCB1/INI1 gene on chromosome 22.
  • Neoplasms with a similar morphology occur in adults, either in pure form or associated with a parent tumor.
  • It is controversial whether such neoplasms in adults are related to childhood malignant rhabdoid tumor or whether a rhabdoid morphology represents a nonspecific phenotype which can occur in a variety of neoplasms.
  • In this study, we stained a series of adult uterine neoplasms with a prominent component of rhabdoid cells with the Baf 47 antibody which detects INI1; we aimed to ascertain whether these are related to childhood malignant rhabdoid tumor.
  • Neoplasms included were an undifferentiated sarcoma consisting entirely of rhabdoid cells, 2 carcinosarcomas with a mesenchymal component composed entirely of rhabdoid cells, and 3 uterine tumors resembling ovarian sex cord tumor with rhabdoid cells.
  • In all cases, there was positive nuclear staining of the rhabdoid cells with Baf 47, suggesting an absence of gene deletion or mutation and that these neoplasms are not related to childhood malignant rhabdoid tumor.
  • In adults, we suggest that a diagnosis of malignant rhabdoid tumor should not be made without genetic confirmation or loss of immunohistochemical expression of Baf 47.
  • In the absence of these, an attempt should be made to classify such tumors on the basis of any associated parent neoplasm and/or immunohistochemical or ultrastructural evidence of specific differentiation.
  • We reviewed uterine neoplasms with a rhabdoid phenotype.
  • [MeSH-major] Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone / metabolism. DNA-Binding Proteins / metabolism. Rhabdoid Tumor / metabolism. Rhabdoid Tumor / pathology. Transcription Factors / metabolism. Uterine Neoplasms / metabolism. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 18317218.001).
  • [ISSN] 1538-7151
  • [Journal-full-title] International journal of gynecological pathology : official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Pathologists
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Int. J. Gynecol. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone; 0 / DNA-Binding Proteins; 0 / SMARCB1 protein, human; 0 / Transcription Factors
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87. Camparo P, Durand X, Avances C, Culine S, Segui B, Rigaud J, Membres du GELU-Groupe d'Etude des Lésions Urologiques, Membres du CCAFU: [Histological features and principles of treating testicle tumors in the elderly subject]. Prog Urol; 2009 Nov;19 Suppl 3:S142-6
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  • [Title] [Histological features and principles of treating testicle tumors in the elderly subject].
  • [Transliterated title] Particularités histologiques et principes de traitements des tumeurs du testicule du sujet âgé.
  • After the 6th decade, primitive lymphomas are the most frequent tumors of the testis (>30%).
  • Chemotherapy depends on histological subtype.
  • Germ cell tumors, mainly seminomas, represent less than 20% cases.
  • Therapy do not differ from young adults germ cell tumors.
  • Sex cord stromal tumors, mesenchymal benign tumors, sarcomas and metastasis represent approximately 10% of cases each.
  • The one of metastasis depends on primitive tumor (prostatic or pulmonary adenocarcinoma or melanoma mainly).
  • Spermatocytic seminoma is a rare and benign tumor, if no sarcomatous component is observed.
  • Other histological subtype are extraordinary rare.
  • This particular histological profile must be in mind when considering the appropriate therapeutic approach of testis tumors in elderly.
  • [MeSH-major] Testicular Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] (c) 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20123499.001).
  • [ISSN] 1166-7087
  • [Journal-full-title] Progrès en urologie : journal de l'Association française d'urologie et de la Société française d'urologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Prog. Urol.
  • [Language] fre
  • [Publication-type] English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] France
  • [Investigator] Choudat L; Priollet BC; Comperat E; Sibony M; Vassiliu V; Verkarre V; Allory Y; Ferlicot S; Molinié V; Denoux Y; Sautet A; Lesourd A; Trillet M; Petit T; Aillet G; Vieillefond A; Boccon-Gibod L
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88. Peterson C, Skoog S: Prenatal diagnosis of juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the testis. J Pediatr Urol; 2008 Dec;4(6):472-4
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  • [Title] Prenatal diagnosis of juvenile granulosa cell tumor of the testis.
  • Juvenile granulosa cell tumor is a rare benign neoplasm of the testicular stroma that accounts for 1-5% of all prepubertal testis tumors [Metcalfe PD, Farivar-Mohseni H, Farhat W, McLorie G, Khoury A, Bagli DJ.
  • Pediatric testicular tumors: contemporary incidence and efficacy of testicular preserving surgery.
  • Clinical behavior and a contemporary management algorithm for prepubertal testis tumors: a summary of the prepubertal testis tumor registry.
  • A prior case series retrospectively identified a cystic testis tumor on prenatal ultrasound images which was subsequently diagnosed as a juvenile granulosa cell tumor [Bryan DE, Cain MP, Casale AJ.
  • Juvenile granulosa-theca cell (sex cord-stromal) tumor of the infant testis.
  • We report a case of a prenatally diagnosed testis tumor which was subsequently diagnosed as a juvenile granulosa cell tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Granulosa Cell Tumor / ultrasonography. Testicular Neoplasms / ultrasonography. Ultrasonography, Prenatal

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  • (PMID = 18760677.001).
  • [ISSN] 1873-4898
  • [Journal-full-title] Journal of pediatric urology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] J Pediatr Urol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] England
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89. Liu J, Bützow R, Hydén-Granskog C, Voutilainen R: Expression of adrenomedullin in human ovaries, ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors and cultured granulosa-luteal cells. Gynecol Endocrinol; 2009 Feb;25(2):96-103
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  • [Title] Expression of adrenomedullin in human ovaries, ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors and cultured granulosa-luteal cells.
  • The aim of the present study was to characterise the expression pattern of the multifunctional vasoactive peptide adrenomedullin (ADM) in human ovarian tumors, and to find hormonal regulators of ADM expression in human ovaries.
  • The expression of ADM messenger RNA (mRNA) was higher in granulosa cell tumors than in fibrothecomas and normal ovaries, as analysed by Northern blots.
  • Eight of the 90 granulosa cell tumors (9%) showed moderate and 53 (59%) weak ADM immunoreactivity, whereas 27% (11/41) of the fibrothecomas displayed weak ADM staining.
  • In conclusion, ADM is expressed in normal human ovaries and sex cord-stromal tumors, particularly in those of granulosa cell origin.
  • [MeSH-major] Adrenomedullin / genetics. Adrenomedullin / metabolism. Granulosa Cell Tumor / pathology. Granulosa Cell Tumor / physiopathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / physiopathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Cells, Cultured. Female. Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic. Granulosa Cells / pathology. Granulosa Cells / physiology. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Luteal Cells / pathology. Luteal Cells / physiology. Ovary / cytology. Ovary / physiology. Paracrine Communication / physiology. Progesterone / metabolism. RNA, Messenger / metabolism. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / physiopathology. Thecoma / pathology. Thecoma / physiopathology. Tumor Cells, Cultured

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  • (PMID = 19253104.001).
  • [ISSN] 1473-0766
  • [Journal-full-title] Gynecological endocrinology : the official journal of the International Society of Gynecological Endocrinology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Gynecol. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / ADM protein, human; 0 / RNA, Messenger; 148498-78-6 / Adrenomedullin; 4G7DS2Q64Y / Progesterone
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90. Li Q, Graff JM, O'Connor AE, Loveland KL, Matzuk MM: SMAD3 regulates gonadal tumorigenesis. Mol Endocrinol; 2007 Oct;21(10):2472-86
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  • [Title] SMAD3 regulates gonadal tumorigenesis.
  • Inhibin is a secreted tumor suppressor and an activin antagonist.
  • Inhibin alpha null mice develop gonadal sex cord-stromal tumors with 100% penetrance and die of a cachexia-like syndrome due to increased activin signaling.
  • Because Sma and Mad-related protein (SMAD)2 and SMAD3 transduce activin signals in vitro, we attempted to define the role of SMAD3 in gonadal tumorigenesis and the wasting syndrome by generating inhibin alpha and Smad3 double mutant mice.
  • Approximately 90% of these males survived to 26 wk in contrast to 95% of inhibin-deficient males, which develop bilateral testicular tumors and die of the wasting syndrome by 12 wk.
  • Testicular tumors were either absent or unilaterally slow growing and less hemorrhagic in the majority of double-knockout males.
  • In contrast, development of the ovarian tumors and wasting syndrome was delayed, but still occurred, in the majority of the double-knockout females by 26 wk.
  • In double mutant females, tumor development was accompanied by typical activin-induced pathological changes.
  • In summary, we identify an important function of SMAD3 in gonadal tumorigenesis in both sexes.
  • However, this effect is significantly more pronounced in the male, indicating that SMAD3 is the primary transducer of male gonadal tumorigenesis, whereas SMAD3 potentially overlaps with SMAD2 function in the ovary.
  • These studies identify sexually dimorphic functions of SMAD3 in gonadal tumorigenesis.
  • [MeSH-major] Cell Transformation, Neoplastic / genetics. Inhibins / physiology. Ovarian Neoplasms / genetics. Smad3 Protein / physiology. Testicular Neoplasms / genetics

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  • (PMID = 17595316.001).
  • [ISSN] 0888-8809
  • [Journal-full-title] Molecular endocrinology (Baltimore, Md.)
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mol. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Grant] United States / NCI NIH HHS / CA / CA60651; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / HD32067; United States / NICHD NIH HHS / HD / U54-HD28934
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / RNA, Messenger; 0 / Smad3 Protein; 0 / Smad3 protein, mouse; 0 / activin A; 0 / inhibin-alpha subunit; 104625-48-1 / Activins; 57285-09-3 / Inhibins; 9002-68-0 / Follicle Stimulating Hormone
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91. Simon RA, Sung CJ, Lawrence WD, Quddus MR: Vascular plexiform leiomyoma mimicking uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex cord tumor. Ann Diagn Pathol; 2010 Oct;14(5):355-7
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  • [Title] Vascular plexiform leiomyoma mimicking uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex cord tumor.
  • Leiomyomata are common benign smooth muscle neoplasms with a usually easily recognizable histologic pattern.
  • However, there is a wide variety of subtypes described in the literature, characterized by predominance of a particular distinct histologic pattern.
  • Here we describe a case of a highly vascular leiomyoma with a prominent plexiform pattern and cords and tubules of epithelioid cells that mimics a uterine tumor resembling an ovarian sex cord tumor.
  • [MeSH-major] Angiomyoma / pathology. Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • [Copyright] Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • (PMID = 20850699.001).
  • [ISSN] 1532-8198
  • [Journal-full-title] Annals of diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ann Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] United States
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92. Kunz J, Friedrich T: [Uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex cord tumor: case report and review of literature]. Praxis (Bern 1994); 2007 Aug 2;96(31-32):1177-81
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  • [Title] [Uterine tumor resembling ovarian sex cord tumor: case report and review of literature].
  • [Transliterated title] Uteriner Tumor mit keimstrang-ahnlicher Differenzierung (UTROSCT): Fallbericht und Literaturübersicht.
  • Uterine tumours with sex cord-like differentiation are rare.
  • One distinguishes between two groups on account of the share of sex cord-like elements, i.e. tumours with only focal sex cord-like differentiation with a tendency to relapses and metastatic spread, and tumours with predominant differentiation in the sense of ovarian sex cord tumours with a good prognosis because surgical treatment alone often leads to relapse-free survival.
  • Because of the tumours' rarity, there are no randomized studies as to an optimal therapy.
  • Since there have been reports on endometrial stromal sarcoma with low malignant potential in adjuvant therapy of breast cancer with Tamoxifen, one can assume that this entity will occur more frequently in future.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / pathology

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  • (PMID = 17726857.001).
  • [ISSN] 1661-8157
  • [Journal-full-title] Praxis
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Praxis (Bern 1994)
  • [Language] ger
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Comparative Study; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Switzerland
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93. Ghaemmaghami F, Karimi Zarchi M, Naseri A, Mousavi AS, Gilani MM, Ramezanzadeh F, Rezaiof E: Fertility sparing in young women with ovarian tumors. Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol; 2010;37(4):290-4
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  • [Title] Fertility sparing in young women with ovarian tumors.
  • BACKGROUND: Surveys have shown that fertility sparing in patients with ovarian tumors has proven to be effective.
  • Thus this approach in ovarian tumor cases has been carried out.
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome and pregnancies in women who suffered from ovarian tumor and underwent conservative treatment.
  • MATERIALS AND METHODS: All cases who received conservative treatment and those who had recurrence of the disease during the follow-up period were evaluated at Vali-Asr Hospital from 2000-2004.
  • RESULTS: 60 of 410 patients with ovarian tumor (age range: 13-34) were treated conservatively.
  • Histology of tumors showed: 26 (43.3%) germ cell tumors, 15 (25%) borderline tumors, ten (16.7%) epithelial tumors and nine (15%) sex cord tumors.
  • Three in the borderline group, two in the germ cell group, one in the epithelial group and one in the sex-cord group.
  • CONCLUSION: Fertility preserving surgery in young women with epithelial ovarian tumors, borderline and sex-cord tumors Stage I, grade 1 and 2 is recommended.
  • [MeSH-major] Infertility, Female / prevention & control. Ovarian Neoplasms / surgery
  • [MeSH-minor] Adolescent. Adult. Chemotherapy, Adjuvant / adverse effects. Female. Humans. Neoplasm Recurrence, Local. Neoplasm Staging. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / mortality. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / pathology. Neoplasms, Glandular and Epithelial / surgery. Ovariectomy. Pregnancy. Salpingectomy. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / mortality. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / pathology. Sex Cord-Gonadal Stromal Tumors / surgery. Teratoma / mortality. Teratoma / pathology. Teratoma / surgery

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  • (PMID = 21355460.001).
  • [ISSN] 0390-6663
  • [Journal-full-title] Clinical and experimental obstetrics & gynecology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Clin Exp Obstet Gynecol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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94. Prat J: Ovarian carcinomas, including secondary tumors: diagnostically challenging areas. Mod Pathol; 2005 Feb;18 Suppl 2:S99-111
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  • [Title] Ovarian carcinomas, including secondary tumors: diagnostically challenging areas.
  • The differential diagnosis of ovarian carcinomas, including secondary tumors, remains a challenging task.
  • Mucinous carcinomas of the ovary are rare and can be easily confused with metastatic mucinous carcinomas that may present clinically as a primary ovarian tumor.
  • International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage is the single most important prognostic factor, and stage I carcinomas have an excellent prognosis; FIGO stage is largely related to the histologic features of the ovarian tumors.
  • Infiltrative stromal invasion proved to be biologically more aggressive than expansile invasion.
  • Occasionally, endometrioid carcinomas may exhibit a microglandular pattern simulating sex cord-stromal tumors.
  • However, typical endometrioid glands, squamous differentiation, or an adenofibroma component are each present in 75% of these tumors whereas immunostains for calretinin and alpha-inhibin are negative.
  • Most of these tumors have a favorable outcome and they most likely represent independent primary carcinomas arising as a result of a Mullerian field effect.
  • Transitional cell carcinomas are distinguished from undifferentiated carcinomas by the presence of thick, undulating papillae with smooth luminal borders, microspaces, and tumor cells with distinctive 'urothelial' appearance.
  • Krukenberg tumors are metastatic adenocarcinomas traditionally perceived as composed of mucin-filled signet-ring cells associated with a striking proliferation of the ovarian stroma but many variations on this pattern occur.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / pathology
  • [MeSH-minor] Base Sequence. Colonic Neoplasms / pathology. Cytoskeletal Proteins / genetics. Diagnosis, Differential. Female. Humans. Immunohistochemistry. Intermediate Filament Proteins / analysis. Keratin-20. Keratin-7. Keratins / analysis. Mutation. Prognosis. Trans-Activators / genetics. beta Catenin. ras Proteins / genetics

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  • (PMID = 15492758.001).
  • [ISSN] 0893-3952
  • [Journal-full-title] Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Mod. Pathol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / CTNNB1 protein, human; 0 / Cytoskeletal Proteins; 0 / Intermediate Filament Proteins; 0 / KRT20 protein, human; 0 / KRT7 protein, human; 0 / Keratin-20; 0 / Keratin-7; 0 / Trans-Activators; 0 / beta Catenin; 68238-35-7 / Keratins; EC 3.6.5.2 / ras Proteins
  • [Number-of-references] 63
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95. Yanik FF, Kuşçu E, Eroğlu D, Kahraman I, Sürücü B, Colak A: Thecoma associated with pregnancy: a case report. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol; 2007;28(6):519-21
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  • Ovarian thecoma, which belongs to the group of sex-cord stromal tumors, is a relatively rare neoplasm.
  • At surgical exploration, torsion of the ovarian tumor was observed together with ascites and unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed.
  • [MeSH-major] Ovarian Neoplasms / complications. Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic. Thecoma / complications

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  • (PMID = 18179153.001).
  • [ISSN] 0392-2936
  • [Journal-full-title] European journal of gynaecological oncology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur. J. Gynaecol. Oncol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Italy
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96. Tamai K, Koyama T, Saga T, Kido A, Kataoka M, Umeoka S, Fujii S, Togashi K: MR features of physiologic and benign conditions of the ovary. Eur Radiol; 2006 Dec;16(12):2700-11
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  • In reproductive women, various physiologic conditions can cause morphologic changes of the ovary, resembling pathologic conditions.
  • Benign ovarian diseases can also simulate malignancies.
  • Functional cysts should not be confused with cystic neoplasms.
  • Multicystic lesions that may mimic cystic neoplasms include hyperreactio luteinalis, ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome.
  • In endometrial cysts, MRI usually provides specific diagnosis; however, decidual change during pregnancy should not be confused with secondary neoplasm.
  • Peritoneal inclusion cysts can be distinguished from cystic neoplasms by recognition of their characteristic configurations.
  • Ovarian torsion and massive ovarian edema may mimic solid malignant tumors.
  • In pelvic inflammatory diseases, transfascial spread of the lesion should not be confused with invasive malignant tumors.
  • Many benign tumors, including teratoma, Brenner tumor, and sex-cord stromal tumor, frequently show characteristic MRI features.
  • [MeSH-major] Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods. Ovarian Diseases / diagnosis. Ovary / anatomy & histology

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  • (PMID = 16736136.001).
  • [ISSN] 0938-7994
  • [Journal-full-title] European radiology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Eur Radiol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] Germany
  • [Number-of-references] 44
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97. Nishida T, Nishida N: Reinstatement of "germinal epithelium" of the ovary. Reprod Biol Endocrinol; 2006;4:42
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  • The surface epithelium is regarded as the major source of ovarian cancers, and most of the neoplasms exhibit the histology resembling müllerian epithelia.
  • Since the differentiating capability of the surface epithelium has now expanded, the histologic range of the neoplasms in this category may extend to include both germ cell tumors and sex cord-stromal cell tumors.

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  • (PMID = 16923182.001).
  • [ISSN] 1477-7827
  • [Journal-full-title] Reproductive biology and endocrinology : RB&E
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol.
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] England
  • [Number-of-references] 17
  • [Other-IDs] NLM/ PMC1560142
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98. Emerson RE, Ulbright TM: The use of immunohistochemistry in the differential diagnosis of tumors of the testis and paratestis. Semin Diagn Pathol; 2005 Feb;22(1):33-50
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  • [Title] The use of immunohistochemistry in the differential diagnosis of tumors of the testis and paratestis.
  • Although most testicular and paratesticular tumors can be recognized by their light microscopic features, some raise significant differential diagnostic questions.
  • Immunohistochemical staining has proved of significant value in this situation.
  • OCT4 is virtually 100% sensitive and specific for seminoma, embryonal carcinoma, and intratubular germ cell neoplasia, unclassified type.
  • Inhibin-alpha, among testicular tumors, is limited to those in the sex cord-stromal category or those having adrenocortical-type differentiation (testicular tumor of the adrenogenital syndrome) or of trophoblastic lineage.
  • Calretinin is another positive marker for the sex cord-stromal tumors but has less specificity.
  • This article reviews the application of immunohistochemical markers for a number of differential diagnostic considerations in the testis and paratestis categorized according to their light microscopic patterns.
  • [MeSH-major] Immunohistochemistry. Testicular Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • [MeSH-minor] Adult. Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis. Child. Diagnosis, Differential. Humans. Male. Neoplasm Metastasis. Sensitivity and Specificity

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  • (PMID = 16512598.001).
  • [ISSN] 0740-2570
  • [Journal-full-title] Seminars in diagnostic pathology
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Semin Diagn Pathol
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Journal Article; Review
  • [Publication-country] United States
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Biomarkers, Tumor
  • [Number-of-references] 137
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99. Kinkor Z, Daum O: [Ovarian tumor as a complication in diagnosis of the extraintestinal gastrointestinal stromal tumor--two case reports]. Ceska Gynekol; 2008 Jan;73(1):54-7
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  • [Title] [Ovarian tumor as a complication in diagnosis of the extraintestinal gastrointestinal stromal tumor--two case reports].
  • [Transliterated title] Nádor ovaria jako komplikace diagnostiky extraintestinálního gastrointestinálního stromálního tumoru--dve kazuistiky.
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to address difficulties in diagnosis of the extraintestinal gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) when even in ovary is the tumor.
  • One should ever think of the GIST in the case of peritoneal dissemination of the spindle/epithelioid cell tumor.
  • In contrary, the late intraabdominal recurrence of primary both epithelial and non-epithelial tumor of genital tract can be undistinguishable by pure morphology.
  • Complete clinical records and accurate operation field topography are both of great value.
  • Documenting this phenomenon, presented is both late intraabdominal dissemination of primary uterine endometrial stromal sarcoma and massive ovarian involvement by extraintestinal GIST.
  • RESULTS: In 75-year-old woman, 5 cm tumor in maximum diameter of the mesentery was diagnosed as an extraintestinal GIST.
  • Multiple peritoneal recurrence occurred ten years later and the tumor has been reclassified as a disseminated endometroid stromal sarcoma.
  • The second case describes 49-year-old woman operated for tumorous obliteration of the small pelvis where a tumor 9 cm in maximum diameter was found.
  • Initially, predominant epitheloid morphology of the tumor led to the diagnosis of primary epithelial malignancy, sex-cord stromal tumor or metastatic melanoma of the ovary.
  • Finally, the help of immunohistochemistry and molecular biology rendered the tumor as an extraintestinal GIST, ovarian primary not excluded.

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  • (PMID = 18411643.001).
  • [ISSN] 1210-7832
  • [Journal-full-title] Ceska gynekologie
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Ceska Gynekol
  • [Language] CZE
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; English Abstract; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Czech Republic
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100. Blinman P, Tattersall MH: A case of uterine tumour resembling ovarian sex cord tumour responding to second-line, single agent anastrazole. Intern Med J; 2009 Sep;39(9):617-9
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  • [Source] The source of this record is MEDLINE®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  • [Title] A case of uterine tumour resembling ovarian sex cord tumour responding to second-line, single agent anastrazole.
  • Uterine tumour resembling ovarian sex cord tumour (UTROSCT) are a histological variant of endometrial stromal sarcomas (ESS).
  • [MeSH-major] Nitriles / therapeutic use. Ovarian Neoplasms / diagnosis. Ovarian Neoplasms / drug therapy. Triazoles / therapeutic use. Uterine Neoplasms / diagnosis. Uterine Neoplasms / drug therapy

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  • (PMID = 19769683.001).
  • [ISSN] 1445-5994
  • [Journal-full-title] Internal medicine journal
  • [ISO-abbreviation] Intern Med J
  • [Language] eng
  • [Publication-type] Case Reports; Journal Article
  • [Publication-country] Australia
  • [Chemical-registry-number] 0 / Nitriles; 0 / Triazoles; 2Z07MYW1AZ / anastrozole
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